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Material of construction

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION, SELECTION &


FABRICATION
 The designer of any product, other than software
must get involved with material selection.
 Only occasionally will the exact grade of material
be specified by the customer.
 Even then the designer must understand the
material to be able to design the product.
Decisions, decisions!
 So many materials, so much information.
 How do we decide?
 How do we begin to choose?
 First we need to look at the function of the
product – product analysis
 Possible Materials
 Steel
 Aluminium
 Glass
 Plastic
 Material Properties:
 The most important characteristics to be considered
when selecting a material of construction are:
 Mechanical properties:
 Strength-tensile strength
 Stiffness-elastic modulus (Young's modulus)
 Toughness-fracture resistance
 Hardness-wear resistance
 Fatigue resistance
 Creep resistance
 The effect of high and low temperatures on the
mechanical properties
 Corrosion resistance
 Any special properties required; such as, thermal
conductivity, electrical resistance, magnetic properties
 Ease of fabrication-forming, welding, casting
 Availability in standard sizes-plates, sections, tubes
 Cost
 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
 Tensile strength
 Stiffness
 Toughness
 Hardness
 Fatigue
 Creep
 Tensile strength
The tensile strength (tensile stress) is a measure of
the basic strength of a material. It is the maximum stress
that the material will withstand, measured by a standard
tensile test.

Stiffness
Stiffness is the ability to resist bending and
buckling. It is a function of the elastic modulus of the
material and the shape of the cross-section of the
member (the second moment of area).
Toughness
 Toughness is associated with tensile strength, and is a
measure of the material's resistance to crack
propagation.
 The crystal structure of ductile materials, such as
steel, aluminium and copper, is such that they stop
the propagation of a crack by local yielding at the
crack tip.
 In other materials, such as the cast irons and glass, the
structure is such that local yielding does not occur and
the materials are brittle. Brittle materials are weak in
tension but strong in compression.
Hardness:
 Hardness is the measure of how
resistant solid matter is to various kinds of permanent
shape change when a force is applied
 The surface hardness, as measured in a standard test,
is an indication of a material‘s ability to resist wear.
 An important property if the equipment is being
designed to handle abrasive solids, or liquids
containing suspended solids which are likely to cause
erosion
Fatigue:
 Fatigue failure is likely to occur in equipment subject
to cyclic loading; for example, rotating equipment,
such as pumps and compressors, and equipment
subjected to pressure cycling.

Creep
 Creep is the gradual extension of a material under a
steady tensile stress, over a prolonged period of time.
It is usually only important at high temperatures; for
instance, with steam and gas turbine blades
Effect of temperature
 The tensile strength and elastic modulus of metals
decrease with increasing temperature.
 If equipment is being designed to operate at high
temperatures, materials that retain their strength
must be selected. The stainless steels are superior in
this respect to plain carbon steels.
 Creep resistance will be important if the material is
subjected to high stresses at elevated temperatures.
 At low temperatures, less than 10°C, metals that are
normally ductile can fail in a brittle manner.
 Serious disasters have occurred through the failure of
welded carbon steel vessels at low temperatures.
CORROSION RESISTANCE
o General wastage of material-uniform corrosion.
o Galvanic corrosion-dissimilar metals in contact.
o Fitting-localised attack.
o Intergranular corrosion.
o Stress corrosion.
o Erosion-corrosion.
o High temperature oxidation.
o Hydrogen embrittlement
 UNIFORM CORROSION
This term describes the more or less uniform wastage of
material by corrosion, with no pitting or other forms of
local attack.

GALVANIC CORROSION
Galvanic corrosion occurs when two different metals
and/or alloys have physical or electrical contact with
each other and are immersed in a common electrolyte
PITTING
 Pitting is the term given to very localized corrosion
that forms pits in the metal surface.

INTERGRANULAR CORROSION
 Intergranular corrosion is the corrosion of material at
the grain (crystal) boundaries.
 Though the loss of material will be small,
intergranular corrosion can cause the catastrophic
failure of equipment.
 Intergranular corrosion is a common form of attack
on alloys but occurs rarely with pure metals
 EFFECT OF STRESS
 Corrosion rate and the form of attack can be changed
if the material is under stress.
 Generally, the rate of attack will not change
significantly within normal design stress values.
 However, for some combinations of metal, corrosive
media and temperature, the phenomenon called
stress cracking can occur.
 This is the general name given to a form of attack in
which cracks are produced that grow rapidly, and
can cause premature, brittle failure, of the metal.
 EROSION-CORROSION
 The term erosion-corrosion is used to describe the
increased rate of attack caused by a combination of
erosion and corrosion.
 If a fluid stream contains suspended particles, or
where there is high velocity or turbulence, erosion will
tend to remove the products of corrosion and any
protective film, and the rate of attack will be markedly
increased.
 If erosion is likely to occur, more resistant materials
must be specified, or the material surface protected in
some way. For example, plastics inserts are used to
prevent erosion corrosion at the inlet to heat-
exchanger tubes.
 HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION
 Corrosion is normally associated with aqueous
solutions but oxidation can occur in dry conditions.
 Carbon and low alloy steels will oxidize rapidly at high
temperatures and their use is limited to temperatures
below 500°C,
 Chromium is the most effective alloying element to
give resistance to oxidation, forming a tenacious
oxide film.
 Chromium alloys should be specified for equipment
subject to temperatures above 500°C in oxidizing
atmospheres.
 Hydrogen embrittlement
 Hydrogen embrittlement is the name given to the loss
of ductility caused by the absorption (and reaction) of
hydrogen in a metal.
 It is of particular importance when specifying steels
for use in hydrogen reforming plant.
 Alloy steels have a greater resistance to hydrogen
embrittlement than the plain carbon steels.
Selection For Corrosion Resistance
In order to select the material of construction, the
process environment to which the material will be
exposed must be clearly defined. Addition to the main
chemical present, the following must be considered.
1.Temperature: Effect corrosion rate and mechanical
properties.
2. Pressure.
3. pH.
4. Presence of trace impurities.
5. Stream Velocity and erosion-corrosion.
6. Heat transfer rates- differential temperatures.
COMMONLY USED MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION:

o IRON AND STEEL


o STAINLESS STEEL
o NICKEL
o MONEL
o INCONEL
o THE HASTELLOYS
o COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS
o ALUMINUM AND ITS ALLOYS
o LEAD
o TITANIUM
o TANTALUM
o ZIRCONIUM
NON-METALS
o PVC
o POLYVINYLIDENE
o GLASS-FIBRE REINFORCED PLASTICS
o GLASS AND GLASSED STEEL
o CARBON AND GRAPHITE
o STONEWARE AND PORCELAIN
o BRICK AND CEMENT MATERIALS
o RUBBER AND ELASTOMERS
o PLASTICS
o WOOD
o REFRACTORY MATERIALS
 Case Study (1) – The bike
What is the function of a bike – obvious?
 How does the function depend on the type of
bike?
 Racing
 Touring
 Mountain bike
 Childs
 How is it made to be easily maintained?
 What should it look like (colours etc.)?
 What should it cost?
 How has it been made comfortable to ride?
 How do the mechanical parts work and interact?
 System Analysis – The bike:
 We now need to look at the following for each
part:
 Requirements (mechanical, ergonomic,
aesthetic etc.)
 Function
 How many are going to be made?
 What manufacturing methods are we going
to use?
 Frame Materials
 Steel:
Strong, stiff, heavy, but cheap
 Aluminium:
Weaker, lighter, more expensive than steel
 Composite materials:
Strong, stiff, very light, but expensive to buy and
to fabricate.
Bike Frame
 What Properties?
 Mechanical: Strength, modulus etc.
 Physical: Density, melting point.
 Electrical: Conductivity, resistivity.
 Aesthetic: Appearance, texture, colour
 Process ability: Ductility, mouldability
And last, but not least……….
Cost, cost, cost!
Case Study (2): Drink Container
 What are the requirements?
 Provide leak free environment for storing
liquid.
 Comply with food standards & protect liquid
from health hazards.
 For fizzy drinks, withstand pressure.
 Brand image & identity
 Easy to open
 Easy to store & transport
 Cheap for high volumes.