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WHEN talking about the Industrial
Revolution, images that often come
to mind include the extensive use
of steam power, the birth of heavy

accounting for a new era

machinery and ironworks, and
bleak factories in England.
However, two more industrial
revolutions have since passed and
the 21st century is paving its way
for the Fourth Industrial
Revolution (IR 4.0), which is seeing
the rise of autonomous decision
making of cyber-physical systems
and machine learning through
cloud technology.
In simple words, IR 4.0 is the accountants in
business are given
usage of artificial intelligence (AI)
and the Internet to transform
age-old processes and operating
procedures across all industries.
the opportunity to
With such change taking place, be less involved
in automated
what does this mean for the
accounting industry and where do
accountants find their relevance in
an era that looks to automate
operations and
everything? focus more on big-
Calculating assets picture strategies,
In an interview with which gives a clear
international education provider
Kaplan, Malaysian Institute of
indication of the type
Accountants’ (MIA) chief executive of skills required in
officer Dr Nurmazilah Datuk
Mahzan said, “Among the current the near future.
trends that are creating waves in
the accountancy profession are big Bryan Chung, FCPA
data and analytics.
“Companies of all sizes create experts from professional
massive structured, unstructured organisations.
and semi-structured data every Colleges and universities need to
day. Organisations harnessing big continue reviewing their course
data would be able to find new offerings so that graduates have
insights and discover unique an accurate understanding of the
patterns of their customer The field of accounting is in need of a new breed of professionals who can contribute more than a quantifiable value evolving industry while being
behaviour or even create new to companies. trained to adapt to new
businesses that were previously technologies and autonomous
not possible.” measure monthly net profits. As most professional Employers are bemoaning the changes at the workplace.
Echoing her sentiments is Bryan In the same Kaplan interview, accountancy bodies require skill gaps currently present in the However, it is not all doom and
Chung, Fellow of CPA Australia the organisation’s global members to undergo regular knowledge of digital technologies, gloom. Chung points out, “There
(FCPA), divisional councillor at CPA professional accountancy head training to maintain their forcing companies to spend are now many initiatives being
Australia (Malaysia), who believes Tanya Worsley said, “Businesses memberships, these certified resources retraining and reskilling undertaken by various
that even though AI is good at today depend on their accountants professionals are expected to be their employees. professional organisations and
matching patterns and automating beyond purely checking financial fully prepared for IR 4.0 and, by At the other end of the spectrum, associations to provide education
processes – making technology figures and balancing books. and large, artificial intelligence constant news reports highlight the to accountants to increase
useful to many functions in “Financial professionals are experts. more pressing issue of employers awareness of the changes taking
companies in the process – expected to be able to provide their Chung adds, “IT knowledge is no having difficulty finding good place.
accountants still play a vital role. clients with actionable insights that longer an option. Lest we aim graduates who can hit the ground “There are efforts now by
He says, “While there is a lot of can add value to the organisation’s erroneously, it is not how extensive running upon entering the professional bodies, corporates
hype surrounding blockchain and overarching strategic goals.” the IT knowledge is (as this is workforce. and academia to come together to
AI in accountancy with more firms The changing role of accountants available in abundance and can be These situations highlight the address the disconnect between
taking steps to increase or in the digital economy is what acquired easily), but the ability to dire need for a new breed of what’s being studied at universities
experiment with their use, it is prompted MIA to launch the understand the evolution of the accountants who can provide more and what’s relevant in the business
unlikely that accountants (or Digital Technology Blueprint in profession and apply the all-inclusive corporate reporting, world.”
auditors) will be out of a job July this year, a document that knowledge appropriately.” which tells less about the numbers Given how the financial
anytime soon. outlines the five driving principles Explaining that accountants and more about the narrative of a technology space has
“It is likely that most of the to help guide Malaysian must use technology in their company. demonstrated the willingness of
administration process will be the accountants to respond favour to elevate companies to The Malaysian education system, companies to use innovative
first to be introduced to AI. appropriately to digital technology. new heights, he gives the example for one, must move towards methods, Chung is optimistic about
Increasingly, accountants in These principles are related to of successful tech businesses that becoming an ecosystem for the future as the accounting
business are given the opportunity digital technology trends, the used e-platforms to achieve continuous upgrading of skills, profession can not only make
to be less involved in automated identification of capabilities, massive scalability and visibility working together with employers, positive inroads but ride on the
operations and focus more on harnessing of digital technology, within a short time, despite having be they officials from the back of this momentum to
big-picture strategies, which gives funding and governance. owners or founders who were not Government, small accelerate the learning and
a clear indication of the type Accountants who fail to stay IT graduates. business adoption of technologies as the
of skills required in the near updated with the latest trends and “In the same way, accountants entrepreneurs nation moves into a new era of
future.” knowledge will cause their should be more strategic, make or industry automation.
The challenge, however, is employers to lose out in the long sense of the vast data
turning the current workforce in run, while competing firms take available and deliver
the accounting field into advantage of the evolving cloud services based on the twin
professionals who truly system. pillars of speed and quality,”
understand the implications of For these reasons, upskilling he continues.
IR 4.0, not just in terms of their and obtaining professional
personal skills but also movements
within the industry.
qualifications from MIA or
accountancy bodies such as CPA
Eliminating liabilities
Australia, Association of Chartered When combining this piece
Discovering market Certified Accountants, Institute of
Chartered Accountants in England
of information with the future
route of total automation for jobs
potential and Wales or Chartered Institute that are repetitive, rule-based and
of Management Accountants involve limited or well-defined
Gone are the days when sales should be considered a necessity physicality, the traditional job
numbers, website traffic and KPIs instead of mere steps for higher scope of accountants is coming to
were sufficient information to management. an end.
2 Postgraduate THE STAR, TUESDAY 18 SEPTEMBER 2018

Comparing research impact

WHEN you write a scientific paper, it papers has been cited. An obvious grouping Malaysia’s other research universities
becomes part of the scientific archive. The includes all the papers written by a come up next on the list. This is not
hope is that other scientists will read your university in a given year. unexpected – given the investment that has
research and further develop it. The table below shows the average been made in these institutions in recent
This is how scientific advancements are number of citations in this type of grouping years, you would hope to see evidence of a
made, enabling today’s researchers to stand for several universities in Malaysia over the return on that investment.
on the shoulders of giants rather than past five years. The selection of the universities in the
forever reinventing the wheel. The figures in the table were created using table is reasonably arbitrary, and many are
You also hope that other scientists will cite a standard tool (SciVal) that is available to missing. Monash University Malaysia is an
your work. If your paper is cited, it shows most universities. Its results can be obvious omission, but it is because it does
that somebody else believes that your independently verified. times (186,849 ÷ 22,236 = 8.4) and shows not have its own entry in SciVal, making it
research is important. The table shows, by way of example, that that its overall citations per publication difficult to collect its statistics reliably.
Universities are often interested in how papers written at the University of Malaya is 8.4. These figures should be read with caution
often their papers are cited as it is important (UM) in 2013 have been cited an average of Papers published in more recent years as there are many other metrics that we
for calculating an impact factor, which is 12.1 times. Digging into the data, we see that have lower citation rates as they have not could use, but tools such as SciVal enable
used to measure the productivity of their UM published 3,847 papers in 2013, which been available for as long and are not as easy comparison across different
staff and impact of their research. were cited 46,591 times (46,591 ÷ 3,847 = highly cited. institutions.
One way to calculate impact factor is to 12.1). Over this five-year period, it published UM is considered the best research Deeper analysis and use of other metrics
see how many times a certain group of 22,236 papers, which were cited 186,849 university in Malaysia, so it is probably not may be even more illuminating. We would
surprising that it is at the top of the list. be happy to do so if anyone feels that it
What may be a little surprising is that the would be useful.
next two universities in the list are both
foreign branch campuses (FBCs). n Prof Graham Kendall is the chief executive
We hope that this serves as evidence of the officer, provost and pro-vice-chancellor of
contribution that FBCs are providing to the the University of Nottingham Malaysia.
research landscape in Malaysia. Twitter: @Graham_Kendall

Overall 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

University of Malaya * 8.4 12.1 11.7 9.6 6.5 2.6
RCSI & UCD Malaysia Campus 7.9 25.2 2.2 5.3 3.1 11.7
University of Nottingham Malaysia 6.5 10.4 8.7 6.8 5.2 2.4
Universiti Sains Malaysia * 5.1 8.7 6.4 5.0 4.0 1.4
Universiti Putra Malaysia * 4.9 7.8 6.6 5.2 3.3 1.4
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia * 4.7 7.6 6.0 5.2 3.4 1.4
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia * 4.6 6.6 5.6 5.8 3.3 1.5
Limkokwing University of
4.1 6.5 5.9 3.3 2.0 0.5
Creative Technology
Heriot-Watt University Malaysia 3.8 - 3.8 4.1 5.9 2.7
Taylor's University 3.6 6.4 4.4 4.3 2.8 1.4
Sunway University 3.6 5.1 6.4 5.5 2.6 2.1
Universiti Teknologi Petronas 3.3 6.3 3.5 4.4 2.5 1.4
* Research university

Progress to the top

CPA Australia is one of the world’s largest Through the CPA Australia Network,
accounting bodies with a global membership students and graduates can be the first to
of more than 163,000 finance, accounting receive career advice from CPA Career
and business professionals. More than Mentor and find out about career events,
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The CPA designation is recognised This is an opportunity to discover how
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globe into any sector you want to work in. open up networking opportunities with
The CPA Program equips you with an professionals and springboard your future
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Throughout the programme, you will gives you access to a network of more than
receive a range of knowledge, resources and 163,000 members and over 400 Recognised
learning products and choose how, when, Employer Partners worldwide. Become a
where and what you learn. CPA Australia Ambassador and access skill
With its flexible study options, you can development opportunities to help you stand
complete the CPA Program through distance out from the rest.
learning, full-time study or combined
postgraduate degree. You can also opt for n For details, call 03-2267 3388, e-mail
online or face-to-face tuition to complement or visit
the distance learning study option.

Exclusive to
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Session –
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an annual
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4 Postgraduate THE STAR, TUESDAY 18 SEPTEMBER 2018

Rebuilding Myanmar from within

MONASH University Malaysia’s Master of regional head for BP Australia and moved to
Business Administration (MBA) student Aye Malaysia with her family. Last year, she
Chan Lwin was interested in Myanmar as a decided to pursue her MBA in South Asian
location in which to implement her social Studies at Monash University Malaysia and
enterprise project. The project aims to kick-start her “train the trainer” social
capitalise on Burmese talent and improve enterprise.
rural infrastructure. It was Aye Chan’s visit In collaboration with a joint-venture
to Yangon, Myanmar, in 2012 that sparked partner, Myanmar Certified Training
the idea of starting a project management Centers, Aye Chan designed the Project
course for people there. Management Fundamental (PMF) course –
Myanmar started opening its doors to a two-day training course that introduces
foreign investment in 2012. Aye Chan was the tools and techniques of project
surprised to see the high number of projects management.
underway that contrasted with the lack of With funding from the World Bank, Aye
qualified local professionals, and aghast at Chan began running PMF courses for the
the wage gap between foreign and local Myanmar government’s Department of Rural
workers. Development in September last year. Since
Aye Chan recalls a conversation she had then, she has conducted six classes involving
with a foreign engineer who worked as a 350 participants in the Yangon region.
telecommunications manager in Myanmar. PMF course participants train local village
“Being an engineer myself, I asked him leaders on how to apply project management
about how things work and the difficulties basics to infrastructure projects in their
faced in the industry. When I heard about villages.
the privileges he was entitled to, I decided Moving forward, Aye Chan hopes to
that I would dedicate myself to showing restructure the business, revamp the course
Myanmar that it has skilled locals who can to be more practical-focused and expand the
do the same type of work it hires foreigners target market to include the private sector.
for, but with more locally appropriate She hopes to offer the course in Malaysia
attributes and interests. once she has perfected the business model
“The only weakness Myanmar locals have and established new trainers who can
is their lack of exposure to international succeed her.
standards. With formal training, they can “I find the people of Myanmar to be truly
be equally talented. Talent should be based remarkable. They are smart and eager to
on meritocracy, not race or gender,” says learn. Once we can capitalise on the locals’
Aye Chan, who is proud of her Burmese skill sets and assign them to the right
heritage. Aye Chan’s social enterprise initiative in Myanmar has seen higher involvement of locals in knowledge areas, the opportunities are
Born in Yangon and having grown up in project management. limitless. Project management is universal
various countries such as Vietnam, South and everyone is involved in a project one
Africa, Singapore and Australia, Aye Chan specialising in electrical and computer She speaks Mandarin, Burmese, French way or another,” says Aye Chan.
has had international exposure from a engineering from Queensland University of and English fluently, and was recently
young age. She holds a Diploma in Technology, Australia, and is a certified presented with Monash University’s 2018 n For more information on postgraduate
Engineering (Electrical, Computer and Project Management Professional from Vice-Chancellor’s Diversity and Inclusion courses offered by Monash University
Electronics) from Nanyang Polytechnic in Project Management Institute in the United Award. Malaysia’s School of Business, visit
Singapore and Bachelor of Engineering States. In 2015, Aye Chan left her job as the

with her
mates at

Championing public health

JO-ANN Belotindos is an International offers major streams (combined with
Medical University (IMU) student under the research training) in clinical pharmacy,
Master of Pharmacy Practice programme. social and administrative pharmacy, and
Hailing from the Phillipines, she chose to pharmacy management.
study in Malaysia because of its proximity to It is offered in blended mode, enabling
home and similar culture and climate. pharmacists to earn a master’s degree while
Aiming to be the catalyst of change in the continuing to practise. Each student
pharmacy profession through teaching, undertakes a research study under the
Belotindos has been in academia since 2004, supervision of faculty members who have
working as an instructor with Southwestern established research credentials.
University PHINMA in Cebu City, the IMU offers other postgraduate
Philippines. programmes such as MSc in Analytical and
As part of her course in pharmacy Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Postgraduate
practice, Belotindos conducted a research Diploma in Implant Dentistry, Master in
study on women’s awareness, attitudes and Medical & Health Sciences (by research), and
perceptions regarding Zika in the PhD in Medical & Health Sciences (by
Philippines. Belotindos’ research showed a research).
need for public health interventions that Established in 1992, IMU pioneered the
focus on protection against Zika among world’s first Partner Medical School
people in Cebu, especially in the religio-social programme and has since gained
context of the Philippines. international recognition with more than 30
“The results of my research are important world-class university partners in Australia,
to make people aware of how Zika can be New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Canada,
spread and prevented. I can contribute to Ireland and China. IMU’s main campus is
public health by disseminating important located in Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, with
information on health issues,” says branch clinical schools in Seremban, Kuala
Belotindos. Pilah, Batu Pahat and Kluang.
Having the Master of Pharmacy Practice
qualification from IMU enables graduates to n For more information on IMU’s
address their education and training needs postgraduate programmes, call 03-731 7272,
and remain relevant to healthcare and e-mail or visit
healthcare management. The programme
THE STAR, TUESDAY 18 SEPTEMBER 2018 Postgraduate 5

A revamped
graduate centre
POSTGRADUATE learners at Open University
Malaysia (OUM) will discover that changes
are taking place at the university.
OUMGC will focus
The Kuala Lumpur Learning Centre has on more structured and
organised seminars, talks
been recently renamed OUM Graduate
Centre (OUMGC), a move that is in line with
the shift in leadership.
Dr Gurcharan Singh Bishen Singh (pic) has
and workshops covering
been appointed as the new director of areas such as academic
writing, research and soft
OUMGC effective Aug 1.
A seasoned academic with 30 years of
experience, Dr Gurcharan joined OUM as
programme director for the Master of skills development.
Education (MEd). He received his Doctor of
Education from University of Birmingham,
The centre will also
United Kingdom, specialising in educational add value to learners’
He spent most of his career at the experience by hosting
Education Ministry as an educational
leadership trainer at Institut Aminuddin
events where they can
Baki, where he made major contributions, present research findings
including leading the development of the
National Professional Qualification for and obtain feedback from
Educational Leaders.
Dr Gurcharan says, “OUMGC is the hub for
postgraduate studies across Malaysia, Dr Gurcharan Singh Bishen Singh
particularly the Klang Valley since it is the
only learning centre where master’s and
PhD programmes are offered.” “I will be introducing School Leadership as a
He adds that OUMGC will expand its role subject matter that is suitable for leaders in
to include improved coordination of schools. We want to provide a platform for
postgraduate studies for all learners them to obtain a master’s degree that is
throughout Malaysia. Under his leadership, relevant to their workplace.”
Dr Gurcharan wants to ensure proactive For the current September intake,
engagement with learners and facilitators. OUMGC is re-offering the Master of Quality
“I will be personally engaging with them Management (MQM) programme.
right from the first seminar. This is one way According to MQM programme director
we can ensure learners enjoy great service Dr Raziana Che Aziz, “OUM academics have
and support from day one until they collaborated with experts from Sirim STS
complete their studies,” he says. Sdn Bhd in the development of the
OUMGC will focus on more structured and programme and learning materials. This is
organised seminars, talks and workshops to ensure that the programme will be able to
covering areas such as academic writing, produce competent graduates who are
research and soft skills development. sought after by employers.”
The centre will also add value to learners’ As a senior faculty member at OUM,
experience by hosting events where they can Dr Raziana has vast experience in quality
present research findings and obtain management. She has also been appointed
feedback from experts. as an internal auditor for the Malaysian
With respect to lecturers and facilitators, Association of Distance Education, member
OUM only hires experienced individuals of the Board of Studies of MQM and internal
who pass the stringent selection process auditor for OUM.
to ensure that learners receive enough Dr Raziana explains that MQM graduates
support and guidance throughout their will receive credentials upon passing Sirim
studies. assessment tests. The credentials include
“We are putting our hearts and minds into Certified Quality Manager, Certified Quality
it. As the director, my main concern is to Professional, Total Quality Fast Track Model
provide quality services so that learners and Certified Lead Auditor.
enjoy the process of acquiring knowledge
and studying here with us and among their n For more information on MQM and other
peers.” postgraduate programmes offered at
Dr Gurcharan also maintains his role as OUMGC, call 03-2773 2121 or e-mail
the programme director for MEd. He shares,
6 Postgraduate THE STAR, TUESDAY 18 SEPTEMBER 2018

competent grads
MANAGEMENT & Science University
(MSU) launched an upgraded version of its
e-learning platform recently. Engaging highly
The MSU Online Distance e-Learning
(MODeL) aims to enable an equal learning
qualified academics and
experience through access for all MSU international visiting
students, including soon-to-be members of
the university’s alumni. professors, the university
“The aim of online learning is to support
those unable to be present as part and parcel
delivers compelling
of the campus community,” says MSU learning experiences
within the framework
president Prof Tan Sri Datuk Wira Dr Mohd
Shukri Ab Yajid.
In the fast-paced 21st century where time
is a commodity, MODeL provides an effective
of a holistic curriculum.
recourse to alumni in their quest for lifelong
learning and career progression.
No longer confined to a particular space – academics and international visiting
neither the classroom nor library – access to professors, the university delivers
knowledge through information has changed compelling learning experiences within the
tremendously. Technology is changing the framework of a holistic curriculum.
learning environment and becoming a tool Collaborative, industry- and enterprise-
that supports learning. Why, then, still be in embedded MSU blends global exposure with
university? extensive industrial training to enrich the
“Being in campus gives you unmatched personal competencies of its graduates.
learning experiences. Nothing beats being Its global mobility initiatives for student
present and face to face,” says Prof Shukri. exchange, leadership development and
As one of Malaysia’s top universities, MSU market immersion empower MSU graduates
focuses on developing and delivering quality with the well-roundedness desired and
human capital in areas such as medicine, sought after by employers.
health sciences, pharmacy, information As an applied and enterprise university,
sciences, engineering, business management MSU offers programmes at postgraduate,
and professional studies, education and undergraduate and foundation levels
social sciences, hospitality and culinary arts, through connected pathways that admit
music, and fashion. students from all walks of life and
The university attained 5 Stars for backgrounds.
teaching, facilities, graduate employability, The university’s promotion and
social responsibility and inclusiveness in the advancement of higher education have been
QS Stars University Ratings. recognised by Accreditation Services for
It is placed 217th in the QS World International Schools, Colleges & Universities
University Rankings and among the top 1.8% in the form of two awards: Outstanding
of universities in the QS Asia University Contribution to International Education and
Rankings 2018. Excellence in Quality International
MSU has achieved 6 Star: Excellent status Education.
in the Higher Education Ministry’s Rating for Steeped in a culture of research
Higher Education Institutions in Malaysia and innovation as well as social
(Setara). It was also crowned The Most entrepreneurship, technology-driven MSU
Entrepreneurial Private University by the comprises the Faculty of Health and Life
Higher Education Ministry in 2016. Sciences, Faculty of Business Management
Other recognitions include the Putra and Professional Studies, Faculty of
Brand Awards 2017 – awarded by the Information Science and Engineering,
Association of Accredited Advertising Agents International Medical School, School of
Malaysia and endorsed by the Malaysia Pharmacy, School of Education and Social
External Trade Development Corporation – Sciences, School of Hospitality and Creative
and the Best Brand in Education for Arts, Postgraduate Centre and Centre for
Leadership and Human Capital Development Foundation Studies.
2017 – awarded at the Asia Pacific Elite of
Elites BrandLaureate Awards. n For further enquiries on MSU’s
MSU gives top priority to building both programmes for the coming intakes, call
students and faculty and enhancing graduate 03-5521 6868, e-mail
employability. Engaging highly qualified or visit

MSU’s newly introduced MODeL offers flexibility through e-learning for lifelong learners.
THE STAR, TUESDAY 18 SEPTEMBER 2018 Postgraduate 7

Creating a quality learning environment

IF you look back at your school such as learner demography and managed learning and face-to-face ensure relevant and engaging
days, I am sure you can remember adoption of appropriate tutorials. content for courses offered.
a particular teacher who has made technologies to introduce flexibility
By PROF At the same time, a learning OUM’s teaching staff comprises
an impact on you. A certain lesson, and enhance the learning DATUK DR management system called internal faculty members as well
delivered in a certain way, may experience. MANSOR myINSPIRE allows learners to as tutors who bring with them a
have sparked your interest in a At Open University Malaysia FADZIL access learning materials and wealth of knowledge from their
certain subject. This spark may (OUM), we leverage on technology interact with their tutors and peers industry and academic
have even led you to your career to provide the best learning on e-forums through any device. backgrounds.
today. environment for adult learners Learners can also access university Adult learners need a learning
An engaging learning who study on a part-time basis. Understanding that adult services through a specially environment where their prior
environment can certainly As described by renowned learners have unique developed mobile application. experiences are acknowledged and
influence a life-changing decision. American educator Malcolm characteristics, OUM has Technology is an integral they can engage with peers, tutors
Creating this environment requires Knowles, adult learners have incorporated Knowles’ spirit in the component of an ODL and facilitators, thus creating value
an institutional commitment to diverse attitudes towards many aspects of the university’s environment. In addition to in their lives.
learner-centredness, which is key learning. learning environment, including myINSPIRE, the university At OUM, we emphasise an
to ensuring that learners make the According to him, adult learners delivery modes, development of leverages on digital applications, institutional commitment to quality
most of their experience. This, in also remember differently, learning materials, and training of social media, video lectures and strive to provide a learning
turn, can lead to personal growth retaining 20% of what they hear, tutors and facilitators. and digital library resources to environment that reflects the
and success. 40% of what they see and hear, However, in today’s digital add value to the learning university’s pledge to offer the best
This environment comprises and 80% of what they do. Thus, a age, adopting the right technology experience. possible experience for all our
various components, including suitable learning environment is also crucial to ensure an Learning materials such as learners.
teaching, delivery, learning must take into consideration their enriching learning experience. modules and web-based and
materials and resources. life and work experiences, OUM emphasises flexibility and multimedia resources are n Prof Datuk Dr Mansor Fadzil is
In open and distance learning motivations for studying, and accessibility in its delivery, produced using proven the president and vice-chancellor
(ODL), other factors come into play, individual learning styles. combining online learning, self- instructional design strategies to of OUM.

Boost your
career potential
QUEST International University pursue the DBA at QIUP.
Perak (QIUP) in Ipoh is The DBA will help you develop
expanding its presence in the greater awareness of the wider
growing postgraduate education context in which business and
market. management processes take
Working professionals and place and increase your ability to
students who are planning to work confidently across
pursue a Master in Business industrial and national
Administration (MBA), Doctorate boundaries.
in Business Administration The MBA and DBA programme
(DBA), Doctor of Philosophy costs are claimable under the
(PhD) in Business Human Resources Development
Administration, Master in Fund.
Science (MSc) or PhD in Science QIUP’s chief operating officer
can enrol in QIUP. Nicholas Goh says, “Due to
These postgraduate stressful lifestyles and competing
programmes offer flexible priorities, people find it difficult
learning and, with experienced to conveniently and efficiently
academic staff providing upgrade their skills. Our
excellent support, are ideal for programmes aim to equip
individuals seeking to advance students with the managerial
their careers. The MBA is and technical tools required for
coursework-based while the MSc them to take up new challenges
and PhD programmes are and excel at work.”
research-based. There are five faculties and
The MBA programme is one centre at QIUP – Centre for
structured so that each student is Research and Innovation, Faculty
able to take the course at her of Medicine, Faculty of Science
own pace. If desired, full-time and Technology, Faculty of
students can complete the MBA Business and Management,
in as little as 18 months. Faculty of Social Sciences, and
Working professionals Faculty of Pharmacy.
studying part-time generally take QIUP offers programmes at
about two and a half years to undergraduate and postgraduate
complete the MBA programme. levels. Should you want a rich
Classes are conducted on student life and opportunities to
weekday evenings and weekends interact with the best
to accommodate the working academicians, QIUP is the
population. answer.
The MSc and PhD in Science QIUP’s postgraduate
are offered on full-time and part- programmes are currently open
time basis. for registration.
It is highly recommended that
those who already possess a n For details, call 05-249 0500,
master’s degree in a field related e-mail
to business and management or visit
8 Postgraduate THE STAR, TUESDAY 18 SEPTEMBER 2018

The business of zero marginal cost

“CONTEMPLATION seems to be
about the only luxury that costs
nothing,” wrote Dodie Smith in I
We are
Capture the Castle. experiencing what
it is like to live in a
However, according to the
author of The Zero Marginal Cost
Society Jeremy Rifkin,
contemplation is not the only zero marginal cost
luxury that costs nothing. The
Internet and Internet of Things are
community where
ushering us into an era of goods we need not own
and services that are almost free.
In his book, Rifkin predicted that something in order
massive economic and social
changes will arise from the rapidly
to use it.
increasing number of horizontal
value chains, displacing existing
vertical value chain behemoths.
We are now getting a glimpse of their phones to enhance the value
this prognosis. of their smartphone ecosystems.
In an ideal zero marginal
For decades, industries have These free applications are
focused on increasing productivity
cost society, products and examples of open-source software
and decreasing marginal costs, services can be offered – a movement that advocates for
enabling businesses to reduce almost free of charge. companies to share software
prices and capture larger market development costs to increase
shares. productivity, accelerate innovation
After the initial setup cost of production costs. add vehicles to their inventories at a paid subscription. and lower setup costs.
assembling the teams and tools Zero marginal cost products are almost no cost by enabling people A similar example is how In conclusion, we are
needed to make the first unit nearly free of charge. There are to share their personal cars. e-newspapers offer articles. experiencing what it is like to live
of a product, the subsequent countless cases in which goods and Because of this, a ride-hailing The New York Times and other in a zero marginal cost community
marginal cost of producing services that customers used to pay service can offer other on-demand e-newspapers allow you to read a where we need not own something
additional units can be reduced for have been made free. services such as food delivery limited number of free articles per in order to use it.
progressively. For instance, the marginal cost beyond just increasing the size of month. If you want access to more Students of Victoria University
For physical products such as of e-mail transmission is zero, and its fleet. articles, you are asked to sign up master’s programmes at Sunway
cars, the market will lean towards so is getting information on the “Freemiums” or tiered pricing for a paid subscription. Likewise, College Kuala Lumpur are
pricing the product at its marginal Internet in most cases. The entails giving away some core most free mobile applications offer capturing the zeitgeist of zero
cost, barring monopolies. marginal cost of e-books consists products for free and offering in-app purchases to unlock marginal cost economics. – By Dr
For example, with renewable of only their respective copyright additional services at a fee, such as additional features. Hendry Ng, director of Victoria
energy, once solar panels and wind fees. how Spotify lets you play free The phrase ecosystem play refers University postgraduate
power generators are installed, For a traditional taxi company to music but airs advertisements to offering free digital products, programmes at Sunway College
they generate power at almost zero add another car to its fleet, it needs between plays. which are part of a larger set in a Kuala Lumpur
marginal cost. In economic terms, to acquire a vehicle and licence at If you want advertisement-free company’s product suite.
companies may collaborate with a significant cost. In contrast, ride- and offline music, you have to For example, Google and Apple n For more information, e-mail
each other to dramatically reduce hailing services such as Grab can sign up for Spotify Premium – give away free GPS applications on