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Choose Materials for

Peter Elliott,
Corrosion & Materials
Consultancy, Inc.

High temperatures,
stresses, and aterials are selected on the basis of service requirements, no-
tably strength, so corrosion resistance (stability) may not be
the presence of the primary design consideration. Assemblies need to be strong
elements such as and resilient to the unique loads and stresses imparted on them,
which can include significant temperature changes and thermal gradients for
oxygen, sulfur, or many high-temperature applications.
the halogens can In making a choice, it is necessary to know what materials are available
and to what extent they are suited to the specific application. The decision is
add up to trouble. quite involved and the choice is significantly affected by the environment
and the intended use, be it a reactor vessel, tubes, supports, shields, springs,
Here is how to or others. Some problems may occur because of distortion and cracking
screen candidate caused by thermal expansion/contraction; typically, a high-temperature alloy
might change 4 in./ft from ambient to 1,000°C (1,832°F).
alloys for such The user or designer needs to properly understand that the environment
service. dictates the materials selection process at all stages of the process or applica-
tion. For example, an alloy that performs well at the service temperature may
corrode because of aqueous (dew point) corrosion at lower temperatures dur-
< Discuss This Article! > ing off-load periods, or through some lack of design detail or poor mainte-
nance procedures that introduce local air draughts that cool the system (e.g.,
To join an online discussion about this article
with the author and other readers, go to the
at access doors, inspection ports, etc.).
ProcessCity Discussion Room for CEP articles To provide as optimum performance as possible, it is necessary for a sup-
at plier to be aware of the application, and for the user to be aware of the gen-
eral range of available materials. Otherwise, severe problems can result. For
Based on a paper presented at CORROSION/2000 (NACE example, a catastrophic failure occurred within weeks for an ignitor, made
International 55th Annual Conference and Exhibition), Mar.
26–31, 2000, Orlando, FL, USA. © NACE International.
with Type 304 stainless steel (UNS S30400, iron, 19% Cr, 9% Ni, 0.08% C).
All rights reserved. Type 304 stainless steel would have been suitable for clean oxidizing condi-

CEP February 2001 75


tions to about 900°C (1,650°F) in High-temperature rich in chromia, alumina, or silica, re-
continuous service, or 845°C alloys and uses spectively. In more recent years, there
(1,550°F) in intermittent (temperature High-temperature alloys are typi- have been developments in applying
cycling) service (1). The failure oc- cally iron-, nickel- or cobalt-based al- so-called alloy coatings, for example,
curred because of overheating with loys containing >20% chromium (or the use of MCRALY (metal, chromi-
contributions from sulfidation (hot 30% for cobalt), which is sufficient to um, aluminum, and yttrium) on steels
corrosion). The true cause of failure form a protective oxide against fur- or other high-temperature alloy sub-
was a material mix-up, because Type ther oxidation. The basic alloys in- strates. Efforts have also continued in
304 was not specified, but was inad- clude various additional elements that weld overlay work, where a strong
vertently used. aid in corrosion resistance, notably base metal can support a corrosion-
aluminum (typically >4% to develop resistant surface-coated layer.
Mechanical limits of materials an alumina scale), silicon (up to 5% Applications — In considering
In considering traditional alloys, it to develop an amorphous (glass-like) materials options, a thorough knowl-
is important for the designer and user scale that is complementary to chro- edge of the service applications
to be fully aware of the mechanical mia), and rare earth elements (typi- (stress-bearing service; cyclic loading
limits of a material. For example, the cally <1%, e.g., yttrium, cerium, and or not; frequency of cycling; impact
ASME Pressure Vessel Codes advise lanthanum, that improve scale adhe- or erosion effects; thermal expansion
that the maximum allowable stress sion). Other additions, such as the re- and contraction) is needed.
shall not exceed whichever is the active metals, the refractory metals, Different high-temperature corro-
lowest of: (i) 100% of the average and carbon, primarily improve me- sion processes are simultaneously in-
stress to produce a creep rate of chanical properties. The beneficial volved in many common service ap-
0.01% in 1,000 h; (ii) 67% of the av- and detrimental roles of common al- plications. Some of these are syner-
erage stress to cause rupture after loying elements on the anticipated gistic, which creates a formidable
100,000 h; and (iii) 80% of the mini- performance of alloys at high-temper- challenge for users and alloy produc-
mum stress to cause rupture after atures is covered by Agarwal and ers. Some examples of the forms as-
100,000 h. Brill (2). sociated with various applications are
These recommendations may be Refractory metals — Molybde- given in Table 1 (3, 4).
better appreciated by extracting typi- num, which is a beneficial addition
cal data for Type 304 intended for use for resisting aqueous chloride-in- Types of high-temperature
in a pressure vessel up to 815°C duced pitting corrosion (found in corrosion
(1,500°F). Based upon ASME tables, Types 316 and 317 stainless steels, There are certain distinguishing
for a load of 17 MPa (2.5 ksi) at and the 6%-Mo alloys), is prone to features about the morphology of
760°C (1,400°F), the expected design catastrophic oxidation as tempera- high-temperature corrosion that aid in
life would be 24 yr; at 788°C tures exceed about 700°C (1,292°F), deciding upon the cause of damage.
(1,450°F), the life falls to 7 yr; and at the point above which MoO3 forms Some typical indications include
815°C (1,500°F), it is only 2.2 yr. eutectic mixtures with iron, nickel, thick scales, grossly thinned metal,
Thus, a short-term temperature excur- and chromium oxides. The oxide burnt (blackened) or charred surfaces,
sion can have a significant effect on MoO3 melts at 795°C (1,462°F°). molten phases, deposits of various
equipment life. Also to be noted is Catastrophic oxidation rapidly ren- colors, distortion and cracking, and
that a small increase in loading, for ders a metal into a useless powdery magnetism in what was first a non-
example, from 2.5 to 3 ksi at 760°C oxide. Damage is worse in stagnant magnetic (e.g., austenitic) matrix.
(1,400°F), can markedly reduce the conditions and appears to be exacer- Damage varies significantly based
life expectancy, here, from 24 to 9 yr. bated when sodium oxide is present upon the environment, and will be
Overheating is the most common (e.g., from insulation). All of the re- most severe when a material’s oxida-
cause of high-temperature corrosion fractory metals (tungsten, tantalum, tion limits are exceeded, notably
failure, but the temperature influence niobium, and molybdenum) may ex- when an alloy sustains breakaway at-
on mechanical properties is of equal perience catastrophic oxidation. Sili- tack by oxygen/sulfur, halogen/oxy-
or even more significance in that cide coatings have shown some to gen, low-melting fluxing salts, molten
many failures occur because of creep offer some resistance to this catas- glasses, or molten metals, especially
deformation (creep voids) and ther- trophic (“pest”) oxidation. after fires.
mal fatigue. Overheating can arise for Coatings — High-temperature
various reasons, including an unex- coatings or surface modifications are Oxidation
pected accumulation of tenacious de- generally based on chromium, alu- Many industrial processes involve
posits that can foul tubes in a heat minum, or silicon, which, at high oxidation, i.e., a metal reacts in air to
exchanger. temperatures, form protective oxides form and sustain a protective oxide.

76 February 2001 CEP

Table 1. Typical process conditions causing corrosion.
Process or Components Temperature Type(s) of corrosion
O S C Cl F N Slag Melt Others
Steam reforming tubes To 1,000°C • •
Steam cracking tubes: ethylene To 1,000°C • •
Vinyl chloride crackers 650°C •
Hydrocrackers: heaters 550–600°C • •
Coke calcining recuperators 815°C • • •
Cat cracking regenerators To 800°C •
Flare-stack tips 950–1,080°C • • • Cl2; marine corr.
CS2 furnace tubes 850°C • • Deposits
Melamine/urea reactors 450–500°C •
Reactors in Ti production 900°C • •
Nitric acid: catalyst grids 930°C • • •
Linings for Al pyrohydrolysis To 1,000°C • • •
Nuclear processing reactors 750-–800°C • •
HTGR* (gas-cooled) reactors 750–950°C •
Oil-fired boilers/superheaters 850–900°C • • • • Fuel ash attack
Gas-turbine blades 950+°C • • • • • Deposits
Waste incinerators 470–500°C • • • • • • Liquid metals; deposits
Fluidized-bed combustors >600°C • • • • • High-Cl coal
Glass: recuperators 1,090°C • • • •
Hot-dip galvanizing 455°C • Molten Zn
* HTGR is high-temperature gas reactor.

There can be several oxide products, prove strength and to control (that is, combustion atmospheres, petrochemi-
some of which are less desirable, for minimize) grain growth at elevated cal processing, gas turbines, and coal
example, wustite, a defective oxide of temperatures. gasification. Sulfides (e.g., sulfur
iron that forms rapidly at about Certain alloys (usually those with vapor, hydrogen sulfide) can be very
540°C (1,000°F) on steel. rare earth additions) are more re- damaging, because metal sulfides
Most high-temperature alloys are silient to oxidation under thermal cy- form at faster rates than do metal ox-
oxidation resistant, so price, availabil- cling (shock) conditions. Some appli- ides. Sulfides have low melting points
ity, experience, and the type of appli- cations do not allow an alloy to fully and produce voluminous scales (scale
cation usually dictate choice. There develop its steady-state condition, spallation).
are no significant problems up to thus, performance is dictated by the With mixed corrodant environ-
400°C (750°F), few up to 750°C transient (not-so-protective) surface ments (oxygen and sulfur), alloy per-
(1,380°F), but the choice of success- scales. Transient effects will become formance is based upon a subtle inter-
ful alloys becomes somewhat limited apparent should failure analysis be play between oxide and sulfide for-
above about 800°C (1,470°F). performed. mation. Oxides are more stable; sul-
Simple iron-chromium (or iron- Caution should be given to iron- fides form more rapidly (due to kinet-
chromium-molybdenum) alloys be- chromium-nickel alloys that can be ics). Thus, oxides, sulfides, or both
come less useful as service tempera- prone to sigma-phase formation be- may form. If deposits are also pre-
tures increase, which is where the tween 540–800°C (1,000–1,470°F), sent, then conditions at the metal sur-
Type 300 series austenitic stainless which results in premature brittle fail- faces are reducing compared to areas
steels, (304, 309, 310, 314, 330, 333, ure. Molybdenum-containing alloys external to the deposits. Damage can
etc.) and certain ferritic stainless (Types 316 and 317 stainless steels be extensive.
steels (410 and 446) find many appli- and the 6%-Mo alloys) can be prone Mixed sulfur-and-oxygen gases
cations. For more arduous service to catastrophic oxidation above about can invoke very high corrosion rates
conditions at higher temperatures, 680°C (1,256°F). due to breakaway attack, typically
these alloys are surpassed by nickel- above about 600°C (1,110°F) for
or cobalt-based formulations, includ- Sulfidation nickel-based alloys, 920°C (1,688°F)
ing many of the more robust alloys Sulfurous gases are common to for cobalt-based, and 940°C (1724°F)
that are mechanically alloyed to im- many applications, including fuel for iron-based formulations. Break-

CEP February 2001 77


Above: Tube failure due to local overheating.

Left: Burst tube walls due to overheating.

ing gases is by means of internal attack.

Halide products are also hygro-
scopic (3), so it is not unusual to dis-
cover local protrusions on a metal
that have been removed during ser-
vice. In laboratory studies, it is com-
mon to find that a surface apparently
free from chlorides (removed during
away attack is commonly associated performance is dictated by the unique metallographic preparation) is later
with sulfur and excess air. Once the properties of the halides, including found to show them. This is because
first-formed oxide is lost or de- high vapor pressures, high volatility the chlorides have been leached out
stroyed, sulfides can invade the (vaporization), low melting points, from deep under the voided areas in
chromium-depleted substrate, thus, mismatched expansion coefficients the metal.
causing accelerated attack to occur. with metal substrates, and the effects
Stainless steels and iron-based al- of displacement reactions whereby Carburization
loys are preferred over high-nickel al- oxide or sulfide are thermodynami- Several environments are synony-
loys, because nickel is prone to form- cally favored over the halides. mous with carburization, including
ing the low-melting nickel-nickel sul- Alloy performance is greatly af- pyrolysis and gas-cracking processes,
fide eutectic, Ni-Ni3S2, which melts at fected by oxidizing or reducing con- reforming plants, and heat-treating fa-
635°C (1,175°F). Eutectics of cobalt ditions. For oxidizing atmospheres or cilities that involve carbon monoxide,
and iron occur at higher temperatures, for vapors jointly present with oxy- methane, and hydrocarbon gases.
880°C (1,616°F) and 985°C gen (or air), there is an opportunity Damage is usually manifested as in-
(1,805°F), respectively. for reduced corrosion rates (kinetics) ternal carbides, notably in grain
Alloys can be weakened by inter- associated with oxide formation, al- boundaries and is generally worst
nal corrosion, most noticeably when though the scale may later be disrupt- above 1,050°C (1,922°F). When car-
mobile species are present, such as ed by the volatile halides, especially burizing conditions alternate with ox-
low-melting sulfides, which are typi- if iron-based alloys are used. Nickel idizing ones, carbides can become
fied by localized dull uniform gray alloys are generally favored for halo- oxidized to oxides, which yields car-
phases within the alloy matrix. At gen atmospheres, since iron-based al- bon monoxide that can weaken the
times, liquid-appearing phases are loys are more vulnerable, due to their grain boundaries in an alloy. Such an
found in the metallurgy. volatile products, e.g., FeCl3. Silicon alloy fails by “green rot,” a name that
Alloys containing aluminum, sili- additions are useful if oxidizing envi- describes the green fractured surface
con, and cobalt are useful in sulfidiz- ronments prevail, but not for reducing that results (chromium oxide).
ing environments. Many alloys classi- conditions. Preoxidation is not nor- Strongly carburizing atmospheres
fied as candidates for sulfidation do mally a benefit for reducing halogen (i.e., those that have a carbon activity
well only if oxides are first able to attack. >1) can cause a metal to form coke-
form. Preoxidation can be of value. What makes halogens different like layers, often of a dusty form.
from other oxidants is their high mo- This form of attack, termed metal
Halogenation bility and diffusivity into a metal, re- dusting, commonly occurs between
Halogen attack is commonly man- sulting in internal damage of the 425–800°C (790–1,470°F) and can be
ifested as a combination of scale spal- alloy matrix. Fluorine can penetrate very rapid (in days not months).
lation with internal alloy damage in- twice the distance of chlorides, Damage is either general or localized
cluding voids that form as a result of which means that the predominant (pitting), as dictated by the ability of
highly volatile species (5). Material mode of damage in fluorine-contain- the alloy to form a surface oxide (6).

78 February 2001 CEP

Above: Thermal fatigue crack in boiler tube. Top: Tube fouling in an
incinerator plant due to
carryover of deposits.

Carbon steels and alloy steels are Bottom: Through-metal

normally uniformly thinned by metal perforation in tubing from a
dusting; more highly alloyed materi- carbon black plant.
als usually display local outgrowths
of coke emerging through small pits
that broaden with time. base metals. Iron tends to be detri- rosion stems from high-temperature
Cast iron-nickel-chromium alloys mental, as do aluminum and titanium corrosion processes associated with
are widely used for carburizing appli- in low concentrations. Silicon forms a fuel combustion products in boilers,
cations, including the more recent al- brittle intermetallic compound with waste incinerators, and gas turbines.
loys containing 1–2% silicon and nitrogen and can contribute to scale Thus, products can include various
1.5% niobium (the HP Mod alloys) spallation, especially in applications deposits (oxidizing or reducing) with
(4, 6). High-nickel alloys (with low at low oxygen concentrations (poten- active contributions from oxygen,
solubility for carbon) find many ap- tials), where thin oxides can form, sulfur, halogens, carbon, and nitrogen
plications for carburizing conditions. and during thermal cycling. (4, 7). Typically, alloy matrices dis-
Stronger nickel-based alloys with play intergranular attack (oxides and
high chromium and silicon contents Molten products chlorides) beneath disturbed oxide
are useful in more demanding envi- Deposits are a common product in layers possibly fused with molten de-
ronments. Highly alloyed ferritic many high-temperature applications, posits and internal sulfides within the
stainless steels (that are able to more including boilers, waste incinerators, alloy-affected zone.
rapidly form a thin oxide film) tend to fluidized-bed combustors, and gas Hot corrosion is generally regarded
outperform austenitic steels. turbines. A whole series of reactions as attack in the joint presence of sulfur
is possible should deposits become and oxygen. Typically, attack is consid-
Nitriding molten and no single mechanism can ered to be triggered by molten alkali
Relatively little is reported about be applied generally to characterize metal salts that melt above 700°C
nitridation other than material perfor- such damage (7). (1,290°F). Sodium sulfate, with a melt-
mance is weakened (embrittlement) The mechanisms of molten prod- ing point of 884°C (1,620°F), derived
as a result of the formation of internal uct corrosion are complex. The types from sodium chloride and sulfur from
nitrides in the alloy (4). It is common of damage include fuel-ash corrosion the fuel, is considered to be closely in-
to expect damage with nitrides at — sulfates, including acid and basic volved in the mechanism of hot corro-
700–900°C (1,290–1,650°F). Nitrides fluxing reactions (8), and vanadic sion (8). This mechanism is considered
appear generally as needle-like pre- slag attack (9) — molten salt corro- to have four stages: oxidation (incuba-
cipitates in the alloy matrix. sion (chlorides, nitrates, and carbon- tion); mild sulfidation; oxide failure;
Nickel- and cobalt-rich alloys ap- ates) (4), and molten glass corrosion. and catastrophic attack (internal sul-
pear to be first-choice candidates for Liquid metal attack is yet another fides via a porous voluminous complex
resisting nitride attack, because of the special category (4). oxide/deposit layer). Hot corrosion is
low solubility of nitrogen in these Fuel-ash or ash/salt-deposit cor- an irreversible autocatalytic process.

CEP February 2001 79


Table 2. Guide to candidate materials.

Corrosion Mode Basic Alloy Types Candidates* Notes and Cautions

Oxidation Fe-Ni-(Co) >20% (30%) Cr. 304, 321,309, 310, 800(HT), 803, Wide choice dictated by
Stabilized to minimize 430, 446,HR120, 330, 85H, 333, application and function;
sensitization. Al, Si beneficial. 600, 601(GC), 602CA, 617, 625, Mechanical properties;
Rare earth additions aid scale 253MA, 353MA, DS, 214, MA956, Thermal cycle (shock);
retention. MA754, X, etc. Transient vs. steady state;
Internal oxides. Beware σ;
W, Mo — catastrophic oxidation.

Sulfidation Fe- with high Cr (Al) alloys. 9–12%Cr steels: 309, 310, 330, Sulfur vapor, H2S, etc. —
(Reducing gases 800(HT), 803, HR120, 85H, no oxides. Beware of Ni/Ni3S2
no oxides) 253MA, 353MA, MA956, 446, 671, eutectic; coatings can help.
6B, 188, etc.

Sulfidation Fe-Cr-based alloys. Oxide As above with 153MA, 601, HR160, SO2, SO3 , etc. — risk of
(Oxidizing gases) formation a benefit. MA754, MA956, 333, 556, etc. breakaway attack with oxides
Preoxidization may help. and sulfides; Al coatings. (See
hot corrosion.)

Carburization Wide use of cast alloys. HH, HK, HPMod, 309, 310, 330, 333, Internal carbides with
For worse conditions, use 85H, 800(HT), 803, DS, HR160, 600, intergranular attack; Cast
high-Ni alloys with Cr, Si. 601, 253MA, 602CA, 617, 625, 690, tubes benefit from smooth
(Low solubility of C in Ni is MA754, MA956, X, 556, 706, 718, I.D. surfaces.
benefit for Ni alloys.) 750, etc. Metal dusting (at lower
temperatures). Green rot
(with intermittent O2-C).

Nitridation Ni-alloys rather than Fe. Avoid 309, 800(HT), 330, 446, 188, 230, Internal nitrides (e.g., AlN) can
high Cr levels. Use low Al and 600, 602CA, 625, 253MA, etc. weaken alloy; Thin oxide at low
low Ti levels (nitride formers). oxygen partial pressure
Si promotes scale spalling. reduces nitridation.

Halogenation: Ni alloys generally better 800H, 333, 200, 201, 207, 600, Volatile products; Internal
chlorination, than Fe. Benefits: Cr (not HF), 601, 602CA, 214, N, H242, B3, etc. attack with voids;
fluorination, etc. Al, Si (with oxygen). Hygroscopic products
Preoxidation not beneficial. (e.g., chlorides); Scale spallation.

Fuel ash corrosion FeCrMo alloys at lower 309, 310, 800(HT), 600, 601, 602CA, Applications dictate alloy,
temperatures; CRAs† for S, O, 625, 825, 253MA, 353MA, MA754, or coating: Gas turbines
C — subject to application. MA758, MA956, IN657, 671, etc. (strong + CRA†); vanadic
High Cr, Al, Si useful (also slag (high-Cr + Si).
as coatings).

Molten salts Ni alloys generally favored; As with halogens, sulfidation: Intergranular attack,
some high-Cr alloys; depends on nature of salts internal voids, and
NiCrMoW alloys for molten (acidic/basic). probable embrittlement.

Molten glass Ni- or some Co-/high-Cr 600, 601, 602CA, 671, 690, Complex fluxing reactions;
alloys; Some refractories. MA758, etc. oxidation; sulfidation;
chlorination; fluorination, etc.

Liquid metals Fe-alloys with Cr, Al, Si 309, 310, 85H, 253MA, etc. Dissolution or alloying effects;
usual first choices (subject to Intergranular attack;
liquid metal, e.g,. Liq. Na, K, Depends on system.
molten Zn, Pb, etc.)

Complex Synergy of processes. CRAs† or coatings Seek input from suppliers;

Environments Consider online tests/monitoring.

Note: This is a general, not exhaustive, guide.

* Not in any preferred order.

† CRAs are corrosion-resistant alloys.

80 February 2001 CEP

Vanadic slag corrosion occurs fol- the function of the component or ves- recommended alloys and alloy types
lowing combustion of certain low- sel. As might be expected, there are for various high-temperature environ-
grade or residual fuel oils that are of many candidates, yet, from these the ments are summarized in Table 2.
high vanadium, sulfur, and alkali choice is often reduced to one of two, This table is intended only as a guide;
metals. The molten sodium vanadyl once the total range of properties is no order of merit is to be interpreted
vanadates typically flux away protec- fully explored. Factors to be consid- from the sequence of listings (or
tive oxides and then rapidly dissolve ered include mechanical properties omissions) in this table. Also, the
the metal. Many high-temperature al- (strength, flexibility, fatigue life), alloy lists are not meant to be inclu-
loys cannot survive 100 h at 900°C physical properties (expansion and sive, but, rather, merely typical exam-
(1,652°F) in vanadic slags (9). contraction, reflectivity, magnetism, ples of what has worked in the field.
Vanadic attack can be managed by etc.), availability (shape and form),
lowering temperatures (if possible), and price (economic decision based To sum up
using fuel-oil additives (such as mag- on overall costs and fabrication, etc.). Ideally, the material choice is
nesium and calcium oxides), or by As a convenience, some generally based on known data and experience,
specifying high-chromium alloys. Sil- which implies communication be-
icon-rich coatings are beneficial and tween a user and a supplier. A better
appear to complement the role of Literature Cited knowledge of anticipated component
chromium (9). requirements in addition to corrosion
Molten glass typically induces in- 1. Rothman, M. F., ed., “High Tempera- behavior provides for a better choice
ture Property Data: Ferrous Alloys,”
tergranular attack with voids (from and the expectation of more reliable
ASM International, Metals Park, OH, p.
volatile halides) and sulfides. Oxides 9.26 (1989).
are generally fused into the glass. At- 2. Agarwal, D. C., and U. Brill, “Material Proper identification and recording
tack is commonly rapid, and high Degradation Problems in High Tempera- of damage from prior systems is a
chromium-nickel-based alloys are ture Environments,” Industrial Heating, positive benefit in deciding upon an
usually employed. Iron-rich alloys p. 56 (Oct. 1994). alternative alloy or coated system.
can be prone to severe attack due to 3. Elliott, P., “Practical Guide to High- Wherever possible, and certainly for
their ability to form low-melting Temperature Alloys,” Materials Perfor- new and complex environments, test-
mance, 29 (4), p. 57 (Apr. 1989).
halides (e.g., FeCl3). ing is to be recommended. ◆
4. Lai, G. A., “High-Temperature Corro-
Molten salts, used for heat treating sion of Engineering Alloys,” ASM Inter-
applications, nuclear engineering, national, Metals Park, OH (1990).
P. ELLIOTT is president of Corrosion &
solar cells, and metal extraction, gen- 5. Hussain, M. S., “Aspects of Hot Corro- Materials Consultancy, Inc., Colts Neck, NJ
erally promote intergranular attack in sion Attack on High-Temperature Materi- ((732) 303-0538; Fax: (732) 303-0591;
alloys, often with voids and internal als,” PhD thesis, University of Manchester E-mail: The
low-melting products (halides). (1984); C. J. Tyreman, “The High Tem- company provides professional engineering
A common feature in most high- perature Corrosion of Metals and Alloys services, notably in materials utilization and
in HF-containing Environments,” PhD corrosion control. C&MC offers a wide range
temperature aggressive environments of technical support, including metallurgical,
thesis, University of Manchester (1986).
is the synergy of the reactants one 6. Grabke, H. J., “Carburization — A analytical, corrosion testing, and evaluation
with each other (Table 1). Wastage High Temperature Corrosion Phe-
services. Elliott has 30 years’ experience as
a corrosion and materials engineer,
can be easily measured, but the mech- nomenon,” Publication No 52, Materials especially in troubleshooting and failure
anism(s) are not as easy to determine. Technology Institute of the Chemical analysis. He is the author of over 90
As a minimum, a rigorous study and Process Industries, Inc., St. Louis technical papers dealing with materials
analysis of the morphologies should (1998). performance, high-temperature corrosion,
help to establish the rate-controlling 7. Elliott, P., “Materials Performance in environmental corrosion, risk assessment,
High Temperature Waste Combustion and technology transfer. He is a NACE
process, which should help to better International Fellow and Corrosion
Systems,” Materials Performance, 33
define the type of alloy that could be (2), p. 82 (1993). Specialist, and serves on several NACE
considered as a candidate. The broad 8. Goebel, J. A., et al., “Mechanism for
committees; he also presents a NACE
seminar on high-temperature corrosion. He
expertise of the material suppliers Hot Corrosion of Nickel Base Alloys,” is a Fellow and past chairman of the Institute
should be fully explored in the quest Met. Trans., 4 (1), p. 261 (1973). of Corrosion, a Fellow of the Institute of
for a suitable choice. Monitoring trials 9. Elliott P., and T. J. Taylor, “Some As- Materials, a chartered engineer, and a
using test spools are recommended pects of Silicon Coatings Under Vanadic member of ASM International. He has also
wherever they can be used. Attack,” in “Materials and Coatings to presented over 100 lectures to international
Resist High Temperature Oxidation and conferences and professional societies.
Corrosion,” A. Rahmel and D. R. Elliott holds a BSc in metallurgy, and an MSc
Candidate alloys and PhD in chemical metallurgy from the
Holmes, eds., Applied Science Publish-
Choice should be based on careful ers, London, p. 353 (1978).
University of Manchester, U.K.
considerations, including, primarily,

CEP February 2001 81