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DRYING

HIRIZZA JUNKO M. YAMAMOTO


Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Architecture, Cebu Institute of Technology – University

N. Bacalso Ave. Cebu City, 6000 Philippines

Date Performed: October 4, 2017

The experiment aims to determine the rate of drying curve under constant drying
conditions. It also aims to determine the effects of varying air velocity on the rate of
drying. Tray drying is one of the most common methods for drying. It is composed of
an air duct in which hot air is blown by the help of an axial flow fan impeller. Air is
heated by an electrically heater element. Drying rate depends on the temperature,
moisture content and mass flow of air in constant drying rate.
1. Introduction
Drying is a process which is used for removing the liquid from the solid material.
In standard chemical engineering practice drying of the water (compound A) from
the solid (compound C) by evaporating to the flow of overheated air (compound B)
is the most common practical example. It is relatively complex process combining
the heat and the mass transport. In our laboratory dryer the heat transport which
is necessary for the evaporation of the water, is realized only by the heat
convection from the air to the drying material.
From mass transport point of view, one must understand the drying as a
diffusion process. During first period of drying, water which is contained in material
evaporates from the material surface to the air flow (by external diffusion). After
formation the moisture gradient inside the material second drying period begins.
During this period water is transported inside material to the surface (internal
diffusion). Rate of the slower process determines overall drying rate.
Like evaporation, drying is a mass-transfer process resulting in the removal of
water or moisture from a process stream. While evaporation increases the
concentration of non-volatile components in solution, in drying processes the final
product is a solid. Drying processes reduce the solute or moisture level to improve
the storage and handling characteristics of the product, maintain product quality
during storage and transportation and reduce freight cost (less water to ship).
Drying of solids in certain cases like wood, ceramics and soap has a remarkable
fathom of the internal mechanism obtained that allows control of product standard.
Surveys of drying of solids have been made from the so-called external viewpoint,
wherein the effects of the external drying medium like air velocity, humidity,
temperature and wet material shape and subdivision are studied with respect to
their influence on the drying rate.
Tray dryer is used for drying solids by air or removes the moist vapours which
must be supported by trays. Trays are designed to force the air to follow a longer
zigzag route which increases the contact time between food and air, thus improve
its efficiency. Heating may be by an air current sweeping across the trays, by
conduction from heated trays or heated shelves on which the trays lie, or by
radiation from heated surfaces. It is most suitable in terms of cost and output when
the production rate is small.
2. Materials and Methods
a. Materials and Equipment
 Tray drier
 Tray
 Sand
 Thermometer
 Balance
 Anemometer
 Pitot tube
 Stopwatch
b. Method
The free cross-sectional area of each compartment with the trays in
place, the surface area of the tray, and the cross-sectional area of the duct
at the anemometer station were measured. The temperature and velocity of
the air were adjusted to the desired values by regulating the steam pressure
and setting the dampers to proper openings. A weighed pan or tray of wet
sand was placed after the conditions have become constant. The velocity
of the air, wet and dry-bulb temperature of the air entering and leaving the
drier and before and after it passes over each day, the weight of each tray
of material were measured at frequent intervals. The drying process was
continued until there was no further loss in weight.

3. Results
Table 1. Data Obtained at 10 psig
Compartment Temp.
Sample Weight

Air Temperature (°C)


Elapsed Time

(°C)
(minute)s)

INLET EXIT
Velocity
Exit Air

(grams)
(m / s)

Dry Wet Dry Wet Dry Bulb Wet Bulb


Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb
0.00 32.6 27.0 53.2 29.0 58.0 32.1 3.80 100.0224
2.00 32.7 28.0 53.3 28.0 51.6 31.6 3.80 99.1379
4.00 31.5 28.0 50.0 30.3 53.1 30.9 3.90 98.5624
6.00 32.2 29.0 54.8 30.3 66.4 31.9 3.70 98.0156
8.00 32.2 28.0 55.5 29.1 65.8 33.7 4.00 97.2455
10.00 32.1 28.0 54.6 28.0 66.9 34.3 3.90 96.5191
12.00 32.5 28.0 55.6 28.0 65.9 34.8 4.00 96.2878
14.00 32.9 27.3 52.6 27.5 67.5 35.0 3.80 96.2355
16.00 32.0 27.6 54.7 27.6 66.5 35.2 3.40 95.7269
18.00 31.7 27.4 58.1 27.4 67.0 35.4 3.70 95.4378
20.00 32.8 27.5 57.3 27.5 68.4 35.5 4.60 95.1177
22.00 32.4 27.3 57.1 27.3 69.1 35.5 4.20 95.0253
24.00 31.5 27.3 49.0 27.3 67.4 .35.6 3.90 94.6218
26.00 33.1 27.0 48.6 27.6 67.5 35.6 4.00 94.3014
28.00 33.6 27.0 48.8 27.2 67.7 35.8 5.10 94.1811
30.00 31.9 26.7 47.6 27.0 69.1 35.7 4.90 94.0037
32.00 31.6 26.3 49.3 26.7 68.1 35.8 5.00 93.7238
34.00 32.0 26.6 46.2 26.7 67.6 35.8 4.80 93.7238
36.00 31.7 26.7 48.6 26.9 67.7 35.8 4.70 93.7238
38.00 33.2 27.4 49.1 26.9 67.8 35.7 4.90 93.7238
40.00 31.9 26.5 54.6 26.7 68.8 35.8 4.90 93.7238
42.00 31.9 26.6 48.6 26.8 67.8 36.0 4.90 93.7238

Table 2. Data Obtained at 20 psig


Air Temperature (°C) Compartment Temp. (°C)
(minute)s)

INLET EXIT
Velocity
Exit Air
Elapsed

(grams)
Sample
Weight
(m / s)

Dry Wet Dry Wet Dry Bulb Wet Bulb


Time

Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb


0.00 32.1 28.6 53.3 30.4 73.3 34.6 4.40 50.0036
2.00 32.5 30.2 57.1 29.5 72.8 35.1 4.60 49.3819
4.00 32.1 29.2 49.3 28.9 72.1 35.3 4.50 48.9797
6.00 36.4 29.0 57.3 30.9 74.5 35.8 4.70 48.4349
8.00 35.7 29.8 58.3 30.7 74.7 35.9 4.80 48.1051
10.00 34.9 28.1 54.5 28.0 74.7 36.1 5.00 47.7232
12.00 35.2 28.4 58.0 29.1 76.0 36.3 5.10 47.3292
14.00 34.3 28.7 57.0 28.5 73.8 36.4 4.90 46.7805
16.00 35.6 28.1 55.2 27.8 75.9 36.6 4.80 46.3359
18.00 36.4 28.8 58.7 28.4 75.4 36.7 5.00 45.8494
20.00 35.7 28.2 57.9 27.8 76.0 36.8 4.90 45.1886
22.00 35.2 28.0 58.0 27.5 75.7 36.8 4.70 44.5821
24.00 34.7 27.7 58.3 26.9 75.1 36.7 5.10 43.8539
26.00 35.7 29.1 52.7 29.0 74.8 36.6 4.90 43.3541
28.00 35.2 28.1 55.4 21.3 75.2 36.8 4.70 42.9962
30.00 34.0 27.9 52.0 31.4 75.9 37.3 4.60 42.6107
32.00 35.9 28.2 55.8 27.7 75.8 37.7 4.80 42.0141
34.00 34.7 27.9 53.9 27.3 76.3 38.4 4.70 41.9424
36.00 34.8 28.1 55.9 27.7 76.3 38.8 4.60 41.9424
38.00 35.2 28.0 54.5 27.6 76.7 38.7 4.50 41.9424
40.00 34.6 27.9 53.9 27.4 76.4 38.6 4.60 41.9424

101
Weight of Sample (grams)

100
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
0 10 20 30 40 50
Elapsed Time (minutes)

Figure 1. Plot of Weight versus Time (10 psig)

51
Weight of Sample (grams)

50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
0 10 20 30 40 50
Elapsed Time (minutes)

Figure 2. Plot of Weight versus Time (20 psig)


14
12
Rate of Drying 10
8
6
4
2
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
g Free Water / g Dry Solids

Figure 3. Plot of Drying Rate versus Free Water (10 psig)

12
10
Rate of Drying

8
6
4
2
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
g Free Water / g Dry Solids

Figure 4. Plot of Drying Rate versus Free Water (20 psig)

0.5

0.4
Rate of Drying

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 10 20 30 40
Time (minutes)

Figure 5. Plot of Drying Rate versus Time (10 psig)


0.35
0.3
Rate of Drying 0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0 10 20 30 40
Time (minutes)

Figure 6. Plot of Drying Rate versus Time (20 psig)

4. Conclusion
The temperature of the material is equal to the wet thermometer
temperature and stays constant, i.e. the added heat is consumed by
evaporation of the free water. Driving force and drying rate are constant. Vapor
pressure on the material surface during constant-rate period is equal to vapor
pressure of water on the clean water in the same temperature. Moisture content
is equal to the critical moisture content. During constant-rate period the drying
rate depends on temperature, moisture content and mass flow of air. The drying
rate is not function of bed depth and actual moisture content. The moisture is
decreasing with the time and by the time it become totally dry.
References:
http://ufdcimages.uflib.ufl.edu/AA/00/00/03/83/00083/AA00000383_00083_132.pdf
https://www.coursehero.com/file/p7u5dhp/CONCLUSION-The-objective-of-this-
experiment-was-to-determine-the-drying-rate-of/
Geankoplis, Transport Processes and Unit Operations. John Wiley & Sons