# GRE MATH FORMULAE

Mixtures first.... 1. when you mix different quantities (say n1 and n2) of A and B, with different strengths or values v1 and v2 then their mean value vm after mixing will be: Vm*(n1 + n2) = (v1.n1 + v2.n2) you can use this to find the final price of say two types of rice being mixed or final strength of acids of different concentration being mixed etc.... the ratio in which they have to be mixed in order to get a mean value of vm can be given as: n1/n2 = (v2 - vm)/(vm - v1) When three different ingredients are mixed then the ratio in which they have to be mixed in order to get a final strength of vm is: n1 : n2 : n3 = (v2 - vm)(v3 - vm) : (vm - v1)(v3 - vm) : (vm - v2)(vm - v1) 2. If from a vessel containing M units of mixtures of A & B, x units of the mixture is taken out & replaced by an equal amount of B only .And If this process of taking out & replacement by B is repeated n times , then after n operations, Amount of A left/ Amount of A originally present = (1-x/M)^n 3. If the vessel contains M units of A only and from this x units of A is taken out and replaced by x units of B. if this process is repeated n times, then: Amount of A left = M [(1 - x/M)^n] This formula can be applied to problem involving dilution of milk with water, etc... EXPLAINATION TO THE ABOVE FORMULA when you mix different quantities (say n1 and n2) of A and B, with different strengths or values v1 and v2 then their mean value vm after mixing will be: Vm = (v1.n1 + v2.n2) / (n1 + n2) (I assume that you understood this... vm (n1 + n2) = v1 n1 + v2 n2 n1 (vm - v1) = n2 (v2 - vm) so, n1/n2 = (v2 - vm)/(vm - v1) ----> (1) similarly if you mix n2 and n3, then their ratio would be given by n2/n3 = (v3 - vm)/(vm - v2) ----> (2) now assume we mix n1, n2 and n3 of different ingredients of value v1, v2 and v3. the individual ratios (1) and (2) will still be the same. now combine these ratios to get n1:n2:n3 by making the denominators common n1/n2 = (v2 - vm)(v3 - vm)/(vm - v1)(v3 - vm) and n2/n3 = (v3 - vm)(vm - v1)/(vm - v2)(vm - v1) rearrange this and you will get the formula: n1 : n2 : n3 = (v2 - vm)(v3 - vm) : (vm - v1)(v3 - vm) : (vm - v2)(vm - v1) Hope this is clear... PROGRESSION: Sum of first n natural numbers: 1 +2 +3 + .... + n = [n(n+1)]/2 Sum of first n odd numbers: 1 + 3 + 5 + .... upto n terms = n^2 Sum of first n even numbers: 2 + 4 + 6 + ... upto n terms = n(n+1) ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION nth term of an Arithmetic progression = a + (n-1)d Sum of n terms in an AP = s = n/2 [2a + (n-1)d] where, a is the first term and d is the common difference. )

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If a, b and c are any three consecutive terms in an AP, then 2b = a + c GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION nth term of a GP is = a[r^(n-1)] sum of n terms of a GP: s = a [(r^n - 1)/(r-1)] if r > 1 s = a [(1 - r^n)/(r-1)] if r < 1] sum of an infinite number of terms of a GP is s(approx.) = a/ (1-r) if r <1 If a, b and c are any three consecutive terms in a GP, then b^2 = ac HARMONIC PROGRESSION A series of non-zero numbers is said to be harmonic progression (abbreviated H.P.) if the series obtained by taking reciprocals of the corresponding terms of the given series is an arithmetic progression. For example, the series 1 +1/4 +1/7 +1/10 +..... is an H.P. since the series obtained by taking reciprocals of its corresponding terms i.e. 1 +4 +7 +10 +... is an A.P. A general H.P. is 1/a + 1/(a + d) + 1/(a + 2d) + ... nth term of an H.P. = 1/[a +(n -1)d] Three numbers a, b, c are in H.P. iff 1/a, 1/b, 1/c are in A.P. i.e. iff 1/a + 1/c = 2/b i.e. iff b= 2ac/(a + c) Thus the H.M. between a and b is H = 2ac/(a + c) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------If A, G, H are arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means between two distinct, positive real numbers a and b, THEN 1. G² = AH i.e. A, G, H are in G.P. 2. A, G, H are in descending order of magnitude i.e. A > G > H. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Problems on trains
a km/hr = (a* (5/18)) m/s a m/s = (a* (18/5)) km/hr Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a pole or a standing man or a signal post is equal to the time taken by the train to cover l metres. Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a stationary object of length b metres is the time taken by the train to cover (l+b) metres. Suppose 2 trains or 2 bodies are moving in the same direction at u m/s and v m/s, where u>v, then their relative speed = (u-v) m/s Suppose 2 trains or 2 bodies are moving in the opposite direction at u m/s and v m/s, where u>v, then their relative speed = (u+v) m/s If 2 trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in opposite directions at u m/s and v m/s, then the time taken by the trains to cross each other = (a+b)/(u+v) sec If 2 trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in same directions at u m/s and v m/s, then the time taken by the faster train to cross the slower train = (a+b)/(u-v) sec If 2 trains(or bodies) start at the same time from points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b sec in reaching B and A respectively, then (A's speed): (B's speed) = (root(B):root(A))

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..1] * [(b^n+1) .. 9. decreases by 'y%' during the second year and again decreases by 'z%' during the third year.1] * [(2^2) ... then the population of the town three years ago was:: 3 . 45. the midpoint of the line segment has coordinates: ([x2+x1]/2. it saves lot of time. where. 5. 30..[y2+y1]/2) . 6.1]/[5 .The distance from P1 to P2 is: d = sqrt[(x1-x2)**2+ (y1-y2)**2] .The coordinates of the point dividing the line segment P1P2 in the ratio r/s are: ([r x2+s x1]/[r+s]. Slope of a perpendicular line is the negative reciprocal of the slope of the given line.1] = (26/2) (24/4) (3/1) = 234 Though this method looks more complicated than listing the factors and adding them.The slope m of a non-vertical line passing through the points P1 and P2: slope = m = (y2 -y1)/(x2 -x1) • • • Two (non-vertical) lines are parallel if their slopes are equal.1]/[a .1] * [(c^p+1) . a. such questions are there in powerprep and so you might also get it in your real GRE.. If the present population of the town is 'P'. FORMULAE FOR POPULATION RELATED QUESTIONS The population of a town decreases by 'x%' during the first year.. and the sum of the divisors of N is given by: S = [(a^m+1) .1]/[3 .1] * [(5^2) . 3..EXPLAINATION TO THE ABOVE FORMULA EXP 1: It is Speed of train A: Speed of train B = sqrt(b) : sqrt(a) EXP2: If 2 trains (or bodies) start at the same time from points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b sec in reaching B and A respectively.. c.. on factorizing you get 90 = 3*3*5*2= (3^2)*(5^1)*(2^1) then the number of divisors of 90 are (2+1)(1+1)(1+1) = 12 the 12 divisors are 1. 2. [r y2+s y1]/[r+s]) . when r = s.y2) . Example: for say N = 90. 10.. 90 And the sum of the divisors would be [(3^3) .y1) and of P2 be (x2..As a special case. LINE FORMULAE Let the coordinates of P1 be (x1. Two (non-vertical) lines are perpendicular if the product of their slopes = -1.1]/[b ..1]/[2 . once you get used to this formula. including N itself is equal to: (m+1) (n+1) (p+1). 15. are prime numbers. then (A's speed) : (B's speed) = (root(b) : root(a)) where a and b number of seconds.. b. 18. then the number of divisors of N..1]/[c1]. . FORMULA FOR FINDING THE UNIQUE DIVISORS AND THEIR SUMS This one is a nice formula for finding the number of unique divisors for any number and also the sum of those divisors. If N is a number such that N = (a^m) (b^n) (c^p).

and so on. The total number of ways of arranging r things from n things is given by nPr = n!/(n-r)! 5. For example. then the quantity of oil that must be poured into the tank in order to fill it to the brim is: X*x ------.x If 'X' liters of oil was poured into a tank and it was still 'x%' empty.. then the maximum marks is given by 100(y+z) ----------x. But out of these n objects. Then the number of rearrangements is n!/k1!k2!. while another candidate who scores y% marks gets "b" marks more than the minimum required pass marks. n = 5.P*100*100*100 ----------------------(100-x)(100-y)(100-z). The population of a town is 'P'.litres. The linear permutation of n distinct objects (that is. The number of ways to select r things out of n things is given by nCr = n!/(r!*(n-r)!) 6.litres. k2 of another letter. If a candidate who secures y marks fails by z marks. then the two operations in succesion can be done in m*n ways 2.. If 'X' litres of oil was poured into a tank and it was still 'x%' empty. k1 = 2 [two E's].nz! 4. and there are k1 of one letter. 100 . in ELLEN. 100 . If one operation can be performed in m ways and another operation in n ways.x A candidate scoring x% in an examination fails by "a" marks. k2 = 2 [two L's]. if there are n1 objects of a certain type. nPr = r! * nCr Suppose you have a name with n letters. Then the number of arrangements (linear permutations) possible is n!/n1!n2!. n2 of another type and n3 of another. Then the maximum marks for that exam = 100(a+b) ---------y-x . Permutations And Combinations 1. The pass marks in an examination is x%. The population after 3 years will be: P*(100-x)(100-y)(100-z) -------------------------100*100*100.It decreases by 'x%' during the first year. k3 = 1 [one N]). then the capacity of the tank is: X*100 ---------. decreases by 'y%' during the second year and again deceases by 'z%' during the third year. the number of ways in which these n objects can be arranged is n! and the circular permutation of n distinct objects is (n-1)! But if the clockwise and anticlockwise directions are indistinguishable then the circular permutations of n different things taken at a time is (n-1)!/2 3... and so on. up to kz.kz! Numbers And Percentages 4 .

hence will be 1 x 9 =9 In short (….843 etc Multiply the unit digit by itself until u get 1. there are 16 numbers within 100 which are divisible by 6. when multiplied 9 x 4 times.s from 1 to n is (n-1)/2 POWERS AND INDICES To find the unit digit of p^n If there is an odd no.6)^n=(….1) (…..6) (…. of odd no. (743)^38=(743)^36 X (743)^2 36 is a multiple of 4. Therefore. 5. the unit digit of (743)^38.6) (….3)^4n=(…. after any times of multiplication.6.1) If the unit digit of p is even and u need to find the unit digit of (p)^n Multiply the unit digit of p by itself until a 6 is in the unit place (…2)^4n=(…. of even no.1) (…. it will still give 1 in the unit digit... then No. Example: If u need to find the unit digit of (743)^38: Multiply 3 four times to get 81.s from 1 to n is n/2 If n is odd then. of odd no. of even no. Number of numbers divisible by a certain integer: How many numbers upto 100 are divisible by 6? Soln: Divide 100 by 6. the resulting quotient is the required answer Here. 100/6 = 16x6+4 16 is the quotient and 6 is the remainder. you get only 1. No. PERCENTAGES • If the value of a number is first increased by x% and later decreased by x%.s from 1 to n is n/2 No..6) (…. in the unit place of p eg 741. the net change is always A DECREASE= (x^2)/100 5 .9)^2n=(….Therefore.s from 1 to n is (n+1)/2 No.1) (…. 6 respectively.4)^2n=(….5.COUNTING SUM OF FIRST “n” NATURAL NUMBERS = n(n+1)/2 Sum of first “n” ODD integers = n*n Sum of first “n” EVEN integers = n(n+1) Sum of the squares of the first n integers = n(n+1)(2n+1)/6 Sum of the cubes of first n integers =(n(n+1)/2)^2 IF n is even.8)^4n=(….1)^n =(….6) For numbers ending with 1. and 3 when multiplied 4 times gives 1 in the unit digit.7)^4n=(….

Arithmetic mean of 2 numbers = geometric mean of '2' numbers = harmonic mean of '2' numbers if both the numbers are equal. The area of any triangle given the length of its 3 sides a. And the ratio in which the wages is to be distributed is y:x 6 . If the cost of price of 2 articles are equal and 1 of them is sold at a profit of p% and the other at a loss of p%. the average speed is the harmonic mean of p and q. b and c:is sqrt[s(sa)(s-b)(s-c)] where s= (a+b+c)/2 SOME USEFUL FACTS Number Theory The product of any three consecutive integers is divisible by 6. Speed Time When an object travels the first x hours at p km/hr and the next x hours at q km/hr. then. TIME AND WORK If A can do a piece of work in x days. Similarly. the product of any four consecutive integers is divisible by 24. Progressions Arithmetic mean of 'n' numbers will always be greater than the geometric mean of those 'n' numbers which will be greater than the Harmonic mean of those 'n' numbers. irrespective of the value of n. when the object travels the first x kms at p km/hr and the next x kms at q km/hr. Profit Loss If the selling price of 2 articles are equal and 1 of them is sold at a profit of p% and the other at a loss of p%. However. then there is (x-y-(xy/100))% increase if positive . Number Theory Any perfect square has an odd number of factors including 1 and the number itself and a composite number has an even number of factors including 1 and itself. then the 2 trades will result in no profit or loss. the number of outcomes in which all n coins turn up as heads or as tails is 1. The area of an equilateral triangle with side a is [sqrt(3)/4]*a^2 3.• • • if the value of a number is first increased by x% and then decreased by y%. Area of a triangle with base b and height h = (1/2)*b*h 2. irrespective of the value of n. Permutation and Combination When n dice (n > 1) are rolled simultaneously. THE RESULT IS UNAFFECTED If the value is increased successively by x% and y%. Similarly. then A’s one day’s work=1/x • If the ratio of time taken by A and B in doing a work is x:y. ratio of work done is 1/x :1/y=y:x. then the 2 trades will result in a cumulative loss of ((p^2)/100)%.then final increase is given by x+y+(xy/100) % GEOMETRY . and decrease if negative If the order of increase or decrease is changed. when n fair coins (n > 1) are tossed simultaneously. the average speed of travel is the arithmetic mean of p and q. the number of outcomes in which all n dice show the same number is 6.TRIANGLES 1. Any perfect square can be expressed in the form 4n or 4n+1.

that is if A is “a” times efficient than B. Pipe A can fill a tank in x hrs and B can empty a tank in y hrs. they can finish the work in (ax)/(a+1) days If A and B working together can complete a work in x days.If both pipes are opened together. then the time taken by the leak to empty the cistern is (xy)/(y-x) hrs GEOMETRY STUFF Prisms Volume = Base area X Height Surface = 2b + Ph (b is the area of the base P is the perimeter of the base) Cylinder Volume = πr*2 h Surface = 2πrh Pyramid V = 1/3 bh b is the area of the base Surface Area: Add the area of the base to the sum of the areas of all of the triangular faces. they finish the work in y days. whereas B working alone can do the same work in y days.• • • • • • • If A can do a work in x days and B can do the same work in y days. 7 . ten. The areas of the triangular faces will have different formulas for different shaped bases. the tank will be filled in (xy)/(y-x) hrs A pipe can fill a cistern in x hrs but due to leakage in the bottom. then “m” men and “n” women can together finish the work in (abx)/(an+bm) days If A is x times efficient than B. then Time taken by A=y(x+1)/(x). and working together. it is filled in y hrs. A alone will complete the work in (xy)/(y-x) days. then A and B can together do the work in (xy)/(x+y) days If “a” men or “b” women can do a piece of work in x days. Time taken by B=y(x+1) If A and B can finish a work in “x” and “ax” days respectively. then working together.

When the interest rates for the successive fixed periods are r1 %.) = A -P = where A is the final amount.. Simple Interest = PNR/100 where.. r3 %.Cones Volume = 1/3 πr*2 x height = 1/3 πr2h Surface = πr2 + πrs = πr2 + πr Sphere Volume = 4/3 πr^3 Surface area = 4πr^2 Distance of a Point from a Line The perpendicular distance d of a point P (x 1. r2 %. Compound interest (abbreviated C. .. 8 .I. P is the principal.I.I. are equal for the first year (or the first term of the interest period) on the same sum and at the same rate. P --> Principal amount N --> time in years R --> rate of interest for one year 2. S. (simple interest) and C. y 1) from the line ax +by +c = 0 is given by: d =| ax1 +by1 +c|/[ (a² +b²)] Simple And Compound Interest 1. r is the rate of interest compounded yearly and n is the number of years 3. then the final amount A is given by A = 4.

xn are the (i) Mean (for ungrouped data) = observations and n is the total no. Equation of a straight line whose x and y intercepts are a and b is: x/a + y/b = 1 10. The length of the perpendicular drawn from origin (0. The angle between two lines y = m1x + c1 and y = m2x + c2 is tan inverse of the modulus of : [(m1 .I. Equation of straight line parallel to Y axis: x =a. . The equation of X axis: y =0 2. C.x1) 6.. where a is any constant 5. f3. x3. x2.I. Equation of straight line parallel to X axis: y =a. . of observations. of 2nd year (or the second term of the interest period) is more than the C. [c1*a2 . then . of Ist year (or the first term of the interest period). y1) and (x2. ..y1) = (x -x1)/(x2 -x1) 9. 0) and having a given slope m: y = m x 7. xn are different (ii) Mean (for grouped data) = variates with frequencies f1.c2*a1]/[a1*b2 .BASICS: . of Ist year = S.0) to the line Ax + By + C =0 is : C/ sqrt(A^2 + B^2) 11. The point of intersection of two lines a1x + b1y +c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y +c2 = 0 is : ([b1*c2 . Condition for perpendicularity of two lines with slopes m1 and m2 is m1*m2=-1 CIRCLES: 9 .. say c. Equation of a straight line through a given point (x1.b2*c1]/[a1*b2 . Equation of a straight line passing through two points (x1.. on the interest of the first year.a2*b1]) 13. where x1. . yi be the class mark and fi be the frequency of the ith class. y1) to the line Ax + By + C =0 is: Ax1 + By1 +C / sqrt(A^2 + B^2) 12. y2) is: (y -y1)/(y2 . Equation of a straight line with a slope m and y-intercept c is: y = mx + c 8.. x2. f2. then mean = A +c x ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY LINES . Equation of a straight line through a given point (0. where a is any constant 4. (iii) Mean for continuous distribution.I. where di = yi -A (Short cut method) mean = A + If the classes are of equal size.5. a2x + b2y +c2 = 0 and a3x + b3y +c3 = 0 is (in determinant form) | a1 b1 c1 | | a2 b2 c2 | = 0 | a3 b3 c3 | 14. Mean. y1) and having a given slope m: y -y1 = m (x . where x1. where ui = (Step deviation method) 1. Length of the perpendicular from (x1.. x3.. The equation of Y axis: x = 0 3.I. STATISTICS 1. Let there be n continuous classes.I. and C. fn respectively.. Condition for parallelism of two lines with slopes m1 and m2 is m1 = m2 16.. The condition for concurrency of three lines a1x + b1y +c1 = 0. of 2nd year -C. then (Direct method) mean = Let A be the assumed mean.a2*b1].m2)/(1 + m1*m2)] 15.

Let's assume the distance between A and B is n miles. The condition for y = mx + c to be a tangent to the circle x^2 + y^2 = a^2 is : c^2 = a^2 (1 + m^2) Multiplication of 2digit by 2 digit number ab x cd -----pqrs 1. (sqrt3)/3.. first multiply bd . The equation of the tangent to the circle x^2 + y^2 = a^2 (where a is the radius of the circle) at the point (x1.e. The first leg will take us n/60 hours. (sqrt0)/2 tan A = 0. (sqrt2)/2.xn is n / (1/x1 + . If events are independent (i. 90° (π/2): sin A = (sqrt0)/2. TRIGONOMETRY For angle A = 0. (sqrt2)/2.. we drive a constant speed of 30 miles per hour (damn Turnpike).. and the return leg will take us n/30 hours. there is some overlap) then: P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) .x1)^2 + (y . If A. write down at pq.P(B and C) . 3. + 1/xn) As the name implies.e. What is the average speed for the round trip? We would be inclined to use the arithmetic mean.x2) + (y . since we have driven for a longer time on the return leg.17. undefined In any triangle: sine = (opposite side) / hypotenuse cosine = (adjacent side) / hypotenuse tan = (opposite side)/(adjacent side) = (sine/cosine) Probability . The equation of a circle whose diameter is the line joining the points (x1. sqrt3. then the probability of them both occurring is the product of the probabilities of each occurring. (sqrt1)/2. this is incorrect. the occurrence of one does not change the probability of the other occurring).y2) = 0 19. Then: P(A and B) = P(A) * P(B) 4.y1)(y . y1) and radius r is: (x . On the way back from B to A. then: P(A and B) = 0 and P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) 2. If two events are mutually exclusive (i.y1)^2 = r^2 18. The average speed (distance per time) is thus: 10 . if two events are not-mutually exclusive (i. (sqrt1)/2. Multiply axc and add the carry over from step 2.x1)(x . (60+30)/2 = 45 miles per hour. (sqrt3)/2. B and C are not mutually exclusive events. then the probability of them both occurring at the same time is 0. y1) on it is : x*x1 + y*y1 + a^2 20.write down the unit fig at s carry over the tens fig.. it's a mean (between the smallest and largest values). 2.. the total round trip will take us (n/60) + (n/30) hours to cover a distance of 2n miles. then P(A or B or C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) P(A and B) .e. STATISTICS – HARMONIC MEAN The harmonic mean of x1. General equation of a circle with centre (x1.P(C and A) + P(A and B and C) and = intersection or = union sorry for making the formulae clusmsy using this 'and' and 'or'. 30° (π/6). 45° (π/4). y2) is : (x . 60° (π/3).P(A and B) 3. An example of the use of the harmonic mean: Suppose we're driving a car from Amherst (A) to Boston (B) at a constant speed of 60 miles per hour. they cannot occur at the same time). (sqrt3)/2. Multiply axd & bxc add them together and also add the carry over from step 1 write down the units fig at r and carry over the tens fig. 1. Thus. y1) and (x2.. However.'The Rules' 1. (sqrt4)/2 cos A = (sqrt4)/2.

we can use the arithmetic mean. *HCF of a fraction = HCF of numer. 11 Alternately add and subtract the digits from left to right. the number is also. n miles at 60 miles/hour versus n miles at 30 miles/hour). it is divisible by 10. then. it is also divisible by 6.. 8 If the last three digits form a number divisible by 8.e. If the result (including 0) is divisible by 11. the number is divisible by 5. 11 . the number is also. P(1+r/100)^N = 2P when N=70/r DIVISIBILITY RULES Divisibility by: 2 If the last digit is even. double it. SOME USEFUL SHORTCUTS * Product of 2 numbers is the produst of their LCM & HCF. and subtract it from the rest of the number.) * If a/b = c/d. Then.. * LCM of a fraction = LCM of numerator/HCF 0f denominator. Ratio & Proportion: * if a/b = c/d = e/f = . if the answer is divisible by 7 (including 0). then so is the whole number. 12 If the number is divisible by both 3 and 4. 6 If the number is divisible by both 3 and 2. a/b = c/d = e/f =(a+c+e+.. 9 If the sum of the digits is divisible by 9. the number is also. If what is left is divisible by 13. the number is divisible by 2.. then subtract 9 times the deleted digit from the remaining number.2n / {(n/60) + (n/30)} = 2 / (1/20) = 40 miles per hour. then the number is also. 5 If the last digit is a 5 or a 0.)/(b+d+f+. the number is also. The reason that the harmonic mean is the correct average here is that the numerators of the original ratios to be averaged were equal (i. 4 If the last two digits form a number divisible by 4. start by subtracting: 3-6+5-1+6-7+4-8+4 = 0. it is also divisible by 12./LCM of denom. therefore 365167484 is divisible by 11.. In cases where the denominators of two ratios are averaged. 7 Take the last digit.. 13 Delete the last digit from the number.then so is the original number.. 3 If the sum of the digits is divisible by 3. Example: to see whether 365167484 is divisible by 11.. 10 If the number ends in 0. i) b/a = d/c ii) a/c = b/d iii) (a+b)/ b = (c+d)/d iv) (a-b)/b = (c-d)/d v) (a+b)/(a-b) = (c+d)/(c-d) FORMULAE ON INTEREST Money in Compound Interest gets doubled in 70/r years (approximately) ie.

....CONIC SECTIONS STATISTICS AGAIN 1. . yn can be given as: 3.. x3. y3... x2. Median value of an ordered distribution y1.. Mode is the most common value obtained (or value that occurs at highest 12 . y2..... yn-1... Mean of a distribution x1. xn is given by the formula: where n is the number of terms in the given set. 2.

x2. Then: Step 1: Compute the mean.d.5 Standard Deviation above and below the mean is 38% .. 4. is s.. For xn---------> (xn-m)^2 Step 3: The variance is V= [(x1-m)^2 + (x2-m)^2 + .7 Area Area Area Area below 1 standard deviation is 84% below 2 standard deviation is 97.7% above 1 standard deviation is 15.d.. then area of a square is always greater than area of a parallelogram. + (xn-m)^2 ] / n Step 4: The s.Similarly.If perimeters of a square and parallelogram are equal.. .... For x1 --------> (x1-m)^2 For x2---------> (x2-m)^2 ...Area within 1 Standard Deviation above and below the mean is 68% .Area within 3 Standard Deviation above and below the mean is 99. i. if perimeters of a square and circle are same. m =[ Sum xi (i=1. = (20/3) ^ (1/2) SOME USEFUL INFORMATION ABOUT GEOMETRY . . x3. i.frequency) in a set of observations.. x5... = V^(1/2) Example: Let x1=10..e. The sample variance may be computed as where is the sample mean. xn are n draws from a (random) sample. The square root of the sample variance of a set of N values is the sample standard deviation EXPLAINATION OF THE ABOVE TOPIC (FOR NON-MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND STUDENTS Say that x1.Area within 2 Standard Deviation above and below the mean is 95% . n) ] / n Step 2: Compute the squared deviation of each observation from its mean.normal distribution Z values needed to be memorized (see illustration): - Area within .d.e.8% above 2 standard deviation is 2.27% NUMBER FACTS 13 . then area of a circle is greater than area of a square. Standard deviation... x2= 20 and x3=30 Then: (1) m=20 (3) V = [ (10-20)^2 + 0 + (30-20)^2] / 3 = 200/3 (4) s. 5. x4.

. . 1. -1. 0.. 5. 4.. then ac < bc If a < b AND c is positive. x2+k. the area of the simple lattice polygon in the figure is 31 + 15 /2 – 1 = 37.. 5. n is total number of event. x2. x and y is divided by an integer n.. . 5.. 1. -3.. Xn*k is k*sigma Variance (kx) = k^2 Variance(x) Binomial probability mass function: P(x) = nCx * p^x * q ^ (n-x) where x is happening event.. xn is sigma then SD of x1+k . 2.} Real Numbers : R = {x | x corresponds to point on the number line} If a cube of sides n*n*n is painted and then divided into 1*1*1 size cubes then number cubes with NO face painted is given by (n-2)^2 If SD of x1. 3. A remainder rule to remember: If a product of 2 integers.Addition/Subtraction Property for Inequalities If a < b.} Integers : Z = {. 3. ..} Whole Numbers : {0. then a/c < b/c • when multiplying/dividing by a negative value If a < b AND c is negative. 2.. p is probability of happening of event and q is probability of not happening.. x3*k . then a + c < b + c If a < b. In this case you'll have to repeat the process. 4. then ac > bc If a < b AND c is negative..c < b – c Multiplication/Division Properties for Inequalities • when multiplying/dividing by a positive value If a < b AND c is positive. then the remainder that you get will be the product of the remainders when x is divided by n and y is divided by n.. 4. x2. 14 . then a/c > b/c Natural (or Counting) Numbers : N = {1. . xn is sigma then SD of x1*k .5. Pick's theorem Pick's theorem provides an elegant formula for the area of a simple lattice polygon: a lattice polygon whose boundary consists of a sequence of connected nonintersecting straight-line segments.. -4. Xn+k is also sigma If SD of x1. 3. then a . x2*k. 2. x3+k . -5. x3. The formula is Area = I +B/2 – 1where I = number of interior lattice points ( ) and B = number of boundary lattice points ( ) For example. R[] ---> remainder function R[(1046*1047*1048)/11] = R[1046/11]*R[1047/11]*[1048/11] = 1*2*3 = 6 Note: Sometimes the product of the remainders will be greater than the original divisor.. -2... x3. .

indicated on the second figure. e. Price of sugar is increased 25%.g. Here the short cut %INCREASE IN CONSUMPTION = (REDUCTION/ 100. find by how much % a consumer must increase his consumpion of ice creame so as not to decrease his expenditure.Ice cream price decreased by 20% due to winter season. the blue piece in the upper righthand corner has area 18 + 14 /2 – 1 = 24 The interior and boundary lattice points of the fourteen pieces of the Stomachion are MORE ON PERCENTAGES ONE VARIABLE INCREASED/ DECREASED PROBLEMS: PRICE INCREASED AND REDUCTION OF THE CONSUMPTION: 1. Using Pick's theorem the areas of the fourteen pieces can be determined as in the above example.. but.Find the % increase or decrease in the expenditure OR Water tax is increased by 20% and consumption also increased by 20% find what is the net effect in change? the short cut: [(A+B) + AB]/100 increase A: 20 increase B: 20 15 . How much percent must a house hold must reduce his consumption of sugar so as not to increase his expenditure? how much time u require to this problem? just try this short cut less then 5 sec u will get the answer % REDUCTION= (INCREASE/100+INCREASE)* 100 lets try this with short cut increase = 25% so reduction = (25/ 100+25 ) * 100 = (25/125) * 100 = 1/5* 100 = 20 % so house hold have to decrease 20% of their consuption to keep constant .REDUCTION) *100 just as mentioned above decrease icecreame price= 20 = 20/(100-20) *100 =20/80 * 100 =1/4 *100 = 25% BOTH VARIABLES INCREASED/ DECREASED PROBLEMS TYPE3: Petrol tax is increased by 20% and the costumer comsumption also increased by 20%. PRICE DECREASED INCREASE IN CONSUPTION: PROBLEM : 2 Certain familyhave fixed budget for ice cream purchase for year .

If for two numbers x + y=k (a constant). This real root could be found out by finding the sum of the roots of the equation and subtracting (2+3i)+(2-3i)=4 from that sum. If an equation (i.= (20+20) + (20*20)/100 = 40+ 400/100 = 40 +4 = 44 % net increase ONE INCREASED ONTHER DECREASED PROBLEMS: Shop keeper decreased the price of a article by 20% and then increased the artical by 30% what is the net effect of the artical is it increased or decreased? SHORT CUT IS SAME AS ABOVE so first decreased the price so we have to take as negative value for A decrease A : -20% increase A : 30% = (-20 + 20)+ (-20)*20/100 = (0) +(-400)/100 = -4% so net effect is 4% loss to the shop keeper. 16 . The max. or min. The maximum product is then (k2)/4. The equation ax2+bx+c=0 will have max. value when a<0 and min. then the equation has no real roots in each case (except for x=0 in the second case) 7.b/a • Sum of the product of the roots taken three at a time = c/a • Sum of the product of the roots taken two at a time = -d/a • Product of the roots = e/a 6. Complex roots occur in pairs. if all the even powers of x have same sign coefficients and all the odd powers of x have the opposite sign coefficients. then their PRODUCT is MAXIMUM if x=y (=k/2). the maximum number of positive roots it can have is the number of sign changes in f(x) . it has no positive roots. then we have a unique solution. Quantitative Ability – POINTS TO REMEMBER 1. |a| + |b| = |a + b| if a*b>=0 else. we can conclude that the last root is real. then it has no negative roots.b/a • Sum of the product of the roots taken two at a time = c/a • Product of the roots = -d/a For a bi-quadratic equation ax4+bx3+cx2+dx+e = 0 • Sum of the roots = . If an equation f(x)= 0 has only odd powers of x and all these have the same sign coefficients or if f(x) = 0 has only odd powers of x and all these have the same sign coefficients. another has to be 2-3i and if there are three possible roots of the equation. 8. w2 where 1 + w + w2=0 and w3=1 9. |a| + |b| >= |a + b| 10. and the maximum number of negative roots it can have is the number of sign changes in f(-x) 4. Eg: x3+3x2+2x+6=0 has no positive roots 2. f(x) = 0) contains all positive co-efficients of any powers of x. then we have no solution. Consider the two equations a1x+b1y=c1 a2x+b2y=c2 Then. hence if one of the roots of an equation is 2+3i. value when a>0. 5. For an equation f(x)=0 . For a cubic equation ax3+bx2+cx+d=o • Sum of the roots = . For an equation. value is given by (4ac-b2)/4a and will occur at x = -b/2a 11. then we have infinite solutions for these equations. If a1/a2 <> b1/b2.e. If a1/a2 = b1/b2 = c1/c2. w. 3. If a1/a2 = b1/b2 <> c1/c2. Roots of x2 + x + 1=0 are 1.

26. the total number of relatively prime numbers less than the number is N * (1-1/a) * (1-1/b) * (1-1/c).. c. 17 .. For any 2 numbers a. a2 + b2 + c2 >= ab + bc + ca If a=b=c.. n(n+1)(n+2) is divisible by 24 21.to infinity Note: 2 < e < 3 23. When a three digit number is reversed and the difference of these two numbers is taken. If n is even. harmonic means respectively) (GM)^2 = AM * HM 14.(x^2)/2 + (x^3)/3 ..(x^4)/4 . The sum of first n natural numbers = n(n+1)/2 The sum of squares of first n natural numbers is n(n+1)(2n+1)/6 The sum of cubes of first n natural numbers is (n(n+1)/2)2/4 The sum of first n even numbers= n (n+1) The sum of first n odd numbers= n2 28. . b..Also note that the logarithm is with respect to base e] 24. then the case of equality holds good... For example (17-14=3 will be a multiple of 17^3 .. (n!)2 > nn 19... GM ... 17. 12... If a number ‘N’ is represented as a^x * b^y * c^z… where {a..14^3) 22...... For any positive integer n 2<= (1 + 1/n)^n <=3 16.. The minimum sum is then 2*root (k).. then their SUM is MINIMUM if x=y (=root(k)). (m + n)! is divisible by m! * n! 25.+ a^(n-1) ) . the middle number is always 9 and the sum of the other two numbers is always 9..If for two numbers x*y=k (a constant). then the product a^p * b^q * c^r * d^s will be maximum if a/p = b/q = c/r = d/s 20. For three positive numbers a. a4 + before + c4 + d4 >= 4abcd (Equality arises when a=b=c=d=1) 18. e^x = 1 + (x)/1! + (x^2)/2! + (x^3)/3! + . Product of any two numbers = Product of their HCF and LCM.HM stand for arithmetic. c (a + b + c) * (1/a + 1/b + 1/c)>=9 15.. geometric ..... then the total number of factors is (x+1)(y+1)(z+1) .. log(1+x) = x ..to infinity [Note the alternating sign . the sum of relatively prime numbers less than the number is N/2 * N * (1-1/a) * (1-1/b) * (1-1/c). Any function of the type y=f(x)=(ax-b)/(bx-a) is always of the form x=f(y) 27... …} are prime numbers.. x^n -a^n = (x-a)(x^(n-1) + x^(n-2) + . 13. b where a>b a>AM>GM>HM>b (where AM. If a + b + c + d=constant. Hence product of two numbers = LCM of the numbers if they are prime to each other.Very useful for finding multiples... b.

The relationship between base 10 and base ‘e’ in log is given by log10N = 0. Certain nos.) 29. then. 35. 32. Consider the equation x^n + y^n = z^n As per Fermat’s Last Theorem. • The no. 7 & 8. Where the digits of a no. 34.b • Further. Further as per Fermat. of digits) Eg) Find the sum of all 3-digit nos.e.. 38. • The no.b • However. a is the only prime factor for that no. then.e. is divisible by a + b when n is odd and not divisible by a + b when n is even 40. the no.the sum of factors of the number is {a^(x+1)} * {b^(y+1)} * . If ‘r’ is a rational no. The number of squares in n*m board is given by m*(m+1)*(3n-m+1)/6 The number of rectangles in n*m board is given by n+1C2 * m+1C2 31. then. the above equation will not have any solution whenever n>=3. To find out the sum of 3-digit nos. where ‘p’ is a prime no. Sum = (2+3+5+7+8) * (5-1)! * 11111 (since 5 digits are there) = 25 * 24 * 11111 =6666600 36. then. is divisible by a + b when n is even and not divisible by a + b when n is odd Where a no. is of the form a^n + b^n. 145 is the 3-digit no. formed using the digits 2. ‘N’ has got k factors and a^l is one of the factors such that l>=k/2. lying between 0 and 1. could be a perfect square.. 145 = 1! + 4! + 5! 39. to be remembered 210 = 45 = 322 = 1024 38 = 94 = 812 = 6561 7 * 11 * 13 = 1001 11 * 13 * 17 = 2431 13 * 17 * 19 = 4199 19 * 21 * 23 = 9177 19 * 23 * 29 = 12673 33.434 logeN 18 . expressed as sum of factorials of the individual digits i. formed with a set of given digits This is given by (sum of digits) * (no.. based on the no. Total no. Where a no. is always divisible by a . are added and the resultant figure is 1 or 4 or 7 or 9. of prime numbers between 101 and 200 is 21 30. then. is usually not divisible by a . the no./(x * y *. and ‘N’ is co-prime to p. 3. 5. of prime numbers between 1 and 50 is 15 Total no. of digits-1)! * 1111…1 (i. r^r can never be rational. then. the no. If a no.. N^(p-1) – 1 is always divisible by p.. is of the form a^n – b^n.. of prime numbers between 51 and 100 is 10 Total no. 37.

. .000 44. A/Q = (1-q / Q)^n 42.1331 The coefficients .331 (leaving out first term in step 1) If N =2. On selling..3.1 Eg: P = 1000.000 Then. the final change % in the price is given by: Final Difference% = X .. n number of times this operation is done and A . then. . 100 % = 20. . q .V set is increased by 40 % of the cost price and then is decreased by 25% of the new price.(40*25/100) = 5 %.. If A can finish a work in X time and B in Y time and C in Z time then all of them working together will finish the work in (XYZ)/ (XY +YZ +XZ) time If A can finish a work in X time and B in Y time and A.1 are lifted from the Pascal's triangle above. marked price and NOT cost price should be assumed as 100...P = 20. Where ‘P’ represents principal and ‘R’ represents the rate of interest.P = 20.Y .. Hence.qty of a mixture of water and wine be removed each time from a mixture. C. If A can finish a work in X time and A & B together can finish the same work in S time then B can finish that work in (XS)/(X-S) time.000 & S. What is CI & Amount? Step 1: Amount after 3 years = 1 * 1000 + 3 * 100 + 3 * 10 + 1 * 1 = Rs. .000.. then.volume of a vessel. Pascal’s Triangle for computing Compound Interest (CI) The traditional formula for computing CI is CI = P*(1+R/100)^N – P Using Pascal’s Triangle. WINE and WATER formula Let Q . and N=3 years. 45. the difference between 2 years’ simple interest and compound interest is given by P * (R/100)2 The difference between 3 years’ simple interest and compound interest is given by (P * R2 *(300+R))/1003 46.V sold? Applying the formula. Where the cost price of 2 articles is same and the mark up % is same. then. If A can finish a work in X time and B can finish the same work in Y time then both of them together can finish that work in (X*Y)/ (X+Y) time. Step 2: CI after 3 years = 3*100 + 3*10 + 3*1 = Rs.XY/100 Eg) The price of a T..final qty of wine in the mixture. then. So if 5 % = 1.3.1. At what price was the T. B & C together in S time then • C can finish that work alone in (XYS)/ (XY-SX-SY) 19 . Amt = 1 * 1000 + 2 * 100 + 1 * 10 = Rs... Suppose the price of a product is first increased by X% and then decreased by Y% . Final difference% = 40 – 25 .1210 CI = 2 * 100 + 1* 10 = Rs. we would have had.41. the profit made by the dealer was Rs.000+ 1000= 21. R=10 %. Number of Years (N) ------------------11 2121 31331 414641 … 1 .210 43.1000.

P (no. taken in order) 53. 1901 was a Tuesday. the no. f). For an isosceles trapezium. (n) of times. the coordinates of the meeting point of the diagonals can be found out by solving for [(a + e)/2. for a cyclic quadrilateral. If a trapezium can be inscribed in a circle it must be an isosceles trapezium (i. For a cyclic quadrilateral. of heads=no. then. of heads=no. the sum of the exterior angles is equal to 360 degrees. In case ‘n’ faced die is thrown k times. oblique sides equal). area = root((s-a) * (s-b) * (s-c) * (s-d)).e. (d + h)/2] 55. the sum of interior angles =(n-2)*180 degrees So measure of one angle is (n-2)/n *180 If any parallelogram can be inscribed in a circle. CALENDAR Calendar repeats after every 400 years. Consider the word ‘METHODS’. 52.• B+C can finish in (SX)/(X-S). Century has 5 odd days and leap century has 6 odd days. where s=(a + b + c + d)/2 Further. Area of a Rhombus = Product of Diagonals/2 54. A. of tails) = 0 When an unbiased coin is tossed even no. When an unbiased coin is tossed odd no.it is always divisible by 4. Area of a triangle 20 . the area of the quadrilateral is 0.e. In a normal year 1st January and 2nd July and 1st October fall on the same day. the measure of an external angle is equal to the measure of the interior opposite angle. but century years are not leap years unless they are divisible by 400. then. What is the probability that the letter ‘M’ comes before ‘S’ when all the letters of the given word are used for forming words. and • A+C can finish in (SY)/(Y-S) 47. C) Hence. of tails i. P (A>B>C) = 1/3! = 1/6 Eg)2. (e. m=3 (i. January 1. P (no. (2n) of times. of heads can never be equal to the no. then. For any regular polygon. Given the coordinates (a. then.e.5*d1*d2. Where there are ‘n’ items and ‘m’ out of such items should follow a pattern. the probability is given by 1/m! Eg)1. h) of a parallelogram . where d1. (b + f)/2] = [(c + g)/2. 51. For any quadrilateral whose diagonals intersect at right angles. probability of getting atleast one more than the previous throw = nC5/n5 48. What is the probability of A dancing before B dancing before C? Here n=10. b). with or without meaning? P (M>S) = 1/2! = 1/2 50. AB+CD = AD+BC. Suppose there are 10 girls dancing one after the other. d).e. d2 are the length of the diagonals. (g. hence measure of any external angle is equal to 360/n (where n is the number of sides) For any regular polygon. (c. sum of a pair of opposite sides is equal in length to the sum of the other pair of opposite sides (i. of tails) = 1-(2nCn/22n) 49. In a leap year 1st January 1st July and 30th September fall on the same day. it must be a rectangle. B. Leap year.