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# Komunikasi Data

Digital Transmission

## Mastura Diana Marieska (mastura.diana@informatika.org)

Semester II 2017/2018
Teknik Informatika – Fasilkom - Unsri
Outline
• Digital Data to Digital Transmission
• Line Coding
• Block Coding

## • Analog Data to Digital Transmission

• Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
• Delta Modulation (DM)
DIGITAL TO DIGITAL TRANSMISSION
Digital Transmission
• Represent digital data using digital signal

• Problem : Encoding

• Digital Encoding :
• Line Coding
• Block Coding
• Scrambling
Line Coding
• Converts a sequence of bits to a digital signal
Signal Element vs Data Element
• Data element
• Smallest entity that represent information
• Bit

• Signal element
• Shortest unit (timewise) of a digital signal

## • Signal element carries data element

• Ratio (r)
Signal Element vs Data Element
Data Rate vs Signal Rate
• Data rate (N)
• Number of data elements (bits) sent in 1 second
• Bit per second (bps)
• Bit rate

## • Signal rate (S)

• Number of signal elements sent in 1 second
• Pulse rate, modulation, baud rate

## • Goal : increase data rate while decreasing the signal rate

Data Rate vs Signal Rate
Latihan
A signal is carrying data in which one data
element is encoded as one signal element ( r =
1). If the bit rate is 100 kbps, what is the
average value of the baud rate if c is between 0
and 1?

Solution
We assume that the average value of c is 1/2 . The
baud rate is then
Note

## Although the actual bandwidth of a

digital signal is infinite, the effective
bandwidth is finite.
Problem : Synchronization
signal power (baseline).

## • Baseline wondering : drift in the baseline

• Caused by long string of 0s or 1s

## • When voltage level in digital signal is constant for a

while, spectrum creates a very low frequencies

## • Direct-current components : frequencies around

zero
Effect of Lack Synchronization
Latihan
In a digital transmission, the receiver clock is 0.1 percent
faster than the sender clock. How many extra bits per second
does the receiver receive if the data rate is 1 kbps? How many
if the data rate is 1 Mbps?

Solution

1,000,000 bps.
Self Synchronization
• Receiver bit interval must correspond exactly to
sender bit interval
• Might misinterpret the signal

• Self Sync
• Digital signal includes timing information in data being
transmitter
NRZ
– Low signal (0) may be interpreted as no signal
– High signal (1) leads to baseline wander
– Problem: Consecutive 1s or 0s
– Unable to recover clock

Bits 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

NRZ
Variasi NRZ
• NRZ-L
• Level of voltage determines the value of bits

• NRZ-I
• Make a transition from the current signal to encode a
one
• Stay at the current signal to encode a zero
• Solves the problem of consecutive ones.
• But doesn’t solve the problem of consecutive zeros
NRZ-L dan NRZ-I
Manchester
• The duration of bit is divided into two halves
• Voltage remains at one level during first half
• Moves to the other level in the second half

## • Transition in the middle of bit provides synchronization

Manchester
• bit 1 encoded as high-to-low transition
• bit 0 encoded as low-to-high transition
• bit rate is half of baud rate, so the encoding
considered only 50 % efficient
Line Encoding
Block Coding

Note

## Block coding is normally referred to as

mB/nB coding;
it replaces each m-bit group with an
n-bit group.
Block Coding
4B / 5B
• Idea:
Every 4 bits of data is encoded in a 5-bit code,
with the 5-bit codes selected to have no more
than one leading 0 and no more than two
trailing 0 (i.e., never get more than three
consecutive 0s).
• Resulting 5-bit codes are then transmitted
using the NRZI encoding.
• Achieves 80% efficiency.
4B / 5B
4B/5B Mapping Codes
Latihan
Terjemahkan code berikut menjadi digital signal

## Dengan teknik encoding :

1. NRZ
2. NRZI
3. Manchester
4. 4B/5B
ANALOG TO DIGITAL TRANSMISSION
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
Sampling, Quantizing, Encoding
Sampling
• The analog signal is sampled every Ts second
• Ts is sampling interval (period)
• Sampling frequency : inverse of sampling interval

Sampling Methods
Sampling Rate

Note

## According to the Nyquist theorem, the

sampling rate must be
at least 2 times the highest frequency
contained in the signal.
Effect of Sampling Rate
Quantizing
• Assume that the original analog signal has instantaneous
amplitudes between Vmin and V max
• Divide the range into L zones, each of height delta

## • Assign quantized values of 0 to L-1 to the midpoint of each

zone
• Approximate the value of the sample amplitude to the
quantized values
PCM
Delta Modulation (DM)
• PCM is a very complex procedure

• Delta Modulation
• Find the change from previous value
Process of Delta Modulation
Modulation Component
Demodulation Component