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Arijit Mondal

Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Patna

arijit@iitp.ac.in

IIT Patna 1

System modeling

• Mimic the real world behavior of the system

• There exist a large variety of systems

• Mechanical, electrical, chemical, biological, etc.

• Behavior of most of the system can be described using differential equations

• Continuous dynamics

• Modal models

• Used for modeling discrete systems

• For each mode, we have continuous dynamics

• Ordinary differential equation will be used to describe the system

• Properties like linearity, time invariance, stability, etc. will be considered

IIT Patna 2

Helicopter

IIT Patna 3

Helicopter

IIT Patna 4

Newtonian mechanics

• Motion of object can be represented with six degrees of freedom

IIT Patna 5

Newtonian mechanics

• Motion of object can be represented with six degrees of freedom

• Linear motion along x , y , z axis

• Angular motion θx (roll), θy (yaw), θz (pitch)

IIT Patna 5

Newtonian mechanics

• Motion of object can be represented with six degrees of freedom

• Linear motion along x , y , z axis

• Angular motion θx (roll), θy (yaw), θz (pitch)

• Position of an object may be specified using six functions f : R → R

• R denotes the time

• R denotes the distance along an axis or angle relative to an axis

IIT Patna 5

Newtonian mechanics

• Motion of object can be represented with six degrees of freedom

• Linear motion along x , y , z axis

• Angular motion θx (roll), θy (yaw), θz (pitch)

• Position of an object may be specified using six functions f : R → R

• R denotes the time

• R denotes the distance along an axis or angle relative to an axis

• Sometime this may be represented x : R → R3 , θ : R → R3

IIT Patna 5

Newtonian mechanics

• Motion of object can be represented with six degrees of freedom

• Linear motion along x , y , z axis

• Angular motion θx (roll), θy (yaw), θz (pitch)

• Position of an object may be specified using six functions f : R → R

• R denotes the time

• R denotes the distance along an axis or angle relative to an axis

• Sometime this may be represented x : R → R3 , θ : R → R3

• Change in position or orientation can be determined by Newton’s 2nd law

F (t) = M ẍ (t)

• F - force, M - mass and ẍ - second derivative ie. acceleration

IIT Patna 5

Newtonian mechanics (contd.)

Z t

• Solving the equation we get t > 0, ẋ (t) = ẋ (0) + ẍ (τ )dτ

0

IIT Patna 6

Newtonian mechanics (contd.)

Z t

• Solving the equation we get t > 0, ẋ (t) = ẋ (0) + ẍ (τ )dτ

0

Z t

• Rewriting, t > 0, ẋ (t) = ẋ (0) + 1

M

F (τ )dτ

0

IIT Patna 6

Newtonian mechanics (contd.)

Z t

• Solving the equation we get t > 0, ẋ (t) = ẋ (0) + ẍ (τ )dτ

0

Z t

• Rewriting, t > 0, ẋ (t) = ẋ (0) + 1

M

F (τ )dτ

0

Z t

• We have, x (t) = x (0) + ẋ (τ )dτ

0

IIT Patna 6

Newtonian mechanics (contd.)

Z t

• Solving the equation we get t > 0, ẋ (t) = ẋ (0) + ẍ (τ )dτ

0

Z t

• Rewriting, t > 0, ẋ (t) = ẋ (0) + 1

M

F (τ )dτ

0

Z t Z tZ τ

1

• We have, x (t) = x (0) + ẋ (τ )dτ = x (0) + t ẋ (0) + F (α) dα dτ

0 M 0 0

IIT Patna 6

Newtonian mechanics (contd.)

Z t

• Solving the equation we get t > 0, ẋ (t) = ẋ (0) + ẍ (τ )dτ

0

Z t

• Rewriting, t > 0, ẋ (t) = ẋ (0) + 1

M

F (τ )dτ

0

Z t Z tZ τ

1

• We have, x (t) = x (0) + ẋ (τ )dτ = x (0) + t ẋ (0) + F (α) dα dτ

0 M 0 0

d

IIT Patna 6

Newtonian mechanics (contd.)

Z t

• Solving the equation we get t > 0, ẋ (t) = ẋ (0) + ẍ (τ )dτ

0

Z t

• Rewriting, t > 0, ẋ (t) = ẋ (0) + 1

M

F (τ )dτ

0

Z t Z tZ τ

1

• We have, x (t) = x (0) + ẋ (τ )dτ = x (0) + t ẋ (0) + F (α) dα dτ

0 M 0 0

d

Z tZ τ

1

θ(t) = θ(0) + t θ̇(0) + T (α) dα dτ

I 0 0

IIT Patna 6

Helicopter model

• Helicopter has two rotors

• Main rotor to lift

• Tail rotor to counter balance spin

• Hence, we have

θ̈y (t) = Ty (t)/Iyy ⇒

Z t

1

θ̇y (t) = θ̇y (0) + Ty (τ ) dτ

Iyy 0

IIT Patna 7

Actor model

• Physical system can be described by input (force, torque) and output (position, orien-

tation, velocity, rotation, etc.)

x y

S

• S : X → Y , x, y ∈ R

IIT Patna 8

Actor model

• Physical system can be described by input (force, torque) and output (position, orien-

tation, velocity, rotation, etc.)

x y

S

• S : X → Y , x, y ∈ R

• Example

Ty θ̇y

Iyy , θ

IIT Patna 8

Actor model (contd.)

• Actor models are composable

x1 y1 x2 y2

S1 S2

∀t ∈ R, y1 (t) = x2 (t)

IIT Patna 9

Actor model (contd.)

• Actor models are composable

x1 y1 x2 y2

S1 S2

∀t ∈ R, y1 (t) = x2 (t)

• Example

x1 y1 x2 R y2

a i

Helicopter

Z t

• We have ∀t ∈ R y2 (t) = i + x2 (τ )dτ where a = 1/Iyy , i = θ̇y (0), x1 = Ty and y2 = θ̇y

0

IIT Patna 9

Actor model (contd.)

• Actor can have multiple inputs

x1

y1

S1

x2

x1 y x1 y

+ +

x2 x2 −

IIT Patna 10

Properties of systems

• Causal system

• Memoryless systems

• Linear and time invariant

• Stability

• Feedback control

IIT Patna 11

Causal systems

• Output depends only on current and past inputs

• Consider a continuous time signal x

• Let x|t≤τ represent restriction in time defined only for t ≤ τ

• Consider a continuous time system S : X → Y , the system is causal if for all x1 , x2 ∈ X

and τ ∈ R, x1 |t≤τ = x2 |t≤τ ⇒ S(x1 )|t≤τ = S(x2 )|t≤τ

• Strictly causal ∀τ ∈ R, x1 |t<τ = x2 |t<τ ⇒ S(x1 )|t≤τ = S(x2 )|t≤τ

IIT Patna 12

Causal systems

• Output depends only on current and past inputs

• Consider a continuous time signal x

• Let x|t≤τ represent restriction in time defined only for t ≤ τ

• Consider a continuous time system S : X → Y , the system is causal if for all x1 , x2 ∈ X

and τ ∈ R, x1 |t≤τ = x2 |t≤τ ⇒ S(x1 )|t≤τ = S(x2 )|t≤τ

• Strictly causal ∀τ ∈ R, x1 |t<τ = x2 |t<τ ⇒ S(x1 )|t≤τ = S(x2 )|t≤τ

• Example

• Integrator is strictly causal

• Adder is not strictly causal but causal

• Strictly causal actors are good for continuous feedback system

IIT Patna 12

Memoryless systems

• A systems has memory if the output depends not only on the current inputs but also on

the past inputs

• Formally, S : X → Y the system is memoryless if there exist a function f : X → Y such

that for all x ∈ X , (S(x))(t) = f (x(t)) for all t ∈ R

IIT Patna 13

Memoryless systems

• A systems has memory if the output depends not only on the current inputs but also on

the past inputs

• Formally, S : X → Y the system is memoryless if there exist a function f : X → Y such

that for all x ∈ X , (S(x))(t) = f (x(t)) for all t ∈ R

• Example

• Integrator is not memoryless

• Adder is memoryless

IIT Patna 13

Linear and time invariant (LTI)

• A systems S : X → Y where X and Y are sets of signals is linear if it satisfies the

superposition property

∀x1 , x2 ∈ X and ∀a, b ∈ R S(ax1 + bx2 ) = aS(x1 ) + bS(x2 )

• Time invariance means that whether we apply an input to the system now or T seconds

from now, the output will be identical except for a time delay of T seconds.

• Let Dτ be the delay operator such that (Dτ (x))(t) = x(t − τ )

• For time invariance, S(Dτ (x)) = Dτ (S(x))

IIT Patna 14

Linear and time invariant (LTI)

• A systems S : X → Y where X and Y are sets of signals is linear if it satisfies the

superposition property

∀x1 , x2 ∈ X and ∀a, b ∈ R S(ax1 + bx2 ) = aS(x1 ) + bS(x2 )

• Time invariance means that whether we apply an input to the system now or T seconds

from now, the output will be identical except for a time delay of T seconds.

• Let Dτ be the delay operator such that (Dτ (x))(t) = x(t − τ )

• For time invariance, S(Dτ (x)) = Dτ (S(x))

Z t

1

• θ̇y (t) = Ty (τ )dτ - LTI

Iyy −∞

• Many systems are approximated to LTI

IIT Patna 14

Stability

• A system is bounded input bounded output stable if the output signal is bounded for all

inputs signals that are bounded

• Helicopter is unstable

IIT Patna 15

Feedback systems

• A system with feedback has directed cycle where an output from an actor is fed back to

affect an input of the same actor

x1 e x3 y

+ S1 S2

x2 −

IIT Patna 16

Example: No rotation

• Want to have 0 angular velocity

ψ e Ty θ̇y

+ K Iyy , θ̇(0)

IIT Patna 17

Example: No rotation (contd.)

• Our equation remains the same, only input has changed.

ψ e Ty θ̇y

+ K Iyy , θ̇(0)

IIT Patna 18

Example: No rotation (contd.)

• Our equation remains the same, only input has changed.

Z t Z t

1 1

• θ̇y (t) = θ̇y (0) + Ty (τ ) dτ = θ̇y (0) + (ψ(τ ) − θ̇y (τ )) dτ

Iyy 0 Iyy 0

ψ e Ty θ̇y

+ K Iyy , θ̇(0)

IIT Patna 18

Example: No rotation (contd.)

• Our equation remains the same, only input has changed.

Z t Z t

1 1

• θ̇y (t) = θ̇y (0) + Ty (τ ) dτ = θ̇y (0) + (ψ(τ ) − θ̇y (τ )) dτ

Iyy 0 Iyy 0

• We have, e(t) = ψ(t) − θ̇y (t), Ty (t) = Ke(t)

ψ e Ty θ̇y

+ K Iyy , θ̇(0)

IIT Patna 18

Example: No rotation (contd.)

• Our equation remains the same, only input has changed.

Z t Z t

1 1

• θ̇y (t) = θ̇y (0) + Ty (τ ) dτ = θ̇y (0) + (ψ(τ ) − θ̇y (τ )) dτ

Iyy 0 Iyy 0

• We have, e(t) = ψ(t) − θ̇y (t), Ty (t) = Ke(t)

Z t

K

• Reorganizing we get, θ̇y (t) = θ̇y (0) − θ̇y (t) dτ

Iyy 0

ψ e Ty θ̇y

+ K Iyy , θ̇(0)

IIT Patna 18

Example: No rotation (contd.)

• Our equation remains the same, only input has changed.

Z t Z t

1 1

• θ̇y (t) = θ̇y (0) + Ty (τ ) dτ = θ̇y (0) + (ψ(τ ) − θ̇y (τ )) dτ

Iyy 0 Iyy 0

• We have, e(t) = ψ(t) − θ̇y (t), Ty (t) = Ke(t)

Z t

K

• Reorganizing we get, θ̇y (t) = θ̇y (0) − θ̇y (t) dτ

Iyy 0

Z t

• We know, ae aτ dτ = e at u(t) − 1

0

ψ e Ty θ̇y

+ K Iyy , θ̇(0)

IIT Patna 18

Example: No rotation (contd.)

• Our equation remains the same, only input has changed.

Z t Z t

1 1

• θ̇y (t) = θ̇y (0) + Ty (τ ) dτ = θ̇y (0) + (ψ(τ ) − θ̇y (τ )) dτ

Iyy 0 Iyy 0

• We have, e(t) = ψ(t) − θ̇y (t), Ty (t) = Ke(t)

Z t

K

• Reorganizing we get, θ̇y (t) = θ̇y (0) − θ̇y (t) dτ

Iyy 0

Z t

• We know, ae aτ dτ = e at u(t) − 1

0

• Therefore we have, θ̇y (t) = θ̇y (0)e −Kt/Iyy u(t)

ψ e Ty θ̇y

+ K Iyy , θ̇(0)

IIT Patna 18

Example: Constant rotation

• Only input has changed. ψ(t) = au(t)

ψ e Ty θ̇y

+ K Iyy , θ̇(0)

IIT Patna 19

Example: Constant rotation

• Only input has changed. ψ(t) = au(t)

Z t Z t

1 K

θ̇y (t) = Ty (τ )dτ = (ψ(t) − θ̇y (t))dτ

Iyy 0 Iyy 0

ψ e Ty θ̇y

+ K Iyy , θ̇(0)

IIT Patna 19

Example: Constant rotation

• Only input has changed. ψ(t) = au(t)

Z t Z t

1 K

θ̇y (t) = Ty (τ )dτ = (ψ(t) − θ̇y (t))dτ

Iyy 0 Iyy 0

Z t Z t Z t

K K Kat K

= adτ − θ̇y (τ )dτ = − θ̇y (τ )dτ

Iyy 0 Iyy 0 Iyy Iyy 0

ψ e Ty θ̇y

+ K Iyy , θ̇(0)

IIT Patna 19

Example: Constant rotation

• Only input has changed. ψ(t) = au(t)

Z t Z t

1 K

θ̇y (t) = Ty (τ )dτ = (ψ(t) − θ̇y (t))dτ

Iyy 0 Iyy 0

Z t Z t Z t

K K Kat K

= adτ − θ̇y (τ )dτ = − θ̇y (τ )dτ

Iyy 0 Iyy 0 Iyy Iyy 0

ψ e Ty θ̇y

+ K Iyy , θ̇(0)

IIT Patna 19

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