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Digital Transmission

Semester II 2017/2018

Teknik Informatika – Fasilkom - Unsri

Outline

• Digital Data to Digital Transmission

• Line Coding

• Block Coding

• Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)

• Delta Modulation (DM)

DIGITAL TO DIGITAL TRANSMISSION

Digital Transmission

• Represent digital data using digital signal

• Problem : Encoding

• Digital Encoding :

• Line Coding

• Block Coding

• Scrambling

Line Coding

• Converts a sequence of bits to a digital signal

Signal Element vs Data Element

• Data element

• Smallest entity that represent information

• Bit

• Signal element

• Shortest unit (timewise) of a digital signal

• Ratio (r)

Signal Element vs Data Element

Data Rate vs Signal Rate

• Data rate (N)

• Number of data elements (bits) sent in 1 second

• Bit per second (bps)

• Bit rate

• Number of signal elements sent in 1 second

• Pulse rate, modulation, baud rate

Data Rate vs Signal Rate

Latihan

A signal is carrying data in which one data

element is encoded as one signal element ( r =

1). If the bit rate is 100 kbps, what is the

average value of the baud rate if c is between 0

and 1?

Solution

We assume that the average value of c is 1/2 . The

baud rate is then

Note

digital signal is infinite, the effective

bandwidth is finite.

Problem : Synchronization

• Receiver calculates a running average of received

signal power (baseline).

• Caused by long string of 0s or 1s

while, spectrum creates a very low frequencies

zero

Effect of Lack Synchronization

Latihan

In a digital transmission, the receiver clock is 0.1 percent

faster than the sender clock. How many extra bits per second

does the receiver receive if the data rate is 1 kbps? How many

if the data rate is 1 Mbps?

Solution

At 1 kbps, the receiver receives 1001 bps instead of 1000 bps.

1,000,000 bps.

Self Synchronization

• Receiver bit interval must correspond exactly to

sender bit interval

• Might misinterpret the signal

• Self Sync

• Digital signal includes timing information in data being

transmitter

NRZ

– Low signal (0) may be interpreted as no signal

– High signal (1) leads to baseline wander

– Problem: Consecutive 1s or 0s

– Unable to recover clock

Bits 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

NRZ

Variasi NRZ

• NRZ-L

• Level of voltage determines the value of bits

• NRZ-I

• Make a transition from the current signal to encode a

one

• Stay at the current signal to encode a zero

• Solves the problem of consecutive ones.

• But doesn’t solve the problem of consecutive zeros

NRZ-L dan NRZ-I

Manchester

• The duration of bit is divided into two halves

• Voltage remains at one level during first half

• Moves to the other level in the second half

Manchester

• bit 1 encoded as high-to-low transition

• bit 0 encoded as low-to-high transition

• bit rate is half of baud rate, so the encoding

considered only 50 % efficient

Line Encoding

Block Coding

Note

mB/nB coding;

it replaces each m-bit group with an

n-bit group.

Block Coding

4B / 5B

• Idea:

Every 4 bits of data is encoded in a 5-bit code,

with the 5-bit codes selected to have no more

than one leading 0 and no more than two

trailing 0 (i.e., never get more than three

consecutive 0s).

• Resulting 5-bit codes are then transmitted

using the NRZI encoding.

• Achieves 80% efficiency.

4B / 5B

4B/5B Mapping Codes

Latihan

Terjemahkan code berikut menjadi digital signal

1. NRZ

2. NRZI

3. Manchester

4. 4B/5B

ANALOG TO DIGITAL TRANSMISSION

Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)

Sampling, Quantizing, Encoding

Sampling

• The analog signal is sampled every Ts second

• Ts is sampling interval (period)

• Sampling frequency : inverse of sampling interval

Sampling Methods

Sampling Rate

Note

sampling rate must be

at least 2 times the highest frequency

contained in the signal.

Effect of Sampling Rate

Quantizing

• Assume that the original analog signal has instantaneous

amplitudes between Vmin and V max

• Divide the range into L zones, each of height delta

zone

• Approximate the value of the sample amplitude to the

quantized values

PCM

Delta Modulation (DM)

• PCM is a very complex procedure

• Delta Modulation

• Find the change from previous value

Process of Delta Modulation

Modulation Component

Demodulation Component

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