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The Helix Nebula, sometimes called the "Eye of God" Spirituality can refer to an ultimate or immaterial reality;[1] an inner path enabling a person to discover the essence of their being; or the “deepest values and meanings by which people live.”[2] Spiritual practices, including meditation, prayer and contemplation, are intended to develop an individual's inner life; such practices often lead to an experience of connectedness with a larger reality, yielding a more comprehensive self; with other individuals or the human community; with nature or the cosmos; or with the divine realm.[3] Spirituality is often experienced as a source of inspiration or orientation in life.[4] It can encompass belief in immaterial realities or experiences of the immanent or transcendent nature of the world.

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1 Definition 2 Spiritual path 3 Religion 4 Science 5 Personal well-being 6 Near-death experience (NDE) 7 Positive psychology 8 Origin 9 History

depending on the cultural context). words and actions that are in harmony with a belief that the entire universe is. in a wide variety of cultural and religious concepts. fasting). For some. etc. is a description of such a journey. along which one advances to achieve a given objective. While atheism tends to lean towards skepticism regarding supernatural claims and the existence of an actual "spirit". facilitating a sense of a deep self. spirituality includes introspection. directed at a specific target. The spiritual journey is a path that has a dimension primarily subjective and individual. less structured. Spirituality is also described as a process in two phases: . those of a more 'New-Age' disposition see spirituality as the active connection to some force/power/energy/spirit. is itself often seen as incorporating a spiritual path. Traditionally. If the spiritual path is the same in whole or in part. In a similar vein. which appears in book VII of The Republic. such as a higher state of awareness. and the development of an individual's inner life through practices such as meditation. but declining membership of organized religions and the growth of secularism in the western world has given rise to a broader view of spirituality. Secular spirituality carries connotations of an individual having a spiritual outlook which is more personalized. the personal approach to sacred texts. such as the practice of various spiritual disciplines (including meditation. majesty and mystery it sees in the natural world. prayer. assistant or spiritual preceptor. some atheists define "spiritual" as nurturing thoughts. Religious Naturalism has a spiritual attitude towards the awe. but in particular one can introduce some significant moments or milestones. connected. prayer and contemplation. even if only by the mysterious flow of cause and effect at every scale. Every event of life is part of this journey. guru or otherwise. the comparison with a person believed with deep spiritual experience (called a teacher. more open to new ideas/influences.• • • • • 10 Study 11 See also 12 Notes and references 13 Further reading 14 External links [edit] Definition This section requires expansion with: more about how the different religions define spirituality. with an initiatory path. [edit] Spiritual path Spirituality. as are the writings of Teresa of Avila. emotions. religions have regarded spirituality as an integral aspect of religious experience. are a "test" for the individual of his reaching a certain level. Such tests usually before a social significance. For a spiritual path may be considered a path of short duration. Plato's Allegory of the Cave. outreach wisdom or communion with God or with creation. in some way. and more pluralistic than that of the doctrinal faiths of organized religions. even some atheists are spiritual. or a lifetime.[5] In contrast. At one end of the spectrum. Many do still equate spirituality with religion. there may be real evidence to overcome. Some modern religions also see spirituality in everything: see pantheism and neo-Pantheism.

the first on inner growth.[19] [edit] Science See also: Relationship between religion and science and Quantum mysticism A number of authors have suggested that there are spiritual consequences of quantum physics. while spirituality is defined as a search within oneself.. Many techniques and practices developed and explored in religious contexts. theoretical nuclear physicist Amit Goswami. not matter... Spirituality has played a central role in self-help movements such as Alcoholics Anonymous: ". as the ground of all existence (monistic idealism). Examples are physicist-philosopher Fritjof Capra.[18] One might say then. According to one poll. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [edit] Religion Whilst the terms spirituality and religion can both refer to the search for the Absolute or God. in response to their highest values. or the universe.and information-carrying field ("Akashic field") that informs not just the current universe.[vague] or when observing or studying nature. who posits the "quantum vacuum" as the fundamental energy. the "Metaverse"). but detected no discernible effects.[21] [edit] Personal well-being In keeping with a general increase in interest in spirituality and complementary and alternative treatments. he could not survive the certain trials and low spots ahead.[24][25] . an increasing number of people have come to see the two as separate entities. such as meditation.[20] Ken Wilber."[citation needed] Those who speak of spirituality outside of religion often define themselves as SBNR or "spiritual but not religious" and generally believe in the existence of many different "spiritual paths" emphasizing the importance of finding one's own individual path to spirituality. some 24±4% of the United States population identifies itself as spiritual but not religious. who proposes an "Integral Theory of Consciousness". Ervin László. are also the province of the secular/scientific. the human emotions of awe. If one has such a belief and feels that relationship to such beings is the foundation of happiness then spiritual practice will be pursued on that basis: if one has no such belief spiritual practice is still essential for the management and understanding of thoughts and emotions which otherwise prevent happiness. Masters and Spielmans[22] have conducted a meta-analysis of the effects of distant intercessory prayer. prayer has garnered attention among some behavioral scientists. Cultural historian and yogi William Irwin Thompson states. rather religion is the form spirituality takes in civilization. that a key difference is that religion is a type of formal external search. The experience of 'spirituality'.. and the second on the manifestation of this result daily in the world.if an alcoholic failed to perfect and enlarge his spiritual life through work and self-sacrifice for others. wonder and reverence. but all universes past and present (collectively.. This activity may or may not include belief in supernatural beings. religion being just one way in which humans can experience spirituality. who views a universal consciousness. "Religion is not identical with spirituality."[23] If spirituality is understood as the search for or the development of inner peace or the foundations of happiness. are immensely valuable in themselves as skills for managing aspects of the inner life. then spiritual practice of some kind is essential for personal well being.

Schmidt sees Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882) as a pioneer of the idea of spirituality as a distinct field. often opposed to clericalism and skeptical of religion. sometimes came to express their more emotional responses to the world under the rubric of "the Sublime" rather than discussing "spirituality". and coping. managing substance abuse. Authors such as Chris Griscom and Shirley MacLaine explored it in numerous ways in their books. Spirituality can be sought not only through traditional organized religions. which includes the brain.[28] Eighteenth-century Enlightenment thinkers. people not persuaded by scientific rationalism turned increasingly to the idea of spirituality as an alternative both to materialism and to traditional religious dogma. . marital functioning.[edit] Near-death experience (NDE) Main article: Near death experience If consciousness exists apart from the body. Important early 20th century writers who studied the phenomenon of spirituality include William James (The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902)) and Rudolph Otto (especially The Idea of the Holy (1917)). and class even non-traditional activities such as those of Robespierre's Cult of the Supreme Being in the province of religion. but also through movements such as the feminist theology and ecological spirituality (see Green politics).[29] In the wake of the Nietzschean concept of the "death of God" in 1882. The spread of the ideas of modernity began to diminish the role of religion in society and in popular thought. one is attached not only to the material world.[26] [edit] Positive psychology Spirituality has been studied in positive psychology and defined as the search for "the sacred. but to a non-temporal (spiritual) world as well. It has been suggested that spirituality also leads to finding purpose and meaning in life. some researchers consider that NDEs are actually REM intrusions triggered in the brain by traumatic events like cardiac arrest. parenting. Spirituality is associated with mental health. In these circumstances. Paul Heelas noted the development within New Age circles of what he called "seminar spirituality":[30] structured offerings complementing consumer choice with spiritual options.[27] [edit] Origin See Timeline of religion and Evolutionary origin of religions [edit] History See also: History of religion Spiritual innovators who operated within the context of a religious tradition became marginalized or suppressed as heretics or separated out as schismatics. However. anthropologists generally treat so-called "spiritual" practices such as shamanism in the sphere of the religious. The distinction between the spiritual and the religious became more common in the popular mind during the late 20th century with the rise of secularism and the advent of the New Age movement. This thesis is considered to be analyzed by testing the reports from people who have experienced death." where "the sacred" is broadly defined as that which is set apart from the ordinary and worthy of veneration.

Abdur-Rashid. logic (if involving a spiritual Logos) and esotericism. religious studies. ^ Ewert Cousins.G.centerforabetterworld.^ Dillard. 1 5. 5 (September 2000): 447-462. It overlaps with disciplines such as theology. "My Soul is a Witness. V. ^ Cannon. In the late 19th century a Pakistani scholar Khwaja Shamsuddin Azeemi wrote of and taught about the science of Islamic spirituality. 7. parapsychology. 11. ^ Borysenko. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. A Woman's Journey to God. xiii 4. foundations.methods Leuven: Peeters. preface to Antoine Faivre and Jacob Needleman. D. ^ Bolman. psychology. . 2d Ed.htm 6. Modern Esoteric Spirituality.G. Wiley-Blackwell 2007 p. pneumatology. ^ Azeemi.[edit] Study The scholarly field of spirituality remains ill-defined. Spirituality: living our connectedness. 8. E. (1999).[31] Building on both the Western esoteric tradition and theosophy. Delmar Cengage Learning.[33] building upon ontological and epistemological questions that arose out of transcendental philosophy. ^ Philip Sheldrake. and Deal. anthropology. Houston: Plato. ^ Margaret A. 9. J. B. ^ Kees Waaijman.^ Deloria. Burkhardt and Mary Gail Nagai-Jacobson. 2002 p. C. but to explore inner experience — especially our thinking — with the same rigor that we apply to outer (sensory) experience. L. p. [edit] See also Spirituality portal • • • • Afterlife Deities Religion Supernatural [edit] Notes and references 1. (2005). K. of which the best known form remains the Sufi tradition (famous through Rumi and Hafez) in which a spiritual master or pir transmits spiritual discipline to students. 2. Muraqaba: The Art and Science of Sufi Meditation.[32] Rudolf Steiner and others in the anthroposophic tradition have attempted to apply systematic methodology to the study of spiritual phenomena. (1996). ^ http://www. A. Katie's Canon: Feminism and the Soul of the Black Community. (1992)." International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education. 13.. sociology. T. No. kabbalah. New York: Continuum.. 10.. 1-2 3. A Brief History of Spirituality. K.[34] This enterprise does not attempt to redefine natural science. (1995). Leading With Soul. Crossroad Publishing 1992. and Tyson.com/SpiritualAtheism/f-about-spiritual-atheism. Golden.S. New York: Riverhead Books. Co: North American Press. Spirituality: forms. God is Red. monadology. C.

ISBN 076192633X 28. (2001). ISBN 0-226-41037-4." Transformative Learning in Action.com/science-life-after-death..htm 27.^ English.I (2007). love. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education. San Francisco: Harper. edited by P. "Muraqaba: The Art and Science of Sufi Meditation".^ Eck. 23.^ Azeemi.. 15. David. Shane J. pg.. 31.S.^ Laszlo. 13.S.1007/s10865-007-9106-7.^ http://www. 1975)). K. Edizioni Se. or creativity that seem to reveal a meaning or power beyond our visible world.^ Taisen Deshimaru (1982). L. doi:10. 85. (2007). D. Cranton.^ Hoseki Schinichi Hisamatsu (1993). ISBN 0-06-054566-6 30.M.^ Alcoholics Anonymous. Ubaldini Publishers. 20. 14.^ Jordan. (2000). The Fullness of Nothing. xi . The New Age Movement: The Celebration of the Self and the Sacralization of Modernity.^ Basho (1992). 2005. PMID 17487575. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 2008.". 2001. Cited in Anthony Giddens: Sociology. p. J. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 30 (4): 329–338. Pg. Addressing the Spiritual Dimensions of Adult Learning: New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education. University of Chicago Press.^ Robert C. An idea or practice is "spiritual" when it reveals our personal desire to establish a felt-relationship with the deepest meanings or powers governing life. San Francisco: JosseyBass. Houston: Plato. "11". page 60. (ISBN 0-9758875-4-8).. Hay House. meta-analysis." Paul Heelas. The Hermitage of Illusory Dwelling. G. 201 29. a Ph. 53-58 22. Positive Psychology. 2009. No.. Oxford: Blackwell. 79-88.spirituality for skeptics" Wilkinson 2007 25. ISBN 0877735948 21. A New Religious America. Il Melangolo. and Gillen. why we are here. pg.^ Schmidt. Leigh Eric. Inc. "CosMos:A Co-creator's Guide to the Whole World".^ Dirkx. 18. San Francisco: Harper. "The Revolutionary Career of Maximilien Robespierre". Sage Publications. we encounter spiritual issues every time we wonder where the universe comes from.^ "The lost Art of being happy . and research agenda". pp.^ Capra.howstuffworks. 24. 74..12.aspx#spiritrel 19. 2005.14-15. (1997). Lopez. said of spirituality: "Spirituality exists wherever we struggle with the issues of how our lives fit into the greater scheme of things. Boston. "Prayer and health: review.beliefnet..R. Fuller. D in "Religion and Psychological Studies" and "American Religion. No. 3rd ed. C. ISBN 1-4019-1891-3. or what happens when we die. "Nurturing Soul in Adult Learning. eds. page 554. Inc.^ http://science. 1989."The Ayn Rand Center for Individual Rights September 17.com/News/2005/08/Newsweekbeliefnet-Poll-Results.^ Snyder. Spielmans. MA: Shambhala Publications. 17. 16. Fritjof (1991 (1st ed. We also become spiritual when we become moved by values such as beauty. The Practice of Concentration.^ Keith Lockitch "Rescuing spirituality from religion. a guide to one of life's most important skills" Ricard 2007 26. Cambridge: Polity. Ervin.^ "Happiness. Restless Souls : The Making of American Spirituality. This is true when our questions never give way to specific answers or give rise to specific practices such as prayer or meditation. The Tao of Physics: an exploration of the parallels between modern physics and Eastern mysticism. 1996.K.^ Masters. M.

God is Red. V. 138ff [edit] Further reading • • • • • • A Course in Miracles. Mill Valley: Foundation for Inner Peace. (ISBN 0-9758875-4-8) Bjelica. ISBN 9781440466373 Deloria. CO Spirit Scope. Michael. A New Religious America. No. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education No. Downey. 1992. 2006. edited by P... Haisch. Understanding Christian Spirituality. Cannon. • • • • • • • • • • • • • . 5-18 English.. M. Leading With Soul. A. no.. J. Dirkx. C. Bernard The God Theory: Universes. Dera Poetry.N.^ Jonael Schickler. San Francisco: Harper. 74. L. 2nd ed. Seth. Cranton." International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 13. The Manual For Living. 1996. M. Golden. 5 (September 2000): 447-462. Cheroff. (1998)Toward a humanistic-phenomenological spirituality: definition. ISBN 0-06-065345-0. ISBN 09606388-9-X. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 28(4). J. K. pp. Co: North American Press. Clift. D. Zero-point Fields. 79–88. 2001. C. Metaphysics as Christology: An odyssey of the Self from Kant and Hegel to Steiner (Ashgate New Critical Thinking: 2005) pp. "Christianity and Traditional Lakota / Dakota Spirituality: A Jamesian Interpretation". 2008. K. G. 3-4 34. T. Elkins D. Philadelphia. New York: Paulist Press. 1997. and Deal. G.32. The McNeese Review 35: 128–38. Goddart. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Drago The Bible For The New Age (Online)...S. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Rodale. and Gillen.. 1999. 2007. and What's Behind It All. A Woman's Journey to God. Jean Dalby (2008). Azeemi. ISBN 155591-904-9. 2d Ed.Muraqaba: The Art and Science of Sufi Meditation. description and measurement. (Preface). Bolman. 2000. The Essential Steiner. Abdur-Rashid. Constance. Eck. Borysenko. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education. Dillard. Houston: Plato. eds. 1992. Red Wheel/Weiser. Cappel. 2005." in Transformative Learning in Action.^ Olav Hammer. New York: Continuum. 85. L. B. Addressing the Spiritual Dimensions of Adult Learning.^ Robert McDermott. PA: Xlibris. The Mystery of Love and the Path of Prayer. Michael. Jr. ISBN 90-04-13638-X 33. 1995. pp. Diana L. "Nurturing Soul in Adult Learning. 1997. 2009. "My Soul is a Witness. Claiming Knowledge: Strategies of Epistemology from Theosophy to the New Age. Katie's Canon: Womanism and the Soul of the Black Community. and Tyson. Bliss: 33 Different Ways to Awaken Your Spiritual Self. ISBN 1-57863-374-5 Hein. et al. New York: Riverhead Books. 1999. E. David (1997).

and research agenda". Wapnick.. From Light to Sound: The Spiritual Progression. The Nature of Personal Reality. The Review of Higher Education 33 (4): 473–512. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 18 (6): 685–711. The Time Falling Bodies Take to Light: Mythology.0. Inc. J. (1998). ISBN 0-933291-25-6.S. Leigh Eric. Eugene. Harold W. Captured by the Crucified: The Practical Theology of Austin Farrer. PMID 9515639.1998. How to Know Higher Worlds: A Modern Path of Initiation. (1904) 1994. Percival. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Gordon S. The Seth Material. The Message of A Course in Miracles. 1983. Seth Speaks: The Eternal Validity of the Soul. A. Whitall N. NY: Foundation for A Course in Miracles. editors. Prentice-Hall. G.00519. editors. About the spiritual theology of Austin Farrer.(ed. D. 2010. PMID 17487575. ISBN 1-878424-06-8 Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj. Jane (1974). UK: James Clarke & Co. Kenneth. Louisville: Fons Vitae books.I (2007). ISBN 0-89386-022-0 Schmidt. reprinted (1994) Amber-Allen Publishing. San Francisco: Harper. London: SCM. D. Rudolf. ISBN 0-06-054566-6 Shahjahan. 1990. Spielmans. doi:10. Mickley. "Prayer and health: review. "The concept of spirituality in nursing theories: differing world-views and extent of focus". Martin's Press.x. Journal of Advanced Nursing 27 (2): 294– 303. 2000. I Am That.1046/j. Masters. (1904) 1994 Thompson. ISBN 1-885949-00-6 Martsolf. A Treasury of Traditional Wisdom: An Encyclopedia of Humankind’s Spiritual Truth. Rudolf. Roscoe. 2005. New York and London: Continuum / T & T Clark. Cambridge..S. doi:10. ISBN 978-0-9711198-0-2 Roberts. "Toward a spiritual praxis: The role of spirituality among faculty of color teaching for social justice". Restless Souls : The Making of American Spirituality. doi:10.• Hein. CA: MasterPath. Wakefield. ISBN 1-878424-07-6 Roberts. London: Rudolf Steiner Press. (2005). Holtje. OR: Wipf & Stock. and Edward Hugh Henderson. David. 1997. meta-analysis. and Charles R. Hein. R.1007/s10865007-9106-7. ISBN 0-88010-372-8 Steiner. and the Origins of Culture (New York: St.1080/09518390500298188. Butts (1972).R. doi:10. ISBN 0-911650-06-7 Perry. (2010). K.. Steiner. David. A Dictionary of Christian Spirituality. Shahjahan. includes chapter on "Farrer's Spirituality" by Diogenes Allen. Temecula. Henery. Jane (1970).1365-2648. (1995). Spiritual Counsel in the Anglican Tradition. reprinted (1994) Amber-Allen Publishing. William Irwin. Theosophy: An Introduction to the Supersensible Knowledge of the World and the Destination of Man. Acorn Press. New York: Anthroposophic Press. reprinted (2001) New Awareness Network. R. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 30 (4): 329–338.A.). Sexuality. 1981). 2004. Thinking and Destiny. "Spirituality in the academy: Reclaiming from the margins and evoking a transformative way of knowing the world".1353/rhe. Jane and Robert F.0166. ISBN 1-887752-33-1 Roberts.

Phyllis "Woman to Woman: An Anthology of Women's Spiritualities (Collegeville.Spirituality for Sceptics" Findhorn Press 2007. • • • [edit] External links • v•d•e Religion and Spirituality at the Open Directory Project [hide] Religion topics Bahá'í Faith · Christianity · Abrahamic Druze · Islam · Judaism Indian Buddhism · Hinduism · Jainism · Sikhism Ahl-e Haqq · Manichaeism · IranianMazdak · Yazidi · Zoroastrianism Confucianism · Taoism · Taoic Shinto · Zen Major groups Cao Dai · Cheondoism · Discordianism · I-Kuan Tao · Neopaganism · New Age · Recent Seicho-No-Ie · Tenrikyo · Unitarian Universalism · Rastafari African · Afro-American · Indigenous Australian · Chinese · Finnish-Estonian · Folk Javanese · Malagasy · Native American · Philippine · Polynesian · Vodou . 1999) Zagano. Tony. Oxford: Oxford University Press. "The Lost Art of Being Happy . Phyllis Twentieth-Century Apostles: Contemporary Spirituality in Action (Collegeville. Arthur. MN: Liturgical Press.ISBN 0-19-515994-2. ISBN 978-1-84409-116-4 Zagano.• Wilkinson. 2004. MN: Liturgical PRess) 1993. Zajonc. The New Physics and Cosmology Dialogues with the Dalai Lama.

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