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2017 International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, Communication, Computer and Optimization Techniques (ICEECCOT)

Analysis of Very Long Distance AC Power


Transmission Line
K. P. Prasad Rao P. Srinivasa Varma MIEEE
Research Scholar, Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering,
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, K L University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.
K L University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA. pinnivarma@gmail.com
prasadraokondenti@gmail.com

Abstract—At present, there is, an imbalanced power distribution 8]. Now days, the FACTS controllers are used to control the
to load from resources and also Electric shortages are regular in profile of the voltage and current in Half-Wavelength AC
some countries. This article illustrates the Long-Distance Power Transmission Line [9]. In this paper, the author, discuss
Transmission Line technologies to overcome the above the different types of analysis of very long transmission line
problems. It is mainly visualized in two ways - UHV AC and with results.
UHV DC Transmission Line. Under UHV AC Transmission
Line, there are many technologies to analyze the system. II. VERY LONG DISTANCE AC POWER TRANSMISSION
Whereas, UHV DC Transmission Line is used to transmit the LINE
DC power. The different types of frequency multipliers are used The Electric Grid Corporation takes a decision as a
in half-wavelength tuned AC Transmission Line. MATLAB is
strategic objective i.e., to build a national grid. It accelerates
the soft ware use to analyze the test system.
the Ultra High Voltage (UHV) Power Grid construction and
Keywords—50/3Hz Transmission System, Variable Frequency,
High Frequency, Half-Wavelength Power Transmission Scheme,
put it into operation in order of 1000kV exchange system.
Electromagnetic Transient Study. In this article, half – wavelength AC power transmission
lines and fractional frequency (50/3 Hz) transmission system
I. INTRODUCTION tools are illustrated under AC UHV transmission line. The
More and more crucial with the burning up of property, Variable Frequency Half-Wavelength Transmission System,
now a days our constituency have been in front of the risk of High Frequency Half-Wavelength Transmission System and
reserve depletion and coal shortage has major impact on the Transient Study of a Transmission Line tuned for Half-
residential living [1]. In the past, firstly, Southern California Wavelength are the technologies implicated in the Half-
Edison Company introduced the transmission line for long Wavelength AC Power Transmission Line.
distance with high-voltage in the year 1914 which is energized Previously, in the conventional electrical transmission
by 150kV voltage. Then, in 1924, modified transmission line system, the power transmitting capacity and transmission line
came into service with a voltage capability of 220kV. distance mainly depends on voltage rating levels. So, 750kV is
Then, Different methods are available to analyze the Long- the highest level of operating voltage. But, some difficulties of
Distance Transmission Line: Fractional Frequency material and environmental issues may arise by upgrading of
Transmission System, Half-Wavelength Transmission System, level of voltage. The other method is HVDC Transmission
Transient Study of Transmission Line tuned for Half- System to increase the transmission capacity. Converters are
Wavelength. Half-Wavelength Transmission Line is nothing very expensive in case of HVDC Transmission System at
but, the line span between the receiving and the sending ends receiving-end and easy to expose the transients. With this
is about partly of a power frequency wavelength. Large power drawback, the usage of HVDC is restricted to the point-to-
transmission capacity, extremely stable end voltage, no point transmission [10-12]. In 1994, the Fractional Frequency
compensating equipments and switching stations are required Transmission System (FFTS) was introduced with 50/3Hz
for power transmission in this Long-Distance Transmission lower frequency to increase the transmission capacity with
Line [2-3] and also the total line impedance becomes virtually reduced electrical length.
zero [4]. The Ultra-Long-Distance Transmission line refers to After introducing the transformer, flexibility has been
the transmission mode of transportation distance between taken place to convert one level to another level of voltage.
2000~3000km [5]. But, transforming the frequency was not easy as much as
In this article, different types of analysis on Very Long- voltage. With the development of power electronic devices it
Distance AC Power Transmission line are discussed. becomes very easy to transform/convert frequency from one
Frequency multiplier is used to convert Fractional Frequency level to other level. The lesser frequency of electricity is easy
(50/3Hz) to Nominal Frequency (50Hz) in case of fractional to pass on superior power to longer span, whereas, the superior
frequency transmission system and is a one of the alternates to frequency electricity can be used extra capably to force the
convert the frequency from one level to another level with electrical tools.
Cycloconverter [6]. In the case of fractional frequency Half-Wavelength AC Power Transmission Lines: The
transmission system, a Step-up Cycloconverter and Resonant Half-Wavelength Transmission Line is a lossless line and it
Converters are used for better conversion of frequency. In has the subsequent advantages:
diode frequency multiplier method, the multiplication of
frequency is performed by a nonlinear resistance or (1) Magnitude of voltage and the power factor are same at
conductance with consequent poor conversion efficiency [7, receiving end and sending end,

978-1-5386-2361-9/17/$31.00 ©2017 IEEE


(2) In middle of line, voltage will increase with the relative (2)
amount power transmitted and its surge impedance load,
Eqn. (2) is the key advantage of Half-Wavelength
(3) In middle of line, current is stable with any amount of Transmission Technology. As aforementioned, the main
transmitted power. drawback of natural Half-Wavelength Transmission Line is its
fixed improper length, to overcome this problem; one solution
(4) The phase angle between the receiving and sending is to change the frequency of power. As the electrical
ends for any transmitted power is 1800, thus, the half- wavelength is determined by the frequency of transmitted
wavelength line system behaves like a short line as associated power as λ = v/f, where, ‘v’ is the wave propagation speed and
to dynamic stability studies [8].
close to , and ‘f’ is the frequency of power. If the
The following analysis is based on 60Hz frequency which frequency of power is raised, the corresponding length of
is used as system frequency and this 60c/s is a wavelength for Half-Wavelength Transmission Line will be reduced. Based
uncompensated overhead line for 3000 miles distance on the equation of the generator frequency,
transmission. Changing the line parameters – like length of the [1&3].
conductor, grouping, spacing of the phases and voltage has
almost no stress on the wavelength, provided the frequency is B. High Frequency Half-Wavelength Power Transmission
held strong. In this analysis, assuming that the transmission Scheme
line length is less than 1800 electric for 60c/s practically. To in this analysis, it is assumed that the line is a lossless line.
allow a 900-mile overhead line with a voltage potential of For a lossless line, the voltage and current at distance from
500kV to be extended to a half-wavelength line electrically, the sending end can be calculated as follows:
this system is in the shape of two strategies. First one is, at the
ends of the road, all the tuning equipment will be placed. In (3)
the second, the road’s surge impedance loading will increase
after delivered the shunt capacitors alongside the road and
If Eqn. (3) becomes
concurrently to shorten the 60c/s wavelength. The following
three types will represents the analysis of half – wavelength
transmission system. (4)
A. Variable Frequency Half-Wavelength (λ/2) Transmission The Eqn. (4) implies that, there is no impedance between
Scheme the sending and receiving nodes of the line, as if the line did
In this scheme, compared with reactive parts of the not subsist. The line can change the phase angle between
transmission line, the line can be approximately lossless with voltage and current only. Further, it is proposed to use
negligible resistance in the transmission line. According to the generators with more frequency to produce a sufficient
solution of sinusoidal steady state of the lossless line equation, frequency that leads to a half-wave length matching the
the voltage and current vectors at distance from the distance between the sending and the receiving nodes as
receiving end can be written as: shown in Fig. 1. In this technique, the generator and line are
combined as one unit that just functions for the required
(1) transmission distance. It is observed, that the proposed
technique is not suitable for network operation. Its purpose is
where ‘Zc’ is surge impedance and ‘α’ is phase constant to bring a large remote generator closer to the load centre
given by α = 2π/λ (λ is wavelength). Hence, the end voltages using Half-Wavelength Transmission Line [4].
and currents of a λ/2 line can be derived as:

Figure 1: High Frequency Half-Wavelength Transmission Scheme.

C. Transient Analysis of a Transmission Line tuned for Half- 1500km, the Half-Wavelength with 2600km and a
Wavelength conventional 400km line. Fig. 2 shows the 1500km system
To understand this study, A test system consists of three under analysis.
lines is considered in the present study: the tuned one with

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Figure 2: Schematic Diagram to study the transmission line with electromagnetic transient study

A non-conventional line is used in the present study with each one. The cycle is divided into 4 sections of 62.5km,
high power capacity. Although the objective is to study a 125km, 125km and 62.5km [15-17].
1500km line, this should be a bulk transmission with low loss
level. Observations: The concept behind in Half-Wave length
transmission line model is applying the half wave length (i.e.,
The line specifications are: λ/2) then the very long transmission line converts into a short
transmission line. So, it is very comfortable to evaluate the
It has six conductors per phase and two ground wires. transmission line. But, in other way, the voltage is same at
The bundle conductor is designed with respect to receiving end as well as sending end because of the tuning
constraints such as corona effect. circuits. According to this, the power should be the same
throughout the line. It is difficult to analyze the system when it
The soil resistivity is constant and equal to 2000Ω-m. is experienced to a fault. There is a way to identify the fault in
The line is represented under balanced condition and also the very long transmission line, i.e., with respect to its
with its actual transposition section. For the balanced line, the impedance.
ideal transposition is considered for the whole frequency range.
The actual transposed line is represented using non-transposed III. 50/3HZ TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
line section with the transposition tower. This analysis is In this method the frequency of power can be reduced to
important to properly observe the higher frequencies transient 1/3rd by reducing no. of pole pairs. At receiving end the
response and its influence in the overvoltage attenuation. frequency multiplier adjusted the frequency from 50/3Hz to
50Hz then supplies the power to the public as shown in Fig. 3.
A transposition cycle consists normally of three phase The 50/3Hz frequency can be utilized to the lines with
rotations, which seek to balance the phase parameters for transmission distance up to three times more compared to
fundamental frequency. To achieve this, the length of each traditional 50Hz power transmission. At the end of the
transposition cycle should be much less than a quarter of half transmission line, critical frequency multiplier is used as a dual
wavelength for network frequency, which means a much main control system and it works as a AC-AC converter
smaller length than 1200km. For the 1500km line, this results circuit.
in splitting the line into four transposition cycles of 375km

Figure 3. (a) Schematic Diagram of Fractional Frequency Transmission Line,


(b) Schematic Diagram of Frequency Multiplier/Frequency Changer.

The heating limitation is not a major obstruction for the voltage and inversely proportional to the reactance of the
long-distance AC Transmission. Its load capacity primarily transmission line from equation (5).
depends on the solidity boundary and voltage fall maximum
value by: The fall in voltage can be evaluated by:
(6)
(5)

where ‘X’ is the reactance of the transmission line, ‘V’ is The dip in voltage and line reactance are directly
the usual voltage from the above relation, the transmission proportional to each other and dip in voltage is inversely
capability is directly proportional to the square of the usual proportional to the square of voltage. In order to boost the
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transmission capability, the nominal voltage level can be Fractional Frequency Transmission System is less as compared
increased or the reactance of the transmission line can be to the normal transmission system. This can be verified by the
reduced. The reactance is directly proportional to power following relation [18],
frequency and is given by:
(7) (8)

where, ‘L’ is the transmission line total inductance. Hence, Observations: Coming to the 50/3Hz transmission system,
fall in the electrical frequency can proportionally increase the frequency can be changed with the help of pole pairs in the
transmission capacity. Thus Fractional Frequency alternator. Then, the power will transmit for more distance.
Transmission System uses reduced frequency to decrease But, practically it is not possible, so that as an alternative, at
reactance of the transmission system. For instance, when the sending end and receiving end the Cyclo converter can be used
50Hz frequency is reduced by three times, then theoretically, to change 50/3Hz to 50Hz instead of AC – AC converter as it
transmission distance increases three times. The power loss in is expensive.
IV. MATLAB SIMULATION AND RESULTS
Discrete,
Ts = 5e -005 s. ____________________________
l l
powe rgui l l Vabc
Vabc A
A A A a l l
A Vabc a
a l A A
l B
A A
B B a 1000 Km 1000 Km 1000 Km Fixed AC with 50/3 Hz to B B b B B
b B b B l l
l C C C C
Transmission Transmission Transmission Fixed DC to C
C
C
b Line Line Line Fixed AC with 50 Hz l c
c
C c C c Converter l l Three Phase Load
3 - Phase,

A
B
C
l l (or)
440 Ph - Ph rms voltage,
3 - Phase Transformer, \_________________________ _________________________/ AC - DC - AC Converter l l Users
50/3 Hz Supply
440 / 1000 volts, \/ (or) l l
50/3 Hz 3000 Km Transmission Line System with 1000 volts, 50/3 Hz Frequency Multiplier l l

C
A
B
l l
l l
l l
l l
l l
____________________________
LC Filter

Figure 4. MATALAB Simulation diagram for 50/3 Hz Transmission System

A Three Phase, 440 Volts phase to phase rms voltage and 50/3 transmit the sending end to receiving end through the
Hz frequency generator is taken as source and three phase, 440 transmission line which is a length of 3000 km. At receiving
/ 1000 Volts phase to phase rms voltage, 50/3 Hz frequency end, the 1000 volts, 50/3 Hz frequency can be converted as
and two winding transformer is taken as step up transformer to 1000 Volts, 50 Hz frequency with the help of AC – DC – AC
increase the voltage level upto 1000 Volts and the same can converter (or) Frequency Multiplier (or) Cyclo Converter.
Phase - B
440 V, 50/3 Hz Three Phase Source Voltage Phase - C
500

400

300

200
Voltage in volts

100

-100

-200

-300

-400

-500
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Time in sec

Figure 5. Three Phase Source Voltage with 50/3 Hz

Fig. 5, shows the three phase voltage waveform generated 50/3 Hz with the help of three phase two winding step up
by the source with magnitude of 440 Volts and 50/3 Hz transformer is shown in Fig. 6.
frequency. This can be converted into 3 – Phase, 1000 volts,

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Three Phase Stepup Voltage
4000

3000
1000 V, 50/3 Hz
2000

1000
Voltage in volts

-1000

-2000

-3000

-4000
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Time in sec

Figure 6. Three Phase Step – Up Transformer Voltage with 50/3 Hz

After the conversion of voltage form 440 Volts to 50/3 Hz supply with the help of AC – DC – AC
1000 Volts, and same can be transmitted through the Converter. The same will be obtained by using the
transmission line under the frequency 50/3 Hz. Fig. 7, Frequency Multiplier (or) Three Phase Step Up Cyclo
shows the three phase load voltage of 1000 volts with Converter.
frequency of 50 Hz after the conversion of 1000 Volts,
Three Phase Load Voltage
1500
1000 V, 50 Hz

1000

500
Voltage in volts

-500

-1000

-1500
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
Time in sec

Figure 7. Three Phase Load Voltage with 50 Hz

V. CONCLUSION [5]. Huaxin Wang, Ajyou Chen, Jain Wang and Yongxi Zhao,
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