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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

 The general process includes information collection, pre-planning, detailed planning,


and cell planning. In the cell planning, main concerns are frequency planning, TA
planning, PCI planning, and PRACH planning.

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LTE Cell Planning

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 There are several new frequency band options for LTE, some of which are
available now or should be within the next few years. These include the
700MHz, AWS (Advanced Wireless Services) and 2.6GHz bands, as well as the
re-use of existing GSM 900MHz and 1800MHz bands. In addition, due to poor
harmonization, there are other spectrum bands available, including: 850MHz,
1500MHz, 1700MHz and 1900MHz.

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LTE Cell Planning

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 Application scenario: Adapt to situations with integrated operator frequency


resources and consecutive frequency bands. If the frequency point bandwidth
is wide (>=10MHz), it can be used as the initial network construction mode of
the urban or densely-populated urban areas. Basically satisfy the phase one
capacity requirements. Use relatively narrow frequency point bandwidth
(<=10MHz) to implement wide coverage of suburban and rural areas; thus
reducing the initial network construction cost.

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LTE Cell Planning

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 TA: Similar to the location area and routing area in 2G/3G networks, the tracking area
(TA) is used for paging. TA planning aims to reduce location update signaling caused
by location changes in the LTE system.

 TA list : A list of TAIs that identify the tracking areas that the UE can enter without
performing a tracking area updating procedure. The TAIs in a TAI list assigned by an
MME to a UE pertain to the same MME area. In LTE system, if an UE changes the
TAs in the TAI list, TA update won’t be triggered.
 TAL can have maximum of 16 TAC configured

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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 PCI: Physical Cell ID, is used to generate scrambling code to identify the
different cell

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 PCI parameter planning is similar to any other planning of radio parameter, i.e.,
the reuse distance shall be as large as possible.
 However there are several constrains arising from the fact that PCI determines
Reference Signal position in frequency domain.

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LTE Cell Planning

 PCI: Physical Cell ID, is used to generate scrambling code to identify the
different cell

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LTE Cell Planning

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 Even thought inter-eNB LTE cells are not time synchronized, there is 33%
chance of reference signal to reference signal time alignment.

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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 Type country 1: BEL, CVA, CYP, CZE, DNK, E, FIN, GRC, IRL, ISL, LTU, MCO, SMR,
SUI, SVN,
 UKR, AZE, SRB.
 Type country 2: AND, BIH, BLR, BUL, D, EST, G, HNG, I, MDA, RUS (Exclave), GEO
 Type country 3: ALB, AUT, F, HOL, HRV, POL, POR, ROU, RUS, S, MLT
 Type country 4:LIE, LUX, LVA, MKD, MNE, NOR, SVK, TUR.

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 A CP is a copy of the end of an OFDM symbol to the start position of the


symbol. Each CP generates a guard interval between two OFDM symbols.

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 The symbol energy that can be captured by the OFDM receiver depends on the
CP length:
 If the CP is longer than the multipath delay of an OFDM symbol, the
OFDM receiver can capture all energy of the symbol.
 If the CP is shorter than the multipath delay of an OFDM symbol, the
OFDM receiver can capture only some energy of the symbol.

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LTE Cell Planning

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 The random access procedure is used in various scenarios, including initial


access, handover, or re-establishment. Like other 3GPP systems the random
access procedure provides a method for contention and non-contention based
access. The PRACH (Physical Random Access Channel) includes RA (Random
Access) preambles generated from ZC (Zadoff-Chu) sequences.
 There are five preamble formats defined which four of them are for FDD

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 Other preamble formats then Format 0 and Format 4 (TDD) are available only
with the LOFD-001009 Extended Cell Access Radius feature.

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 c = speed of light (300000km/h)

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LTE Cell Planning

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 The sequence starts with the probing of the network on the PRACH. Once the
UE has successfully probed for uplink resources and has been allocated these
on the UL-SCH, the RRC Connection is established through a three way
signaling handshake on the UL-SCH and the DL-SCH respectively.

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LTE Cell Planning

 PRACH configuration is defined by the following parameters


 Root sequence, setting in the eNodeB
 Ncs: Automatically setting based on the cell radius configuration
 PRACHfrequency offset: Scheduled by eNodeB
 High speed flag: Indicate whether the cell is for high speed
 All the parameters all carried by Sib2

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 * in fact, with the lowest configuration, where we assume maximum cell radius
of 790m we assign only one value per cell. Further explanation on following
slides.

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LTE Cell Planning

 Here is an example for the root sequence planning


 The Ncs value is determined by the cell radius. If the cell radius is 9.8 km, the
Ncs value is 76
 The value of 839/76 is rounded down to 11, that is, each index can generate
11 preamble sequences. In this case, six root sequence indexes are required
to generate 64 preamble sequences.
 The number of available root sequence indexes is 139 (0, 6, 12…828)
 The available root sequence indexes are assigned to cells. The assignment
principles are similar to those for PCIs.

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 There are 16 Ncs configurations are that defined in the protocol

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 Cyclic shift practically allows to create several individual sequences (preambles)


from one Root Sequence.

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 Calculations:

Max Cell Radius


Preamble Max Delay Max Cell Radius
ZeroCorrZone Ncs T_GT (ms) (according to T_GT)
Format Spread [ms] (according to Ncs)
[km]

0 839 3 715.625 16.666 107.344 117.214


1 13 0 96.875 5.208 14.531 0.792
2 15 0 96.875 5.208 14.531 1.078
3 18 0 96.875 5.208 14.531 1.507
4 22 0 96.875 5.208 14.531 2.079
5 26 0 96.875 5.208 14.531 2.651
6 32 0 96.875 5.208 14.531 3.510
7 38 0 96.875 5.208 14.531 4.368
8 46 0 96.875 5.208 14.531 5.512
9 59 0 96.875 5.208 14.531 7.371
10 76 0 96.875 5.208 14.531 9.803
11 93 0 96.875 5.208 14.531 12.234
12 119 2 196.875 5.208 29.531 15.953
13 167 2 196.875 5.208 29.531 22.818
14 279 1 515.625 16.666 77.344 37.119
15 419 1 515.625 16.666 77.344 57.143

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 839 bits per root sequence.

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