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SEMINAR 2011-2012

Vaisali K
B070225AR
CONTENTS OF PRESENTATION
o INTRODUCTION
o BACKGROUND
o APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY
o PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY
o STEPS TO ADOPT BIOMIMICRY
o LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY
o SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY
o CASESTUDY
o ANALYSIS
o INFERENCE
o APPLICATION
o CONCLUSION

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CONTENTS B070225AR
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WHAT IS BIOMIMETICS?

Biomimetics is the term used to describe the


substances, equipment, mechanism and systems by
which humans imitate natural systems and designs.

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• Biomimicry originates from two Greek words
Bios = Life
Mimesis= imitate

• Biomimicry operates on the principle that in its 3.8


billion year history, nature has already found
solutions to many problems we are trying to solve.

• Biomimicry is multi-disciplinary subject involving


wide diversity of other domains like architecture,
electronics, medicines, biology, chemistry,
mathematics etc.

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CONCEPT B070225AR
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FLIGHT OF BIRD LEONARDO DA VINCI’S FLYING MACHINE

AEROPLANE TODAY WRIGHT BROTHER’S FIRST PROTOTYPE

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GECKO TAPE

Inspiration Precedence Product

SHARKLET TECHNOLOGIES

Inspiration Precedence Textiles Surfaces

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HOW DID IT BEGIN?
• American biophysicist and
polymath.

• Coined the term Biomimetics in


1950’s.

• Developed Schmitt trigger by


studying the nerves in squid.

• Attempted to engineer a device


that replicated the system of
nerve propagation.

Otto Schmitt (1913-1998)

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HOW DID IT BEGIN?
• American writer and scientific observer
from Montana.

• Wrote the book “Biomimicry: Innovation


Inspired by Nature” in 1997

• The books gives an insight on how


significant biomimicry is in shaping the
future.

• In 1998 she co-founded the Biomimicry


Guild which helps inform , inspire and
empower the bridging of nature’s wisdom Janine M. Benyus (b 1958)
with human knowledge.

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APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY

There are two approaches to Biomimetic design

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APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY
DESIGN TO BIOLOGY

• More fuel efficient due to


aerodynamic body mimicking
BOX FISH

• More material efficient due


The approach requires designers to identify problems
to mimicking tree growth
and biologists to match these to organisms thatstructure.
patterns form have
solved similar issues.
• The car not new approach to
transportation but
improvement to existing
technology

DaimlerChrysler’s Bionic Car

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APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY
BIOLOGY TO DESIGN
• Lotus flower emerges clean
from swampy waters.

• Lotusan paint enables


buildings to be self cleaning.

The approach requires to have relevant biological


• Biology or
can influence
humans
ecological knowledge and research rather thanin ways outside
design
predetermined design
problem problem.

• This will result in previously


unthought-of technologies or
systems or approach to
design solutions.
Lotus inspired’s Lotusan Paint

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PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY

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PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY
• Nature runs on sunlight.

• Nature uses only the energy it needs.

• Nature fits form to function.

• Nature recycles everything.

• Nature rewards cooperation.

• Nature banks on diversity.

• Nature demands local expertise.

• Nature curbs excesses from within.

• Nature taps the power of limits

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NATURE AS A MODEL

NATURE AS A MEASURE

NATURE AS A MENTOR

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STEPS TO ADOPT BIOMIMCRY

Biologize the
question: ask
Develop a design
from nature’s
brief of human
perspective.
Find theideas
Develop
needs
repeating
Look
and for
solutions
Evaluate
patterns the
based on and
champions in
the
design against
processes within
nature
natural who
modelsolve
Life’s
naturePrinciples
that
the challlenges
achieve success

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LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY
ORGANISM LEVEL

BEHAVIOUR LEVEL

ECOSYSTEM LEVEL

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Form/ process mimicry at ORGANISM LEVEL

Waterloo International Terminal , London

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Process/function mimicry at BEHAVIOUR LEVEL

Eastgate Council
Centre , House 2,
Harare Melbourne

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Function mimicry at ECOSYSTEM LEVEL

Mithūn Architects and GreenWorks Landscape


Architecture
Lloyd Crossing Project proposed for Portland,
Oregon.

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WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?
"Sustainable development is development that
meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs.”

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CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE

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In order to tackle the issue of global climate change two approaches can
be adopted:

MITIGATION

ADAPTATION

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SUSTAINABLE DESIGN FRAMEWORK
1. SITE & CLIMATE ANALYSIS: analysing site, orientation, exposure, climate,
topographical factors, local constraints and natural resources

2. FLEXIBLE STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: investigating structural characters,


permanence/temporariness, integration with building components, etc

3. RENEWABLE BUILDING MATERIALS: analysing efficiency of a material or a


product, size, standardization, structural adequacy, complexity,
appropriateness, cost, labour involved, plantation origin, method of growth,
embodied energy, recycled and reused content, toxicity, etc.

4. BUILDING ENVELOPE SYSTEMS: control of energy flows that enter (or leave)
an enclosed volume, including consideration of orientation, seasonal
variations, surrounding environment, function, and typology.

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5. MODULAR BUILDING SYSTEMS: construction and assembling methods to
facilitate substitution, repair, maintenance, diversified lifetime, etc.

6. RENEWABLE & NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SYSTEMS: integrating sources


of energy that do not reduce or exhaust their point of origin;

7. INNOVATIVE HVAC SYSTEMS: implementing strategies to provide thermo-


hygrometric and air quality comfort, exploiting mechanically regulated, hybrid,
or, preferably, totally passive techniques;

8. WATER COLLECTION & STORAGE SYSTEMS: adopting methods, system and


strategies to collect, store, distribute, use, recycle and re-use water.

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EXAMPLE- COUNCIL HOUSE 2
Architecture (CH2), Mick Pearce with DesignInc., 2005
Maximum Six Green Star
rating

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“DIVERSIFY AND COOPERATE TO FULLY USE THE HABITAT”

Same amount of
foliage on the
building as original
Harvests
state of site
sunlight, cool
night air, water,
wind and
Use of rain
natural
convection,
thermal mass,
ventilation
stacks and water
for cooling

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“USE WASTE AS RESOURCES”

Sustainable timber selection


Recycled structural
concrete

PVC minimisation
Recycled structural steel
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“USE WASTE AS RESOURCES”
Use waste as amenities

Recycled
Untreated
from old
housing
frames

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“GATHER AND USE ENERGY EFFICIENTLY”

Gas-fired
micro-turbine (co-generation) Electricity
micro-
turbine
lifts  generate power in breaking Waste heat Used in A/C
mode plant
Heating hot
solar hot water produced by 48
water;
square metres of solar hot water
panels on roof, supplemented by gas cooling via
boiler absorption
chiller
solar power (PV cells) : 3.5kW
energy  used to power Western
timber shutters

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“OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE”

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“OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE”

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“OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE”

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“OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE”

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“DON’T DRAW DOWN RESOURCES”

Water
• 72% reduction in mains water consumption
compared to the existing Council House of similar
size
• Multi-Water Reuse (MWR) sewer mining plant
• Sprinkler water reclaim and rainwater collection

Waste
• building waste during construction was recycled
(87%)
• recycling carried through within building after
operations  waste separation

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ANALYSIS

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Materials Level of
Name of building Inspiration Application in design Problem solved
used Biomimicry
The outward flares at base resemble
Can withstand bending
the upper curved portion of femur.
and shearing effects
Exposed The internal wrought iron braces
1.Eiffel Tower Thigh bone
iron closely follow design of original
due to wind
Ventilation problem Organism level
trabeculae within femur.
solved

Controls the amount of


sunlight entering the
Steel, glass
2.L’institute Du Cladded with screens with automated lens to building, keeping it cool and
Iris of eye & Organism level
Monte Arabe control light flooding room with natural
Aluminium
light.

3.Waterloo The glass panel fixing that makes up the Ability to move in response
Steel & structure mimic the flexible scale to the imposed air pressure
International Pangolin
glass arrangement of Pangolin. forces when trains enter and
Organism level
Terminal depart.
The building is designed with a unique
ventilation system, which draws
outside air and cools or warms it
Temperature remains
depending on temperature.
regulated all year around
4. Eastgate Centre, Termite The central open space draws more air
Concrete without using conventional Behaviour level
Harare mound with help of fans and is pushed up
air-conditioning or heating
through ducts located in the central
systems.
spine of the buildings,
Inspiratio Materials Level of
Name of building Application in design Problem solved
n used Biomimicry
Protects spectators
from elements
Provides acoustic
“Cushion system” adopted where façade is
insulation,
5.Beijing Steel, in-filled with translucent ETFE panels just
Bird’s nest Reduces maintenance Behaviour Level
National Stadium ETFE like a nest is insulated by small pieces of
cost
material.
Reduces dead load,
Filters sun rays

The epidermis provides


CH2 uses ventilation strategy similar
primary sun and glare
to termite mould using natural
control while creating
convention, ventilation stacks,
a semi-closed micro-
thermal mass, phase change material
environment.
and water for cooling
The wavy design helps
The façade is composed of dermis
it efficient collection
and epidermis, which provides
and channelling out of
microclimate
Concrete, heated air.
6. Council House Termite Ventilation stacks are implemented
recycled The vaulted ceiling also Behaviour level
2, Melbourne mound on the north and south facades of the
timber allow more filtration of
building
natural light to the
The ceilings are wavy shaped to
deeper parts of the
optimise surface area to increase
space.
thermal mass capacity
Shower towers provide
The west façade is covered with
a reduction of 4-13
system of timber louvers to optimize
degrees C from the top
the penetration of natural light and
of the tower to the
views.
bottom.
Name of Materials Level of
Inspiration Application in design Problem solved
building used Biomimicry

Minimum possible
energy used in the
7. Sinosteel form of conventional
Concrete, The windows are designed in five different
energy.
International Bee hive steel and sizes of hexagon, placed in an energy-
The skin removes the
Organism level
Plaza glass efficient configuration.
need for internal
structures

The exterior designs as living skin


which serves connection between Electricity not
exterior and interior, like stomata on required during day
leaf surface. Air and wind filtered
Stomata of Designed as The surface automatically positions to provide clean air
8. Habitat 2020 leaves living skin itself according to the sunlight and let and natural air
Organism level
it in conditioned
Surface absorbs water and converts Recycling of water air
waste to biogas energy and waste

The building sits on 12 columns to


Tensile allow other species to develop around
Effective air conditioning at
9. Rafflesia Rafflesia environment it, trying to change traditional
independent zones Behaviour level
House flower ally friendly definitions of its characteristics.
fabric Concave and convex internal walls to
regulate flow of air inside.

10. National The bubbles collect solar


The surface is covered with membrane of lit
Water Steel, energy to heat swimming Organism
Aquatics Centre, bubbles ETFE
blue bubbles or pneumatic cushions made of
pools. level
Beijing EFTE creating bubble effect
Temperature regulation
Material Level of
Name of building Inspiration Application in design Problem solved
s used Biomimicry
Its aerodynamic, Glazed shape
Using a series of triangulations
minimizes wind loads and
on the exterior similar to those
maximizes natural light and
of a glass sponge
ventilation, reducing the building's
11. Swiss Re The building ventilates air in a
energy consumption
Steel & similar fashion just like glass
Headquarters, Glass sponge
glass sponge filters nutrients from the
Triangulations on the exterior Organism level
London similar to those of a glass sponge
water by sucking water from its
makes the structure stiff enough to
base and expelling it through the
resist lateral structural loads
holes at its top
without extra reinforcements.

It uses minimal construction


The southern façade would be materials, while making maximum
made of photovoltaic panels that use of the enclosed space.
12.Treescraper convert sunlight into electricity. All of the water in the building is
Growing of Steel & A combined heat-and-power recycled.
Tower of tree glass plant installed, to be fuelled by All products, from building Behaviour level
Tomorrow natural gas, to supply the power materials to furnishings, could be
that the solar panels cannot. recycled or returned safely to the
earth

Sun shades on the windows can be


opened or closed to suit the prevailing
13. Ministry of temperature , mimicking the activity of Temperature regulated.
Steel &
Municipal and Cactus plant
glass
the cactus which performs Absorption and loss of heat Behaviour level
Agriculture transpiration at night rather than controlled.
during the day in order to retain water.
•Buildinginspired by plants /flower:
Self-sustainable
Energy efficient
Recycling
Aesthetically appealing
Low maintenance
•Building inspired by organisms:
Resistant to imposed forces
Structural stability
Controlled entry of sunlight
Regulation of internal temperature
Aesthetics
Acoustics
•Buildings inspired by natural forms:
 Effective channelling of wind
 Increase thermal mass capacity
 Dynamic form
 Acoustics.
 Energy efficiency

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APPLICATION

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INDUSTRIAL BUILDING DESIGN
• Large & clear unobstructed areas • Triangulated exoskeleton or
frame inspired from glass
sponge, thigh bone ,beehive
• Proper lighting ( Natural and Artificial) • Louvers,
etc. or living skin which
• can
loadregulate entry of
distribution& long span
daylight
inspiredinspired
by waterfrom lily or
stomata
dragon flyof leave
wingsor
• Ventilation •• • Cushion
of eyeeffect
A system
Iris which of Birds
utilisesnest,
ventilation
resources mechanism
available locallyof
termite moulds, embedded
with minimum
• Acoustical treatment • Curved
energywalls ceilings for
and recycles to
channelling
maximum like air. growth of
• Cushion
tree or effect of Birds nest,
• two layer skin(
emulate natural dermis
formsand like
• Energy-efficiency epidermis) to act as sound
termite mound for passive
buffer
systemsor to
insulation
reduce cost and
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CONCLUSION
To echo, listen, steward and immerse in nature

Biomimicry presents itself as a basis, a foundation of a new research methodology instead of


mere serendipity. Biomimicry has to be approached in a multi-disciplinary order of thought in
order to understand the principles of nature to achieve a holistic design solution.

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CONCLUSION

For nature has been field-tested for millions of years through evolution

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