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Target Flow meter

1. Introduction
1) Category and applications
Based on the measurement theory of flow meter, ZERO instrument developed a series of novel

pressure influence target mode flow meters which utilize the modern sensor and computer technology.

They have not only immovable characteristics such as of the Target Flow meter, Hole Board Flow

meter and Turbine Flow meter, but also measure accuracy comparable to Cub age Flow meter. Since

their characteristic of anti-interfere, anti-impurity, portability and reliability, they have been widely

used in many fields of petroleum, chemical industry, energy, foodstuff, environment protection, water

conservancy and so on. The flow meters are applicable to the following ranges::

 Diameter ,Φ15~Φ2000mm or bigger.

 High and low temperature, -196℃~+450℃.

 High pressure : 0~42Mpa.

2) Characteristics
 Measurement flow of liquid, gas, steam, ropy mediums or ambulatory mediums in low, normal or

high temperature condition.

 Total quantity measurement accuracy is not less than 0.2%.

 High sensitivity, able to measure very low velocity below 0.8m/s.

 No movable part, safe and reliable.

 Wide measure range, bigger than 1:30.

 Good repeatability, generally 0.1~0.08% , fast to measure.

 Small pressure loss, only about 1/2△P of Standard Hole Board.

 Able to adopt hang weight method to test the flow meter.

 Measurement range can be changed by replacing target according to need.

 LCD display.

 4-20mA, 0-10V, impulse, and RS485 outputs.

 Easy installation and maintain.

2 Structure and Principle
1) Structure
Target Mode Flow meter consists of measure tube, pressure target, sensor part (include

flow strength sensor, pressure sensor and temperature sensor), transition part (variable types based on

temperature, pressure), integration microcomputer (include LCD display and output part). The

structure is shown below:

1. Target

2. Sensor Part

3. Measurement Tube

4. Transition Part

5. Integration Microcomputer

2) Principle
When flow medium flows through measure tube, a pressure will force on the target because of

the flow kinetic energy. It is known that the pressure value forcing on the target can be expressed as


F — Pressure on the target

CD — Damp index

A — Area of target on axial projection to measure tube

P — Medium density

U — Mean velocity of medium

3 Index and Display
1) Main indexes
Medium Liquid, Gas ,Steam and LPG

Caliber Pipe type 15~300mm Clamp type 15~600mm Plug type100~2000mm

Pressure 0.6~10MPa 0.6~42MPa 0.6~42MPa

Medium Temperature -196℃~+450℃ ( Confirming the temperature range before purchase)

Precision ±0.2% ±0.5% ±1.0% ±1.5% ±2.5%

Range 1:3 1:5 1:10 1:10 1:10(Steam)

Compensation Temperature compensation; Pressure compensation

Repeatability 0.1%~0.08%

Power Supply 3.6V lithium battery, 24V DC

Output LCD display, and 4~20mA, 0~10V, impulse or RS485 (Optional)

Material of measure tube Carbon Steel;304;316L; Being able to provide other according to user requests

Explosion- Prevent Symbol ExiallCT4, ExiallBT4

Protection Rank IP65;IP67

2) LCD display
a. Run in Normal

Temperature Pressure

Accumulative flux Instantaneous flux

(Temperature or pressure been not displayed respectively if no setup temperature compensation

or pressure compensation.)

b. Run in Debug

LCD displays the following contents in debug process:

 Adjustable Coefficient

Flow Coefficient:CL××××

Pressure Coefficient:CP××××

Temperature Coefficient:Ct××××

Serial No.:n××

20mA or 10V outputs corresponding to the maximum flow: H×××××

Zero-temperature compensation coefficient:LT×××

 Nonadjustable Coefficient:

Zero- coefficient of flow sensor:EL×××××

Zero- coefficient of pressure sensor:EP×××××

4 Type and Category

Digital Display Target Mode Flow meter has several types and categories as follow:

1) Type
 Pipe Type: 550 Prick Screw Type, spec: DN15~DN50

Whole Flange Type, spec: DN15~DN300

 Clamp Type, spec: DN15~DN600

 Plug Type, spec: DN150~DN1500

2) Category
 Liquid: high and normal temperature

 Gas: high temperature steam and normal gas

(The details are included in “Guide to Select Digital Display Target Mode Flow

meter ”.)

5 Installation and Output

1) Flow meter installation
Before installing flow meter, user should check the packing list offered by manufacturer, and do

preliminary inspection to confirm whether products were damaged by transport or other reasons.

 All flanges of the Flow meters base on GB/T (china) standard. Other type flanges can

be offered according to other industry standard also.

 In order to ensure measure accuracy, it is generally requested to set length of forward and

backward pipeline as figure 2. And in order to ensure maintenance flow meter online, it should

set by-pass pipeline.

 Flow meter is generally installed in horizontal position.

1, 2 and 3 are respectively the front, behind and by-pass valves and 4 is the flow

meter. L≥10D and L>=5D are respectively front and behind pipelines whose lengths

are larger than 10 and 5 times of the pipe diameter respectively.

 When installation in vertical position, medium flow direction is should from down to up.

 Do not allow installing valve or bend part between front and behind valves that may change fluid

state and infect measure accuracy.

 Impacting on the flow meter during installation should be avoid that would damage the flow

meters or bring zero offset.

 Flow meter should be coaxial with front-behind pipeline, and this can reduce measure error

produced by change of flow state.

 Arrow direction on measure tube should be consistent with flow direction.

 When the flow meter is installed in the open-air, it should be taken certain to avoid directly

washing by rain.

 If 4~20mA, 0~10V, impulse or RS485 outputs are set, 24VDC power is needed to be supplied.

2)Output installation
Flow meter not only displays instantaneous flow and accumulative flow online, but also sends

them remotely using 4~20mA, 0~10V, impulse or RS485 output modes. There are ten output

connection clips are in flow meter back which are respectively signed “1”, “2”, , , , “9” and “GND” as

shown in the figure below. In the figure, the sensor (flow strength sensor, pressure sensor and

temperature sensor) connection clips are shown also.

123456789 电源信号接线柱 Output connection clips

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
传感器接线柱 Sensor connection clips

The diagram of connecting the sensor connection clips with the sensor is shown below

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Temperature sensor
Flow strength sensor

Red 红 白 度
流 White
量 绿 蓝 传
Green Blue

传 黄
Yellow 器

Black 红 绿 黄 黑



Pressure sensor

According to the different remote output modes, wiring diagrams are different as shown below:

a. Pulse output:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
24V电源+ DC

Impulse out

b. 4~20mA current output:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
24V DC
I output

c. 0~10V voltage output:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
24V DC
V output

d. RS485 output:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
24V DC
485 A
485 B

(Connection of RS485 output mode may be changed according to additional diagram.)

Output function
a. Current output range is 4~20mA and voltage output range is 0~10V, both of which express linearly

the instantaneous flow 0~Qmax (zero to maximum). The output characteristics are shown as follow:

4~20mA current output function 0~10V voltage output function

In the above two figures, the both of Imin and Vmin express minimum instantaneous flow. The output

values are determined respectively as.

I =(20-4)*Q/Qmax+4 (mA)
V=10*Q/Qmax (V)
b. Impulse output frequency range is 0~ 2000Hz. The number of the output impulses expresses the

current flow. User can choose one of two impulse output modes as shown below

Each impulse expresses 1L flow. Each impulse expresses 0.1L flow.

3) Zero set
Although flow meter was set zero before leaving the factory, but it may be offset because of

inevitable slight impact in transport. If the flow meter do not display zero when flow velocity is zero,

zero offset occurs and zero set operation has to be done:

 Close the behind valve;

 Turn on the front valve slowly, make the tube fill measured medium;

 Turn on the flow meter and run for about 5 minutes under max instantaneous flow condition;

 Close the front and behind valves and make sure that the flow velocity is zero;

 Do zero set operation according to the following set instruction;

 For the high temperature flow meter without temperature compensation, zero set operation is

necessary while running for each period of time.

 For the high temperature flow meter with temperature compensation, zero set operation has to

been done in normal but high temperature condition.

 For the flow meter with pressure compensation, the pressure zero is also need to be set according

to the following set instruction.

6 Coefficient Set
1) Key-stoke
Digital Display Target Mode Flow meter has four key-stokes signed respectively K1、

K2、K3 and K4, by which coefficients are set. The key-stoke location is shown as follows,


Names of the key-stokes are,

K1 — Function key

K2 — Shift key

K3 — Zero set key

K4 — Coefficient key

Each Key-stoke’s function is:

 K1: Press K1 to enter debug state and LCD will display:

P1 ×××× (Password)

Enter the password and press K1 again, then it will go to next display. That wrong password entry will

return to normal run state. Pressing K1 repeatedly will display different contents in turn as shown


cL ××××× (flow Coefficient)

ct ×××× (Temperature Coefficient)

cP ××××× (Pressure Coefficient)

(The above three coefficients cannot be changed by user.)

n ××

Rank No. First × means:“0” flow unit m3

“1”flow unit t

“2 ”flow unit L

“3”flow unit Kg

and second × means the decimal position of instantaneous flow:

“0 ” Instantaneous flow ×.××××

“1”Instantaneous flow ××.×××

“2 ” Instantaneous flow ×××.××

“3 ”Instantaneous flow ×.×××.×

“4 ”Instantaneous flow×. ××××

cU ××××× (Small flow cut. This coefficient can not be changed by user. That instantaneous

flow below cU will be zeroed.)

Ud × (Remote output mode. The number means:

“0” No remote output

“1”Current output

“2”Impulse output

“3”RS485 output

“4”Voltage output

“5”RS485 output.

H ×××× (20mA or 10V outputs correspond to the max instantaneous flow while current

output or voltage output mode are set. While impulse output mode is set, that

H=7370 or H=737 means respectively that each impulse expresses 1L flow or

that each impulse expresses 0.1L flow.)

Lt ××.× (Zero-temperature compensation coefficient)

LU × (Flow damp time. Unit: second)

P2 ×××× (Change the password)

 K2:

K2 is used to clear the original errors produced by flow strength sensor and pressure sensor, and

to set the accumulative zero together with K4.

 K3:

K3 is used to shift two operation states of setting flow zero point and pressure zero point.

 K4:

K4 is used to revise all of the coefficients: that press it fleetly will change the number from 0 to 9,

and that press it for 2 seconds will change the position of number revised.

2) Set operation
a. Zero set

 Firstly, press K3 and display the flow zero point EL×××××, then press K2. When display value

changes, press K3 again to clear flow zero point error.

 Presses K3 and display the pressure zero point EP×××××, then press K2. When display value

changes, pressK3 again to clear pressure zero point error. Notice: When clearing pressure zero

point error, tube pressure must be zero.

 For flow meter without pressure compensation, it doesn’t need to do pressure zero set. After

finishing flow zero set, press K3 twice to exit.

b. Accumulative flow set zero

Press K2 and K4 at the same time, the accumulative flow will be set zero.

c. Coefficients revise

 Press K1 and display in turn CL, Ct, CP , n, H and LT.

 Press K4, and revise the coefficients.

 If flow meter doesn’t have temperature and pressure compensation, Ct and CP is always set to

zero (LCD doesn’t display temperature and pressure value); If flow meter only has pressure

compensation, Ct is set always to zero.

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 H is set the max instantaneous flow value expressed by 20mA current or 10V voltage outputs,

that is H=Qmax.

 If 1L or 0.1L impulse output mode is chosen, H should set 7373 or 737.

 The zero temperature compensation coefficient is set as LT=△E/△t, where △E is variation of

zero point with △t temperature changes.

3) Error clearance

Long time in service may render the flow meter vulnerable to errors. Reset Operation is needed to

get the flow meter back to normal operation as follows:

a. Record the true flow measured by other Standard Flow Measurement Equipment and the flow

meter display (instantaneous or accumulative).

b. Compute the new flow coefficient according to the below formula:


Cn---New flow coefficient

Co---Original flow coefficient

Qs---True flow value

Qc---LCD display value

Example: If original flow coefficient is 15000, true flow value is 251Kg, and LCD display value is

223Kg, then the new flow coefficient is determined by:

Cn =Co·Qs/Qc



c. Input using Key--stoke the new flow coefficient into the flow meter to finish error clearing.

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7 Test
Although the flow meter has been strictly tested before leaving factory, because of changes in

environment, installation, running condition, etc, errors will occur and test operation needs to be done

using the following methods:

1) Test using standard flow measure equipment

Refer to “Error clear” in Chapter 6.

2) Conversion between two flow media

The primary test medium in factory is water or air. When new non-water or non-air medium is

used to test the flow meter, the test result is computed as follows:

a. Flow:

Q=Qo p1 /p


Q — Flow meter display.(Kg)

Qo — True flow.(Kg)

p1 — New medium density.(Kg/m3)

p — Primary medium density.(Kg/m3)

Example: A flow meter is tested by water, the new medium is light diesel oil (p1=750Kg/m3), and the

true flow value is 500Kg. Then the value showed on flow meter should be:

Q= 500  =433(Kg)

That is, the re-test value is 433Kg.

b. Cubage flow:

Q=Qo p / p1


Q — Flow meter display flow value.(m3)

Qo — True flow value.(m3)

Example: With the same numbers as above, the result is:

1000 3
Q= 500   577.35m

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Remarks: It should be a little error between two different media test results because of different

medium characteristics, equipment conditions, installations and other reasons. These errors can be

cleared by the method referred to in Chapter 6.

3) Test using hang weight

Hang weight method can be used to test the flow meter as shown in the below figure.

Flow meter

Hang weights

The test result is computed as:

Qm    D (   ) F  

1 F
Qv    D(  )
 


Qm — Instantaneous quality flow value(Kg/h)

QV — Instantaneous cubage flow value(m3/h)

α— flow coefficient

D — Flow meter diameter (mm)

F — Quality of hung weight(Kg)

p — Medium density(Kg/m3)

β — Target/ diameter ratio

Example : For quality flow, given α=12.52, β=0.7, D=100 and p=750Kg/m3 (light diesel oil), and the

maximum instantaneous flow of the flow meter is 100t/h, so

Q 2 1
FmaxF  ( ) 
  D(   ) 

100  1000 2 1
( ) 
12.52  100(
 0.7)


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100  1000 2 1
( ) 
12.52  100  0.7286 750
 16( Kg )

It is known that the force on the target is 16Kg while maximum instantaneous flow occurs. So, if

using hang weight method, the total quality of hung weights must less than 16Kg. Supposed 3Kg

weighs is used, the test result is:

Qm    D (  ) F  

 12.52  100(  0.7)  3  750
 43269.8( Kg / h)

 43.27(t / h)

Remarks: Hang weight method is not able to replace strict experiment test, because of many

factors such as medium flow pattern, viscosity, press loss are ignored and errors will occur in hang

weight test process.

8 Trouble Shooting
1) The flow meter display non-zero, while the flow velocity is zero. The following reasons and

solution methods may be included:

 Flow meter was not installed in strict horizontal position. Solution: zero set operation.

 Flow meter has run for a long time and error occurs. Solution: zero set operation.

 Over loading bring zero offset. Solution: zero set operation.

 Sensor is wetting or no insulation. Solution: drying sensor by drier or return the flow meter to the


 Some eye-winker clips the target or transition part. Solution: close front and behind valves and

loosen the connecting bolt between transitional part and measure tube, then sway lightly the

target or transition part or put them out and clean them, finally replace them.

 High temperature type flow meter without temperature compensation has not been set zero under

high temperature condition. Solution: zero set operation under high temperature condition.

2) LCD display value appears non-normal accretion. The following reasons and solution methods may

be included:

 Some silk or belt-type eye-winker accretes on the target. Solution: clean the target.

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 Much dirt accretes on the target. Solution: clean the target.

 Sensor is wetting then the insulation resistance is decreased. Solution: drying sensor by drier or

return the flow meter to the factory.

3) Measurement error big. The following reasons and solution methods may be included:

 Flow meter is installed on non-coaxial position corresponding to connecting pipeline. Solution:

adjust the installation position.

 The front or behind connecting pipe is so short. Solution: re-installation or re-test.

 By-pass pipe is of leakage. Solution: check or replace it.

 Some silk or belt-type eye winker accretes on the target. Solution: clean the target.

 Integration microcomputer circuit board runs wrong. Solution: Return the flow meter to factory.

4) LCD displays nothing or invariable numbers. The following reasons and solution methods may be


 Battery or 24V DC power is connected wrong or bad. Solution: check and re-connect all of the

connecting wires and clips.

 Circuit board or LCD is damaged. Solution: return the flow meter to factory.

5) LCD displays zero always. The following reasons and solution methods may be included:

 Target falls off or is damaged. Solution: Re-install a same type target.

 Sensor is damaged. Solution: Return the flow meter to factory.

 Some eye winker clips between target and transition part. Solution: Clean them or return the flow

meter to factory.

 Flow velocity is so low to lees than the minimum flow scale. Solution: Return the flow meter to

factory to replace another type target.

6) Output does not run or runs wrong. The following reasons and solution methods may be included:

 Output connection is bad or wrong. Solution: Check and re-connect all of the connecting wires

and clips.

 Circuit board is damaged. Solution: Return the flow meter to factory.

 User’s signal receiving system runs bad or wrong. Solution: Check and debug it.

9 General Notice
 LCD glittering means power of battery is going to exhaust, please replace a same type battery.

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 Flow meter stores automatically all of the measure values and set coefficients in its inner FLASH


 If environmental temperature is below -20℃, LCD will be frozen and display nothing. But it will

return to normal work at once when the temperature returns up -18℃.

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