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La Estrategia Internacional para la Reducción de Desastres gira en torno a tres conceptos principales: peligros
naturales, vulnerabilidad y riesgo frente a los desastres, a los cuales se les aplica las siguientes definiciones: c

©c aELIGROS NATURALES: comprenden fenómenos tales como terremotos, actividades volcánicas,


tsunamis, ciclones tropicales y otras tormentas severas, tornados y fuertes vientos, inundaciones
ribereñas y costeras; incendios forestales y la neblina causada por éstos; tormentas de arena y polvo, y
plagas. c
©c ºULNERABILIDAD: está en función de las acciones y el comportamiento humano. Describe el grado de
resistencia o susceptibilidad de un sistema socioeconómico con respecto al impacto de los peligros
naturales y desastres tecnológicos y ambientales. El grado de vulnerabilidad se determina por una
combinación de factores, incluyendo la concienciación existente sobre estos peligros, las condiciones
que presentan los asentamientos humanos y la infraestructura, las políticas y la administración pública, y
las habilidades organizativas en todos los campos relacionados con la gestión de desastres. La pobreza
también es una de las causas principales de la vulnerabilidad presente en la mayoría de las regiones del
mundo. c

En este contexto, un DESASTRE NATURAL debe entenderse como las consecuencias del impacto de un
peligro natural en un sistema socioeconómico con un nivel dado de vulnerabilidad, lo que impide que la
sociedad afectada le haga frente a tal impacto. La EIRD incluye los DESASTRES TECNOLÓGICOS y
AMBIENTALES solamente cuando son causados por peligros naturales. aor lo tanto, la expresión ³peligros
naturales y desastres tecnológicos y ambientales´ describe situaciones en las que los desastres de origen
natural se combinan con la ocurrencia de daños tecnológicos y ambientales. c

©c RIESGO: es la probabilidad de que éste suceda. La valoración del riesgo incluye la evaluación de la
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riesgo aceptable dentro de una sociedad determinada. c

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La visión de la EIRD se puede lograr a través de: 1) la concienciación pública, 2) el compromiso por
parte de las autoridades públicas, 3) el establecimiento de sociedades y redes intersectoriales y 4) el
conocimiento científico. c

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