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CHAPTER 2

THE CONICAL TANK LEVEL PROCESS

2.1 INTRODUCTION

in process industries for controlling the different process variables, due to

their simplicity, flexibility and efficiency. The tuning of the PID Controller is

very essential for the satisfactory operation of the process. In this thesis, the

application of the Conventional PI Controller, Genetic Algorithm tuned PI

Controller, Neuro tuned PI Controller, and Fuzzy Logic Controller for the

conical tank process is investigated. The controller performance is obtained,

in terms of ISE, ITSE, IAE and ITAE, and also through the time domain

specification criteria for servo, regulatory and servo-regulatory operations for

the conical tank process. Therefore, a literature review on the different

controllers and their performance is done, and reported in this chapter.

widely used in many process industries for several decades, due to their

simplicity, flexibility and efficiency. Zeigler and Nichols (1942) developed

the PID Controller tuning concept for open and closed loop operations. The

controller tuned parameters with Zeigler-Nichol’s method, perform well in

disturbance rejection, and poorly in tracking reference changes. Cohen and

24

Coon (1953) proposed the open loop tuning or process reaction curve method.

In the open loop tuning method, the connection between the controller and the

final control element is disconnected, and the step input is applied as an input

to the final control element and the process parameters are obtained from the

process reaction curve. The above mentioned method requires limited process

knowledge, but it offers lower damping and high sensitivity to the system.

Wills (1962) proposed the tuning maps concept for three mode controllers. In

the above mentioned paper, the overall approach for the calculation of

proportional gain, integral time and derivative time was discussed, and the

tuning concepts were highlighted. Miller et al (1967) proposed a comparison

of the controller tuning technique, in which the investigation of the process

reaction curve method is demonstrated and the process reaction curve

approximation is done; comparatively Miller et al (1967) is better than Cohen

and Coon (1953).

Integral Derivative (PID) Controllers by the optimal linear regulator theory.

In the above method, the optimal regulator was used to generate the

Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller’s parameters, such as

proportional gain, integral time and derivative time. Hagglund et al (1985)

developed the auto tuning technique for the Proportional Integral Derivative

(PID) Controller, based on the dominant pole design. Astrom et al (1986)

introduced the concept of the expert systems in which the software programs

are supplemented by man machine interfaces. The design and application of

knowledge based expert systems for system control, improves the efficiency,

effectiveness and performance under uncertain and varying operating

conditions. Rivera et al (1986) introduced the design procedure of the Internal

Model Controller to establish PID rules with a well described approach. The

Internal Model Controller was developed (Morari and Zufiriou 1987), and it

25

complicated for higher order processes.

PID parameters by the optimization of the Integral Square Error (ISE),

Integral Absolute Error (IAE), Integral Time Square Error (ITSE) as the

performance indices. Corripio (1990) compared the performance of the error

criteria, in which the Minimization of Integral Absolute Error (IAE) generally

produces intermediate responses between fast responses, obtained from the

minimization of the Integral Square Error (ISE), and slow responses obtained

from the minimization of the Integral multiplied Time Absolute Error (ITAE).

Next, Hang et al (1991) developed the online auto-tuning of the Proportional

Integral Derivative (PID) Controller, based on the cross correlation technique,

described in the paper. In the above method, the Pseudo Random Binary

Signal (PRBS) is used as a reference signal to tune the auto tuner circuit.

Hang et al (1991) introduced refinement in the Zeigler Nichols tuning

formulae. Astrom et al (1992) introduced the concept towards intelligent

Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controllers. In the above paper, the

possibility of different intelligent controllers for the Proportional Integral

Derivative (PID) controllers, is also discussed.

Algorithm based technique for finding the tuning parameter of the digital PID

Controller. The above mentioned method is a simple, generic approach. A

classical method of optimization, namely, the gradient method by Varsek et al

(1993) is an often used method to find the optimal solution. The shortcoming

of the gradient descent method is its sensitivity to select the initial value. The

above mentioned method is well suited for the Proportional Integral

Derivative (PID) Controller, where the controller structure and parameters are

26

the optimal Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller.

Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller, based on the Genetic

Algorithm. Ho et al (1995) introduced the performance and gain, and phase

margin with a well known Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller

tuning formula. Dangprasert et al (1995) employed the Genetic Algorithm for

on-line parameter identification and controller tuning in the frequency control

of a power system. Zibo and Naghdy (1995) proposed the concept of the

application of the Genetic Algorithm for system identification. The limitations

and counter measures of the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller

for process control applications was introduced by Lee et al (1996). Rad and

Lo (1977) introduced the concept of a self tuning PID Controller, using the

Newton-Raphson method. Astrom et al (1998) proposed the design of

Proportional Integral (PI) Controllers, based on the non-convex optimization

technique. Ho et al (1998) developed the concept of optimal gain and phase

margin, for the calculation of the parameters of the Proportional Integral

Derivative (PID) Controller. Wang et al (1999) proposed the Proportional

Integral Derivative (PID) Controller tuning with improved performance for

the dynamic plant. Ya-Gang Wang and Hui-He Shao (2000) introduced a

simplified optimum method for the Proportional Integral (PI) Controller,

which is applicable to different complicated processes. The above mentioned

method produces high performance, and is widely used for linear self

regulating processes.

Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller tuning concept, which is

applicable to the different complicated processes. Krohling and Rey (2001)

developed the design of the optimal disturbance rejection of the Proportional

27

Integral Derivative (PID) Controller, using the Genetic Algorithm. Liu and

Daley (2001) proposed the optimal tuning concept for the Proportional

Integral Derivative (PID) Controller, which is applicable to different

industrial system’s applications. Ari Ingimundarson and Tore Hagglund

(2002) compared the performance of the Proportional Integral Derivative

(PID) Controller and that of the dead time compensating controller, based on

the Integral Average Error (IAE) optimization technique. Ming Ge et al

(2002) introduced the robustness of the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID)

Controller in the LMI (Linear Matrix Inequality) technique. Its applicability

in different dynamic plants is also discussed in the paper. Next, Kao-Shing

and Hwang et al (2003) proposed the reinforcement learning algorithm to the

adaptive control scheme, which is applicable to different nonlinear dynamic

processes. Skogestad (2003) developed simple analytical rules for model

reduction, as well as the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller

rules for process control applications. Wang and Spronck (2003) proposed an

overall view of the Genetic Algorithm applied to different control engineering

problems. Lin and Chou (2003) proposed the Induction motor servo drive,

using the slide mode controller with the Genetic Algorithm. Teng et al (2003)

implemented the Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is applicable to the on-line

tuning parameter of the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller, in

the liquid level system for the cylindrical tank.

revisiting the Zeigler-Nichol’s step response method for the Proportional

Integral (PI) Controller. In the above paper, the frequency response method is

limited and the new tuning rule is introduced. Kazantzis et al (2005) proposed

the optimal tuning control technique for nolinear processes. Toscano (2005)

proposed a simple Proportional Integral (PI) and Proportional Integral

Derivative (PID) Controller, with a numerical optimization technique, which

is applicable to different processes. Jie-Sheng et al (2006) introduced the

28

Derivative (PID) Controller for the non-minimum phase system. Aytekin

Bagis (2007) proposed the Modified Genetic Algorithm to find the

Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller’s optimal parameters, for

improved specifications for the dynamic plant. Recently, Valarmathi et al

(2007) developed the evolutionary algorithms like the Genetic Algorithm,

which is used to obtain the optimal parameters of the Proportional Integral

Derivative (PID) Controller in the chemical pH process. Kim et al (2008)

proposed the auto tuning Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller,

based on the improved Genetic Algorithm for the reverse osmosis plant. Luo

et al (2010) developed the tuning of the Proportional Integral Derivative

(PID) Controller parameters in the hydraulic servo control system, based on

the evaluation of the Genetic Algorithm. Arya et al (2011) proposed the

evaluation of the Genetic Algorithm optimization technique for the tuning of

the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller. Mohd Sazli Saad et al

(2012) developed the Genetic Algorithm tuned Proportional Integral

Derivative (PID) Controller tuning, by a differential equation approach.

first proposed by Lotfi A. Zadeh (1965) of the University of California.

Again, Lotfi A. Zadeh (1973) elaborated the concept of Linguistic variables

which are related to the fuzzy set theory. Mamdani and Assilian (1975)

developed the application of the Fuzzy Algorithm to approximate reasoning,

using Linguistic variables for controlling the steam generator for dynamic

plant control. Mamdani (1977) introduced the application of Fuzzy Logic to

approximate reasoning, using the Linguistic variable synthesis in the design

of controllers in industrial applications. Fukami et al (1980) proposed some

consideration of the fuzzy conditional inference for different fuzzy logic

applications. Tong (1980) obtained the evaluation of the fuzzy model derived

from the experimental data. Takagi and Sugeno (1985) developed the concept

29

of the fuzzy identification of the system, and also applied it for modeling and

control. Sugeno and Kang (1988) introduced the concept of the structure

identification of the fuzzy model. De Silva and Mac Farlane (1989)

introduced knowledge based control, for application to robotics. Li and Lan

(1989) developed the fuzzy logic algorithm which is applicable to servo

system control applications. Lee (1990) developed models of Fuzzy Logic

Controllers for applications in control systems. Chui et al (1991) developed

fuzzy logic for the control of roll and moment for the flexible wind of the

aircraft. Layne and Passino (1993) developed the fuzzy model reference

learning control, for cargo ship steering control. Garcia-Benitez et al (1993)

developed the rule based supervisory control of a two-link flexible

manipulator. Ying (1993) introduced the simplest fuzzy controllers, using the

different inference method for different nonlinear PI Controllers, with

variable gain adjustment. Kwong et al (1996) proposed the concept of fuzzy

learning control for different applications. Cheng et al (1996) developed the

Fuzzy Logic Controller application for the inverted pendulum.

(PD) Controller for the Self tuning Fuzzy Logic Controller, in which the

system performance is studied without the steady state error. Yi and Yuhazaki

(2000) developed the fuzzy logic controller for inverted pendulum control

applications. Jin Zhao and Bose (2002) developed the evaluation of the

membership functions for the fuzzy logic controller. Chia-Feng Juang (2003)

developed an automatic building approach to the special Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy

controller, for unknown modelling and stable control applications. Cheng-

Awang et al (2005) developed the concept of the Fuzzy based Proportional

Integral Derivative (PID) Controller for cement plant industries. Jian Lin et al

(2006) developed the neuro-fuzzy controller for temperature control

applications, in which compensatory operations and wavelet neural networks

are used. Ahmed et al (2007) developed online neutralization based on the

30

fuzzy logic controller. Lee and Gonzalez (2008) developed the fuzzy logic

versus PID Controller, for the position control of a muscle-like actuated arm

application. Rahul Malhotra et al (2011) developed the concept of boiler flow

control with the Proportional Integral Derivative(PID) Controller with the

Fuzzy Logic Controller. Li et al (2012) developed the concept of the

application of the fuzzy logic controller for maintaining the liquid level.

which logical ideas of mathematics with bioscience were introduced. Frank

and Rosenblatt (1958) proposed the Perceptron model for single layer and

multilayer feedforward networks, in which the network is able to obtain the

weight only on a linearly separable task. Kohonen (1982) developed the Self

Organization Map (SOM) architecture of a competitive learning approach, in

which the network is a simplified model of the feature for the localized region

mapping of the brain, and published this concept in a book in the year 1989.

Rumel hart, Hinton and Williams (1985) introduced the concept of the

learning rule, which is applicable to the Feed forward Back Propagation

Neural Network. But it has the difficulty of a slow rate of convergence and

the local minima problem. Funahasi (1989) introduced an approximate

relation ship of continuous mapping by Neural Networks. Hornik et al (1989)

proposed that multilayer feed forward networks are universal approximators.

Narendra and Parthasarathy (1990) proposed the concept of process

identification and control of the dynamic system, using Neural Networks. Wu

and Hogg (1992) developed the Neural network regulator for turbo

generators. Linsker (2003) introduced the concept of the self organization

approach in a Perceptual network. Kim (2006) developed a Neural network

based tuning of the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller, for the

level control of a steam generator. Bhuvaneswari et al (2008) proposed the

Neural network based Model reference Adaptive Control for the conical tank

31

using Neural networks for the control of the conical tank process, in which the

experiments are conducted for servo and regulatory operations. Wang et al

(2011) proposed a Neural Network based self tuning PI Controller, for the

precision motion of a PMAC motor.

tank process liquid maintenance, in which the Genetic Algorithm is used to

tune the membership function of the Fuzzy Logic Controller, and compared

its performance with that of the Proportional Integral (PI) Controller for the

nonlinear conical tank process. Anandanatarajan et al (2005) developed the

design of a Smith Predictor PI Controller. This was then compared with the

Conventional PI Controller, for the first order nonlinear process with dead

time of the conical tank process. Bhaba et al (2007) developed the real time

implementation of the Wiener Model Proportional Integral (PI) Controller for

the non linear conical tank liquid level process, in which the Integral Square

Error (ISE) criterion is obtained for the set point and load changes.

Bhuvaneswari et al (2008) developed the Neuro based Model Reference

Adaptive Controller for a nonlinear conical tank process, in which the time

optimal control for set point changes and adaptive parameter variation are

done, using a neural network. Further, Nithya et al (2008) developed the

design of a soft computing based controller for the non-linear conical tank

process, and the performance was evaluated based on criteria, such as the

Integral Square Error (ISE) and Integral Absolute Error (IAE).

new Coefficient of Discharge Method the Proportional Integral (CDM-PI)

Control scheme for a conical tank liquid level maintenance. The servo

tracking operation for different level changes for error criteria such as,

32

Integral Square Error (ISE), Integral Absolute Error (IAE) as well as time

domain specification criteria is analyzed in this paper. Next, Ram Kumar et

al (2010) proposed the real time application of the Ant Colony optimizing

algorithm, and implemented it for the conical tank process, in which the

performance of the Internal Model Controller (IMC) is compared with that of

the ant optimization colony algorithm through the performance error criteria.

Suresh et al (2010) proposed the design of a Fuzzy Estimator to assist the

fault recovery in a conical tank process in which the servo response is

compared with the regulatory operation. Anand et al (2011) introduced a

simplified tuned Adaptive Proportional Integral (PI) Controller for the conical

tank process, in which the performance of the Adaptive Proportional Integral

(PI) Controller is compared with that of the Conventional PI Controller.

Fareeza et al (2012) introduced the design of a plant estimator model, using

the Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) for the conical tank process, in which the

servo operation performance is compared with regulatory operation. Ganesh

Ram and Abraham Lincoln (2012) proposed the Fuzzy Adaptive PI Controller

for the nonlinear conical tank process, in which the Fuzzy Adaptive PI

Controller’s performance is compared with that of the Conventional PI

Controller. Arivalahan et al (2012) developed a Genetic Algorithm tuned PI

controller in which the optimal values of the PI Controller parameters are

obtained. In addition, the Neuro tuned PI Controller and Fuzzy Logic

Controller are designed for the conical tank level process. The developed

controllers are evaluated in terms of the performance indices, namely, ISE,

ITSE, IAE, ITAE, and time domain specifications, such as Peak over shoot

(Mp), Settling Time (Ts) and steady state error (ess) for servo, regulatory and

servo-regulatory operations. Further, the modelling aspect of the conical tank

level process is included, and the stability analysis of the system is evaluated

through the pole- zero plot and Nyquist stability criteria.

33

COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES

nonlinearity and constant change in the cross section. Therefore, in this thesis,

computational intelligence techniques, using the Conventional PI Controller,

Genetic Algorithm tuned PI Controller, Neuro tuned PI Controller and Fuzzy

Logic Controller are investigated for the conical tank process. The

Limitations of the Conventional PI Controller are:

Robustness is low.

Regulatory and Servo-Regulatory operations for different types of controllers.

In the servo operation, the set point is varied, and the process with the load

variable is kept constant. In the regulatory operation, the set point is kept

constant, and the process with the load variable is changed. In the servo-

regulatory operation, the set point and process with the load variable are also

variable. The comparison of the controller performance is obtained, in terms

of the ISE, ITAE, IAE, ITSE, and through Time domain specifications, and

also through the graphical approach.

34

2.4 SUMMARY

process, and the different types of controllers used for the conical tank

process have been reviewed. The limitations of the Conventional PI

Controller for the conical tank process have been outlined. The suitability of

the computational by intelligent techniques like, the Genetic Algorithm tuned

PI Controller, Neuro tuned PI Controller and Fuzzy Logic Controller for these

tasks, has been identified. The performances of these controllers are

investigated in the coming chapters.

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