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Komunikasi Data

Digital Transmission

Mastura Diana Marieska (

Semester II 2017/2018
Teknik Informatika – Fasilkom - Unsri
• Digital Data to Digital Transmission
• Line Coding
• Block Coding

• Analog Data to Digital Transmission

• Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
• Delta Modulation (DM)
Digital Transmission
• Represent digital data using digital signal

• Problem : Encoding

• Digital Encoding :
• Line Coding
• Block Coding
• Scrambling
Line Coding
• Converts a sequence of bits to a digital signal
Signal Element vs Data Element
• Data element
• Smallest entity that represent information
• Bit

• Signal element
• Shortest unit (timewise) of a digital signal

• Signal element carries data element

• Ratio (r)
Signal Element vs Data Element
Data Rate vs Signal Rate
• Data rate (N)
• Number of data elements (bits) sent in 1 second
• Bit per second (bps)
• Bit rate

• Signal rate (S)

• Number of signal elements sent in 1 second
• Pulse rate, modulation, baud rate

• Goal : increase data rate while decreasing the signal rate

Data Rate vs Signal Rate
A signal is carrying data in which one data
element is encoded as one signal element ( r =
1). If the bit rate is 100 kbps, what is the
average value of the baud rate if c is between 0
and 1?

We assume that the average value of c is 1/2 . The
baud rate is then

Although the actual bandwidth of a

digital signal is infinite, the effective
bandwidth is finite.
Problem : Synchronization
• Receiver calculates a running average of received
signal power (baseline).

• Baseline wondering : drift in the baseline

• Caused by long string of 0s or 1s

• When voltage level in digital signal is constant for a

while, spectrum creates a very low frequencies

• Direct-current components : frequencies around

Effect of Lack Synchronization
In a digital transmission, the receiver clock is 0.1 percent
faster than the sender clock. How many extra bits per second
does the receiver receive if the data rate is 1 kbps? How many
if the data rate is 1 Mbps?

At 1 kbps, the receiver receives 1001 bps instead of 1000 bps.

At 1 Mbps, the receiver receives 1,001,000 bps instead of

1,000,000 bps.
Self Synchronization
• Receiver bit interval must correspond exactly to
sender bit interval
• Might misinterpret the signal

• Self Sync
• Digital signal includes timing information in data being
– Low signal (0) may be interpreted as no signal
– High signal (1) leads to baseline wander
– Problem: Consecutive 1s or 0s
– Unable to recover clock

Bits 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

Variasi NRZ
• Level of voltage determines the value of bits

• Make a transition from the current signal to encode a
• Stay at the current signal to encode a zero
• Solves the problem of consecutive ones.
• But doesn’t solve the problem of consecutive zeros
• The duration of bit is divided into two halves
• Voltage remains at one level during first half
• Moves to the other level in the second half

• Transition in the middle of bit provides synchronization

• bit 1 encoded as high-to-low transition
• bit 0 encoded as low-to-high transition
• bit rate is half of baud rate, so the encoding
considered only 50 % efficient
Line Encoding
Block Coding


Block coding is normally referred to as

mB/nB coding;
it replaces each m-bit group with an
n-bit group.
Block Coding
4B / 5B
• Idea:
Every 4 bits of data is encoded in a 5-bit code,
with the 5-bit codes selected to have no more
than one leading 0 and no more than two
trailing 0 (i.e., never get more than three
consecutive 0s).
• Resulting 5-bit codes are then transmitted
using the NRZI encoding.
• Achieves 80% efficiency.
4B / 5B
4B/5B Mapping Codes
Terjemahkan code berikut menjadi digital signal

0110 1101 0010 1101 0111

Dengan teknik encoding :

1. NRZ
3. Manchester
4. 4B/5B
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
Sampling, Quantizing, Encoding
• The analog signal is sampled every Ts second
• Ts is sampling interval (period)
• Sampling frequency : inverse of sampling interval

• Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

Sampling Methods
Sampling Rate


According to the Nyquist theorem, the

sampling rate must be
at least 2 times the highest frequency
contained in the signal.
Effect of Sampling Rate
• Assume that the original analog signal has instantaneous
amplitudes between Vmin and V max
• Divide the range into L zones, each of height delta

• Assign quantized values of 0 to L-1 to the midpoint of each

• Approximate the value of the sample amplitude to the
quantized values
Delta Modulation (DM)
• PCM is a very complex procedure

• Delta Modulation
• Find the change from previous value
Process of Delta Modulation
Modulation Component
Demodulation Component