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Database Management System

Important Terminology

Database: Database is a collection of inter-related data which helps in efficient retrieval,

insertion and deletion of data from database and organizes the data in the form of tables, views,
schemas, reports etc. For Example, university database organizes the data about students,
faculty, and admin staff etc. which helps in efficient retrieval, insertion and deletion of data from

Database Management System: The software which is used to manage database is called
Database Management System (DBMS). For Example, MySQL, Oracle etc. are popular
commercial DBMS used in different applications. DBMS allows users the following tasks:

Data Definition: It helps in creation, modification and removal of definitions that define the
organization of data in database.

Data Updation: It helps in insertion, modification and deletion of the actual data in the database.

Data Retrieval: It helps in retrieval of data from the database which can be used by applications
for various purposes.

User Administration: It helps in registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security,
monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control and
recovering information corrupted by unexpected failure.

A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically. Database
designers typically organize the data to model aspects of reality in a way that supports processes
requiring information, such as (for example) modeling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way
that supports finding a hotel with vacancies.

The database management system (DBMS) is the software that interacts with end users,
applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS
allows the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases. A database is
generally stored in a DBMS-specific format which is not portable, but different DBMSs can share
data by using standards such as SQL and ODBC or JDBC. The sum total of the database, the
DBMS and its associated applications can be referred to as a "database system". Often the term
"database" is used to loosely refer to any of the DBMS, the database system or an application
associated the database.

Computer scientists may classify database-management systems according to the database

models that they support. Relational databases became dominant in the 1980s. These model
data as rows and columns in a series of tables, and the vast majority use SQL for writing and
querying data. In the 2000s, non-relational databases became popular, referred to as NoSQL
because they use different query languages.

2. Data types and its description:Fields in database table have a data type. Some of the
datatypes used in database table are explained below.a)

Integer:-One optional sign character (+ or -) followed by atleast one digit(0-9). Leading and
trailing blanks are ignored. No other characteris allowed.b)

Varchar:-It is used to store alpha numeric characters. In this data typewe can set the maximum
number of characters upto 8000 rangesby default SQL server will set the size to 50 characters

Date/Time:-Date/Time data type is used for representing data or time.

Hospital Management System

What is Hospital management system?

Hospital managementsystem is a computer based system whose purpose is to manage theclinic

patient records in safe and secure way.


1. Achieve Good Quality Scores

2. Better Financial Management

3. Avoiding Errors & Tracking every detail

4. Improve Clinical decisions

5. Augment Data Security

6. Automate hospital Management.

E-R diagram for hospital management system: