Rulers and Personalities in the early history of Thiruvanthapuram

Ashoka 1. The Cholas, The Pandyas, The Keralaputrasand (or the Cheras) and the Satiyaputras were ruling South India from 300 BC. They had good relation with Great Mouryan Empire of Ashoka. 2. During the initial centuries of Christian era, or the sangam age, the Ays were
the political power till the beginning of the 10th century A.D. Cheras in midlle kerala & Ezhimala to the North.

Atiyan

Titiyam and Atiyan were the most prominent of the Ay rulers. Shankaracharya – The Great Theologian Shankaracharya. with birth place at Kalady. After Sangam Age. Just after the eclipse of the Kalbhras.3. . Shankaracharya 5. 4 centuries of dark ages. known as Kalabhra Interregnum. the Second Chera Empire made its appearance. Antiran. travelled the length and breadth of India spread Hinduism by propagating the advaita (monism) philosophy during the eight century 6. the great theologian. 4.

and Mukundamala. Kulasekhara Alvar (A. He was as a scholar and a great patron of the arts. Tapatisamvarna.D. . Subhadradhamala and Vichchinnabhiseka – all in Sanskrit. He composed five dramas – the Perumal Tirumozhi in Tamil.Kulasekhara Alvar 7. Mahodyapuram (modern Kodangallur) was its capital and it was founded by Kulasekhara Alvar. 800-820) was one of the prominent rulers among Second Chera Empire. which testify to his scholarship.

844-55). the first epigraphical record of the Chera Kingdom. Rajasekhara Varma was followed by Sthanu Ravi Varman (a. He is also reputed to have issued the Vazhappali Inscription. a contemporary of the Chola King.Rajasekhara Varman Rul 8. .d. Rajasekhara Varman Rul (a.d.d. 9. Rama Varma Kulasekhara (a. which began in a. Aditya I (a. He founded the ‘Kollam Era’ of Kerala. 1090-1102) was the last of the Chera Kings.d. 820-44) succeeded Kulasekhara Alvar.d. Chera Chola War after Rajasekhara Varma 11. 870-906) 10. 825.

. When Venad Empire got disintegrated after Ravi Varma Kulasekhara. Venad emerged as an independent power. 13. After the fall of the Kulasekharas.Ravi Varma Kulasekhara (1299-1314). Zamorins in the northern kerala emerged. The kingdom reached its zenith under Udaya Marthanda Varma (1175-1195) and Ravi Varma Kulasekhara (1299-1314). They had trade with Arabs and Chineese. 12.

the Dutch joined hands with the British to eliminate competition from the Portuguese. a Portuguese. 16.Vasco da Gama 14. The Dutch were able to fortify and monopolise trade in the regions of Purakkad. came at Calicut in 1498. Various treaties signed in 1608 and 1610 ensured trading facilities for the Dutch. With the treaty of 1619. 15. Kayakulum. . Lured by the possibility of trade with India. the Dutch landed on the western coast. The Portuguese were intent on stopping the Arabs from trading with India. Quilon and Travancore by 1662. One of the most singular achievements of the Dutch contingent in India was the conquest of Cochin in 1663. Vasco da Gama.

By 1759. Travancore or Venad rise to its zenith under the rule of Marthanda Varma (1729-58) and Rama Varma. Dharma Raja .The Dutch surrendering before Marthanda Varma 17. Parur and Trichur at one go. curtains fell on the Dutch power in India. popularly known as Dharma Raja (1758-98). The Zamorin also succeeded in depriving the Dutch of Cochin. The decline of the Dutch became inevitable with the unprecedented rise of Travancore under Marthanda Varma (1729-58) and the Mysore invasion. 18. Cranganore.

Velu Thampi Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bai (1810-15) Gouri Parvati Bai .

Swati Tirunal (1829-47) Ayilyam Tirunal (1860-80) .

Ayilyam Tirunal (1860-80). Sri Mulam Tirunal (1885-1924) who did much to see science. Gouri Parvati Bai (1815-29). art and culture flourish in Travancore. Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bai (1810-15).Sri Mulam Tirunal 19. Haider Ali . Swati Tirunal (1829-47). Travancore was fortunate enough to be governed by many enlightened administrators like Velu Thampi.

Later. The British had an ally with Paliath Achan & the revolt by Velu Thampi was crushed mercilessly. Haider’s son. Malabar.(d) In Travancore. had contributed many to National Movement for Independence. on the terms of treaty. who ascended the throne in 1782. conquered northern kerala. from their turf (c) The British fortified Calicut in 1664. they had managed to gain permission to use all the Portuguese ports in Kerala from the Zamorin (b) the British were successful in ousting other European powers such as the French and the Dutch. Travancore and Tellicherry also came under purview of the British. continuing in the footsteps of his illustrious father and annexed many regions in northern Kerala. the ruler of Mysore. (a) By 1634-35. Paliath Achan & Velu Thampi questioned the British Authority. Haider Ali. Tipu Sulthan 21. The British Accession.In the years to follow.20. being under the reign of the British. Travancore was later annexed to Democratic India. 23. 22. . 24. Tipu Sultan. Tipu had to hand over Malabar to the British.