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2018 INTEGRATED LEARNING PROGRAMME, ILP 2018

IASBABA

[ETHICS-APTITUDE-GS 4]
Integrated Learning Programme 2018 is a step towards ‘Enabling a person located at the most
remote destination a chance at cracking AIR 1 in UPSC/IAS’
Contents
Values ...................................................................................................................................................... 2
What is value? ................................................................................................................................. 2
Types of values? .............................................................................................................................. 2
Value Pyramid ................................................................................................................................. 3
Rokeach Value Survey ..................................................................................................................... 3
Aptitude .............................................................................................................................................. 4
Attributes of a Good Administrator .................................................................................................... 5
Apathy, Sympathy, Empathy, Compassion ......................................................................................... 5
Apathy ............................................................................................................................................. 5
Sympathy ........................................................................................................................................ 5
Empathy .......................................................................................................................................... 6
Empathy in Governance .................................................................................................................. 6
Compassion ..................................................................................................................................... 7
Tolerance ............................................................................................................................................ 9
Objectivity ........................................................................................................................................... 9
Impartiality ........................................................................................................................................ 10
Integrity ............................................................................................................................................. 11
Types of Integrity .......................................................................................................................... 11
Reasons for decline in Integrity in Governance: ........................................................................... 12
Utility of Integrity in Governance and Public Administration: ...................................................... 12
Anonymity ......................................................................................................................................... 13
Forgiveness ....................................................................................................................................... 13
Humility ............................................................................................................................................. 13
Gratitude ........................................................................................................................................... 14
Courage ............................................................................................................................................. 14
Honesty ............................................................................................................................................. 14
Justice................................................................................................................................................ 14
Ahimsa .............................................................................................................................................. 14
Mutual Respect ................................................................................................................................. 15
Activism ............................................................................................................................................. 15
Vision................................................................................................................................................. 15
Adaptability ....................................................................................................................................... 15
Perseverance..................................................................................................................................... 16

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Values
“The decisions you make are a choice of values that reflect your life in every way”

"When your values are clear, making decisions become easier"

All the human beings continuously aspire for a happy life, a fulfilling and successful life, and
the purpose of education is to provide adequate competence to actualize this aspiration.
For this, first of all it is essential to understand- what is really valuable for human being, and,
is really conducive to a happy and fulfilling life?

What is Value
Values represent personal beliefs about the modes of conduct. Values can be defined as
broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of actions or outcomes.

 These are abstract ideals not tied to any object and doesn't have any shape e.g
Peace, Honesty etc.
 They serve as internal guides and have evaluative element. They are global and
strongly entrenched in our personalities.
 By applying values we make subjective judgments about a thing.
 We acquire values as a process of socialisation.
 Values are not inborn. If they had been inborn then no training would have been
required. They have to be inculcated.
 We have a value hierarchy. Value Pyramid.

Types of values
There are intrinsic and instrumental values.

 Intrinsic values are something that is valued purely for itself e.g. Hedonism
(tendency of an individual to seek pleasure and avoid pain).
 Instrumental values imply something that is valued because it is a means to achieve
something on other end. They play an important role in Teleological system where
moral choices are those which lead to best possible consequences.

Intrinsic values are objective in nature. Even though socialisation process is similar the way
an individual perceives and interprets may lead to different value hierarchy. There is also a
concept of terminal values (Moksha).

 Values applied to objects become attitudes e.g I value honesty because I have a +ve
attitude towards whistle-blowers.
 What will not change are intrinsic values but what will change is instrumental values.

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Value Pyramid
Values are relatively consistent but not static because our environment is dynamic and
constantly changes. Values are global and all encompassing.

For ex: Two person may be demonstrating honesty differently:

 Not paying bribe


 Ensuring dishonest are punished
 Whistleblowing.

Thus, despite same values the means to achieve the goals are different. Basic pillars and
structure of our values remain unaltered. Changes that we see are in behaviours and not in
values. However, some values may undergo transformation over time.

Values serve as adhesive and bind the society together. Social integration is common goal of
all societies across world.

Rokeach Value Survey

The Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) is a classification system of values. Developed by social
psychologist Milton Rokeach, the system consists of two sets of values, 18 individual value
items in each. One set is called terminal values the other instrumental values.

RVS is based on a 1968 volume (Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values) which presented the
philosophical basis for the association of fundamental values with beliefs and attitudes. His
value system was instrumentalised into the Rokeach Value Survey in his 1973 book The
Nature of Human Values.
Terminal Values
Terminal Values refer to desirable end-states of existence. These are the goals that a person
would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. These values vary among different groups of
people in different cultures.

The terminal values in RVS are:

True Friendship Mature Love Self-Respect


Happiness Inner Harmony Equality
Freedom Pleasure Social Recognition
Wisdom Salvation Family Security
National Security A Sense of Accomplishment A World of Beauty
A World at Peace A Comfortable Life An Exciting Life

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Instrumental Values
Instrumental Values refer to preferable modes of behaviour. These are preferable modes of
behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values.

The Instrumental Values are:

Cheerfulness Ambition Love


Cleanliness Self-Control Capability
Courage Politeness Honesty
Imagination Independence Intellect
Broad-Mindedness Logic Obedience
Helpfulness Responsibility Forgiveness

The task for participants in the survey is to arrange the 18 terminal values, followed by the
18 instrumental values, into an order "of importance to YOU, as guiding principles in YOUR
life"

Aptitude
Aptitude is a component of competency to do a certain kind of work at a certain level, which
can also be considered talent. It is basically the ability to deal with aspects of environment
and the natural ability to acquire skill in some specific field.

Aptitude is also defined as the aptness or quickness to succeed fn a specific field of activity.It
is a present condition that is indicative of individual s potentialities for future, Thus, aptitude
implies the prediction about the individual's future performance.

It is important that a person's aptitude is in alignment with the requirements of his career.
because it is one of the important factor of a job. If a person does not have the required
aptitude then no amount of training can ensure effective performance. Every job requires a
set of different aptitudes. For e.g.- For a civil servant it is important to be good at analytical
thinking and good communication skills as he has to make policies as well as deal with
multiple stakeholders.

There are two sets of ideals for civil servants -

a) To serve others; and

b) Government is a public trust and public service a vocation.

Further, Aptitude is the competency or ability to acquire skills. Possessing right aptitude is
essential to excel in any career. Values are also the enduring set of standards against which
an individual is judged. Hence, Civil services are based on a set of foundational values.

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Attributes of a Good Administrator

Paul H Appleby in his report (1961) 'Public Administration for a Welfare State', mentioned
following attributes of a good administrator-

• Willingness to assume responsibility,

• A steadily enlarging ability to deal with more problems.

• A strong bent toward action.

• A good listener,

• Effective with people.

• Capacity to build his own strength by building the competence of his organization.

• Capacity to use his institutional resources,

• Avoiding using power or authority for their own sake.

• Welcoming reports of troublesome things.

• A good team-worker.

• A good initiator

To have all these attributes, a person should have strong foundational values. In first VAN,
we have already mentioned about 7 values mentioned by Nolan committee. We will discuss
few more in detail here.

Apathy, Sympathy, Empathy, Compassion

Degree of action

Apathy < Sympathy < Empathy < Compassion

Apathy
 Absense of emotion/ indifference (Anhedonis). It means complete absence of action.

Sympathy
 Understanding of the difficulties and problems faced by others i.e. there is presence
of emotions.
 Understanding not as per the perspective of others but only as per own's
perspective.

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 There is a response of pity and attempt to look down upon others who are in
distress.

Empathy

It is the ability to comprehend another's feelings and re-experience them in oneself. In other
words, putting oneself in other’s shoe and feeling what the other is feeling . It is a kind of
induction process by which emotions both positive and negative are shared and which
increases the chance of similar behaviour in the participants.

It is defined by behaviours such as:

 Giving full attention to someone.


 Detecting and interpreting non-verbal cues.
 Acknowledging others perspective.
 Understanding another's felt experience.

There are 2 types of empathy:


Affective Empathy
Sensations and feelings, we get in response to other's emotions. It involves mirroring what
other person is feeling.
Cognitive Empathy
Perspective taking and is the ability to identify and understand other people's emotions

Requirements for display of empathy

 Intelligence
 Effective listening - Social isolation is more due to hearing loss than vision loss.
 Imagination - People with vivid imagery are better placed to emphathise.
 Personal involvement with appropriate detachment.
 Unconditional positive regard for the individual in question
 Ability to understand and use the non-verbal cues.

Empathy in Governance
Empathy allows the leaders and administrators become more aware of the changing
environment and be willing to adopt and do things differently. Adaptability provides leaders
an advantage in cross cultural situations and prevents them from offending employees.

Empathetic administrations are more likely to have an appropriate degree of openness


about diversity and differences between cultures. It also plays an important role in
developing trust in admin employee relationship.

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 It helps administrators to increase their capacity and willingness to understand
situations and accept the proposed changes and opinions of others.
 It allows administrators to make work environment more enjoyable and productive.
 It promotes superior listening which in turn facilitates the development of inter
personal relations.
 Power to read between the lines and take appropriate decisions.
 It reduces relationship barriers. Relationships stemming from empathy are likely to
enhance the perception of leader’s integrity and credibility.

Empathy promotes

 Intergroup interaction.
 Conflict management
 Emotional control
 Social awareness
 Innnovation
 Team work
 Interpersonal trust
 Organisational productivity

Compassion

Literal meaning is to suffer. Desire to mitigate the sufferings of others. Verbal + Action
oriented service. It involves empathy + action. It's the feeling of empathy for others. More
involved than simple empathy. It gives rise to active desire to alleviate the sufferings of
others. It is the basis for 'ahimsa' and is the key component in what manifests in social
context as altruism. Involves both sensitivity and commitment to try to do something to
reduce or prevent it.

It requires:

 Being attentive to needs of others.


 Willingness to exert self-control
 Self-awareness.
 Skilfully helping others
 Being calm and composed
 The use of reasoning

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Components of Compassion

Sensitivity

Empathy

Motivation Compassion

Non
judgmental
approach

Distress
tolerance

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Sensitivity: Being attentive enough to notice when others need help.

Empathy: Being able to step into the shoes of others and feel and see the things from their
perspective.

Motivation: The desire and commitment to be caring, supportive and helpful to others.

Non-judgmental approach: Not judging person's pain and distress but simply accepting and
validating their experience.

Distress tolerance: The ability to bear difficult emotions within ourselves and in others.

Tolerance
It's the capacity for or the practice of recognising and respecting the beliefs and practices of
others. Tolerance therefore is a fair, objective and permissive attitude towards those whose
opinions, practices, race, religion and nationality differ from our own. The two common
denominators of tolerance are:

1. Need for respectful and fair attitude towards others.


2. This attitude is directed towards those whose beliefs and opinions happen to be
different from ours.

 Tolerance therefore is having respect for the other person's right to express
their beliefs while maintaining respect for person even if he happens to
disagree with own beliefs.
 True tolerance encourages on open debate.
 Democratic governance tolerates broad spectrum of behaviours and
therefore inculcate in its citizens greater tolerance than the totalitarian
regimes or governance which emphasize on maximum control.

Objectivity
It refers to basing our advice and decisions on rigorous analysis of evidence. OR The
principle of objectivity implies that the decisions and actions should be based on observable
phenomena and should not be influenced by emotions, biases or personal prejudices.
Objectivity ensures:

 Civil servants take decisions on the merit of the case and take account of expert and
professional advice.
 Provide information and advice including the advice to ministers on the basis of
evidence and accurately present opinions and facts.
 Must not ignore inconvenient facts when providing advice or making decisions.

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 Must ensure the implementation of the policies once the decisions are taken.
 The values of impartiality and objectivity are complementary to each other.
 The decisions based on merits and facts lead to an impartial decision making.

Impartiality
Impartiality as a principle of justice prescribes to public servants that decisions should be
based on objective criteria, rather than on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the
benefit to one person over another for improper reasons, it is necessary for promoting
equality in the society.

For example, with the change in regime there is change in priorities and focus of the
government with earlier programmes seeing the light of the day and new programmes
being introduced. In this dynamic situation, how to ensure partiality. Also, there arises
situation where the ruling party at the centre may be different from party in the state and
the civil servant has to tread a fine line as not to be seen favouring one party over another.

Impartiality is to be seen in two contexts:

1. Public Impartiality: A public servant will serve as an instrument of government. Provide


services without discriminating on the basis of caste, religion and gender. Give due regard to
the diversity of the nation.

2.Political: Principle of working without reservation and with devotion for the success of
every government.

Advantages of Impartiality

 Provides professionalism and permanence as opposed to reluctance to change


 It assures the public that their current aspirations will be faithfully served by the
govt.
 The elected ministers are assured of loyalty of the civil servants.
 The officers themselves enjoy high morale since they believe they will be rewarded
for their merit and not for their political considerations.
 To offer free and frank advice on policy matters using the powers of delegated
legislation to ensure optimal utilisation of resources.

Is Absolute Neutrality possible?

Several welfare programmes have high gestation period and take long to have any
considerable impact. It is not possible for the programme to bear fruit within the term of 1
political leadership. A certain level of commitment towards such programmes is unavoidable
otherwise neutrality may degenerate into disinterest.

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Integrity

Coherence between what is said and what is done.

 Word Integrity comes from the Latin word Integer meaning whole or complete. It
means soundness of moral principles. Person must be consistent across time and
situations.
 Persons' inner sense of wholeness deriving from honesty and consistent uprightness
of character.
 A person with integrity does right things for right reasons. Integrity involves basing
one's actions on internally consistent framework or principles. People with integrity
are guided by a set of core principles that empowers them to behave consistently to
high standards.

The core principles of integrity are the virtues such as:

 Compassion
 Generosity
 Dependability
 Honesty
 Kindness
 Objectivity
 Trust
 Wisdom
 The preamble of our constitution mentions that the states and its functionaries will
act with integrity and ethics because dishonest and unethical state can't promote
any basic principles laid down in the preamble.
 Article 14 specifically prohibits state from discriminating. Article 38 makes it
mandatory on public servants to behave ethically.

Types of Integrity

Intellectual integrity
It requires being willing to stand up for your best judgment of truth by willing to act in
accordance with the judgment when the need arises. It requires caring for truth for its own
sake. When we fail to stand up for our best judgment of truth we are said to lack intellectual
integrity. Persons with Intellectual integrity are willing to pursue the truth. They don't just
go along with the popular opinion or what is fashionable at that point in time. It is
characterised by openness and fairness. It requires one to overcome self-deception and
temptation offered by commercialism.

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Personal Integrity
It consists of organising one's desires, commitments, volitions, values and actions in such a
way that there is no conflict between them. When a person possesses a personal integrity
then various aspect of his self are fully integrated. It requires that the person subscribes to
some consistent set of principles and commitments in the face of temptations and
challenges and uphold these principles or commitments for what individuals take to be the
right reasons.
Moral Integrity
It requires an unconditional and unwavering commitment to some or the other moral
principles. We can't have moral integrity without having personal integrity.

Reasons for decline in Integrity in Governance:

Commodification and
relative deprivation
Integrity in Governance
Reasons for decline in

Amoral familyism and


nepotism

process of socialisation

Absence or non-
visibility of role models

Arbitrary reward and


punishment

Utility of Integrity in Governance and Public Administration:


 It ensures that admin and public functionaries don't misuse their official position by
using information acquired in the course of their official duties to further their
private gains.
How one can ensure integrity in public administration??
 Comply with law and uphold the administration of justice.
 Keep accurate records and handle information as openly as possible within the legal
framework and do not disclose official information without authority.
 Always act in a way that is professional and deserves and retains the confidence of
all those with whom we are dealing.
 Fulfil their duties and obligations responsibly and make sure that public and other
resources are used efficiently and appropriately.

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 Deal with public and their affairs fairly, efficiently promptly, sensitively and
effectively to the best of their abilities.
 Not accept gifts or receive any other benefits which might be seen to compromise
your personal judgment.

Anonymity
• It is a condition for neutrality.

 To render advice impartially, frankly, and freely, a civil servant must have the
assurance that he/she is not dragged into public debate or openly identified with a
given policy.

For ex: Anonymity meant that the Civil Servant would merely advice the minister
(politician) from behind and would be protected from being exposed to the din and fury
of polities.

• The All India Services (conduct) Rules 1968 prescribe that the Civil Servants have to avoid
occasions of self-publicity so that their anonymity is preserved

Forgiveness

Forgiveness is typically defined as the process of concluding resentment, indignation or


anger as a result of a perceived offense, difference or mistake, and/or ceasing to demand
punishment or restitution. The Oxford English Dictionary defines forgiveness as to grant free
pardon and to give up all claim on account of an offense or debt. The concept and benefits
of forgiveness have been explored in religious thought, the social sciences and medicine.
Forgiveness may be considered simply in terms of the person who forgives including
forgiving themselves, in terms of the person forgiven and/or in terms of the relationship
between the forgiver and the person forgiven.

Humility
It is quality of not thinking that one is better than other people. Though strong self-
confidence and high self-esteem are healthy personality traits, there is a point when they
cease to be virtues, the point at which a person feels more important than another, or
above reproach and learning. Humility on the other hand, breeds growth and friendship.

• It is considered as mother of all virtues. Being humble is very essential for civil servants.
They can turn arrogant because of power and authority so they are expected to be humble.
Civil servants should not think themselves so big that other people look small. They work in
a team, so they should willingly give credit to others who have helped them along the way.
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Gratitude
It is a feeling of being grateful and wanting to express thanks. Gratitude is a close
companion of both integrity and humility. Gratitude without integrity is insincere flattery.
Gratitude follows both integrity and humility. Gratitude can be expressed in many ways. It
can even come as a small concrete token of thanks.

The civil servants should be grateful to their seniors and subordinates for their cooperation.
Gratitude is something that shows humanity of a person. Civil servants are helped by many
people in order to achieve their work. Hence, they should be grateful to all those who have
helped them.

Courage
Courage, bravery, fortitude, will, and intrepidity, is the ability to confront fear, pain,
risk/danger, uncertainty, or intimidation. "Physical courage" is courage in the face of
physical pain, hardship, death, or threat of death, while “moral courage" is the ability to act
rightly in the face of popular position, shame, scandal, or discouragement.

Honesty
As defined by positive psychologists, honesty and authenticity as a subset of courage means
more than simply telling the truth. It involves integrity in all areas of one's life and the ability
to be true to oneself and one's role in the world across circumstances.

For ex: Holders of public office have a duty to declare any private interests relating to their
public duties and to take steps to resolve any conflicts arising in a way that protects the
public interest.

Justice
Justice is one of the important moral values on which other moral behaviours depend. For
instance, we must try to be fair and just to others. The trader should not tamper with either
his weighing scale or goods or sell his commodities above fixed prices. The civil servant too
should be honest and hardworking to justify the salary he or she receives monthly. And
most important of administer justice without fear or favor. They should always treat all men
equally before the law.

Ahimsa
In Jainism, the understanding and implementation of ahimsa is more radical, scrupulous,
and comprehensive than in any other religion. Non-violence is seen as the most essential
religious duty for everyone. Gandhiji in Indian national freedom movement used non-
violence as a tool to fight mighty business.

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Mutual Respect
We all have our strengths as well as weaknesses. Mutual respect means having respect in
our minds for everyone. Even if you are up against a person, wherein it is your honour
against theirs, it is important to have mutual respect. It is this respect that makes us human.
Without this respect, we become like animals. This respect can help us keep the balance
between welfare state and social Darwinism in society. We need to respect our friends for
their friendship and our enemies for their ability to be competitive and their conviction.
Mutual respect is one of the important values in a relationship.

Activism
It signifies a bold, fearless and upright civil servant. A civil servant must have a moral
character and strength of conviction to actively pursue the common good, particularly when
his perception is at variance with that of his political master. His obligation to the state and
the values and principles manifest in the constitution must override his loyalty to the
government of the day.

Essential for standing up for the principles. Recently some of the civil servants like DIG D.
Roopa, Durga Shakti Nagpal and Ashok Khemka have displayed activism and set out new
standards of public services.

Vision
It is the ability to think about or plan the future with great imagination and intelligence.
Vision not only helps us spot present opportunities where others might not see them, but it
also points us towards the future.

 To achieve something in life, it is very essential, one has a well-defined vision, and a
set of goals. Dreams are extremely important. One cannot do something unless he
imagines it. Visions helps one to see the possibilities of tomorrow with in the
realities of today. For ex: Ex-President Late A.P.J Abdul Kalam had a vision of making
India a superpower by 2020. So, he worked on his Dream 2020 project throughout
his post president tenure.
 The civil servants are, therefore expected to have a long-term vision for the policy
formulation and implementation. It helps to carry out the policy process in a desired
direction. Visions helps them to become innovative.

Adaptability
It is the ability to change or be changed in order to deal successfully with new situations.
Though some individuals allow adversity to bend or break their spirits, other quickly adapt
to their surroundings and surmount the opposition. The ability to adapt and make the best
of difficult situations is a sure test of greatness. When encountering opposition, successful
people find ways to rise above and make the best of circumstances. For ex: in recent times,
the whole governance model getting shifted towards e-governance model, So a civil servant
should be adaptable to new challenges and learn required skills quickly.
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Perseverance
It is the quality of continuing to try to achieve a particular aim despite difficulties. Two of the
greatest obstacles for people to overcome in life are failure and fatigue. They get a good
idea, put together some plans and all goes well until they meet their first failure or they
jump into their work, enjoy a few successes and then realize that there is so much more
work to do than they ever expected, and their energy fizzles.

Perseverance trumps both failure and fatigue. It gets people through both hardship and
drudgery. Some time the reason people don't persevere is because the lenses through
which they view life are focused on failing, not succeeding. Some people get caught up or
lost in their yesterdays. But the past is to be understood within the context of the future.
Patience is often equated with passivity, but patience is a proactive choice and a vital form
of perseverance.

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