Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics

D E B O R A H

Y O U N G

Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics

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Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics

D E B O R A H

Y O U N G

B F a , T h e F a s h i o n i n s T i T u T e o F

M F a D e s i g n & M e r c h a n D i s i n g

F a i r c h i l d B o o k s New Yor k

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Vice President and General Manager, Education and conference division: Elizabeth Tighe Executive Editor: olga T. kontzias assistant acquisitions Editor: amanda Breccia Editorial development director: Jennifer crane senior development Editor: Joseph Miranda creative director: carolyn Eckert Production director: Ginger hillman senior Production Editor: Elizabeth Marotta copyeditor: Jennifer Murtoff ancillaries Editor: Noah schwartzberg cover design: carolyn Eckert illustrations: ron carboni Text design and layout: Tronvig Group director, sales and Marketing: Brian Normoyle copyright © 2011 Fairchild Books, a division of condé Nast Publications. all rights reserved. No part of this book covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems—without written permission of the publisher. library of congress catalog card Number: 2008943316 isBN: 978-1-56367-728-1 GsT r 133004424 Printed in the United states of america Mc06

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Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s

Preface xv
Chapter 1 The Textile Cycle: From Fiber to

Fashion 1
Chapter 2 Natural Fibers 9 Chapter 3 Manufactured Fibers 17 Chapter 4 Synthetic Fibers 23 Chapter 5 Yarns 31 Chapter 6 Plain Weaves 37 Chapter 7 Plain-Weave Variations 43 Chapter 8 Twill Weaves 49 Chapter 9 Satin Weaves 55 Chapter 10 Pile Weaves 63 Chapter 11 Complex Weaves 67 Chapter 12 Knit Fabrics 73 Chapter 13 Specialty Weft Knits 83 Chapter 14 Warp Knits 89 Chapter 15 Minor Fabrications 93 Chapter 16 Dyed and Printed Fabrics 101 Chapter 17 Fabrics Defined by Finishes 107
Swatch Boards

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E x t e n d e d Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s

Preface xv The Objectives of the Text xvi The Study of Textiles xvi The Organization of the Text xvi Constructing the Book xvi Instructions xvii Acknowledgments xix Chapter 1 The Textile Cycle: From Fiber to Fashion 1 The Process: Start to Finish 2 In Pursuit of the Perfect Textile 2 Basic Definitions 3 Table 1.1 Basic Textile Definition 3 The Physical Textile Cycle 4 Swatches 1–4 4 The Language of Textiles 4 Textile Performance Concepts and Properties 4 Activity 1.1 Research Project: New Textiles 7 Chapter 2 Fiber Classification: Natural Fibers 9 Overview: Natural and Manufactured Fibers 10 Cellulose Fibers 11 Swatches 5–9 11 Table 2.1 Properties Common to All Cellulose Fibers: Cotton, Linen, Ramie, Hemp 11 Table 2.2 Quick Reference for Individual Cellulose Properties 12 Protein Fibers: Wool and Silk 13 Swatches 10–17 13 Table 2.3 Minor Hair Fibers 13 Table 2.4 Properties Common to All Protein Fibers 13 Table 2.5 Properties of Individual Protein Fibers 14 Table 2.6 Comparison of Protein Fiber Properties 14 Activity 2.1 Swatch Page: Cotton 15

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Chapter 3 Fiber Classification: Manufactured Fibers 17 Manufactured Cellulose 18 Swatches 18–25 18 Manufactured Protein 18 Swatch 26 18 Manufactured Mineral 18 Swatches 27–28 18 Table 3.1 Properties of Individual Manufactured Fibers 19 Activity 3.1 In-Class Activity: Care Label Contents 21 Chapter 4 Fiber Classification: Synthetic Fibers 23 The Introduction of Synthetic Fibers 24 Swatches 29–33 24 The Burn Test 24 Table 4.1 General Properties of Synthetic Fibers 24 Table 4.2 Properties Specific to Each Synthetic Fiber 25 Table 4.3 Significance of Properties Common to All Synthetic Fibers 26 Table 4.4 Burn Categories of Fibers 27 Table 4.5 Burn Characteristics of Fibers 27 Activity 4.1 Lab Activity: Fiber Burn Test 29 Chapter 5 Yarns 31 Yarn Classification 32 Filament Yarns 32 Spun Yarns 32 Novelty Yarns 32 Yarn Twist 32 Table 5.1 Properties of Yarn Twist 32 Yarn Sizing 33 Yarn Count System 34 The Denier System 34 The Tex System 34 Swatches 34–41 34 Activity 5.1 Lab Activity: Yarn Identification 35 Chapter 6 Plain Weaves 37 Understanding Fiber and Fabric 38 Identifying Fabrics 38 Criteria for Fabric Identification 38 Table 6.1 Basic Weight Categories 39 Organization of Fabrics in This Text 39 Plain Weaves 40 Swatches 42–55 40 Activity 6.1 Research Project: Generic Fiber Project 41

Chapter 7 Plain-Weave Variations 43 Basket Weaves 44 Swatches 56–59 44 Rib Weaves 44 Swatches 60–71 44 Table 7.1 Performance Expectations of Basket and Rib Weaves 46 Activity 7.1 Swatch Page: Plain Weaves 47 Chapter 8 Twill Weaves 49 Performance Expectations of Twill Weaves 51 Uneven Twills 51 Even-Sided Twills 51 Swatches 72–83 51 Activity 8.1 Swatch Page: Twill Weaves 53 Chapter 9 Satin Weaves 55 Performance Expectations of Satin Weaves 56 Summary of the Three Basic Weaves 57 Swatches 84–89 57 Table 9.1 Comparison of Basic Weaves 58 Activity 9.1 Weave Comparison Graph 59 Activity 9.2 Swatch Page: Satin Weave 61 Chapter 10 Pile Weaves 63 Construction of Pile Weaves 64 Properties of Pile Weaves 64 Swatches 90–95 64 Activity 10.1 In-Class Activity: Closet Raid I 65 Chapter 11 Complex Weaves 67 Crepe Fabrics 68 Jacquard Weaves 68 Swatches 96–111 70 Activity 11.1 Research Project: Storybook 71 Chapter 12 Knit Fabrics 73 Construction of Knits 74 Table 12.1 Comparison of Weaves and Knits 74 Table 12.2 Stretch Classifications, 18%–100% 75 Preparing Knits for Cut and Sew 76 Knit Quality Criteria 76 The Four Basic Knit Stitches 76 Categories of Knit Fabrics 77 Swatches 112–127 78 Table 12.3 Comparison of Weft and Warp Knits 78 Activity 12.1 In-Class Activity: Closet Raid II 79 Activity 12.2 Lab Activity: Knit Fabric Analysis 81

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Chapter 13 Specialty Weft Knits 83 Double Knits 84 Interlock 84 Pile Knits 84 Swatches 128–141 84 Activity 13.1 Application Exercise: Knit Fabrics 85 Activity 13.2 Swatch Page: Weft Knits 87 Chapter 14 Warp Knits 89 Tricot 90 Raschels 90 Table 14.1 Comparison of Tricot and Raschel Knits 90 Swatches 142–155 90 Activity 14.1 Swatch Page: Warp Knits 91 Chapter 15 Minor Fabrications 93 Fabrics Made without Yarn 94 Swatches 156–159 94 Fabric Combinations 94 Swatches 160–161 94 Fabrics Made with Yarn 94 Swatches 162–164 94 Fabrics Made without Yarn or Fiber 94 Table 15.1 Lace Putups 95 Swatches 165–168 96 Table 15.2 Minor Fabrications 96 Activity 15.1 Lab Activity: Fabric Evaluation by Weight 97 Chapter 16 dyed and Printed Fabrics 101 The Basic Dye Process 102 Stages of Dyeing 102 Swatches 169–171 103 Basic Dye Chemistry 103 Table 16.1 Properties of Dyes and Pigments 103 Special Dye Processes 103 Swatch 172 103 Color Management 104 Printed Fabrics 104 Swatches 173–187 104 Activity 16.1 Application Activity: Wovens 105 Chapter 17 Fabrics defined by Finishes 107 Swatches 188–199 108 Activity 17.1 Application Exercise: Knits 109 Swatch Boards

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S wa tch B o a rd Co n te n ts

Chapter 1 The Textile Cycle: From Fiber to Fashion Raw Fiber 1. Cotton Yarn Constructions 2. Spun yarn 3. Filament yarn Fabric Construction 4. Muslin Chapter 2 Fiber Classification: Natural Fibers Cellulose Fibers 5. Cotton 6. Organically color-grown cotton 7. Flax 8. Ramie 9. Hemp Protein Fibers: Wool 10. Wool 11. Mohair/Wool 12. Merino 13. Cashmere/Rayon Protein Fibers: Silk 14. Cultivated Silk 15. Wild Silk 16. Silk Noil 17. Dupioni Silk

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Chapter 3 Fiber Classification: Manufactured Fibers Manufactured Cellulose 18. Rayon® 19. Bemberg® Cuprammonium Rayon 20. Modal® 21. Tencell® Lyocell 22. Bamboo 23. Acetate 24. Sorona® 25. SeaTiva® Manufactured Protein 26. Soy Manufactured Mineral 27. Glass 28. Rayon/Metallic Chapter 4 Synthetic Fibers 29. Nylon 30. Acrylic 31. Polyester 32. Polyester Microfiber 33. Nomex® Aramid Chapter 5 Yarn Constructions Filament and Spun Yarns 34. Single-Spun Rayon 35. Single Multifilament Rayon 36. Two-Ply Spun & Filament Novelty Yarns 37. Bouclé Jersey 38. Chenille 39. Eyelash Jersey 40. Lamé 41. Herringbone Tweed Chapter 6 Fabric Structures: Plain Weaves Balanced Light-weight Sheer Plain Weaves 42. Chiffon 43. Georgette 44. Organza 45. Organdy Balanced Light-weight Opaque Plain Weaves 46. Challis 47. Voile 48. Batiste 49. Gauze Balanced Medium-weight Plain Weaves 50. Gingham 51. Madras 52. Chambray

53. Shantung 54. Handkerchief Linen 55. Linen Shirting Chapter 7 Plain-weave Variations Basket Weaves 56. Canvas/Duck 57. Sportswear Canvas 58. Oxford 59. Oxford Chambray Rib Weaves: Filament Yarns 60. Taffeta 61. Iridescent Tissue Taffeta Rib Weaves: Spun Yarns 62. Broadcloth 63. Poplin Rib Weaves: Spun and Filament Yarns 64. Bengaline 65. Ottoman 66. Faille 67. Crepe Faille 68. Crepe de Chine Vertical Ribs 69. Pincord 70. Dimity 71. Cotton Ripstop Chapter 8 Twill Waves Uneven Twills 72. Light-weight Black Denim 73. Crosshatch Dark Denim 74. Chino 75. Hampton Twill 76. Rayon Gabardine 77. Polyester/Wool Gabardine 78. Cavalry Twill 79. Drill Even-sided Twills 80. Herringbone 81. Houndstooth 82. Glen Plaid 83. Surah Chapter 9 Satin Weaves 84. Bridal Satin 85. Charmeuse 86. Crepe-Back satin 87. Antique Satin 88. Flannel-Back Satin 89. Sateen

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Chapter 10 Pile Weaves 90. Terry Cloth 91. Velveteen 92. Pinwale Corduroy 93. Velvet 94. Crushed Velvet 95. Panné velvet Chapter 11 Complex Weaves Slack Tension Weave 96. Seersucker Dobby Weaves 97. Dobby Shirting 98. Dobby Lining/Filament Dobby 99. Bird’s Eye Piqué 100. Waffle Cloth 101. Momie Weave Extra-yarn Weave/Supplemental Warp or Weft 102. Extra-Yarn Weave 103. Clip Spot 104. Dotted Swiss Jacquard Weaves 105. Tapestry 106. Filament Damask 107. Cotton Damask 108. Brocade Double Weaves 109. Double Weave 110. Double-Weave Satin 111. Matelassé Chapter 12 Knit Fabrics Three Basic Weft-knit Fabrics: Jersey 112. Lingerie or Tissue Jersey 113. T-Shirt Jersey 114. Slub Jersey Jersey Variations 115. ITY Jersey with Color 116. Fair Isle/Jacquard Jersey Three Basic Weft-knit Fabrics: Rib 117. 1×1 Rib Knit 118. 2×2 Rib Knit Rib Variations 119. Piqué Knit 120. Thermal Knit 121. Pointelle 122. Slinky 123. Cable Knit 124. Matte Jersey

125. Sheer Matte Jersey 126. Onionskin Three Basic Weft-knit Fabrics: Purl 127. Purl-Knit Fabric Chapter 13 Specialty Weft Knits Interlock 128. Polyester Interlock 129. Cotton Interlock Double Knits 130. Double Jacquard 131. Ponte di Roma 132. Argyle 133. Double-Knit Matelassé 134. Bird’s-Eye Wickaway Piqué Pile Knits 135. Knit Terry 136. French Terry 137. Sliver Knit 138. Velour 139. Stretch Velvet 140. Microfleece 141. Sweatshirt Fleece Chapter 14 Warp Knits Tricots 142. Tricot 143. Shimmer 144. Brushed Tricot 145. Sueded Tricot 146. Satin Tricot 147. Athletic Mesh Raschel 148. Hex Net 149. Power Mesh 150. Triple Mesh 151. Tulle 152. Raschel Lace 153. Cut Press 154. Fishnet 155. Point d’Esprit Chapter 15 Minor Fabrications Fabrics Made without Yarn 156. Nonwoven, Nonfusible Interfacing 157. Fusible Tricot Interfacing 158. Imitation Suede 159. Needlepunched Eco Felt Fabric Combinations 160. Pleather 161. Quilt

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Fabrics Made with Yarn, but not Woven or Knit 162. Embroidered Eyelet 163. Tufted Chenille 164. Venise Lace Fabrics Made without Yarn or Fiber 165. Film 166. Pro-Shell Ultrex® 167. Leather 168. Suede Chapter 16 dyed and Printed Fabrics Stages of Dyeing 169. Fiber/Stock Dyed 170. Yarn Dyed 171. Piece Dyed 172. Cross Dyed Printed Fabrics: Classics Recognized by Pattern 173. Calico 174. Toile du Jouy Printed Fabrics: Non-Classic Images 175. Direct Print 176. Blotch Print 177. Overprint Better-Quality Prints 178. Discharge Print 179. Heat-Transfer Print 180. Heat-Transfer Paper 181. Flock Print 182. Velvet Burnout 183. Batiste Burnout 184. Laser Print Resist Prints 185. Tie-Dye 186. Batik 187. Ikat Chapter 17 Fabrics defined by Finishes Napping 188. Flannel 189. Flannelette Emerizing/Sueding 190. Sueded Wickaway Jersey 191. Moleskin 192. Peachskin Specialized Calendering 193. Glazed Chintz 194. Moiré Taffeta 195. Embossed knit velvet 196. Pleated Jersey 197. Yoryu 198. Plissé 199. Fulled Double Weave

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Preface

E

veryday we touch the subject of this book; we run our hands over it in our favorite boutique, hang it in our closets, and drape it on our bodies, and yet the science behind the textiles we wear continues to elude us. The intention of this book is to demystify the science and make it useful for anyone in the fashion industry: students, teachers, stylists, buyers, designers, colorists, in short, for just about any fashion professional who can benefit from a better understanding of how and why fibers and fabrics work. The text uses simple, direct language that is not specific to textile scientists, but rather language that is familiar to the industry at large. Fashion and the apparel trade require textile science to achieve the appropriate performance of the product; however, the science in this book has a different focus from most textile science texts. The goal of this book is not to soften the science but to focus it in a way that is more accessible. Instead of an in-depth analysis of the molecular structure of a fiber, the text focuses on the relevant performance expectations of each fiber and subsequent elements of textiles. A solid understanding of basic textile science will assist professionals in making better choices in fibers and fabrics for their chosen end products. This text strikes the necessary balance between scientists and designer. It culls the information available to the textile scientist and presents only the material directly relevant to the designer or product developer. This book brings together all of the elements of a textile together into a common place. With all the information in one location, students can spend less time attempting to connect the dots and more time applying the concepts.

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The Objectives of the Text
• • Create awareness of the diversity of textiles available Provide a basic working knowledge of textile composition, function, and application. This will enable the student to have the information necessary to make informed decisions regarding textiles and to communicate with industry professionals. Demonstrate correct use of textile terminology, which, in itself, is a unique language. Differentiate between two critical concepts: - The difference between fiber and fabric - The difference between weaves and knits Explain production processes and how they impact the fabric. This would include potential product performance, cost, and selection, based on fiber, yarn, fabrication, coloration, and finishes. Differentiate fiber classifications, yarn types, and fabrication methods, and determine how different fabrics will perform for a specific end use. Demonstrate the selection of appropriate components of a garment with respect to compatibility with each other and with the desired result.

matically impact the financial bottom line. In fact, one of the few variables in the cost of a product is the textile itself. The study of textiles will teach you to shop for fabrics appropriate to a given use, design, or silhouette. In addition, the information gained will assist in quality control recognition and component compatibility.

The Organization of the Text
This text is organized to follow the natural and logical sequence of events that occur in the production of a textile. The first four chapters deal with fibers: natural (cellulose and protein) followed by manufactured and synthetics. The next chapter addresses yarn constructions and relevance. The body of the text is devoted to the identification and articulation of fabrics by structure and name. The final chapters address the dyeing, printing, and finishing of fabrics. Each chapter is punctuated with representative examples of swatches to re-enforce the subject of the chapter.
Fibers: Natural and Man made

• •

Yarn constructions

The Study of Textiles
Ultimately the study of textiles will help the designers to make informed decisions throughout the entire design and construction process. For example, if you were to make a cotton blouse, does the fiber content of the thread also have to be cotton? What about buttons, linings, and interfacings? Polyester is often both stronger and cheaper than cotton. Would polyester be a better choice for something as seemingly inconsequential as sewing thread? The polyester thread could be too strong for the garment, and the fabric might tear before the seam gives way. Do polyester and cotton have the same shrinkage rates? Do they have the same heat tolerance for ironing and care? Certainly they are used together often enough that they must be compatible. But they are not always compatible. Polyester and cotton actually have dramatically different care requirements, so fiber mixing must be done judiciously. This example represents a tiny fraction of the myriad decisions that you will face in your career. A diligent study of textiles will give you the knowledge and confidence to make more informed and reliable choices. Whatever your place in the manufacturing chain, cost is a factor. One-third of the cost of a garment or product is the cost of the fabric. Mistakes in fabric choices can dra-

Wovens, knits or Minor Fabrications

dyes or Prints

Finishes

End Uses

Constructing the Book
Your first task will be to build this book. One of the things that you will notice is that text is provided for each swatch; you need only attach the swatches. Although the book is organized into logical and sequential chapters, the instructor may well use swatches out of order. It is advised that you construct the entire book during the first week of class, mounting all of the swatches at once. This will enable you to have a complete resource of swatches at your fingertips for the instructor to draw upon to illustrate ideas.

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Instructions
• Begin by identifying the materials needed: - Four bundles of swatches: A, B, C, and D - Small baggie with fiber and two yarns - Swatch boards to mount the swatches - Pick glass - Pick needle (not included) - 1 roll of double-sided tape (not included) The text and swatch boards are shrinkwrapped together. You have the option of either placing the swatch boards at the end of your binder, or placing them next to the accompanying text. All of the swatches are numbered and correspond to references in the text. The swatches are bundled in the order that they appear in the text. Keep the rubber bands on the bundles until you are ready to assemble the book. Take swatches from the top of the bundle and keep the stack face up. Open the baggie first and attach the fiber to the box for Swatch 1 with one-inch of double-sided tape. Note: If you use exactly one-inch of tape for each swatch, you will not need more than one roll. Place tape in the middle of the box, and cover the tape with fiber. Attach the blue cotton yarn to the box for Swatch 2. Attach the white filament yarn to the box for Swatch 3. Next, attach the four bundles of swatches sequentially in the book. Place one-inch of the double-sided tape horizontally across the top of the swatch box, and then place the swatch on top of the tape. This way, you can flip up the swatch to observe and feel both the front and back. The swatches are presented in the following bundles: - 1 bag of fibers and yarns includes Swatches 1-3 - A has Swatches 4–67 - B has Swatches 68–121 - C has Swatches 122–141 - D has Swatches 142–199 Due to availability of some fabrics, there are a few minor variations in the swatches presented. In all cases, the swatches have the same character: they share the same fiber content, yarn construction, count, weight, stage of dyeing, and finishes. However, the color of the swatches may vary between kits. As you apply the swatches to the swatch boards, verify that the swatch matches the description that is listed. Rely on fabrics that you already know, such as denim •

or velvet. Check that you are on the right number as you get to the end of each bundle. Finally, verify that you have a pick glass in your kit. Open the pouch and unfold the glass completely. Look through the glass to the ruler below, and look at the fabric on your sleeve to get used to the pick glass. You will use this instrument throughout your study of textiles, so have it with you for every class. It is often helpful to have a pick needle to assist in your analysis of fabrics, particularly when it comes to counts or pick outs (analyzing the structure of the fabric).

• • •

While most facts are provided for each swatch in the text, there instances where the information for yarn construction has been eliminated. This corresponds directly to Activities in the text and requires the student to determine and fill in the results. Additionally, the facts provided in the yarn construction category are simplified. Unless otherwise stated, it is safe to assume that the yarn type is single (as opposed to piled). In the case of filament yarns, one can assume multifilament, unless otherwise indicated. Some criteria are present only when it is particularly relevant. Finishes, for example is a missing criteria for most fabrics, when it is not an aesthetic or visible finish. This does not mean that there is no finish on the fabric, we recognize that most fabrics have a dozen finishes on them before they are seen by the consumer; it means that there is no visible or discernible finish. Finally, the information that is most important or relevant to the pertinent chapter is often listed first. For example, in chapters 2-4 when fiber content is being discussed, fiber is the first item in the list of facts about the fabric. Fabrics are listed first for each swatch in the fabrics chapters (Chapters 6-17). The shift is deliberate to focus on the subject of the relevant chapter. Five blank swatch boards have been provided to allow the student to expand on this fabric reference with their own fabrics.

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acknowledgments

n undertaking of this sort is truly a collaborative project, and there are many people I wish to thank for their patience, encouragement, and support. I am grateful for the support of Carol Shaw Sutton, who nurtured a love of textiles and helped me to see the world through fiber eyes. B. J. Sims and Maribeth Baloga were each essential parts of my education for this subject. Amanda Starling provided the motivation and impetus for this book. Jacob Kaprelian of Uniprints, Peter Krauz of Trimknits, and Nori Hill of Texollini were each kind enough to custom produce fabrics for this project. Rubin Schubert and the crew at Ragfinders generously provided many of the exciting fabrics found in this resource. Anne Bennion offered support and resources and Tom Young contributed much needed research. My technical support team, colleagues, and good friends have been and continue to be Ben Amendolara, Cassandra Durant Hamm, and Judy Picetti. I truly could not have put this together without their insights, support, and faith. I also wish to thank the Fairchild team for their initial vision and realization of the final product. A personal thanks to Martin, Tim, and Maria at Perry Color Card for shepherding the fabrics through the swatch cutting process. Invaluable assistance in the assembly of this project was diligently provided by Mariah Connell and Chad Simpson. I am appreciative of the patience of the rest of my family during the course of this three-year project: Amanda, Diana, Mike, Kim, and Alyssa. Thank you all for your generosity, caring, and support. Most of all, I want to thank Jim Young, who traveled with me on every wild goose chase, was my personal editor on this project (and in life), and my heart in this book.

A

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C H A P T E R

O N E

T h e Te x t i l e Cy c l e : F r o m F i b e r t o Fas h i o n

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he development of textiles—spinning, weaving and sewing—was one of mankind’s earliest technical achievements, right after taming fire and mastering stone tools. And after 20-thousand-plus years of textile history, the basic processes for producing textiles have not changed. Fibers still need to be harvested and spun into thread or yarn. Those yarns have to be manipulated on some type of loom structure to create fabric. To be sure, mechanization in the 1800s and the development of synthetics in the last century brought new uniformity and speed to the production process. But it’s our ingenuity and drive to produce stronger, cheaper, better, and more beautiful fabrics and fashions that make the field of contemporary textiles so exciting and diverse. The number of new fibers and fabrics seems to grow exponentially every day. It is no longer enough to select a textile simply for its hand, drape, or color. Today’s consumer wants performance—fabrics that won’t shrink, wrinkle, or soil and that will do the dishes on Saturdays. In the current marketplace we can actually meet most of those demands. Although we haven’t yet trained textiles to do the dishes, we do have textiles that will allow you to accomplish this task in your favorite sweater, without worrying about staining. Making appropriate fabric choice requires a thorough knowledge of the science of textiles. Understanding the hygroscopic, thermoplastic, electrical retention, or hydrophobic qualities of a fiber or fabric is essential for product developers, apparel manufacturers, stylists, and fashion designers alike. And if the preceding sentence sounded a little too technical to you, don’t worry: you will soon be “speaking textile” too!

T

and other new developments in textile science are moving the textile industry into fascinating new realms.

In Pursuit of the Perfect Textile
As visually stimulating and tactile as textiles are, they are even more exciting from a technological perspective. Consumers want high performance and low maintenance; they want textiles that can do tricks. The field is an exciting frontier. Space exploration, military and medical research programs, and, of course, the technology industries have driven some of the most startling innovations in textile science. Although not directly inspired by, or created for, the fashion industry, these innovations trickle down to the world of couture. All it takes is a little creative thinking to make the leap from battlefield military to fashion couture. Savvy designers use these new developments to meet the market demand for better, unique products. For example, the military has developed textiles that interface with the Global Positioning System (GPS) to keep track of people. Think of the possibilities. You could track your children’s whereabouts or even LoJack® your spouse! The military has also developed textiles that make a person appear invisible and shoes that can help one jump 20-foot walls. After the jump however, a 6-hour recharge is required before you can jump back out of enemy territory! (You might wish to take a spare battery!) Imagine amazing your friends on a basketball court! On a more serious note, there are textiles with sensors that will detect the amount of blood lost in a person wounded in the field, perhaps to determine the viability of a rescue effort. And we have textiles that stiffen to act as a splint when necessary for combat injuries as well as those that can dispense antibiotics. But military researchers are not alone on the front lines of textile development today. The medical field is also producing advancements, like sensors that record and transmit to your doctor information such as heart rate, blood pressure, and insulin level. Fuji Spinning Company in Japan has developed a shirt that provides your recommended daily allowance of vitamin C. Through a process called microencapsulation, your body slowly absorbs the medication transdermally (through the skin), just by wearing the shirt. The shirt continues to administer medication through as many as 30 to 40 washes. Using the same technology, one could add many different medications to a garment. Consider a scarf that provides relief for headaches, gloves for arthritis sufferers, or a special shirt for Alzheimer’s patients. What happens when these garments become mainstream technology? Will you need a prescription for your clothes? Will your dress have an expiration

The Process: Start to Finish
This text begins with the smallest part of a textile—fiber —and follows the textile cycle through to the final step, finishing. With increasing demand for more versatile and functional fabrics, finishing and care have become major areas of interest within the textile world, unlimited in their commercial potential. For example, one segment of the textile industry is devoted to fibers and finishing processes that resist stains. In their search for more stain-resistant fabrics, researchers have developed textiles that have superior color retention—even if the color happens to be a stain. It is an interesting paradox that once a stain has managed to get past the finish and into the fibers of the fabric itself, it becomes more difficult to eliminate. Stain removal may not be the most exciting segment of the industry, but when you have spilled ink on your sister’s favorite shirt, it certainly becomes a compelling subject. (Hairspray will usually remove that ink and get you out of trouble.) This

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date? Will there be a black market for medicated underwear? These are fascinating possibilities, but they raise some provocative ethical questions as well. In another example of fiber-forward thinking, researchers are experimenting with spider silk because of its extreme strength. Spider silk is so strong that if you were to spin a strand of yarn the diameter of a pencil, it could stop a 747 in flight. In manufacturing, fiber strength is critical because the stronger the fiber, the less is needed for a particular use. Spider silk could replace other fibers to make bulletproof garments—not just vests, but whole garments—that cover the entire body and that are both lighter in weight and stronger. To date, the cultivation of spider silk has been problematic because the spiders will not cooperate. Unlike silkworms, spiders are territorial, and they recycle their proteins (that is, eat their webs), which is the equivalent of packing up their tents, when they move on. Researchers have had to get creative in the cultivation of spider silk. Experiments are being done in cross-breeding spiders with potatoes, corn, and even goats. Yes, there exists a herd of spider-goats that produce milk that provide us with really strong fibers. This is not the future of textiles; this is the present. Here are some other high-performance textiles that are pushing the envelope of textile technology: • • • Textiles that are perfumed with your favorite fragrance. The perfume lasts through 30–50 launderings. Antibacterial textiles (no bacteria means no odor). You can work out all day and go directly on a date! Shirts with living bacteria that will eat any spills or perspiration. The effect is a self-cleaning shirt. But because the bacteria are live, they must be fed regularly, so although you may not have to wash this shirt, you might have to feed it!

Textiles that change color with temperature—or that change color and pattern with your mood (remember mood rings?). This is also being done with wallpaper (it changes pattern or color according to one’s whim). Textiles that change color with the presence of odorless pesticides or gases—great for detecting these dangers in your children’s play areas. Textiles that adjust to your body temperature, cooling you when hot, warming you when cold. Using Thermocule technology, there are sheets that do just that so that you do not need to throw the covers on and off all night. These sheets read your body temperature and self-regulate. Hoodies with cell phones or MP3 players built directly into a cuff or the hood. A “smart bra” that turns into a sports bra by increasing its support as you begin to run and then relaxing when you relax. T-shirts that play movie trailers or short videos across your chest. Window curtains that act as solar panels and power your house.

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Basic Definitions
The first step in understanding textiles is mastering the vocabulary. Let us begin with some basic definitions that break down the language into simple terms so that you can begin speaking the language of textiles today (Table 1.1).

table 1.1 Basic Textile Definitions Textile An umbrella term for anything that can be made from a fiber or fabric. This is a very general term that could be a tennis ball cover, a disposable diaper, a dryer sheet, geotextiles (building materials), carpeting, or interior and apparel fabrics. Fiber The smallest part of a textile and the raw material of a fabric. A fiber is a hairlike strand very similar to your own hair. Fibers can be natural or manufactured. Yarn A number of fibers that are twisted or laid together to form a continuous strand. In order to make fabric, short fibers must first be made into longer, more usable lengths called yarn. Historically, figuring out how to do this took humankind a very long time. Fabric A method of construction or an organization of fibers and yarns. The most common fabric constructions are weaves and knits, but there are other minor fabrications as well. Garments and other products are made from fabrics. Dyeing The science of applying color to textiles. Printing The process of applying color in a design to textiles. Finish Any process that is done to a fiber, yarn, or fabric to change the way it looks, feels, or performs. A fabric can be dramatically changed from its original appearance or performance by the way it is finished.

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The Physical Textile Cycle
A fiber is the smallest visible part of a textile, a single hairlike strand. A fiber is either staple or filament in length. Staple fibers are short—only inches long. All natural fibers are staple except for silk, which is nature’s only filament. Filament fibers can be miles long and include both manufactured and silk fibers. Cotton is a staple, with short fibers, and so is wool. Acrylic is constructed as a manmade filament and is often cut to staple length, particularly when it is imitating wool. Likewise, in a blend such as polyester and cotton, the polyester would first be chopped into staple lengths for easier blending with the staple cotton fibers and for an allover cotton hand, the term for how a fiber or fabric feels. Although filament fibers can be cut to staple length, staple fibers cannot be made into long filaments. The following swatches compare the different stages of a textile, from the raw fiber through the most common yarn types, spun and filament, and finally to the simplest fabric made from these fibers. Swatch 1 is a staple cotton fiber. Swatch 2 is a yarn made of cotton staple fibers. Compare this with Swatch 3, which is filament polyester. Swatch 4 is a fabric made of staple fibers. In effect, these swatches represent the textile cycle: harvest the fiber from the plant, spin it into a yarn, and use the yarn to construct the fabric. Note as well the simple difference in length between the fibers of the two yarns (Swatches 2 and 3). Both yarns are unusually large to aid identification. In Chapter 5, we will further explore these differences by comparing two fabrics identical in structure and fiber; one is made of filament fibers and the other is staple.
[Reference Swatches 1–4]

adding a select finish, or blending fibers, we can easily create a linen garment that will not wrinkle. The question is which fiber/fabric is best for a specific purpose? This will be answered in part by studying the following five performance concepts: durability, comfort, care, appearance, and safety. The performance of any given textile is determined by the properties of the fiber, yarn, and fabric; every component of the construction of a fabric (fiber, yarn, and so on) inherently has these properties. In the chapters to come, these performance concepts will be extended to all the components of fabric construction. In this way, you will learn to create fabulous garments that perform beautifully.

Textile Performance Concepts and Properties
Performance concepts relate to the measure of a textile’s ability to perform in the final product. These concepts include durability, comfort, care, appearance, and safety. Properties of Durability Durability is the measure of a textile product’s ability to resist stress and serve its intended use. (Each criterion can be measured in a textile lab.) • • Abrasion resistance: The ability of a fabric to withstand rubbing without wearing a hole in the surface. Pilling: The formation of tangled fibers on the surface of the fabric. Pilling is also caused by rubbing but with a different end result. Cohesiveness: The ability of fibers to cling together. Only relevant for yarn spinning. Usually provided by crimp. Feltability: The ability of fibers to matte together to form a fabric. Elongation: The degree to which a fiber may be stretched without breaking; the amount of give in a fabric. Growth can be a problem in a fabric. Elasticity: The ability of a fiber to stretch and recover (return to its original size and shape after stretching). Elastomericity: The ability of a fiber to stretch 100 percent and recover. Dimensional stability: The ability of a fiber to retain a given size and shape through use and care. Relates to shrinkage. Strength-tenacity: The ability of a fiber, yarn, or fabric to resist stress.

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The Language of Textiles
Before going any further, the core language of textiles needs to be introduced. This text will allow you to understand in detail the inherent performance properties of each fiber, yarn, and fabric construction. Familiarity with performance concepts and properties helps designers to determine the specific advantages and disadvantages a fabric will bring to its end use. In essence this knowledge mitigates the possibility of making poor fabric choices for a particular garment. Here is an example: We know that linen wrinkles horribly. By selecting a particular yarn or fabric construction, • • •

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C H A P T E R

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Understanding Fiber and Fabric
The difference between fiber and fabric is one of the most fundamental concepts in textiles and generally one of the most misunderstood. Fibers are the basic building materials. Fabrics are the final woven, knit, or other constructions. Identifying the fiber content is important, but it does not provide the complete picture of a fabric. Think of describing a house by calling it wood. While the house may be built primarily of wood, that description does not create an adequate representation of the entire structure. Quite simply, fiber is what the fabric is made of, and fabric is what fiber is made into. Understanding the relationship between fiber and fabric is essential to every textile-related discipline from product developer to fashion designer. Cotton is a very common fiber that can be constructed into many different fabrics, such as calico, denim, and jersey. Yet not all cotton fabrics are alike in their performance capabilities. Silk and satin are often confused; they are not the same thing. Silk is a fiber, and satin is a fabric. Sometimes silk is made into satin, but more often than not, satin is made of rayon, acetate, or even polyester. And silk can be made into many other fabrics. Fabric stores often organize their inventory by fiber. If you ask an employee the name of a fabric, he or she might tell you it is cotton or silk, while showing you a jersey or broadcloth. Although this practice is common, it leaves too much room for expensive errors. The fiber content is not the fabric name. Think of all the cotton fabrics that you know. Are they interchangeable? If you decide to make a cotton T-shirt and you order cotton fabric, could you make this garment if you received cotton corduroy or cotton batiste? No, and that is why it is not enough to identify a fabric by its fiber content. Knowing the fiber content is a good beginning, but for people working in the industry, a greater knowledge of fabric names and their performance criteria are required to successfully create a textile product for fashion, home, or industry. In Activity 3.1 (see page 21), we analyzed the details of care labels and discovered that they are rather limited in scope. If a label says cotton, silk, polyester, or rayon, it is the fiber content that is listed and not the fabric. In fact, fabric names are not even required on a care label. Does this mean that fabric information is not important? It is extremely important, as you will soon see. Review Swatch 1 (cotton fibers) and Swatch 4 (the simplest cotton fabric) for a reminder of the difference between fiber and fabric.

Identifying Fabrics
How do we identify fabrics? Most people attempt to identify fabric by feel. With today’s textile manufacturing technology, you can be completely fooled by this method. The bottom line is that identification by touch only is extremely unreliable. A more analytical approach is required to accurately differentiate one fabric from another What are the other identifying factors? As we move through this section, we will be looking at many fabrics that have the same fabric structure but different names. First, we must define the criteria for identifying fabrics so that recognition becomes possible. Then we will apply the basic criteria to each fabric in order to identify it.

Criteria for Fabric Identification
The names of fabrics are often tied to their characteristics and therefore can be helpful in determining a fabric’s identity. • Fabrics can be named for their inherent structure. Herringbone is always a reversing twill; the structure relates to the fabric’s method of construction and is created by a specific interlacing pattern. (Interlacings are the organization of horizontal and vertical—warp and weft—yarns as they cross over and under one another.) Fiber content is sometimes responsible for a fabric’s name, such as China silk or handkerchief linen. Linen is usually, but not always, made of flax, but China silk is always a plain weave made of silk. Fabrics can be named for their origins, such as damask for Damascus; paisley for the city in Scotland, and gauze for Gaza. Fabrics are often distinguished by their finishes. Flannelette is generally a simple plain-weave cotton fabric. With a napped finish it becomes flannelette and even performs differently. Without this finish, it would not be flannelette. Method of coloration is often a factor in identification. Gingham, chambray, and madras are all plainweave cotton fabrics that are in the same weight category. The differences between them lie in the organization of their yarn-dyed colors. Madras uses several yarn-dyed colors in both directions, creating a plaid design. Chambray has a white weft and colored warp. Gingham uses alternating blocks of white and a color in both directions to form a checked pattern.

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Yarn construction can determine fabric identity. Voile and batiste are basically the same fabric, with differently twisted yarns. Voile has hard-twisted yarns; batiste is much softer. The placement of spun and filament yarns can determine fabric name as well. Bengaline is often identified by a spun weft and filament warp. Print can be a determining factor. Calico is a lightweight, plain-weave, cottonlike fabric with a small floral print. Although each of these factors is important, it is ultimately the print that gives this fabric its identity and distinguishes it from many other fabrics of like hand and structure. Finally, weight is an important consideration. Often, fabrics with different identities share the same fiber, yarn, and fabric construction. Poplin and broadcloth are basically the same fabric; their distinguishing feature is simply weight. Broadcloth is a lighter-weight version of poplin.

for fabrics of different weights, that the medium category straddles both top and bottom weights. This is a fabric that is generally considered heavy for a blouse, light for a pant.

Organization of Fabrics in This Text
Fabrics in this text are logically organized into groups by their similarities, beginning with the simplest weave structure, plain weave. Within each chapter, the fabric organization will progress from the lightest weight up through the heavier weight versions of each structure. Fabrics have been around for a long time. Because manufactured fibers had not yet been created, all fabrics were originally invented with one of the big-four fibers: wool, linen, silk, and cotton. This text will often refer to fabrics as cottonlike or from the cotton family, which relates to their first incarnations and to their hand. Today, a cottonlike fabric might be made entirely of polyester. (This would be an example of polyester imitating cotton, as it often does.) The elements of a textile, which are identified with each fabric, are fiber content, yarn construction, fabric name, count, coloration method, finishes, and weight. In terms of yarn construction, one can assume that all yarns are single unless identified as plied. In the case of filament, assume multifilament, since this is most often the case in fabrics. This text also acknowledges that fabrics receive about a dozen finishes before they reach the consumer. Most of these finishes are general, such as washing, ironing, or bleaching. These will be assumed and not listed. Only aesthetic (visible) finishes will be listed. As a final note, fiber and fabrics are not inextricably linked. Batiste is a fabric that can be made of cotton, polyester, silk, or even rayon. Think of fiber and fabric as first

The last factor on this list, weight, is one of the most significant, defining criteria of a fabric. Fabric is often bought and sold by weight. Consider the case of denim. This is an extremely common fabric that everyone knows, but not all denim is the same. Denim is described by weight, often expressed as ounces per square yard (oz./sq. yd.). Denim can range from a very thin, light-weight 4 to 5 ounces per square yard up to the aptly named bull denim, which can weigh as much as 18 ounces per square yard. Different weights of fabrics have different uses. Top weight generally means that a fabric is an appropriate weight for the top half of the body—a blouse or shirt. Bottom weight is appropriate for the bottom half of the body—pants, slacks, or even suiting materials. Note in Table 6.1, which shows appropriate uses

table 6.1 Basic Weight Categories Category Extremely Light Weight (i.e., lingerie) Light Weight (i.e., top weight) Medium Weight* (i.e., top weight, bottom weight) Medium to Heavy Weight (i.e., bottom weight) Heavy Weight (i.e., jacket or blanket weight) oz./sq. yd. 0–1 oz. or < 1 oz. 1–4 oz./sq. yd. 4–7 oz./sq. yd. 7–9 oz./sq. yd. > 9 oz. Appropriate End Uses Chiffon dresses/blouses, sheers Blouses, light summer dresses Heavier top weight and lighter bottom weight slacks and suitings Bottom weight slacks and suitings, lightweight summer jackets Blankets, heavier coats

*Medium weight comprises both top and bottom weights. This is a fabric that is generally considered heavy for a blouse and light for a pant.

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activity 6.1 Research Project: Generic fiber Project

Name:

Date:

Purpose: To determine why certain fibers are used for specific consumer end products, based on evaluation of their properties.

Procedure
1. Research the Internet or retail catalogs to find five textile-based consumer apparel advertisements that provide the generic fiber content in the ad. The five ads should include: - one natural protein fiber ad - one natural cellulose fiber ad - one man-made cellulose fiber ad - two different synthetic fiber ads A void blends. Find ads with single-fiber fabrics. • P lace each ad securely and cleanly on a separate 8 1/2×11-inch page. Alternatively, cut and paste internet ads onto the page. The ads should include the text from the ad describing the product and the fiber content. Highlight the text that describes the fiber content. F ollow the ad with your typed, double-spaced content, which should appear on the same page as the ad. Attach all sheets in the packet with a staple.

• •

2. roperty names: Identify the three most posiP tive properties for the fiber featured in each of the ads. Select properties that reflect the best qualities of the fiber. 3. efinitions of properties: Define each of the D three properties you have identified for each advertisement to validate consumer end use. For each property, provide a correct, specific description stated in your own words. Finally, explain why the fiber is relevant to the product’s end use. 4. repare a presentation on your findings inP cluding the following: • C reate a title page with the title of the project, your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, the class day and time, and the date.

Tips
• C hoose properties relevant to the consumer! (For example, avoid the dimensional stability of a wedding gown or a polyester bikini that will keep you warm!) A void properties that are average. Sell this garment with the best possible properties! W rite about fiber, not fabric. A void trade names; this is a generic fiber assignment. U se formal properties: cheap and washable are not properties. E ach of the five ads must feature a different fiber, and each fiber must be intended for a different consumer end use.

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5 Swatch Fiber content: Cotton Fabric name: Lawn Yarn construction: Spun Count: 108×88 Coloration: Print Weight: 1.7 oz./sq. yd. Uses: Blouses and summer wear

6 Swatch Fiber content: Organically color-grown cotton Fabric name: Poplin Yarn construction: Count: 64×35 Coloration: Color grown, natural, undyed Weight: 6 oz./sq. yd. Uses: Jacket, blouses, bottom weight, and decorative uses

Cellulose Fibers

Cellulose Fibers

Swatch 5

Swatch 6

© 2011 Fairchild Books, a division of Condé Nast Publications, Inc.

Chapter 2: Fiber Classifications: Natural Fibers

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Cellulose Fibers

Cellulose Fibers

Cellulose Fibers

Swatch 7

Swatch 8

Swatch 9

7 Swatch Fiber content: Flax Fabric name: Butcher linen Yarn construction: Spun Count: Coloration: Natural color Weight: 7.1 oz./sq. yd. Uses: Suitings, blouses, and skirts

8 Swatch Fiber content: Ramie Fabric name: Plain-weave “linen” Yarn construction: Spun Count: 66×54 Coloration: Piece dyed Finishes: Beetled Weight: 5.5 oz./sq. yd. Uses: Suitings, blouses, and dresses

9 Swatch Fiber content: Hemp Fabric name: Jersey Yarn construction: Spun Count: Coloration: Bleached Weight: 7.4 oz./sq. yd. Uses: Tops and T-shirts

© 2011 Fairchild Books, a division of Condé Nast Publications, Inc.

Chapter 2: Fiber Classifications: Natural Fibers

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Fabric Combinations

Fabric Combinations

Swatch 160

Swatch 161

160 Swatch Fabric name: Pleather Fiber content: Vinyl/polyester Yarn construction: None on face Count: None Coloration: Print Finishes: Embossed Weight: 13.08 oz./sq. yd. Uses: Any leather type applications Characteristics Laminated, or bonded, fabrics are made of two to three layers of fabric that are joined through any number of processes. Pleather is an embossed film that has been printed and laminated to a jersey (in this example). The resultant fabric is an imitation leather.

161 Swatch Fabric name: Quilt Fiber content: Polyester Yarn construction: Varies Count: Varies Coloration: Piece dyed Weight: 8.84 oz./sq. yd. Uses: Jackets, bedding

Characteristics A quilted fabric is three layers of fabric that are sewn together with a decorative stitch. Traditionally, the face is woven, the backing could be anything, commonly a muslin and the middle layer is a nonwoven batting. This fabric has a 1 × 1 rib knit backing.

Similarities These fabrics are made by combining layers of fabrics, which changes the weight, hand, and performance of the original fabric. Individually, the fabrics may be woven or knit, but the fabric has a new value by virtue of being combined and layered.

© 2011 Fairchild Books, a division of Condé Nast Publications, Inc.

Chapter 15: Minor Fabrications

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