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Chapter 1



In recent years, the police mission in contemporary society has

become incredibly varied and complex and law enforcement agencies are

growing and evolving to a deeper essence of functions and responsibilities at

a rapid pace. This ever growing population, expanding territories, and

developing counties – crime rates also continue to increase. Truth be told,

they do not simply multiply in terms of number – they now cover a wider age

group, are equipped with both simple and complex armaments, and

sometimes even trained to launch a fully planned attack. As with the legislate

on of laws by our government and creation of improved weaponry and

advanced technologies, so as their ability to adapt and improve their methods

and skill sets intensify tenfold.

More often than not, the innocent civilians are the victims of these

heinous crimes – the ordinary citizens who work their days out, pay their bills,

and just happen to be in the wrong place at the wrong time. For whatever

reason that these incidents are occurring – poverty, lack of spirituality,

government issues, or others; clearly, there is a big need to neutralize these

unwanted forces. And yes, there are various forms of defense personnel

working under the government; however, most of them (if not all) are not fully

equipped – physically, mentally, and emotionally – to handle these kinds of


A special team is required, a team which has undergone the proper

training and supplied with the proper equipment’s to control these upheavals.

Thus, the materialization of the SWAT – Special Weapons and Tactics – an

elite tactical unit in any international law enforcement departments trained to

perform high-risk operations beyond the scope and capabilities of regular

officers. Their duties include, although not limited to, counter-terrorism

operations, hostage crises and rescues, and engaging with heavily-armed

and high profile criminals. Oftentimes, a SWAT team is provided and

equipped with specialized firearms including assault rifles, machine guns,

shotguns, carbines, stun grenades, riot control agents, and sniper rifles.

Moreover, they also have specialized gears and machines including heavy

body armors, entry tools, armored vehicles, night vision optics, and motion

detectors among others.

Background of the Study

CALABARZON is one of the regions of the Philippines. It is also

designated as Region IV-A and its regional capital is Calamba City in Laguna.

The region is composed of five provinces, namely: Cavite, Laguna, Batangas,

Rizal, and Quezon. The region's name is an acronym of the names of these


The region is located in southwestern Luzon, just south and west of

MetroManila and is the second most densely populated region.

CALABARZON and MIMAROPA were previously combined together

as Southern Tagalog, until they were separated in 2002.

Executive Order No. 246, dated October 28, 2003, designated

Calamba City as the regional center of CALABARZON. However, Manila

remains to be its de facto capital until now due to its proximity to the Region.

The Directorate for Human Resources and Doctrine Development of

the Philippine National Police, Camp Crame, on February 3, 2010 issued a

Training Directives, directing all Regional Directors, Provincial Police Office to

undergo the PNP In-Service training program containing all the course,

seminars and activities to be undertaken by respective PNP personnel for

their training and continues education. This Training Directives was

formulated to provide the PNP personnel relevant education and trainings, to

improve the skills in patrolling and update the investigative skills and

procedures in investigation. And likewise, response to the government fight

against terrorism and in preparation of eventual turn-over and acceptance of

responsibility over priority areas for subsequent “hold and support” phases of

the strategic Internal Security Operation campaign. The PNP will continue to

conduct training course specifically intended for units of all Police Regional


On March 7, 2011 The SWAT training started during the administration

of Police Superintendent Rex Arvin T. Malimban, Deputy Battalion

Commander of RPSB4A. At the same time, he was then the course director

of the said training. The candidate for SWAT training was composed of fifty-

five (55) Police Non-Commissioned Officers and three (3) Police

Commissioned Officers. Each trainee is required to provide their ammunitions

to be used in the conduct of shooting qualification. Due to some technicalities

as written in the SWAT Manual/Guideline, out of fifty-eight (58) participants

for SWAT training only fifty (50) students should passed the standard and

qualified for the SWAT training proper.

The researcher believes that a careful study for the SWAT training

program will play a vital role on the overall performance of the said program.

By determining the factors that might affect the efficiency, effectiveness and

productivity of the training program can help the PNP SWAT decision makers

to establish a more conducive plan for the trainees. A good program plan will

result to high quality performance of our SWAT trainees.

Theoretical Framework

The SWAT, if not the most, is one of the famous, prestigious, and

highly acclaimed elite units of the police squads all over the world. In terms of

the SWAT basic knowledge and theories, both international and local officers

are equipped with similar foundations and curriculum. In the usage of

weaponry and armaments, the fundamentals are also quite the same. As for

skill and ability improvements, comparable training methodologies are

provided – probably with minor factors altered due to differences in the

working environment of the teams – people, terrains, weather, and others. In

equipment’s and machineries availability, there might be a very big difference

with what our government is providing the local SWAT officers as compared

to international ones; however, it can also be argued that what is provided

may be the best of what is accessible and the best of what can be actually

used and utilized.

What separates the local SWAT forces apart from their international

counterparts can be attributed to lack of putting to use whatever skills and

knowledge acquired during the training proper. The reasons of this lack of so-

called “practice” can be accredited to various reasons – some of which

might include improper assignment of tasks, lack or misuse of finances

allotted for handling certain missions and/or additional trainings for SWAT

members, or simply pure and absolute laziness of the personnel involved.

And with this deficiency, it is easy for one’s skill to get all tarnished and rusty,

thereby lessening his ability to perform during assault encounters which could

lead to much worse situations such as failure of tasks or loss of lives – not

only himself and comrades, but innocent civilians as well.


Conceptual Framework

Training Instructor

Program of
Capabilities of Instruction
Funds Region 4A SWAT

* Productivity
* Effectiveness

Equipment Facilities

Figure 1.Research Paradigm of the Study


To enhance the capabilities of the Region 4A SWAT Training, the

following five (5) factors are mandatory – Training Instructor, Program of

Instruction, Funds, Equipment’s, and Facilities – each equally important in

their contribution and all working hand-in-hand, thereby directly affecting the

outcome of a training as to whether it can be considered a success or a


In essence, the Training Instructor needs to be knowledgeable in

theories and at the same time experienced and exposed with the actual work

of a SWAT unit. Moreover, it is beneficial if he is accredited by the PNP and

has said to have produced capable SWAT members during his mentoring


The Program of Instruction (POI) should include important SWAT

knowledge such as the organizational structure of a SWAT unit, hostage

crisis and negotiation methods, sniping and targeting identification subjects,

and movement on urban terrain among others. It is usually composed of six

(6) weeks of both physical and mental training – the first of which is focused

on the physical conditioning of the students, followed by the basic

marksmanship concepts and practices – which focuses on the foundation of

gun handling, sight alignment, trigger control, breathing, and stance, and then

the application of these in order to be an efficient assaulter, and eventually

the Close Quarter Battle (CQB) in which the small units engage the target

with personal weapons at very short range, potentially to the point of hand-to-

hand combat.

The funds hold a vital role as well in the SWAT Training as it is this

factor which provides payment to everything that the instructors and students

need – including high quality equipment’s and the basic facilities.

The facilities, on the other hand, should be comfortable, big, safe, and

clean enough to spend a lot of time on. It is important that they are conducive

learning environments and are not exposed to any form of threats. Also it is

essential that they are fixed such that the students do not need to transfer to

so many different places just to finish the training course.

Finally, the equipment’s should be of standard, if not high, quality and

at the same time modern enough to withstand the current crisis that the

SWAT teams would face themselves in. It should be of durable materials and

should be maintained on a regular basis. Of course, enough safety measures

should be in place – in addition to making sure that the students themselves

are actually instructed on how to use them properly and carefully.

Furthermore, it is essential that everybody be provided his own equipment for

better learning experience.


Statement of the Problem

This research study aims to determine the capabilities of the PNP

SWAT Training being conducted at Region 4A in order to propose measures

to enhance its capabilities.

Specifically, the researcher attempted to answer the following sub-


1. What is the respondent’s perception on Special Weapons and

Tactics (SWAT) Training in terms of its:

1.1 Funds

1.2 Training Instructors

1.3 Program of Instruction

1.4 Facilities

1.5 Equipment?

2. What is the level of perception of the Training on the capabilities of

the PNP SWAT Training of Region 4A in terms of its:

2.1 Productivity

2.2 Efficiency

2.3 Effectiveness?

3. Is there a significant relationship between the Special Weapons and

Tactics and Capabilities of Region 4A SWAT?


Research Hypothesis

The researcher hypothesized that there is no significant relationship on

the perception of the respondents on the capabilities of the PNP SWAT

Training at Region 4A.

Significance of the Study

The researcher’s believed that this study is beneficial to the following:

The PNP SWAT Group. The result of this study will serve as a basis

to review and reevaluate its practices for upgrading and betterment or

improvement of the Special weapons and Tactics Group.

The Community. This study will enable them to be aware that they

have a role to play in the maintenance of peace and order in the community.

The PNP needs their cooperation and support to their programs and therefore

their feedback is necessary for the improvement and enhancement of existing

programs and strategies in line with the attainment of PNP mandate.

To the Future Researcher. The findings of this study will serve as a

reference in the conduct of other studies related to this kind of research.

The Researcher. As a member of the Philippine National Police

organization, this study will provide insights and concepts on what programs

can be prioritized in response to the findings of this study. It can be an

instrument of positive change thereby making a difference on how the

individual member of the PNP SWAT acts and performs their duties for the

attainment of what the community expects from the PNP as an organization.


Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study focused on the Region 4A SWAT setup in the Philippines.

Although there are instances wherein sample cases and situations found

abroad are mentioned, they only serve as comparisons of what could have

been and what is actually transpiring in this country.

The study is conducted in the year 2015-2016 with the consideration of

all previous classes as this includes the latest and most improved training

curriculum and the most modern equipment’s and facilities suited in our

current environment setting. The problems, observations, possible

solutions and suggestions presented do actually apply only to the trainings,

facilities, equipment’s, financial assistance, and other relevant information to

the various SWAT officers and members training under Region 4A.

Definition of Terms

The following terms are being defined operationally:

Effectiveness. The degree to which objectives are achieved and the

extent to which targeted problems are solved.

Efficiency, The state or quality of being efficient, or able to accomplish

something with the least waste of time and effort; competency in the

performance, ability to accomplish a job with a minimum expenditure of time

and effort.

Equipment, The set of articles or physical resources serving to equip

a person or thing.

Facilities. It is a place designed for a specific use, but it can also

mean effortlessness or ease with something. A permanent, semi-permanent,

or temporary commercial or industrial property such as a building, plant, or

structure, built.

Funds. Refers to the resources, usually in the forms of money, or

other values such as effort or time, for a project, a person, a business, or any

other private or public institution.

Productivity. The quality, state, or fact of being able to generate,

create, enhance, or bring forth goods and services.

Program of Instruction. A monitored, step-by-step teaching methods

in which a student must master one stage before moving on to the next.

Training Instructors. Person whose job is to teach people a particular


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