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22.1 What facts form the base of our understanding of evolution?
See Web/CD Tutorial 22.1 Charles Darwin attributed changes in species over time to the possession of advantageous traits by some individuals. He understood that individuals do not evolve, but populations evolve when individuals with different heritable genotypes survive and reproduce at different rates. Adaptation refers both to characteristics of organisms and the way those characteristics are acquired via natural selection. The sum of all copies of all alleles at all loci found in the population constitutes its gene pool and represents the genetic variation that results in different phenotypic traits upon which natural selection can act. Review Figure 22.3 Artificial selection and laboratory experiments demonstrate the existence of considerable genetic variation in most populations. Review Figure 22.5 Allele frequencies measure the amount of genetic variation in a population; genotype frequencies show how a population's genetic variation is distributed among its members. Review Figure 22.6 Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium predicts the allele frequencies in populations in the absence of evolution. Deviation from these frequencies indicates the work of evolutionary mechanisms. Review Figure 22.7, Web/CD Tutorial 22.2
22.2 What are the mechanisms of evolutionary change?
Migration of individuals between populations results in gene flow. In small populations, genetic drift—the random loss of individuals and the alleles they possess—may produce large changes in allele frequencies from one generation to the next and greatly reduce genetic variation. Review Figure 22.8 Population bottlenecks occur when only a few individuals survive a random event, resulting in a drastic shift in allele frequencies within the population and the loss of variation. Similarly, a population established by a small number of individuals colonizing a new region may lose variation via a founder effect. Nonrandom mating may result in genotype frequencies that deviate from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium.
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Sexual reproduction generates countless genotypic combinations that increase the evolutionary potential of populations despite short-term disadvantages.. Review Figure 22.17 22.|49000|50000|51000|52000|53000|54000|55000|56000|57000|99000| 22.3 What evolutionary mechanisms result in adaptation? See Web/CD Tutorial 22. stabilizing selection.. Review Figure 22. Genetic variation may be maintained by the existence of genetically distinct subpopulations over geographic space. Review Figure 22. Changes in numbers of offspring are responsible for changes in the absolute size of a population. are not affected by natural selection.20 22.00|52000|53000|54000|55000|56000|57000|99000| (2 of 3) [26/08/2008 11:10:20 a.. A polymorphism may be maintained by frequency-dependent selection when the fitness of a genotype depends on its frequency in a population. sexual recombination.3 Fitness is the reproductive contribution of a phenotype to subsequent generations relative to the contributions of other phenotypes. Natural selection can act on traits with quantitative variation in several different ways.] ..5 What are the constraints on evolution? Developmental processes constrain evolution because all evolutionary innovations are modifications of previously existing structures. directional. Neutral alleles do not affect the fitness of an organism. and frequency-dependent selection can maintain genetic variation within populations.whfreeman. most populations have considerable genetic variation. and directional selection all tend to reduce genetic variation within populations. or disruptive selection.whfreeman. but only changes in the relative success of different phenotypes within a population lead to changes in allele frequencies. and may accumulate or be lost by genetic drift.http://bcs.4 How is genetic variation maintained within populations? Although genetic drift.12 Sexual selection is primarily about success in reproduction. Most adaptations impose costs.16 and 22.com/thelifewire8e/content. An adaptation can evolve only if the benefits it confers http://bcs. not about success in survival. Neutral mutations.m. resulting in stabilizing.com/thelifewire8e/content/cat_010/22010-0.
] .com/thelifewire8e/content/cat_010/22010-0. Human activities are changing the climate and have greatly increased the rates of extinction of other species.http://bcs.whfreeman. 22.00|52000|53000|54000|55000|56000|57000|99000| (3 of 3) [26/08/2008 11:10:20 a.6 How have humans influenced evolution? Humans have become major agents of evolution as they attempt to control pests and diseases.m..com/thelifewire8e/content.|49000|50000|51000|52000|53000|54000|55000|56000|57000|99000| exceed the costs it imposes.. http://bcs.. a situation that leads to trade-offs. move species around the globe.. and modify organisms via biotechnology.whfreeman.