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Transmission Line

K. P. Prasad Rao P. Srinivasa Varma MIEEE

Research Scholar, Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering,

Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, K L University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.

K L University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA. pinnivarma@gmail.com

prasadraokondenti@gmail.com

Abstract—At present, there is, an imbalanced power distribution 8]. Now days, the FACTS controllers are used to control the

to load from resources and also Electric shortages are regular in profile of the voltage and current in Half-Wavelength AC

some countries. This article illustrates the Long-Distance Power Transmission Line [9]. In this paper, the author, discuss

Transmission Line technologies to overcome the above the different types of analysis of very long transmission line

problems. It is mainly visualized in two ways - UHV AC and with results.

UHV DC Transmission Line. Under UHV AC Transmission

Line, there are many technologies to analyze the system. II. VERY LONG DISTANCE AC POWER TRANSMISSION

Whereas, UHV DC Transmission Line is used to transmit the LINE

DC power. The different types of frequency multipliers are used The Electric Grid Corporation takes a decision as a

in half-wavelength tuned AC Transmission Line. MATLAB is

strategic objective i.e., to build a national grid. It accelerates

the soft ware use to analyze the test system.

the Ultra High Voltage (UHV) Power Grid construction and

Keywords—50/3Hz Transmission System, Variable Frequency,

High Frequency, Half-Wavelength Power Transmission Scheme,

put it into operation in order of 1000kV exchange system.

Electromagnetic Transient Study. In this article, half – wavelength AC power transmission

lines and fractional frequency (50/3 Hz) transmission system

I. INTRODUCTION tools are illustrated under AC UHV transmission line. The

More and more crucial with the burning up of property, Variable Frequency Half-Wavelength Transmission System,

now a days our constituency have been in front of the risk of High Frequency Half-Wavelength Transmission System and

reserve depletion and coal shortage has major impact on the Transient Study of a Transmission Line tuned for Half-

residential living [1]. In the past, firstly, Southern California Wavelength are the technologies implicated in the Half-

Edison Company introduced the transmission line for long Wavelength AC Power Transmission Line.

distance with high-voltage in the year 1914 which is energized Previously, in the conventional electrical transmission

by 150kV voltage. Then, in 1924, modified transmission line system, the power transmitting capacity and transmission line

came into service with a voltage capability of 220kV. distance mainly depends on voltage rating levels. So, 750kV is

Then, Different methods are available to analyze the Long- the highest level of operating voltage. But, some difficulties of

Distance Transmission Line: Fractional Frequency material and environmental issues may arise by upgrading of

Transmission System, Half-Wavelength Transmission System, level of voltage. The other method is HVDC Transmission

Transient Study of Transmission Line tuned for Half- System to increase the transmission capacity. Converters are

Wavelength. Half-Wavelength Transmission Line is nothing very expensive in case of HVDC Transmission System at

but, the line span between the receiving and the sending ends receiving-end and easy to expose the transients. With this

is about partly of a power frequency wavelength. Large power drawback, the usage of HVDC is restricted to the point-to-

transmission capacity, extremely stable end voltage, no point transmission [10-12]. In 1994, the Fractional Frequency

compensating equipments and switching stations are required Transmission System (FFTS) was introduced with 50/3Hz

for power transmission in this Long-Distance Transmission lower frequency to increase the transmission capacity with

Line [2-3] and also the total line impedance becomes virtually reduced electrical length.

zero [4]. The Ultra-Long-Distance Transmission line refers to After introducing the transformer, flexibility has been

the transmission mode of transportation distance between taken place to convert one level to another level of voltage.

2000~3000km [5]. But, transforming the frequency was not easy as much as

In this article, different types of analysis on Very Long- voltage. With the development of power electronic devices it

Distance AC Power Transmission line are discussed. becomes very easy to transform/convert frequency from one

Frequency multiplier is used to convert Fractional Frequency level to other level. The lesser frequency of electricity is easy

(50/3Hz) to Nominal Frequency (50Hz) in case of fractional to pass on superior power to longer span, whereas, the superior

frequency transmission system and is a one of the alternates to frequency electricity can be used extra capably to force the

convert the frequency from one level to another level with electrical tools.

Cycloconverter [6]. In the case of fractional frequency Half-Wavelength AC Power Transmission Lines: The

transmission system, a Step-up Cycloconverter and Resonant Half-Wavelength Transmission Line is a lossless line and it

Converters are used for better conversion of frequency. In has the subsequent advantages:

diode frequency multiplier method, the multiplication of

frequency is performed by a nonlinear resistance or (1) Magnitude of voltage and the power factor are same at

conductance with consequent poor conversion efficiency [7, receiving end and sending end,

(2) In middle of line, voltage will increase with the relative (2)

amount power transmitted and its surge impedance load,

Eqn. (2) is the key advantage of Half-Wavelength

(3) In middle of line, current is stable with any amount of Transmission Technology. As aforementioned, the main

transmitted power. drawback of natural Half-Wavelength Transmission Line is its

fixed improper length, to overcome this problem; one solution

(4) The phase angle between the receiving and sending is to change the frequency of power. As the electrical

ends for any transmitted power is 1800, thus, the half- wavelength is determined by the frequency of transmitted

wavelength line system behaves like a short line as associated power as λ = v/f, where, ‘v’ is the wave propagation speed and

to dynamic stability studies [8].

close to , and ‘f’ is the frequency of power. If the

The following analysis is based on 60Hz frequency which frequency of power is raised, the corresponding length of

is used as system frequency and this 60c/s is a wavelength for Half-Wavelength Transmission Line will be reduced. Based

uncompensated overhead line for 3000 miles distance on the equation of the generator frequency,

transmission. Changing the line parameters – like length of the [1&3].

conductor, grouping, spacing of the phases and voltage has

almost no stress on the wavelength, provided the frequency is B. High Frequency Half-Wavelength Power Transmission

held strong. In this analysis, assuming that the transmission Scheme

line length is less than 1800 electric for 60c/s practically. To in this analysis, it is assumed that the line is a lossless line.

allow a 900-mile overhead line with a voltage potential of For a lossless line, the voltage and current at distance from

500kV to be extended to a half-wavelength line electrically, the sending end can be calculated as follows:

this system is in the shape of two strategies. First one is, at the

ends of the road, all the tuning equipment will be placed. In (3)

the second, the road’s surge impedance loading will increase

after delivered the shunt capacitors alongside the road and

If Eqn. (3) becomes

concurrently to shorten the 60c/s wavelength. The following

three types will represents the analysis of half – wavelength

transmission system. (4)

A. Variable Frequency Half-Wavelength (λ/2) Transmission The Eqn. (4) implies that, there is no impedance between

Scheme the sending and receiving nodes of the line, as if the line did

In this scheme, compared with reactive parts of the not subsist. The line can change the phase angle between

transmission line, the line can be approximately lossless with voltage and current only. Further, it is proposed to use

negligible resistance in the transmission line. According to the generators with more frequency to produce a sufficient

solution of sinusoidal steady state of the lossless line equation, frequency that leads to a half-wave length matching the

the voltage and current vectors at distance from the distance between the sending and the receiving nodes as

receiving end can be written as: shown in Fig. 1. In this technique, the generator and line are

combined as one unit that just functions for the required

(1) transmission distance. It is observed, that the proposed

technique is not suitable for network operation. Its purpose is

where ‘Zc’ is surge impedance and ‘α’ is phase constant to bring a large remote generator closer to the load centre

given by α = 2π/λ (λ is wavelength). Hence, the end voltages using Half-Wavelength Transmission Line [4].

and currents of a λ/2 line can be derived as:

C. Transient Analysis of a Transmission Line tuned for Half- 1500km, the Half-Wavelength with 2600km and a

Wavelength conventional 400km line. Fig. 2 shows the 1500km system

To understand this study, A test system consists of three under analysis.

lines is considered in the present study: the tuned one with

534

Figure 2: Schematic Diagram to study the transmission line with electromagnetic transient study

A non-conventional line is used in the present study with each one. The cycle is divided into 4 sections of 62.5km,

high power capacity. Although the objective is to study a 125km, 125km and 62.5km [15-17].

1500km line, this should be a bulk transmission with low loss

level. Observations: The concept behind in Half-Wave length

transmission line model is applying the half wave length (i.e.,

The line specifications are: λ/2) then the very long transmission line converts into a short

transmission line. So, it is very comfortable to evaluate the

It has six conductors per phase and two ground wires. transmission line. But, in other way, the voltage is same at

The bundle conductor is designed with respect to receiving end as well as sending end because of the tuning

constraints such as corona effect. circuits. According to this, the power should be the same

throughout the line. It is difficult to analyze the system when it

The soil resistivity is constant and equal to 2000Ω-m. is experienced to a fault. There is a way to identify the fault in

The line is represented under balanced condition and also the very long transmission line, i.e., with respect to its

with its actual transposition section. For the balanced line, the impedance.

ideal transposition is considered for the whole frequency range.

The actual transposed line is represented using non-transposed III. 50/3HZ TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

line section with the transposition tower. This analysis is In this method the frequency of power can be reduced to

important to properly observe the higher frequencies transient 1/3rd by reducing no. of pole pairs. At receiving end the

response and its influence in the overvoltage attenuation. frequency multiplier adjusted the frequency from 50/3Hz to

50Hz then supplies the power to the public as shown in Fig. 3.

A transposition cycle consists normally of three phase The 50/3Hz frequency can be utilized to the lines with

rotations, which seek to balance the phase parameters for transmission distance up to three times more compared to

fundamental frequency. To achieve this, the length of each traditional 50Hz power transmission. At the end of the

transposition cycle should be much less than a quarter of half transmission line, critical frequency multiplier is used as a dual

wavelength for network frequency, which means a much main control system and it works as a AC-AC converter

smaller length than 1200km. For the 1500km line, this results circuit.

in splitting the line into four transposition cycles of 375km

(b) Schematic Diagram of Frequency Multiplier/Frequency Changer.

The heating limitation is not a major obstruction for the voltage and inversely proportional to the reactance of the

long-distance AC Transmission. Its load capacity primarily transmission line from equation (5).

depends on the solidity boundary and voltage fall maximum

value by: The fall in voltage can be evaluated by:

(6)

(5)

where ‘X’ is the reactance of the transmission line, ‘V’ is The dip in voltage and line reactance are directly

the usual voltage from the above relation, the transmission proportional to each other and dip in voltage is inversely

capability is directly proportional to the square of the usual proportional to the square of voltage. In order to boost the

535

transmission capability, the nominal voltage level can be Fractional Frequency Transmission System is less as compared

increased or the reactance of the transmission line can be to the normal transmission system. This can be verified by the

reduced. The reactance is directly proportional to power following relation [18],

frequency and is given by:

(7) (8)

where, ‘L’ is the transmission line total inductance. Hence, Observations: Coming to the 50/3Hz transmission system,

fall in the electrical frequency can proportionally increase the frequency can be changed with the help of pole pairs in the

transmission capacity. Thus Fractional Frequency alternator. Then, the power will transmit for more distance.

Transmission System uses reduced frequency to decrease But, practically it is not possible, so that as an alternative, at

reactance of the transmission system. For instance, when the sending end and receiving end the Cyclo converter can be used

50Hz frequency is reduced by three times, then theoretically, to change 50/3Hz to 50Hz instead of AC – AC converter as it

transmission distance increases three times. The power loss in is expensive.

IV. MATLAB SIMULATION AND RESULTS

Discrete,

Ts = 5e -005 s. ____________________________

l l

powe rgui l l Vabc

Vabc A

A A A a l l

A Vabc a

a l A A

l B

A A

B B a 1000 Km 1000 Km 1000 Km Fixed AC with 50/3 Hz to B B b B B

b B b B l l

l C C C C

Transmission Transmission Transmission Fixed DC to C

C

C

b Line Line Line Fixed AC with 50 Hz l c

c

C c C c Converter l l Three Phase Load

3 - Phase,

A

B

C

l l (or)

440 Ph - Ph rms voltage,

3 - Phase Transformer, \_________________________ _________________________/ AC - DC - AC Converter l l Users

50/3 Hz Supply

440 / 1000 volts, \/ (or) l l

50/3 Hz 3000 Km Transmission Line System with 1000 volts, 50/3 Hz Frequency Multiplier l l

C

A

B

l l

l l

l l

l l

l l

____________________________

LC Filter

A Three Phase, 440 Volts phase to phase rms voltage and 50/3 transmit the sending end to receiving end through the

Hz frequency generator is taken as source and three phase, 440 transmission line which is a length of 3000 km. At receiving

/ 1000 Volts phase to phase rms voltage, 50/3 Hz frequency end, the 1000 volts, 50/3 Hz frequency can be converted as

and two winding transformer is taken as step up transformer to 1000 Volts, 50 Hz frequency with the help of AC – DC – AC

increase the voltage level upto 1000 Volts and the same can converter (or) Frequency Multiplier (or) Cyclo Converter.

Phase - B

440 V, 50/3 Hz Three Phase Source Voltage Phase - C

500

400

300

200

Voltage in volts

100

-100

-200

-300

-400

-500

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Time in sec

Fig. 5, shows the three phase voltage waveform generated 50/3 Hz with the help of three phase two winding step up

by the source with magnitude of 440 Volts and 50/3 Hz transformer is shown in Fig. 6.

frequency. This can be converted into 3 – Phase, 1000 volts,

536

Three Phase Stepup Voltage

4000

3000

1000 V, 50/3 Hz

2000

1000

Voltage in volts

-1000

-2000

-3000

-4000

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Time in sec

After the conversion of voltage form 440 Volts to 50/3 Hz supply with the help of AC – DC – AC

1000 Volts, and same can be transmitted through the Converter. The same will be obtained by using the

transmission line under the frequency 50/3 Hz. Fig. 7, Frequency Multiplier (or) Three Phase Step Up Cyclo

shows the three phase load voltage of 1000 volts with Converter.

frequency of 50 Hz after the conversion of 1000 Volts,

Three Phase Load Voltage

1500

1000 V, 50 Hz

1000

500

Voltage in volts

-500

-1000

-1500

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5

Time in sec

V. CONCLUSION [5]. Huaxin Wang, Ajyou Chen, Jain Wang and Yongxi Zhao,

“Reliability and Economic Comparison of Ultra-Long-Distance

In this article, different types of techniques available in the Transmission Mode,” International Conference on Sustainable

extra long distance transmission line and which can be used to Energy and Environmental Engineering (SEEE 2015).

transmit the power are discussed. The concept behind the Half- [6]. William R. Light, Eugene S. McVey, “A Synchronous Tap

Changer Applied to Step-Up Cyclocnverters,” IEEE Transactions

Wave length transmission line model is applying the half wave on Industry and General Applications, vol. IGA-3, no. 3, May/June

length (i.e., λ/2) then the very long transmission line is 1967, pp 244-249.

converted into a short transmission line. So, it is very [7]. IulianRosu, “Frequency Multipliers,” http://www.qsl.net/va3iul.

comfortable to evaluate the transmission line. Coming to the [8]. Milana Lima dos Santos, Jose Antonio Jardini, Ronaldo Pedro

50/3Hz transmission system, the frequency can be changed Casolari, Ricardo Leon Vasquez-Arnez, Gerson Yukio Saiki,

with the help of pole pairs in the alternator. Then, the power Thales Sousa, Geraldo Luiz Costa Nicola, “Power Transmission

will transmit for more distance. The fault analysis of the very Over Long Distances: Economic Comparison Between HVDC and

long distance transmission line is used to identify the type of Half-Wavelength Line,” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery,

vol. 29, no. 2, April 2014, pp 502-509.

protection scheme, because with this analysis, both the ends of

[9]. Mauricio Aredes, Robson Dias, “FACTS for Tapping and Power

the transmission line have same voltage. Flow Control in Half-Wavelength Transmission Lines,” IEEE

Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 59, no. 10, October

REFERENCES 2012, pp 3669-3679.

[1]. Xueli Wu, Xiuyuan Yang, Hong Shen, Qinyong Zhou, “Research [10]. Ashish Ramesh Banasawade, SuyongBhausahebPatil,

on the Long-Distance Transmission,” Energy and Power DipaliSukumarJatte, Kajal Sunil Kholkumbe, “Fractional

Engineering, 2013, 5, 1293-1297. Frequency Transmission System,” International Journal of

[2]. F.J. Hubert, M.R. Gent, “Half-Wavelength Power Transmission Engineering Research and General Science, Vol. 3, Issue 2, Part 2,

Lines,” IEEE Spectrum January 1965. March-April, 2015, pp 262-267.

[3]. Yang Wang, WilsunXu, yun Wei Li, “Variable Frequency Half- [11]. Wang Xifan, Cao Chengjun, Zhou Zhichao, “Experiment on

Wavelength Transmission Scheme”. Fractional Frequency Transmission System,” IEEE Transactions

on Power Systems, vol. 21, no.1, February 2006, pp 372-377.

[4]. Yang Wang, WilsunXu, yun Wei Li, “High Frequency Half-

Wavelength Power Transmission Scheme”.

537

[12]. Xifan Wang, Xiuli Wang, “Feasibility Study of Fractional

Frequency Transmission System,” IEEE Transactions on Power

Systems, vol. 11, no. 2, May 1996, pp 962-967.

[13]. Robson Dias, Antonio Lima, Carlos Portela, Mauricio Aredes,

“Extra Long-Distance Bulk Power Transmission,” IEEE

Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 26, no. 3, July 2011, pp

1440-1448.

[14]. Mauricio Aredes, Evandro M. Sasso, Emanuel L. van Emmerik,

Carlos Portela, “The GTO-Controlled Series Capacitor Applied to

Half-Wavelength Transmission Lines,” International Conference

on Power Systems Transients-IPST 2003 in New Orleans, USA,

pp 1-6.

[15]. J.A. Santiago, M.C. Tavares, “Electromagnetic Transient Study of

a Transmission Line Tuned for Half-Wavelength,” International

Conference on Power Systems Transients (IPST2015) in catvat,

Croatia, June 15-18, 2015.

[16]. Maria Cristina Tavares, Carlos M. Portela, “Half-Wavelength Line

Energization Case Test-Proposition of a Real Test,” 2008

International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and

Application, Chongqing, China, November 9-13, 2008.

[17]. Robson F.S. Dias, Antonio C.S. Lima, Carlos Portela, Mauricio

Aredes, “Non Conventional Transmission Line with FACTS in

Electromagnetic Transient Programs,” International Conference on

Power Systems Transients (IPST2009) in Kyoto, Japan June 3-6,

2009, pp 1-7.

[18]. F.S. Prabhakara, K. parthasarathy, H.N. RamachandraRao,

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538

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