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Food and Agriculture
Organization
of the United Nations
An international journal
of forestry and forest
industries
ISSN 0041-6436
Editor: A. Perlis
Editorial Advisory Board:
T. Hofer, F. Kafeero, H. Ortiz Chour,
A. Perlis, E. Rametsteiner, S. Rose, J. Tissari,
P. van Lierop, P. Vantomme, M.L. Wilkie
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J. Ball, I.J. Bourke, C. Palmberg-Lerche,
L. Russo
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Vol. 61
2010/1-2
Contents
Editorial 2
O. Serrano
XIII World Forestry Congress – Forests in development: a vital balance 3
D.K. Lee and J. Heino
Sixty years of collaborative partnership between FAO and IUFRO:
towards the next sixty 12
R.S. Purnamasari
Dynamics of small-scale deforestation in Indonesia: examining the
effects of poverty and socio-economic development 14
E. Durán, J.J. Figel and D.B. Bray
Uncertain coexistence: jaguars and communities in montane forests
of Mexico 21
M. Jack and P. Hall
Large-scale forests for bioenergy: land-use, economic and environmental
implications 23
S. Wu, Y. Hou and G. Yuan
Valuation of forest ecosystem goods and services and forest natural
capital of the Beijing municipality, China 28
A.C.G. Melo and G. Durigan
Fire in the seasonal semideciduous forest: impact and regeneration
at forest edges 37
J. Kamugisha-Ruhombe
Challenges of mobilizing forest ñnance in a heavily indebted poor
country: case study of Uganda 43
E. Atmis. H.B. Günsen ana S. Ozaen
How can Turkey’s forest cooperatives contribute to reducing rural
poverty? 51
A. Ramadhani
Promoting good forest governance for sustainable livelihood
improvement: a Tanzanian example 54
C. Ackerknecht
Work in the forestry sector: some issues for a changing workforce 60
H. Savenije and K. van Dijk
World forestry at a crossroads: going it alone or joining with others? 66
FAO Forestry 71
World of Forestry 74
Books 78
Cover photos:
XIII WFC
EDITORIAL
T
he World Forestry Congress is the world’s largest
gathering focused on forests and forestry, and the
thirteenth congress was the largest ever, with more
than 7 000 attending. Held in Buenos Aires, Argentina from
18 to 23 October 2009, the congress offered stimulating
presentations, discussions, meetings and exhibits for forest
watchers and workers of every kind.
This issue of Unasylva summarizes the event and provides a
taste of the impressive variety of knowledge and information
presented there. It begins with an overview by O. Serrano
describing the congress and summarizing a number of special
events, as well as the strategic actions recommended by the
congress in its final declaration.
The bulk of the issue is developed from papers presented
in Buenos Aires. The content is organized around the seven
main thematic areas of the congress. We have selected mate-
rial with potential appeal for a broad audience, representing
a wide geographic range and presenting topics not recently
covered in Unasylva.
Theme 1, “Forests and biodiversity” covered, among others,
issues related to the state of the forest and deforestation,
including many technical contributions on forest inventory and
assessment. We present a study by R.S. Purnamasari examining
the role of poverty and regional socio-economic development
in the dynamics of small-scale deforestation in Indonesia. The
results show that regions with the highest percentage of poor
people actually have less deforestation, probably because
people with some means to invest in agricultural production
are more likely to deforest. Deforestation at first increases with
wealth, but decreases after a certain wealth level is reached.
Also under Theme 1, a shorter piece (by E. Durán, J.J. Figel
and D.B. Bray) reports the results of a study of the potential
for community conservation of jaguars in four communities
in the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca, Mexico.
Theme 2, őProducing for developmentŒ, included all aspects
of forest production. One of its subthemes, forests and energy,
was also discussed in a special half-day forum. M. Jack and P.
Hall examine the potential of developing large-scale forests
for bioenergy in New Zealand, and the implications for land-
use, the economy and the environment.
Under Theme 3, “Forests in the service of people”, an
important subtheme was valuation of environmental services.
S. Wu, Y. Hou and G. Yuan describe an attempt to estimate
the complete market and non-market values of the forests of
Beiiing municipality, China. The study also examined the
sectoral and spatial distribution of the forest benefits. The
authors acknowledge that efforts to assign an economic value
to all forest benefits – and the methods for doing so – may be
open to debate, but they are useful to raise awareness of the
multifunctional roles of forest ecosystems and can ultimately
help contribute to forest conservation.
Theme 4, “Caring for our forests”, is represented by a
study of the impact of fire in seasonal semideciduous forest
fragments in São Paulo State, Brazil. A.C.G. Melo and G.
Durigan find that tree recovery at the forest edges is slower
than in the interior, suggest why, and draw conclusions for
fire management and prevention in forest fragments.
Under Theme 5, “Development opportunities”, J. Kamu-
gisha-Ruhombe examines planning, budgeting and fiscal
resource allocation for forestry in Uganda, illustrating the gap
between the global discussion on forest finance and national
realities in heavily indebted poor countries. He finds that
budget ceilings established by Uganda in order to qualify for
debt relief are the main reason for the country’s low financial
allocations to forestry. A shorter piece (by E. Atmiĩ, H.B.
Günĩen and S. Özden) examines forest cooperatives in Turkey
and the constraints that prevent them from contributing to
poverty reduction as well as intended.
Theme 6, “Organizing forest development”, included a wide
range of macroeconomic, institutional and governance issues.
A. Ramadhani describes a project to promote good forest
governance for sustainable livelihood improvement in four
forest-adjacent villages in the United Republic of Tanzania.
He summarizes the outcomes two years after the project, and
recommends measures for promoting good governance that
may also be applicable elsewhere.
For Theme 7, “People and forests in harmony”, we include
the introductory paper for the subtheme “Work in the forestry
sector”. C. Ackerknecht reviews topics such as labour unions,
occupational health and safety, training and changes in the
workforce. The article is global in scope, but makes particular
reference to Chile.
The issue concludes with a provocative essay in which H.
Savenije and K. van Dijk surmise forest sector trends since
the previous World Forestry Congress in 2003 based on their
observations in Buenos Aires. Although an earlier version of
this article has already been circulated widely through the
Internet, it is included here to stimulate readers to consider the
wider implications of the XIII World Forestry Congress for
the future of forestry. We hope this whole issue of Unasylva
will serve the same purpose.
XIII World Forestry
Congress
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XIII World Forestry Congress –
Forests in development: a vital balance
O. Serrano
Facts. hgures ana highlights from
the largest forestrv gathering ever.
Olman Serrano, Senior Forestry Ofſcer, FAO,
was Associate Secretary General of the XIII
World Forestry Congress.
T
he first World Forestry Congress
was held in 1926, the second ten
years later, and congresses have
been organized approximately every six
years since 1949, in partnership between
FAO and a host country. The XIII World
Forestry Congress, held in Buenos Aires,
Argentina from 18 to 23 October 2009,
was the largest forestry gathering ever.
Over 7 000 experts had the opportunity
to present and discuss their work, share
their experiences and increase their net-
works across the continents. Participants
from 160 countries gathered at the exhi-
bition grounds of the conference centre
La Rural to exchange views around
the theme of the congress, “Forests in
development: a vital balance”.
Participants – who take part as indi-
viduals and do not represent their
countries or organizations – came from
all continents, with the greatest part,
as expected, from Central and South
America, and fully half from Argentina.
They included policy-makers (including
a number of ministers responsible for
forestry), researchers, forest practition-
ers and representatives from industry,
financial institutions and development
agencies. All 14 members of the Col-
laborative Partnership on Forests (CPF)
were represented, as were many non-
governmental organizations. The atten-
dance of students was remarkable: some
1 200 representing a broad range of uni-
versities, many supported by associa-
tions such as the International Forest Stu-
dents Association (IFSA) and the Latin
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American Forest Science Students Asso-
ciation (ALECIF).
Nearly 600 participants came from
Africa and Asia. More than 200 partici-
pants from developing countries were
able to attend thanks to a sponsorship
programme coordinated by FAO and
ſnancially supported by the governments
of Finland, Spain, the United Kingdom
and the United States of America.
For the first time, countries from the
Near East were strongly represented at
the World Forestry Congress and organ-
ized a special event to present their com-
mon concerns (Box).
While the World Forestry Congress is
a global technical forum, it attracted the
interest of high-level policy-makers. Most
of the world’s heads of forestry services
were present. The host country organized
a ministerial event attended by ministers
responsible for forestry in Argentina,
Chile, China, Costa Rica, New Zealand
and the Republic of the Congo.
CONGRESS PROGRAMME
The technical programme included 282
presentations, selected from over 3 000
abstracts submitted, covering the seven
main thematic areas and 42 subthemes:
Leopoldo Montes, Secretary
General of the XIII World
Forestry Congress,
welcomed participants to
the congress on Sunday
evening, 18 October
FAO Director-General Jacques Diouf
addressed the opening plenary, noting that
considering forests as an integral part of
wider economic and social development
goals will help greatly in efforts to reduce
poverty, hunger and malnutrition
Near East Forestry Day was organized in conjunction with the XIII World Forestry
Congress, under the aegis of the FAO Near East Forestry Commission, to share with
the international forestry community the key concerns of forestry in the Near East and
North African Region – including rangelands and biodiversity conservation, wildlife and
protected areas, forest plantations in arid and semi-arid zones and the role of Near East
forestry in the international dialogue
This special event offered a unique opportunity for forestry experts, policy-makers and
representatives from government, the private sector and non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) to exchange views and experience, explore business opportunities and interact
with high-level panellists from the region. It attracted representatives from Egypt,
Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, the Sudan, the Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia
and Yemen, among others.
The gathering raised awareness on the need to share lessons learned and to follow up
results achieved in addressing desertiñcation, degradation of forests and woodlands, water
scarcity and soil erosion. Participants underlined that further efforts should be developed
to integrate appropriate forest policies and strategies in general land resources manage-
ment. Much attention was focused on how to mobilize the necessary resources to reverse
the declining trend of forest resources in the region. Participants also emphasized the
importance of collaboration between the private and public sectors and among govern-
ments, NGOs and research institutions, as paramount for the promotion and valorization
of forest products and services in drylands.
A concrete outcome was a set of recommendations and conclusions, developed by a core
team of forest experts attending the event, to be presented to the next session of the Near
East Forestry Commission, to be held in Tunis, Tunisia from 5 to 9 April 2010.
Near East Forestry Day
19 October 2009
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To celebrate the opening of the
congress, Cristina Fernández
de Kirchner, President of
Argentina, planted a tree at the
Casa Rosada – the presidential
headquarters – symbolizing the
country’s commitment to the
conservation and management
of forest resources
• Forests and biodiversity – state of the
forest and assessment techniques, de-
forestation and forest fragmentation,
restoration and rehabilitation, bio-
diversity, conservation management,
wildlife, forest genetic diversity;
• Producing for development – forest
management, planted forests, agro-
forestry systems, maintaining and
increasing forests’ productive capa-
city, forests and energy, forest uti-
lization practices, non-wood forest
products, trees outside forests and
other wooded land;
• Forests in the service of people
– forests and water, forests and cli-
mate change, tourism and recrea-
tion, urban and peri-urban forests,
mountain forests and livelihoods,
valuation of environmental services
and benefit sharing;
• Caring for our forests – forest fire,
invasive species, pests and diseases,
other disturbances;
• Development opportunities – sus-
tainability and economic viability,
industry and forest development,
small and medium-scale forest enter-
prises, forest products trade, forest
certification, forests and poverty
alleviation;
• Organizing forest development
– international dialogue and pro-
Euclides Pereira,
representing the
indigenous peoples
of the Brazilian
Amazon, dismissed
the notion of an
“untouched” Amazon,
for indigenous
practices have always
involved intervention
in nature (including
the development of
food crops that have
contributed to feeding
the world); he drew
attention rather to
indigenous peoples’
long experience in
conserving their lands,
natural resources,
water and biodiversity
cesses, instruments for forest plan-
ning and development, institutional
settings, law compliance and good
governance, research, extension and
education, intersectoral policies and
influences, contribution of the forest
sector to national and local econo-
mies, forest information;
• People and forests in harmony
– land tenure, indigenous peoples,
communities and institutions, parti-
cipatory management and processes,
work in the forestry sector, gender
and forestry.
Sixteen invited keynote speakers
introduced the main thematic areas in
plenary.
Five plenary sessions, 62 technical ses-
sions and three special fora provided
multiple opportunities for participants
to share and increase their knowledge of
forest and cross-sectoral issues. In addi-
tion over 100 side events were organized
by institutions with particular forest-
related interests, including indigenous
peoples, mountain ecosystems, biologi-
cal diversity and financing. More than
1 500 posters were displayed, providing
an additional opportunity for presenta-
tion of field experiences.
SPECIAL FEATURES
Fora on topical issues
Full-afternoon fora were dedicated to
two subjects: forests and energy, and
forests and climate change. These well-
attended sessions, held in the plenary
hall, included high-level keynote pres-
entations followed by substantive panel
discussions.
The main outcome from the climate
change forum was a message from the
organizers of the World Forestry Con-
gress to the fifteenth Conference of the
Parties (COP 15) of the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC) (Box p.6).
Participants in the Forests and Energy
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Forum debated the implications of bio-
energy production for the forest sector.
They shared their perspectives on the
state of the art of wood-based energy
production technologies, the social and
environmental impacts of bioenergy
production and the opportunities that
bioenergy-related policies present for
sustainable development (Box opposite).
The Investment and Financing Forum
was another innovative event (Box p. 8).
Representatives of financial and deve-
lopment institutions, forest and invest-
ment funds, private equity funds, forestry
enterprises, banks and government rep-
resentatives discussed strategies on how
to overcome the current financial crisis
with new business models, industry
restructuring, new financing instru-
ments and non-traditional investment
opportunities.
Business meetings – for business and
others
Parallel to the main programme, space
was set aside to accommodate interac-
tion among private-sector participants,
Linkages of forests and climate change were discussed in four technical sessions (mitigation, impacts and adaptation, policies and
institutions, forest carbon and carbon markets), in 14 special events organized by partner organizations, and during a half-day forum
entitled “Forestry and climate change: to Copenhagen and beyond”.
The results of the various sessions are reƀected in the following message from the congress, adopted on Friday, 23 October 2009, to
COP 15 of UNFCCC (Copenhagen, Denmark, December 2009):
The XIII World Forestry Congress (WFC) notes with concern the impacts of climate change on forests and strongly emphasizes
the important role forests play in climate change mitigation and adaptation as well as the need for forest-dependent people
and forest ecosystems to adapt to this challenge.
Forests are more than carbon. They harbor two thirds of all land-based biodiversity, and generate critical ecosystem goods and
services such as water, food, and income from over 5 000 commercial forest products. Forests sustain the cultural and spiritual
identity of billions of people, foremost among them the indigenous peoples and local communities.
The XIII WFC calls for urgent action and endorses the main messages of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests’ Strategic
Framework for Forests and Climate Change, of its Expert Panel on Adaptation of Forests to Climate Change, and of The Forests
Dialogue’s Statement on Forests and Climate Change, in particular the following:
• Forests contribute positively to the global carbon balance. Maintaining high carbon stocks by reducing deforestation and
forest degradation and promoting the sustainable management of all types of forests, including the conservation of biodi-
versity, forest protection and restoration, should be among the world’s highest priorities for the forestry sector.
• Sustainable forest management provides an effective framework for forest-based climate change mitigation and adaptation.
• For forests to fully achieve their potential in addressing the challenges of climate change, forest governance should be improved,
ſnanc/ng and capac/(y ba//d/ng shaa/d be enhanced, and pracesses (a empaner d/senfranch/sed peap/e, /nc/ad/ng /nd/genaas
peoples and other forest dependent communities, be strengthened.
• Sustainably harvested forest products and wood fuels can reduce greenhouse gas emissions if they substitute neutral or
low emission, renewable materials for high-emission materials.
• Even if adaptation measures are fully implemented, climate change would in the long run exceed the adaptive capacity of
many forests and therefore forest-based climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should proceed concurrently.
• Intersectoral collaboration, strengthening forest governance, establishing positive economic incentives, and improving
sustainable livelihoods of the poor are essential for reducing deforestation and forest degradation.
• Accurate forest monitoring and assessment help inform decision-making and should be strengthened in a coordinated
and transparent manner.
Ŗ Ac(/ans an c//ma(e change m/(/ga(/an and adap(a(/an /n fares(ry naa/d beneſ( fram a mare ac(/re engagemen( af fares(ry
professionals.
The XIII WFC stresses the need to reduce poverty as a driver of deforestation and to safeguard the rights of indigenous
peoples and forest-dependent communities, and recognizes the important roles that the private sector and civil society play in
climate change adaptation and mitigation.
The XIII WFC supports the inclusion of REDD-plus in the agreement on long-term cooperative action under UNFCCC,
including enhanced incentives for conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks
in developing countries; and calls for further support for adaptation in the forest sector.
Forests and climate change: from Buenos Aires to Copenhagen
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More than 1 500
contributors
presented posters
including forest products producers,
traders, ſnancial institutions and inves-
tors. On Wednesday 21 October, a full-day
Business Roundtable brought together
205 representatives from enterprises
involved in forestry-related activities,
from 31 countries. Over 1 000 face-to-
face meetings were registered, totalling
U$35 million in business pledges.
Many forest-related groups and organi-
zations Ō for example, the Collabora-
tive Partnership on Forests (CPF) and
the Board of the International Union of
Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO)
– held meetings in Buenos Aires prior to
the congress week, taking advantage of
the presence of experts from around the
world. FAO and the German Agency for
The Forum on Forests and Energy attracted
about 2 500 participants and included
presentations from nine speakers covering
a wide range of technical and policy issues
related to the subject. The discussion came
back often to three major issues:
• Many
presenters noted that the replacement
of fossil fuels with biofuels will have sig-
niñcant impacts on land use. Key issues
that have to be considered in this respect
include the possible conversion of forests
to biofuel crops, increased competition
for agricultural crops between food and
fuel use, and the socio-economic implica-
tions of large-scale changes in land use,
landownership and land tenure. The use
of degraded land and existing biomass
wastes reduces the impact of bioenergy
developments on land use, but is not
entirely without problems.
• Most biofuel
development at present focuses on liquid
biofuel production derived from agricul-
tural crops, but the technology to produce
liquid biofuels from wood is improving
and production is expected to increase
greatly in the future. The pulp and paper
Congress participants express caution about bioenergy developments
industry shows keen interest to develop
both biochemical and thermochemical
technologies to convert cellulose into
bioenergy, and the bioreñnery concept is
expected to be an important technological
platform. About US$3.8 billion is currently
invested in research and development into
such second-generation technologies; they
have now reached demonstration plant
scale but are still some way from being
economically viable compared to existing
types of liquid biofuel.
• Wood is
already by far the largest source of bio-
energy and it will remain so in the future.
Much of this is fuelwood and charcoal
used in developing countries, but more
modern uses of wood for heat and power
generation are rapidly becoming more
widespread. In general, wood has many
advantages for bioenergy production
compared with existing alternatives.
However, the use of wood for bioenergy
will increase total wood demand, so
the sustainability of production and
competition with other existing wood
uses are important issues that should
be considered.
A number of presenters described the
ambitious bioenergy policies already in
place in North America and Europe and
noted that many developing countries are
also developing or implementing policies in
this area. In addition, several international
partnerships are addressing technical and
policy issues related to bioenergy and its
sustainable development, for example the
formulation of principles, criteria and
indicators for bioenergy production.
After the technical presentations, the
members of the audience voted on whether
they thought bioenergy development would
be good or bad for the forestry sector. The
interesting result was that about 50 percent
thought it would be bad and 40 percent
thought it would be good (with about 10
percent undecided). Thus, it seems that
many issues of concern must be examined
and resolved before the forestry commu-
nity can give its wholehearted support to
bioenergy development.
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Valter Ziantoni won
ſrst prize in the World
Forestry Congress
photo contest for
his image “Everyday
Amazon”
Technical Cooperation (GTZ) organized
an event on regional forest coopera-
tion. The National Forest Programme
Facility met with South American part-
ners. The host country organized a spe-
cial training course on forest genetics
with global specialists a few days before
the opening of the congress.
Reaching beyond the forest sector
The World Forestry Congress was not
only for foresters to discuss traditional
forest topics, but embraced other sub-
jects having an impact on forests. For
example, an event lasting almost three
days and organized parallel to the main
programme was the Second International
Forum on Globally Important Agricul-
tural Heritage Systems (GIAHS). Key-
note speaker M.S. Swaminathan, winner
of the 1987 World Food Prize, called
for an “ever-green” revolution based
Participants expressed a concern that investment in tropical forestry is wholly insufñcient even though the rate of return on investments
in forest plantations and sustainable forest management is in the range of 15 to 25 percent. Less than US$1 billion per year of ofñcial
development assistance (ODA) is devoted to tropical forestry. The barriers to forest investment in developing economies include the
perception of high risk in long-term investments (because of insecure land tenure, political instability, weak institutions and regulatory
frameworks, and human rights issues) and limited capacity to absorb investments (because of deñcient ñnancial infrastructure, lack
of suitable partners and shortage of skills).
To improve the investment conditions in tropical forest countries, it is necessary to bridge four gaps:
• the investment gap - through local partnerships, reduced bureaucracy and capacity building in forestry, business and ñnancial institutions;
• the risk gap for investments – through an enhanced role of the multilateral development banks (long-term loans, insurance for
political and land tenure risks, and facilitation of trade ñnancing);
• the knowledge gap – through enhanced investor relations, improved price transparency and promotion of country or sector invest-
ment plans;
• the market gap – through correction of market failures, establishment of fully functioning carbon markets and long-term carbon
framework agreements, reduction of transaction costs, strengthening of price signals for sustainable products, capacity building
of local banks and support for innovations.
A mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) that includes conservation, sustainable
management of forests and enhancement of forest stocks (REDD-plus) could catalyse economic transformations and increase invest-
ments in tropical countries. But deforestation goes far beyond the carbon issue, and the carbon market does not really function yet.
Therefore, REDD-plus must be able to foster the establishment of sustainable private enterprises in order to be successful. To put the
matter in human terms, some 1.8 billion people use forests and trees for part of their subsistence, some 500 million people directly
depend on forest resources for their livelihoods, and some 50 million people live literally within forests. REDD-plus should help these
people have a decent life.
Conclusions from the Investment and Financing Forum
22 October 2009
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Some scenes from
the exhibition
hall, including the
inauguration by the
congress organizers
on dynamic conservation of agricultural
heritage sites in an era of climate change.
The Forum discussed agricultural sys-
tems and landscapes created, shaped and
maintained by generations of farmers
and herders based on diverse natural
resources and using locally adapted
management practices. These well-
balanced agro-ecological systems
include agroforestry practices in mar-
ginal or extreme environments where
trees have an important role. A special
address by Henri Djombo, Minister of
Forest Economy, the Republic of the
Congo, brought forestry into the GIAHS
perspective.
Offsetting the carbon footprint of the
congress
The enormous participation in the World
Forestry Congress entailed high con-
sumption of energy and thousands of
kilometres of travel by air, sea or road,
adding an enormous amount of carbon
dioxide to the atmosphere. To offset
these emissions and contribute to cli-
mate change mitigation, the congress
organizers arranged to purchase carbon
credits from a biomass energy project
in Brazil – creating the first “carbon
neutral” World Forestry Congress.
CLOSING AND DECLARATION
The XIII World Forestry Congress con-
cluded with a final declaration, sum-
marizing the most relevant issues and
recommendations resulting from the
numerous presentations and discussions
throughout the week. The declaration
outlined nine findings and 27 strategic
actions (Box p.10). Its preamble notes
that:
Forests are an invaluable asset for
humanity providing livelihoods for bil-
lions of people, helping achieve envi-
ronmental sustainability, and serving
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Working with partners outside the forest
sector
• Initiate integrated cross-sectoral actions
at global, regional, national and local
scales on key issues, including climate
change, bioenergy, water, biodiversity,
food security and poverty alleviation to
reduce adverse impacts on forests.
• Implement mechanisms for cross-
sectoral monitoring and reporting to
/nƀaence pa//c/es and ac(/ans re/a(ed
to forestry.
Inƀuencing opinions and perceptions about
the value of forests
• Create innovative mechanisms that
incorporate local and indigenous
knowledge as a source of valid informa-
tion to enrich global knowledge and
the understanding of sustainable forest
management.
• Strengthen interfaces between forest
knowledge and society; focusing in
particular on opinion leaders in local
papa/a(/ans, as a nay (a /nƀaence pa//cy-
makers.
Economic mechanisms to take full account
of forests’ value to society
• Foster the development of mechanisms
at local, regional, national and global
levels for realizing new economic values
af fares(s (ha( crea(e ſnanc/a/ /ncen-
tives for landowners and communities to
manage for these values.
• Focus immediately on climate change
re/a(ed mechan/sms as (he ſrs( pr/ar-
ity with particular attention to REDD
issues.
• Increase efforts to develop integrated
policies and strategies for effective man-
agement of forest and water resources.
Strategic actions recommended by the XIII World Forestry Congress
Planted forests
• Recognize the importance of planted
forests in meeting economic, social and
environmental needs.
• Focus activities on degraded landscapes,
especially restoration of degraded forest
lands.
• Develop and implement technologies to
maintain and enhance the productivity of
planted forests and their contributions at
local and landscape levels.
Forest bioenergy
• Develop energy forests within the context
of a sustainability framework to minimize
the risk of unintended consequences
across the forest, agriculture and energy
sectors.
• Implement good governance policies for
sustainable bioenergy development.
• Develop and improve technologies for
mare efſc/en( pradac(/an and d/rerse ase
of biomass for energy including second
generation technologies.
Forests and climate change
• Develop new approaches to enhancing
carbon sequestration using forests and
new options for managing forests in the
face of climate changes and implement
them widely.
Ŗ Prar/de /nfarmed and sc/en(/ſca//y prared
inputs to climate change negotiations.
• Simplify AR CDM rules and implementa-
tion of REDD-plus.
• Advocate that local needs currently met
fram fares(s are respec(ed and reƀec(ed
in international climate change-oriented
mechanisms and policies.
• Expand research on adaptation to climate
change and its impacts on ecosystems,
economies and societies.
Fragile ecosystems, including arid zones,
small islands, wetlands and mountains
• Promote protection and restoration of
fragile ecosystems to improve their resil-
ience and adaptation to changing climates
and human impacts and to maintain their
vital environmental services, including
food security and livelihoods for their
inhabitants.
Ŗ Increase effar(s (a camba( deser(/ſca(/an
through forestry-related actions.
Forest industry
• Create an enabling environment of policy
and legal framework for the forest industry
sector.
• Expand research to develop new clean
technologies and forest products.
Forest-related policies, good governance
and institutions
• Improve governance at all levels of the
forest sector, including building capacity
of forestry institutions to enforce laws and
regulations, and facilitate sustainable
forest management by state and non-state
actors.
• Provide better mechanisms to recognize
and value women’s roles in both informal
and formal domains.
• Improve worker skills and working condi-
tions needed for safe and productive work
in the expanding forest sector.
• Promote land tenure reform providing
secure rights to communities and local
stakeholders to use and manage forest
resources.
• Develop financing strategies within
the framework of national forest pro-
grammes using innovative instruments
for investment and market development
in forestry.
11
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as a source of social and spiritual
values for peoples, communities and
nations. Through their sustainable
management, forests can contribute to
alleviating poverty, safeguarding bio-
diversity, providing the broad range
of goods and services for present and
future generations, in the context of a
changing climate.
The declaration affirms that sustain-
able forest management, although not
sufficient alone to address the multitude
of challenges facing forests, contributes
to achieving the vital balance between
humanity and nature that is needed
for sustainable development, and that
ongoing United Nations conventions
and processes, such as the Non-Legally
Binding Instrument on All Types of
Forests, provide useful institutional
frameworks for action.
CONCLUSIONS
The whole congress week was rich in
technical information exchange and lively
discussions, everywhere from the plenary
hall and the 14 other meeting rooms to the
A congress in
Buenos Aires
would not have
been complete
without tango
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large exhibition area, the poster section,
the ample space for journalists and the
comfortable relaxation area.
The well-known Argentinian hospi-
tality, the high-quality cuisine and the
ample choice of cultural events made the
participants’ stay a very pleasant one,
despite the tight technical programme
and the multitudes attending.
Forestry and people who use or depend
on forest resources will, in one way or
another, feel the positive impact of this
major event. Planning and holding a
World Forestry Congress is a long-term
investment, and the final declaration,
while not a legally binding document,
will guide efforts towards the vital
balance of forests in development. X
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At the XIII World Forestry Congress in Buenos
Aires, Argentina in October 2009, the Inter-
national Union of Forest Research Organiza-
tions (IUFRO) and FAO celebrated the sixtieth
anniversary of their collaboration, initiated
with a first Memorandum of Understanding
in 1949. For 60 years, the two organizations
have provided mutual support in areas such as
forestry education, forest extension, incorpo-
rating science in national forest programmes,
support to national forest monitoring sys-
tems, and development and implementation
of guidelines for planted forests, forest protec-
tion, forest genetic resources and forest fire
management. In a recorded message sent
from Sweden, Börje Steenberg, FAO’s first
Assistant Director-General for Forestry, now
97 years old, commended the IUFRO-FAO
collaboration for creating and maintaining an
active interface between science and policy,
that is, between research and practice.
FAO and IUFRO share the common goal of
promoting conservation and sustainable use of
the world’s forests. IUFRO, established in 1892,
provides access for its partners to a global “brain
pool” of about 700 member organizations in 110
countries and more than 15 000 scientists. FAO,
founded in 1945, collaborates with the scientiſc
community through direct relations with regional,
national and subnational research institutions,
many of which are IUFRO members.
History of cooperation
During the Second World War, the IUFRO
Secretariat was located in Sweden; its main
Don Koo Lee is President of the International
Union of Forest Research Organizations
(IUFRO), Vienna, Austria.
Jan Heino was Assistant Director-General, FAO
Forestry Department, Rome, from June 2006 to
December 2009.
task after the war was to re-establish inter-
national contacts.
FAO started working with international non-
governmental organizations shortly after its
creation in 1945. At the time, the idea of incor-
porating IUFRO into FAO was considered, to
make it possible to formulate research aims
more clearly, avoid unnecessary duplication
of research projects and reduce costs.
Instead, however, the two organizations
worked out an agreement in 1949 whereby
IUFRO was given a special consultative sta-
tus with FAO; the IUFRO Secretariat was
established at FAO headquarters in Rome,
but IUFRO remained independent.
In 1959, FAO asked to be released from
the obligation of providing the Secretariat,
but IUFRO’s consultative status with FAO
remained unchanged. In return, FAO was
made a member of the extended IUFRO Board
and maintains this status today.
Research capacity development
In 1983, IUFRO and FAO established the
IUFRO Special Programme for Developing
Countries (IUFRO-SPDC) to strengthen
research related to forest resources in devel-
oping countries. Its first coordinator was Oscar
Fugalli, who had just retired from leading
FAO’s Forest Management Branch. Through
this programme, IUFRO provides assistance
for the long-term development of the capacity
of individual scientists and research institu-
tions in developing countries. From mid-1998
to 2004, the IUFRO-SPDC Deputy Coordinator
Sixty years of
collaborative
partnership
between FAO and
IUFRO: towards
the next sixty
D.K. Lee and J. Heino
Two maior global forestrv
organizations cementea their
long-term partnership at the
World Forestry Congress.
IUFRO President
Don Koo Lee (left)
and then Assistant
Director-General
for Forestry of
FAO Jan Heino
sign an agreement
for continued
collaboration at the
XIII World Forestry
Congress, Buenos
Aires, Argentina,
October 2009
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Unasylva 234/235, Vol. 61, 2010
for Africa shared office space with Forestry
staff in FAO’s Regional Office for Africa in
Accra, Ghana.
IUFRO-SPDC offers training courses on
working effectively at the interface of for-
est science and forest policy, and on link-
ing science with practice in the context of
international forest-related initiatives and
agreements and their implementation in the
context of national forest programmes. Col-
laborative activities of IUFRO-SPDC and FAO
have included:
xthe Global Forest Information Service
(GFIS) Africa project, developed from a
IUFRO-SPDC project and involving FAO
experts;
xthe Forestry Research Network for Sub-
Saharan Africa (FORNESSA), developed
jointly (from 2000 to 2004, the IUFRO-
SPDC Deputy Coordinator for Africa was
the FORNESSA Secretary);
xtraining workshops carried out through
partnership of IUFRO-SPDC and FAO’s
Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific;
xforest genetic resources workshops in Asia
and the Pacific, Africa and Latin America
in the 1980s, with considerable follow-up
action;
xfinancial support provided by FAO to
IUFRO-SPDC’ s Sci enti st Assi stance
Programme (SAP).
Terminology and definitions
The organizations have long collaborated
in multilingual terminology initiatives. For
example, in 1971, the Joint FAO/IUFRO Com-
mittee of Experts on Forestry Bibliography
and Terminology published the Terminology
of forest science, technology, practice, and
products (Multilingual Forestry Terminology
Series No. 1).
In the context of the Global Forest Resources
Assessment 2000, IUFRO carried out a
comparative study on terminology with FAO
financial support (1996–1997) to improve
the comparability of national terminologies,
concepts and classifications in forestry.
In 1998, FAO provided financial and tech-
nical support for a multilingual Glossary on
forest genetic resources, developed with
IUFRO’s SilvaVoc Terminology Project, which
recorded not only the established and widely
accepted definitions of some common terms,
but also the use of the terms by some profes-
sions, organizations and countries. FAO and
IUFRO are continuing to explore opportuni-
ties for mutual strengthening of SilvaVoc and
FAOTERM, FAO’s terminology database.
In the early 2000s, FAO and IUFRO, together
with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) and the Center for Interna-
tional Forestry Research (CIFOR), began a
process to enhance common understanding
of, and possibly to harmonize, forest-related
definitions that are used internationally or
are being developed by various international
processes and bodies, such as the environ-
mental conventions, the United Nations Forum
on Forests (UNFF), the International Tropical
Timber Organization (ITTO) and FAO. Three
expert meetings on harmonizing forest-related
definitions for use by various stakeholders,
held at FAO headquarters in Rome in 2002 and
2005, spearheaded the process. In addition,
IUFRO, FAO and CIFOR organized a side
event on terminology and definitions at the
second session of UNFF in March 2002.
Collaborative Partnership on Forests
The Collaborative Partnership on Forests
(CPF), a consortium of 14 forest-related orga-
nizations and agencies, is led by FAO, and
IUFRO is an active partner. IUFRO-led CPF
initiatives in which FAO participates include:
xthe Global Forest Information Service
(GFIS), developed under CPF since
2005. An upgraded version of the GFIS
gateway was opened in January 2007,
with interfaces now in English, Finnish,
French, German, Russian and Spanish.
xthe Global Forest Expert Panels,
launched in 2007 to provide objective
and independent scientiſc assessments
of key issues to support more informed
decision-making at the global level. The
ſrst GFEP report, Adaptation of forests
and people to climate change, was re-
leased in 2009.
Other cooperative activities
FAO contributed to the elaboration of the
IUFRO Position Statement on Benefits and
Risks of Transgenic Plantations (1999) and
subsequent work on biotechnologies in
forestry.
In January 2008, FAO’s Assistant Director-
General for Forestry chaired an independent
review initiated by the IUFRO Management
Committee to assess the potential for adap-
tation and thematic reorientation of IUFRO’s
strategic priorities.
FAO and IUFRO have organized joint techni-
cal conferences. A recent example was the
international conference on Adaptation of
Forests and Forest Management to Changing
Climate with Emphasis on Forest Health: A
Review of Science, Policies and Practices,
organized together with the Swedish Univer-
sity of Agricultural Sciences in August 2008
in Umeå, Sweden. The conference attracted
more than 300 researchers, managers and
decision-makers from 50 countries.
Partnering into the future
Future collaboration between IUFRO and FAO
should emphasize training and networking
activities, terminology issues, online learn-
ing and other forms of forestry education,
engaging students and young researchers,
and related financing. Joint activities such
as publications, conferences, workshops and
training must be continued. A mutual concern
and one of the most important future tasks
will be to help institutions and countries build
their capacity for research and for educating
young people.
With forestry today very much in the lime-
light, above all because of climate change
challenges and growing awareness of the
need to reduce deforestation, IUFRO and FAO
will have an increasingly important role to play
in enhancing global forestry. Their partnership
will be an important element in international
efforts to address these and other crucial
issues affecting forests and forestry such as
bioenergy, water shortage, biodiversity loss
and poverty.
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Dynamics of small-scale deforestation in
Indonesia: examining the effects of poverty
and socio-economic development
R.S. Purnamasari
An empirical analysis suggests
that the rate of aeforestation is
actually lower in poorer regions;
it increases at hrst with wealth.
but subsequentlv aecreases after
a certain wealth level is reached.
Ririn Salwa Purnamasari is an Economist in
the World Bank ofſce in Jakarta, Indonesia and
is a Research Partner of the Poverty Environment
Network (PEN) of the Center for International
Forestry Research (CIFOR).
F
orest-dense areas are frequently
associated with high levels of
poverty (Chomitz et al., 2007).
The areas are often remote from mar-
kets and services and lack infrastructure.
Opportunity costs of labour are low. The
population also often lacks the finance
necessary for investments to maintain
the quality of soil or increase yields on
the existing cleared land. Deforestation,
including clearing for agricultural activi-
ties, is often the only option available
for the livelihoods of farmers living in
forested areas (Angelsen, 1999).
Does this mean that poverty in the
frontier areas is the driving factor of
small-scale deforestation? Should
areas of greater prosperity, with bet-
ter infrastructure and market integra-
tion, be expected to be associated with
lower deforestation? Previous stud-
ies of poverty and deforestation have
given ambiguous results. On the one
hand, regional development is expected
to create new opportunities for local
people and improve their livelihoods,
Small-scale
deforestation in
East Kalimantan,
Indonesia
while on the other hand, poverty alle-
viation and improvements in well-being
could also ease capital constraints and
facilitate more forest conversion. Better
understanding is therefore needed of
the impact of regional development on
rural livelihoods and the well-being of
people in forest areas and, in turn, the
implications for the rate of small-scale
deforestation.
As in other developing countries,
deforestation in Indonesia is the result
of complex socio-economic processes.
Poverty is widely considered to be an
important underlying cause of forest
conversion by small-scale farmers. This
article presents the findings of a study
that examined the contribution of dif-
ferent regional-level socio-economic
and physiogeographic factors (such as
altitude and slope of land) to the dynam-
ics of small-scale deforestation in three
primary forest areas in Indonesia –
Kalimantan, Sumatra and Sulawesi –
which together constitute about 60 per-
cent of Indonesia’s total forest cover.
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The analysis was conducted at the
district level. A temporal and spatial
econometrics approach was used to
investigate the extent to which various
facets of poverty and regional develop-
ment motivated people to clear forest
land in 124 districts over an 18-year
period (1985Ō2003). For the purpose of
the study, deforestation refers to small-
scale district-level deforestation, unless
otherwise indicated.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The theoretical framework employed
in this study is a dynamic optimization
model of irreversible land-use change
as in Kerr, Pfaff and Sanchez (2002)
and Vance and Geoghegan (2002). The
framework models the decision of an
individual land user about whether or
not to convert a patch of land from
its forested state to agricultural use in
response to changing economic condi-
tions over space and time, given loca-
tion-specific factors affecting returns
from the land. The assumption about
the irreversibility of land-use change
is broadly consistent with the reality
of tropical deforestation today, as most
cleared land is not returned to its previous
forested state (Kerr et al., 2004; Vance
and Geoghegan, 2002). The impact of
expected returns from conversion to
agriculture is seen clearly in the case
of the impact of agricultural commod-
ity prices on deforestation. Even when
the increase in commodity price is only
temporary, it tends to raise expecta-
tions about future prices, increasing
the expected profitability from land
clearance and conversion to agricul-
ture (Angelsen, 1995; Sunderlin et al.,
2000). Thus, even if prices subsequently
fall to a level insufficient to stimulate
clearing, the price fall might not lead to
abandonment and hence reforestation on
recently cleared land.
This model provides some key insights
into the process of irreversible land con-
version. However, it leaves out some
key factors that can influence the deci-
sion-making of farmers living on forest
frontiers. In particular, the nature of
property rights and changes in tradi-
tional community ownership systems
produce incentives to induce earlier land
conversion. Nevertheless, in Indonesia
property rights over forest land are not
well defined in practice, although most
forest land is formally controlled by the
State. In most frontier areas, forests are
generally regarded by communities as
an open access resource with free entry
and no restrictions on land use. This
means that, in general, an individual
farmer can exercise control over the
land-use options for any selected patch
of forest land and decide whether to
keep the land in its current forest state
or convert it to agricultural production.
Therefore, while the loss of property
rights to a parcel of forested land is
not directly measured and incorporated
in the model, it can be considered and
included as one of the potential costs of
allowing land to remain in its traditional
forested state.
POVERTY CONTEXT
Some have argued that poor people clear
forests and cultivate new lands in order
to maintain yields because they cannot
finance the necessary investments to
preserve soil quality of the existing cul-
tivated land (Zwane, 2007). Poor people
tend to be clustered in frontier areas with
inadequate access to market institutions
(which would limit transaction costs),
transport infrastructure, means and ser-
vices. In this situation, labour-intensive
land clearing is more profitable than
other activities for these poor people
(Deininger and Minten, 1996; Vedeld et
al., 2004). In other cases, the expansion
of cultivated areas for crop diversifica-
tion is a coping strategy for poor people
who are vulnerable to price volatility and
other types of uncertainty (Sunderlin, et
al., 2000). On the other hand, poverty
may reduce deforestation because of the
lack of capital necessary to clear land
(Wibowo and Byron, 1999).
Individual farmers make land-use
decisions taking into account expected
costs and revenues associated with each
alternative. The decision is also affected
by farmers’ resource constraints. Thus,
other things being equal, one can expect
that if expected returns from agriculture
increase, then deforestation rates are
likely to increase. If forest conversion
is costly and/or there is a long gesta-
tion period for positive returns from
agriculture, then poorer, liquidity-con-
strained farmers are less likely to shift to
increased land-clearing activities.
Clearly, there is no simple theoretical
expectation as to the impact of poverty
on land-use activities. The signs and
relative magnitudes of the different fac-
tors associated with poverty need to be
investigated empirically.
EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS
A population-averaged panel model was
used to estimate the annual deforestation
rate (the dependent variable) as a function
of relative returns from forest conversion
to agriculture and factors affecting them,
including poverty and development (the
explanatory variables) (Table). Of 142
total districts in the study region, 18
were excluded from the analysis because
they lacked either forest area or the data
needed for the estimations.
The technical details are omitted from
this article but are available from the
author.
Dependent variable: deforestation rate
Data on forest area and forest area change
were derived from geographic informa-
tion system (GIS) analysis of satellite
images of land cover observed at five
points in time: 1985, 1990, 1996, 2000
and 2003. Since Indonesia does not have
nationwide integrated data on land cover,
forest cover data are derived from land
cover maps from several sources: the
Regional Physical Planning Programme
for Transmigration (RePPProT) for 1985
maps, the National Forest Inventory
project of the Ministry of Forestry for
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1990 maps, and the Planning Department
of the Ministry of Forestry for 1996/1997,
2000 and 2003 maps, including maps of
forests allocated for logging concession
(referred to as hak pengusahaan hutan
[HPH]) from 1980 to 2000. Although the
data are the best available, they vary in
terms of scale and precision and possibly
contain inconsistencies, and they should
be interpreted with caution (Chomitz et
al., 2007; FWI and GFW, 2002).
All series of the land cover maps were
first regrouped into two broad catego-
ries – forests and non-forests – so they
could be integrated across time. The
forest and non-forest maps were then
overlayed with HPH maps to exclude
the large-scale concession areas from
the forest area considered to be poten-
tially clearable by small-scale farmers.
Formally, most forests in Indonesia are
State owned, although in practice they
are open access. Nevertheless, small-
scale deforestation activity normally
only takes place in areas not designated
for HPH, and for this reason the HPH
areas are excluded from the forest areas
that can potentially be cleared by small-
scale farmers. The new maps were then
overlaid with the 1996 district boundary
maps to generate data sets on forest area
by district for each point in time.
Small-scale deforestation is defined
here as a cleared patch in the range of
0.05 to 10 ha. Dewi et al. (2002) assert,
and are supported by some field observa-
tions, that small patches of deforestation
are mostly associated with smallholders’
activities in agriculture. The small-scale
deforested area for the district level is
obtained by aggregating all small-scale
cleared patches in the whole district.
The dependent variable, the annual
deforestation rate (in percentage), is
defined as the area deforested between
periods divided by the total forest area
in the initial period of interest. The
deforestation rates were generated for
the periods 1985Ō1990, 1990Ō1996,
1996Ō2000 and 2000Ō2003. Because
the time intervals are different across the
periods, annual deforestation rates were
used for the estimation, assuming that
this annual rate was the same in each year
within the period. Annual deforestation
rates were calculated using the FAO
formula for calculating the annual rate
of forest change, based on compound
interest principles (FAO, 1995).
Explanatory variables
To match with the dates of the depend-
ent variable, the study used data dates
of 1986, 1990, 1996 and 2000 for the
explanatory variables.
Poverty measure. The use of poverty as
an explanatory factor in a deforestation
model can lead to an endogeneity prob-
Summary statistics of the variables
Variable
No. of
observations
Mean
Standard
deviation
Minimum Maximum
Annual deforestation rate (%)
a
496 0.0475 0.1145 0.0001 1.6198
1985–1990 (%) 124 0.0181 0.0441 0.0001 0.4294
1990–1996 (%) 124 0.0062 0.0186 0.0002 0.1927
1996–2000 (%) 124 0.0237 0.0622 0.0003 0.6464
2000–2003 (%) 124 0.1420 0.1856 0.0001 1.6198
Wealth index 496 25.1494 2.9920 18.0000 39.0000
1986 124 24.1925 2.9690 19.2553 39.0000
1990 124 24.4692 3.0081 19.9143 37.0000
1996 124 25.8967 2.7450 21.1596 34.1667
2000 124 26.0393 2.8067 18.0000 34.6667
Return proxies
Industrial crops suitable (% forests at risk) 496 23.2635 28.2052 0.0000 100.0000
Arable suitable (% forests at risk) 496 13.2830 20.0333 0.0000 100.0000
Distance to province capital (km) 496 127.0543 105.4845 0.0000 752.4142
River density (km/km
2
) 496 0.2887 0.1549 0.0356 0.6346
Proxies for regional developments
Per capita regional GDP (million Rp) 496 1.4606 1.1043 0.4055 9.9305
Industrial workers – proportion of population (per 1 000 persons) 496 7.0948 12.4597 0.0000 141.2487
(Lagged) Population density (persons/km
2
) 372 258.3463 682.2017 2.0130 5760.0470
(Lagged) Annual HPH deforestation rate 372 0.0687 0.1802 0.0000 1.0000
(Lagged) Cumulative deforestation (% total forests period 1) 372 0.1355 0.2866 0.0000 3.2651
Neighbouring district variables (average)
Per capita regional GDP (million Rp) 496 1.2874 0.7547 0.0000 5.8792
Industrial workers – proportion of population (per 1 000 persons) 496 6.2611 6.5602 0.0000 42.9607
a
For this table the deforestation rates are presented in % (the actual values and their standard deviations are multiplied by 100).
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lem, resulting from the possibility of
reverse causality: poverty is normally
defined as a lack of income, and that
income is a function of deforestation
activities. Therefore, per capita income
is not used as a poverty measure in the
estimation. Instead, poverty incidence
was assessed using a wealth index based
on infrastructure and facilities, natural
resources and socio-economic condi-
tions at the district level. A regional
wealth index was generated from the
National Village Potential Survey
(PODES) data for 1986, 1990, 1996
and 2000 from Badan Pusat Statistik
(Statistics Indonesia).
Proxies for returns to clearing. Since
direct information on agricultural and
forest-product returns which is consist-
ent across different products and over
time is difficult to find, proxies were
used.
To capture unobserved agricultural
productivity, two district land suitability
measures, derived from RePPProT maps,
were used: the proportion of the district
forested area at the beginning of each
period that was suitable for food crops
(arable suitable) and for tree crops such
as cocoa, palm oil, rubber and coffee
(industrial crops suitable). The land suit-
ability assessments, which were based
on topography, climate, water and soil
characteristics, indicate the most benefi-
cial or productive use of the land. River
density and distance between district
and provincial capital cities were used
as proxies for transport costs and access
to markets.
Proxies for regional development.
Although the effect of development is
already indirectly taken into account
through several factors in the wealth
index measurement, the study also
includes some direct measures for dis-
trict development, to examine better the
direct effect of the development process
on relative returns and hence clearing
patterns.
The first measure of district deve-
lopment is per capita non-oil regional
gross domestic product (regional GDP)
(Statistics Indonesia, 2007) . Since this
measure is based on the market value
of all final goods and services in the
region over time, regional GDP rep-
resents regional economic and general
development, including infrastructure
and institutional development.
Industrialization is expected to improve
the social and economic welfare condi-
tion of the regions and also to offer more
economic opportunities to people – an
important factor affecting deforestation
rates (Angelsen, 1999; Godoy et al.,
1996; Shively and Pagiola, 2004). Thus,
in addition to regional GDP, the pro-
portion of the population engaged in
the district’s industries was included
as a proxy for off-farm employment
opportunities.
The impact of population density on
deforestation has been a subject of con-
troversy. Several studies of deforestation
have included population density in the
analysis, but no systematic relationship
has been seen (e.g. Cropper, Griffiths
and Mani, 1999; Pfaff, 1999; Uusivuori,
Lehto and Palo, 2002). To investigate
the impact of population on the pace
of deforestation, population density
was included in the study as one of the
explanatory variables.
In Indonesia, HPH activities could
stimulate local development in the sur-
rounding areas, which in turn could
either stimulate deforestation in the area
(Angelsen, 1995) or stimulate off-farm
economic activities which could cause a
shift away from clearing (Levang, 2002).
To capture these potential effects, the
estimations include the annual HPH
deforestation rate.
The study also included a district’s
cumulative deforestation as another
proxy for local development.
Land-use patterns in a given district are
possibly not only a function of variables
for that district, but may also reflect the
characteristics of neighbouring districts
as a result of shared constraints and
opportunities, networks or externalities.
The study therefore included variables
reflecting economic development, off-
farm employment opportunities and
population density in neighbouring
districts.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Poverty and deforestation
The estimation results show a significant
impact of poverty on deforestation. The
observed relationship between poverty
and deforestation follows an inverted
U-shape which implies that deforestation
is lower in the poorest districts. One
possible explanation is that people in
severe poverty lack the means to con-
vert land to agricultural cultivation and
prefer to have income that can be gen-
erated quickly – in the form of cash
or subsistence – such as that obtained
from forest products extraction. This
argument is consistent with a study by
Wibowo and Byron (1999) showing that
poverty conditions prevented defores-
tation in Kerinci-Seblat National Park,
Indonesia. As the people in an area
become wealthier, deforestation rates
increase, possibly because the people
now can afford to put more land into pro-
duction. The increase in deforestation,
however, is at a decreasing rate (i.e.
the increment in the deforestation rate
decreases as wealth increases), which
suggests that after a certain wealth level,
possibly when people have the required
capital inputs for agricultural intensifi-
cation or better access to other income-
generating options, there is less demand
for further agricultural expansion.
The estimated relationship between
poverty and the deforestation rate could
be graphed (Figure) with the predicted
values of the deforestation rates esti-
mated by varying the value of the dis-
trict wealth index but keeping the values
of the other variables constant at their
mean values. As shown in the Figure, the
deforestation rate reaches a maximum
at about the ninetieth percentile of the
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distribution of the wealth index, indicat-
ing that the deforestation rates of most
districts are still increasing.
Since wealth reflects development,
these results suggest that the impact
of development on deforestation var-
ies depending on the current state of
wealth. In the study sites, from 1985
to 2000 the per capita regional GDP
grew at an average rate of 3.7 percent
per year. During this time, the district
wealth index increased on average by
7.9 percent and the deforestation rate
increased from 0.018 to 0.14 percent per
year. The annual deforestation rate for
2000 to 2015, predicted using the same
growth rate of the per capita regional
GDP and the district wealth index from
1985 to 2000 while keeping the other
variables constant, shows a decrease to
0.01 percent.
Returns and development proxies
In line with expectations, a higher pro-
portion of available forest land suit-
able for tree crops leads to significantly
higher deforestation. On average, a
1 percent increase in the proportion of
the district forested area that is suitable
for industrial or estate crops will increase
the deforestation rate by 0.48 percent.
However, the estimation showed the
proportion of forest land suitable for
wetland and dryland agriculture to be
insignificant. This indicates that areas
suitable for tree crops, instead of food
crops, are of greater interest to small-
scale farmers in frontier areas. This is
consistent with a previous finding that
tree-crop shifting cultivation, rather than
staple-crop shifting cultivation, plays the
largest role in small-scale deforestation
in Indonesia (Chomitz and Griffiths,
1996). Sunderlin et al. (2000) noted that
land clearing for tree crops increased as
a result of the severe economic crisis
that hit the country in 1997.
The significant coefficients of river
density and distance confirm the impor-
tant role of transportation costs and
access to markets in the deforestation
process. The negative coefficient of
river density suggests that in the study
regions the net impact of better trans-
port facilities is to reduce deforestation.
The positive sign of the distance vari-
able suggests that greater distance to
big cities increases deforestation. The
estimate shows that the deforestation rate
increases, on average, by 14.3 percent
for each 100 km of distance from a pro-
vincial capital. However, the negative
sign of this variable when it is interacted
with a time variable suggests that this
effect diminishes with time, perhaps
because of improved transport infra-
structure and vehicles over time. Overall,
isolated areas with limited transportation
facilities and poor access to markets
experience higher deforestation.
The results show that the per capita
regional GDP variable is not significant
in the model. One explanation could be
that within-region disparities are still
a serious problem in Indonesia. That
is, development processes and their
impacts might not be equally experi-
enced throughout the district and hence
the district-level variables do not reflect
conditions in frontier regions. Alterna-
tively, it could be that there are offsetting
effects between development factors that
actually reduce small-scale deforestation
rates (e.g. improved legal systems
inducing productive investments in the
existing cleared land) and factors that
accelerate deforestation (e.g. new con-
cessionaires’ roads which stimulate land
clearing for shifting cultivation).
Contrary to expectations, the vari-
able reflecting the number of indus-
trial workers was found to have a posi-
tive and significant correlation with
deforestation. This may reflect limited
opportunities for local people, who are
generally involved in small-scale land
clearing, to work in industry, as most
of the new employment opportunities
resulting from growth in industry or
concessions are often taken by outsid-
ers who migrate to the area. Limited
skills and fears about the reliability of
local workers are often given as the main
reasons firms are reluctant to hire them
(Levang, 2002). Further, new migrants
in the area increase demand for food and
other agricultural products which can
induce the farmers at the forest frontier
to increase their agricultural production
by expanding agricultural land.
The insignificant effect of population
density on deforestation is consistent
District wealth index
Deforestation rate (%)
20 25 30 35 40
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
p10 p25 p50 p75 p90
Inverted U-shaped
relationship between
poverty and deforestation
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with the argument that, at the regional
level, population is potentially deter-
mined by other factors that influence
economic activity, such as off-farm
activities and infrastructure availability.
Thus, population per se is unlikely to be
the underlying cause of deforestation
(Kaimowitz and Angelsen, 1998).
The insignificance of HPH activities
may contradict the common expecta-
tion of a positive correlation between
logging concessions and small-scale
deforestation. However, previous studies
on the impact of logging intensity on
small-scale deforestation focused on
small-scale farming in abandoned log-
ging plots, rather than on farmers’ new
clearing of forested land (Geist and
Lambin, 2001).
Results show that, when controlled
for other influences, the percentage of
total forest area cleared in the preced-
ing period has statistically insignificant
effects on the deforestation rate. This
could be because the level of local deve-
lopment has already been controlled for
by the variables representing the propor-
tion of forest area suitable for farming
and tree crops available for clearing in
each period in the specifications. Alter-
natively, as was the case for the per capita
regional GDP variable, it may be that
these lagged variables are insignificant
because they are at the district rather
than local, frontier level.
The regional GDP and number of
industrial workers in neighbouring areas
appear to have insignificant effects on
a district’s deforestation, suggesting
that spatial interactions are not very
important.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Unlike most previous studies on the
deforestation-poverty link, the empirical
analysis in this study utilizes a data set
combining spatial data on forest cover
and physiogeographic factors from
satellite imagery with socio-economic
panel data from several national surveys.
The poverty measure incorporates both
human well-being and location welfare
components, allowing for a comprehen-
sive examination of poverty effects on
the pace of deforestation. With data span-
ning more than 18 years Ō presented at
five points in time Ō and 124 districts,
the study is one of the most compre-
hensive examinations of deforestation
by small-scale farmers undertaken for
Indonesia.
The empirical results show an inverted
U-shaped relationship between district
wealth and deforestation where the rate
of deforestation increases with wealth,
but at a decreasing rate. Poorer dis-
tricts – those with a higher percentage
of poor people – tend to deforest less.
Deforestation increases until a certain
wealth level is reached and then declines.
However, it starts to decrease only at the
top decile of the current district wealth
distribution.
In the Indonesian context it is the land
that is most suitable for tree crops that is
most vulnerable to deforestation. When
the land is suitable for tree crops, the
incentives are obviously higher for
forests to be cleared for establishment
of cash crops such as oil palm. This has
been a factor driving a significant part
of land conversion through deforestation
in the past, and also has implications
for the future.
The findings of this study suggest
that the impact of development on
deforestation depends on the current state
of wealth and the level of development in
the frontier regions. A worrying feature
of these findings is that policies aimed
at stimulating regional development
may stimulate further deforestation. For
most districts, increased wealth, other
things being equal, will initially increase
deforestation.
Counterbalancing this concern, how-
ever, is the finding that lower transport
costs and better access to markets reduce
deforestation. The study also found that
greater off-farm employment opportu-
nities were associated with less forest
clearing. Thus, the challenge for districts
will be to manage development in such
a way as to ensure good and equitable
access to labour markets and remunera-
tive off-farm employment opportunities
for rural people. X
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Angelsen, A. 1999. Agricultural expansion
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58: 185Ō218.
Chomitz, K.M., Buys, P., Luca, G.D.,
Thomas, T.S. & Wertz-Kanounnikoff,
S. 2007. At loggerheads? Agricultural
expansion, poverty reduction, and
environment in the tropical forests. World
Bank Policy Research Report. Washington,
DC, USA, World Bank.
Chomitz, K.M. & Griffiths, C. 1996.
Deforestation, shifting cultivation, and
tree crops in Indonesia: nationwide
patterns of smallholder agriculture at the
forest frontier. Poverty, Environment, and
Growth Working Paper No 4. Washington,
DC, USA, World Bank.
Cropper, M., Grifſths, C. & Mani, M.
1999. Roads, population pressures, and
deforestation in Thailand, 1976Ō1989, Land
Economics, 75(1): 58Ō73.
Deininger, K.W. & Minten, B. 1996.
Poverty, policies, and deforestation: the
case of Mexico. Poverty, Environment, and
Growth Working Paper No. 5. Washington,
DC, USA, World Bank.
Dewi, S., Belcher, B., Puntodewo, A.,
Tarigan, J. & Widodo, M. 2002.
Deforestation: Who does what? Paper
presented to the International Symposium
of Land Use, Nature Conservation and the
Stability of Rainforest Margin in South-
east Asia, Bogor, Indonesia, 30 September –
2 October.
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FAO. 1995. Forest Resources Assessment
1990 – global synthesis. FAO Forestry
Paper No. 124. Rome.
FWI & GFW. 2002. The state of the forest.
Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia & Washington,
DC, USA, Forest Watch Indonesia & Global
Forest Watch.
Geist, H.J. & Lambin, E.F. 2001. What
drives tropical deforestation? LUCC
Report Series. Brussels, Belgium, Land-
Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC)
International Proiect Ofſce.
Godoy, R., Franks, J.R., Wilkie, D.,
Alvarado, M., Gray-Molina, G., Roca,
R., Escobar, J. & Cardenas, M. 1996.
The effects of economics development
on neotropical deforestation: household
and village evidence from Amerindians
in Bolivia. Discussion Paper No. 540.
Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, Harvard
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Kaimowitz, D. & Angelsen, A. 1998.
Economic models of tropical deforestation:
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Kerr, S., Pfaff, A.S.P., Cavatassi, R., Davis,
B., Lipper, L., Sanchez, A. & Timmins, J.
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Levang, P. 2002. Peopleŏs dependencies
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In Mexico, the conservation of the jaguar
(Panthera onca) has mainly focused on large
public protected areas. However, existing pro-
tected areas are not always effective for spe-
cies and habitat conservation, and Mexico’s
widespread common property land tenure
limits opportunities for declaring new areas.
Thus, protection for the jaguar, as for many
other forms of wildlife, needs to be focused
on larger landscapes where high biodiver-
sity coexists with human activities. In recent
years, there has been a significant move-
ment towards community-based biodiversity
conservation, including the establishment
of indigenous/community conserved areas
(a category established by the International
Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources [IUCN] in 2004 and recognized
legally in Mexico since 2008).
Jaguar conservation issues were examined
in four communities with over 32 000 ha of
territory in the Chinantla ethnic region of the
Sierra Norte in the state of Oaxaca, which is
dominated by montane tropical forests. The
region’s biodiversity is among the highest in
Mexico, and 95 percent of the territory is under
common property governance regimes, largely
by indigenous peoples. Because “negative
attitudes and perceptions by humans towards
jaguars are clearly the greatest imminent
threat to the species’ survival” (Rabinowitz,
2005), the study combined both ecological
and social methods.
Elvira Durán is a Researcher at the Centro
Interdisciplinario de Investigación para el
Desarrollo Integral Regional Ō Oaxaca, Instituto
Politécnico Nacional, Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán,
Mexico.
Joe J. Figel is a Ph.D. student at Louisiana State
University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United
States of America.
David Barton Bray is a Professor and Associate
Chair, Department of Earth and Environment,
Florida International University, Miami, Florida,
United States.
Uncertain
coexistence: jaguars
and communities in
montane forests of
Mexico
E. Durán, J.J. Figel and D.B. Bray
A stuav of the potential for
communitv conservation of
iaguars in the Sierra Norte of
Oaxaca, Mexico.
Camera-trap surveys in the region estab-
lished the presence of at least two jaguars
and 10 species of prey animals (Table 1).
Human-jaguar interactions were explored
through semi-structured and structured inter-
views in over 100 households in the four
communities during 2007/08. Interviewees
were legal community members aged 17 to
93 years old. Most (152 individuals) were
crop farmers; 18 of these also engaged
in small-scale cattle ranching. Only three
were women, since few women are legal
community members under Mexico’s agra-
rian laws. Legal community members under
the age of 60 are obligated to participate
actively in decisions about natural resources
management, land use and conservation,
among other community governance issues.
The interviews explored knowledge about
jaguars, prey, wildlife and hunting, jaguars
in traditional culture, livestock predation and
conservation.
A total of 103 jaguar sightings were docu-
mented by 67 individuals – 83 since 1990 and
60 since 1999. The most common prey species
mentioned were coati, armadillo, red brocket
deer and peccary, all considered to be abun-
dant both in forests and in agricultural areas
(where they are considered pests). Notably, 79
percent of the interviewees valued jaguars for
biological control of these pest animals.
Most farmers expressed positive (68 per-
cent) or mixed (20 percent) attitudes towards
J
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Jaguar sighted
by a camera trap
TABLE 1. Potential jaguar prey species photographed by camera traps in the
study communities
Spanish common
name
English common
name
Scientific name National endangered
category
Armadillo Armadillo Dasypus
novemcinctus
Yes: low risk
Hocofaisán Great curasow Crax rubra Yes: threatened
Mapache Racoon Procyon lotor No
Mazate Brocket deer Mazama americana Yes: low risk, use
restricted
Pecari Collared peccary Tayassu tajacu Yes: low risk
Serete Central American agouti Dasyprocta mexicana Yes: extinction risk
Tejón Coati Nasua narica Yes: low risk, use
restricted
Tepezcuintle Paca Agouti paca Yes: low risk
Tlacuache Possum Didelphis marsupialis No
Venado Deer Odocoileus
virginianus
No
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Communities are
turning to ecotourism
to raise income,
building on the jaguar
as a conservation
image (jaguar
sculpture near an
ecotourism cottage)
do not specifically prohibit retaliation killings.
Most respondents (92.5 percent) were aware
of the community statutes, and most felt that
they received benefits from conservation,
mostly from a programme for payments for
hydrological services administered by the
Mexican Government.
These results suggest the possibility of
positive prospects for conservation of large
charismatic carnivores such as jaguars in
community-dominated landscapes beyond
protected areas. Jaguars still remain vulner-
able to retaliation killings by those whose
livelihoods are most directly affected; but the
potential of alternative economic activities
may further diminish the economic impor-
tance of cattle. Future research will need
to establish the connectivity of this region
with other adjacent regions which may also
provide viable jaguar habitat, and the viability
of economic alternatives to cattle for the few
people who have them.
Bibliography
Rabinowitz, A. 2005. Jaguars and livestock:
living with the world’s third largest cat. In R.
Woodroffe, S. Thirgood & A. Rabinowitz,
eds. People and wildlife: conflict or
coexistence?, pp. 278Ō285. Cambridge,
UK, Cambridge University Press.
jaguars. The 12 percent that expressed nega-
tive attitudes were those with cattle: As in most
regions, predation on livestock and domestic
animals was the principal source of conflict
between humans and jaguars (Table 2).
Jaguar predation was commonly mentioned
as a reason for a decline in the number of
cattle in the four communities from a peak
of around 300 in the 1980s to about half
that in 2007/08. Lethal control of jaguars by
humans had occasionally occurred. Respon-
dents reported the killing of seven jaguars
and one puma in past years, nearly all in
retaliation for livestock predation.
The study confirmed that the Chinantec
people have a deeply rooted cultural connec-
tion with jaguars, particularly manifested in
a belief in nahuales, human beings who can
change themselves into jaguars. Nearly 50
percent of the respondents said that they had
heard stories about jaguars from parents or
grandparents, and 63 percent – irrespective of
age – said that they believed in nahuales.
The interviews suggested that a new aware-
ness is emerging which may favour jaguar
conservation. Interest in agriculture and
cattle ranching has declined with outmigra-
tion, and the communities are attempting to
turn to ecotourism and other conservation-
oriented activities to raise income. Today the
jaguar image is used as an icon for recent
conservation-related institutions and cul-
tural practices. In 2005 the communities
declared community conserved areas, where
hunting is banned, in nearly 80 percent of their
territories; they also approved new community
statutes which ban the hunting of red brocket
deer as well as other jaguar prey species
unless they are pests in agricultural areas.
The statutes also ban the killing of jaguars but
Today the jaguar image is
used as an icon in the region
– as seen in this football shirt
worn by a Chinantec villager
TABLE 2. Attacks on livestock and other domestic animals attributed to jaguars
in four study communities during the past ten years
Animals attacked Events
reported
a
Deaths
reported
Events with jaguar
sighting
b
Deaths with
jaguar sighting
Calves, cows 10 17 2 6
Chickens, turkeys 4 24 1 1
Dogs 10 16 3 6
Mules, donkeys, horses 4 5 0 0
Sheep 4 11 2 4
Total 32 73 8 17
a
Reported by 28 farmers.
b
Reported by 7 farmers.
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Large-scale forests for bioenergy: land-use, economic
and environmental implications
M. Jack and P. Hall
An analysis of national-level
impacts of plantation forestry
for energy production in
New Zealand – a useful tool for
strategic decision-making.
Michael Jack is Senior Scientist and Team
Leader (Green Processing) and Peter Hall is
Senior Scientist and Project Leader (Renewable
Energy), Scion, Rotorua, New Zealand.
C
oncerns about climate change
and energy security have driven
many countries to reconsider
their renewable energy options and
strategies. Energy from biomass is
expected to play an important role and
has received significant attention in
recent years. While its potential positive
contributions are well recognized, deve-
lopment of biofuels may also have nega-
tive impacts. Assessment of a country’s
bioenergy options should thus include
analysis of:
• potential biomass resources;
• consumer energy demand (given
other potential renewable energy
options);
• available technologies for convert-
ing biomass into consumer energy;
• economic cost;
• potential reduction in greenhouse
gases;
•impacts of land-use change;
•competition with food production.
An assessment of this type has been car-
ried out in New Zealand. It highlighted
the country’s potential for producing
bioenergy from large-scale forestry and
then examined the consequences this
would have for land use, the economy
and the environment. This article sum-
marizes the results of the study. A longer
report (Hall and Jack, 2009) provides
more detailed discussion of the method-
ology and assumptions behind the work.
Although the study was specific to New
Zealand, it raises pertinent questions that
other countries may consider in analys-
ing their bioenergy options.
While socio-political aspects are
also key components to such decision-
making, they were outside the scope of
this study and not addressed in detail.
S
C
I
O
N
The development of a large-
scale forestry resource on
marginal land represents
New Zealand’s greatest
opportunity for bioenergy
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ANALYSIS OF BIOENERGY
OPTIONS
The above parameters were assessed
through:
•a situation analysis, examining cur-
rent biomass residual resources, the
potential of purpose-grown options,
and the status of existing biomass-to-
consumer energy technologies (Hall
and Gifford, 2007);
•a pathways analysis, examining
economic costs and environmen-
tal impacts (through life-cycle as-
sessment) of nationally relevant
biomass-to-consumer energy con-
version pathways (Hall and Jack,
2008).
The study determined that the main role
of bioenergy in New Zealand is likely
to be for heat and liquid transport fuels,
because of the significant potential of
other renewable resources for electricity
generation. The assessment also identi-
fied the development of a large-scale
forestry resource utilizing marginal land
as the most significant opportunity for
bioenergy in New Zealand from the fol-
lowing perspectives.
•Potential scale of energy supply.
New Zealand has sufficient low- to
medium-productivity grazing land
– over 60 percent (9.3 million hec-
tares) of available productive land
– to establish a plantation forest re-
source that, by 2040, would be of
sufficient scale to supply all of the
country’s demand for liquid fuels.
In contrast, only about 26 percent
(2.4 million hectares) of productive
land in New Zealand is suitable for
agricultural crops; using all this area
for crops for first-generation liquid
biofuel would provide insufficient
liquid fuels to meet the national de-
mand and would be detrimental to
food crop production and agricul-
tural exports.
•Greenhouse gas reductions. Life-
cycle assessment of the full produc-
tion chain showed that producing
lignocellulosic biofuel from planta-
tion forestry feedstock would have
much lower environmental impact
than producing first-generation bio-
fuel from oil and starch crops, mainly
because of the less intensive farming
practices per unit of biomass.
•Technological maturity and cost.
Technology for converting lignocel-
lulosic biomass to liquid transport
fuels is progressing rapidly towards
commercial viability (Sims et al.,
2008).
ASSESSMENT OF LARGE-SCALE
FORESTRY FOR BIOMASS
PRODUCTION
The authors assessed the impacts of
displacing agriculture (mainly low-
productivity grazing) with forestry on
hilly land for four large-scale afforesta-
tion scenarios (Table 1). In these scena-
rios, potential land for afforestation was
selected from a Geographic Information
Systems land-use class database. The
scenarios differ in land-use class, slope,
altitude and current land use. It was
assumed that lowest-value land would
be used first (Scenario 1) and that sub-
sequent scenarios would embrace land
of progressively increasing value. The
scenarios presume the use of scrub, idle,
marginal and low-to-moderate produc-
tivity grazing land as the resource area
and explicitly exclude conservation and
arable land.
The potential biomass productivity
for the scenarios was calculated based
on soil and climate (Table 2) and the
economic cost of biomass production
(Table 3), assuming some ƀexibility
between energy production and other end
uses (e.g. timber or carbon credits), which
mitigates risk for the forest owner.
Potential environmental impacts
All scenarios were associated with sig-
niſcant greenhouse gas emission reduc-
tions (estimated using Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] metho-
dologies), both from displacement of
fossil fuel and from the change in land
use from agriculture (which accounts for
about half of New Zealand’s emissions)
to forestry (Table 4). The scenarios were
associated with increased carbon stocks,
because for a sustainably managed 25-
year rotation forest, only 4 percent is
harvested per year (Table 4). Emission
reductions were lower in Scenarios 1 and 2
because of the lower-intensity land use
that is displaced in these scenarios.
Because of reduced levels of pasto-
ral production (Table 5), the scenarios
also showed benefits in a number of
areas of environmental concern in New
Zealand including erosion, sedimenta-
tion and nutrient leaching into waterways
(estimated using a nutrient model and a
spatial erosion model) (Table 4).
Largely positive biodiversity impacts
were also found, in improved species
richness of insects, plants and native
birds in comparison with pasture and
exotic shrub lands. However, quanti-
fication of these benefits requires fur-
ther research. Afforestation of land that
was not historically forested may not be
desirable from a biodiversity perspective
as it reduces native grassland habitats.
The analysis showed that in some areas
Ō those with low rainfall and high exist-
ing water allocations – large-scale affor-
estation could have negative impacts
on water availability and its suitability
would thus be questionable.
Potential for competition from
alternative land uses
The current return for the land under
the scenarios was assessed to determine
the economic viability of forestry for
biomass for energy production (Todd,
Zhang and Kerr, 2009). Because of the
greenhouse gas emissions associated
with agriculture, the return from the land
depends on the price of carbon (Table 6)
and the competitiveness of biomass for
fuel compared with current land use
depends on the price of oil. Based on the
biofuel production costs assumed in the
study (Table 7), bioenergy from forestry
is a more profitable option; it can provide
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TABLE 1. Afforestation scenarios derived using
criteria based on land-use class, slope, altitude and
current land use (area from minor contributing land
uses, such as deer farming, not included)
Scenario Total area
(‘000 ha)
Area from
scrubland
(‘000 ha)
Area of sheep
and beef pasture
(‘000 ha)
1 831 0 533
2 1 856 51 1 619
3 3 475 69 3 160
4 4 927 198 4 412
Note: New Zealandŏs current plantation estate is 1.8 million hectares.
TABLE 4. Percentage change in key environmental parameters relevant to New
Zealand
Scenario Reduction in
greenhouse
gas emissions
a
(%)
Carbon stocks
(million
tonnes CO
2
equivalent)
Reduction
in nitrogen
leaching
b
(%)
Reduction in
erosion
c
(%)
Reduction
in available
water
d
(%)
1 6 208 0.3 1 1
2 20 647 3 8 3
3 37 1 183 8 17 5
4 48 2 034 12 20 7
a
Compared to New Zealandŏs total emissions in 2006.
b
Relative to current levels. Note that leaching rates can remain high for several years if the soil already contains a
large amount of surplus nitrogen.
c
Relative to current levels.
d
As percentage of annual water balance.
TABLE 5. Reduction in livestock
numbers (%)
Scenario Beef
cattle
Dairy
cattle
Deer Sheep
1 3.0 0.1 2.0 2.8
2 15.0 0.8 11.1 15.1
3 33.3 2.0 14.9 32.1
4 46.8 3.5 27.2 42.0
TABLE 2. Total sustainably extractable biomass and
corresponding energy potential of each afforestation scenario to
meet consumer energy demand
Scenario Total extractable
biomass
(million m
3
/year)
% of current consumer energy demand
a
1 23 68% of heat, or 20% of liquid transport fuel
2 74 100% of heat and 42% of liquid transport fuel, or
72% of liquid transport fuel, or 73% of electricity
3 127 100% of heat and 100% of liquid transport fuel
4 169 100% of heat and 100% of liquid transport fuel
and 85% of electricity
a
In this table “heat” refers to all industrial and domestic heat, and “electricity” is large-scale
centralized electricity generation.
TABLE 6. Pre-afforestation average annual proſt (earnings
before interest and taxes) on land selected for bioenergy
a
Scenario Without carbon price With carbon price
b
NZ$/ha US$/ha NZ$/ha US$/ha
1 94 66 60 42
2 144 101 100 70
3 162 113 114 80
4 160 112 108 76
a
All prices were determined under local conditions and converted to US$ assuming
the exchange rate NZ$1 = US$0.7.
b
Assumes a carbon price of NZ$25 (US$17.5) per tonne of CO
2
equivalent.
TABLE 7. Assumed costs of biofuel production (per litre)
a
Process Bioethanol
b
Fischer-Tropsch
biodiesel
c

NZ$ US$ NZ$ US$
Feedstock production
d
0.61 0.43 0.89 0.62
Conversion
e
1.12 0.78 0.70 0.49
Total 1.73 1.21 1.59 1.11
a
All costs were determined under local conditions and converted to US$ assuming
the exchange rate NZ$1 = US$0.7.
b
Assumes a yield of 140 litres/m
3
. Energy content of a litre of ethanol is 0.67 litres of
petrol, meaning that total production costs are NZ$2.58 (US$1.81) per litre of petrol
equivalent.
c
Assumes a yield of 95 litres/m
3
. Energy content of Fischer-Tropsch biodiesel is
assumed to be the same as fossil diesel.
d
This value represents the upper bound of the values shown in Table 3.
e
See Hall and Jack, 2009 for more details on conversion cost assumptions.
TABLE 3. Range of biomass yields and production costs
a
Scenario Biomass
yield
(m
3
/ha)
Costs per cubic metre
b
Growing
c
Roads Harvest Transport
d
Total
NZ$ US$ NZ$ US$ NZ$ US$ NZ$ US$ NZ$ US$
1 640–850 21–28 15–20 4–6 3–4 34–38 24–27 13–15 9–11 72–87 50–70
2 940–1 240 14–19 10–13 3–4 2–3 34–38 24–27 13–15 9–11 64–76 45–53
3 940–1 240 14–19 10–13 3–4 2–3 34–38 24–27 13–15 9–11 64–76 45–53
4 910–1 200 15–20 11–14 3–4 2–3 34–38 24–27 13–15 9–11 65–77 46–54
a
The range is based on a potential growth gain of 32% due to alternative species, tree breeding or genetic modiſcation and potential improvements in transport and harvesting
efſciency.
b
All costs were determined under local conditions and converted to US$ assuming the exchange rate NZ$1 = US$0.7.
c
Includes land rental, land preparation, planting, weed control and forest maintenance (discount rate, 6%).
d
75 km.
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a return of more than NZ$200 (US$140)
per hectare when the oil price reaches
US$180 to $250 per barrel (depending
on the exchange rate). (Note that the
oil price was US$147 per barrel in July
2008.) However, this economic driver
may not be sufficient to lead to land-
use change, as historically farmers have
tended to stay with sheep and cattle farm-
ing even when its profitability is low.
More research is required to understand
the social drivers, which were not con-
sidered in this study.
Macroeconomic impact
A general equilibrium model was used
to estimate the consequences of using
the nation’s land resources to pro-
duce biomass for fuel instead of other
goods and services that are exported in
exchange for oil (Stroombergen, 2009).
Several economic scenarios based on
assumed production costs, oil prices and
carbon stocks were compared with a
–0.8
–0.6
–0.4
–0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Oil price (US$/bbl)
Private consumption (% change)
0.8 million hectares (ethanol)
No biofuels
3.5 million hectares (ethanol and biodiesel) + increased efficiency + high
carbon price
Economic impact of changes
in oil prices in New Zealand,
with and without biofuels
and other measures to
mitigate climate change
business-as-usual picture of the economy
in 2050.
Currently, New Zealand obtains half
its consumer energy and 93 percent of
its transport fuels from imported oil,
and its oil consumption per unit of gross
domestic product (GDP) is the third high-
est in the world (Delbruck, 2005). A
large part of the export earnings used to
purchase this oil comes from agricultural
production. Therefore, a rise in oil prices
relative to agricultural goods would have
detrimental effects on terms of trade and
consequently the economy as a whole.
This trade also has a major impact on
domestic greenhouse gas emissions, as it
includes both the direct carbon emissions
from oil consumption and the indirect
greenhouse gas emissions from agricul-
tural activities used to pay for imported
oil. If carbon pricing in New Zealand
includes all sectors of the economy in
the future (which is likely under the New
Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme),
then this trade will magnify the poten-
tial impact of emission controls on the
economy. Thus, domestic production of
low-carbon biofuels could reduce the eco-
nomic impact of both rising oil prices and
stricter emission controls in the future.
The Figure demonstrates how biofuels
could reduce the economic impact of
higher oil prices in the future. The
points show the impact of changes in
oil prices and biofuel production on pri-
S
C
I
O
N
Residues from timber production
for use in bioenergy: multipurpose
forests producing a range of
products including timber and
biomass for fuel are likely to be the
most economically viable option
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vate consumption (a measure of eco-
nomic welfare) compared with a baseline
scenario for 2050 that includes an oil
price of US$200 per barrel, no biofuels
and an economy similar in structure to
today’s.
With no biofuels, an increase in oil
price to US$300 per barrel would reduce
private consumption by about 0.7 percent
(compared with the baseline) because of
the reduction in terms of trade. With 0.8
million hectares used for ethanol produc-
tion, oil imports would be 15 percent less
and the same oil price increase would
result in a smaller decline in private
consumption (of about 0.45 percent).
With an even greater expansion of bio-
fuels (3.5 million hectares used, reducing
oil imports by 63 percent), plus effi-
ciency gains and a high carbon price, the
macroeconomic impact of an increase in
oil price to US$300 per barrel would be
more than completely mitigated.
Multipurpose forests producing a range
of products including timber and bio-
mass for fuel are likely to be the most
economically viable source of biofuels,
and the economic benefits of biofuels
are greatest when they are competitive
with fossil fuels. However, as this exam-
ple shows, long-term energy policies
should take into account that biofuels
may result in macroeconomic benefits
in the future even though their current
production costs are higher than the costs
of imported fossil fuels.
CONCLUSIONS
A key finding of this assessment is that
in New Zealand, growing large-scale
forest plantations for bioenergy on low-
productivity agricultural land can have
a significant impact on greenhouse gas
emissions through both land-use change
from agriculture to forestry and displace-
ment of fossil fuels. It can also have
other environmental benefits in terms
of improved water quality and erosion
control in comparison with agriculture.
This is a case where land-use change
would thus have positive environmental
impacts. These results would most likely
hold for other countries where forests
can be grown with low inputs on low-
productivity agricultural land.
This type of assessment of land-use,
environmental and economic impacts of
bioenergy at the national level can help
governments make strategic decisions
about large-scale bioenergy opportuni-
ties as part of national energy supply.
The approach can also help to identify
national and regional issues that need
to be addressed to realize the benefits
of these opportunities. X
Bibliography
Delbruck, F. 2005. Oil prices and the New
Zealand economy. Reserve Bank of New
Zealand Bulletin, 68: 5.
Hall, P. & Gifford, J. 2007. Bioenergy
options for New Zealand: situation
analysis. Rotorua, New Zealand, Scion.
Avai l abl e at : www. sci onresearch.
com/ __dat a/ as s et s / pdf _f i l e/ 0008/
5 7 8 6 / SCI ONBi o e n e r g y Op t i o n s _
situationAnalysis.pdf
Hall, P. & Jack, M. 2008. Bioenergy options
for New Zealand: pathways analysis.
Rotorua, New Zealand, Scion. Available
at: www.scionresearch.com/__data/assets/
pdf_file/0007/5785/SCION-Bioenergy-
Options_Pathways-Analysis.pdf
Hall, P. & Jack, M. 2009. Bioenergy options
for New Zealand: analysis of large-scale
bioenergy from forestry. Rotorua, New
Zealand, Scion. Available at: www.
scionresearch.com/__data/assets/pdf_
file/0005/5783/Large-scale-bioenergy-
from-forestry.pdf
Sims, R., Taylor, M., Saddler, J. & Mabee,
W. 2008. From 1st- to 2nd-generation
biofuel technologies. Paris, France,
International Energy Agency (IEA).
Stroombergen, A. 2009. General equilibrium
analysis of bioenergy options. Contributing
report to Hall & Jack, 2009.
Todd, M., Zhang, W. & Kerr, S. 2009.
Competition for land between biofuels,
pastoral agricultural and scrub lands.
Contributing report to Hall & Jack,
2009. X
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Valuation of forest ecosystem goods and
services and forest natural capital
of the Beijing municipality, China
S. Wu, Y. Hou and G. Yuan
An attempt to estimate the full
market and non-market values of
Beijing’s forests, as well as the
sectoral and spatial distribution
of the forest beneſts.
Shuirong Wu is Associate Professor, and
Yuanzhao Hou is Professor, at the Research
Institute of Forestry Policy and Information,
Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing.
Gongying Yuan is Senior Engineer at the
Beijing Municipal Bureau of Landscape and
Forestry, Beijing.
F
orest ecosystem goods and ser-
vices, and the natural capital
stocks that produce them, make
significant direct and indirect contribu-
tions to national economies and human
welfare. There have been many attempts
to value these contributions. In the past
two decades a good deal of progress has
been achieved in developing valuation
methods for forest ecosystem services
and promoting their inclusion in national
economic accounts.
In China the valuation of forest eco-
system goods and services has been one
of the most researched topics over the
past decade, with a rising number of
studies at national, provincial and local
management unit levels (Yang, Wen and
Song, 2008). Many of these have focused
on Beijing, carried out with different
scales, perspectives and purposes and
using different valuation concepts and
methods; they have come up with widely
varying results.
As the capital of China, Beijing is gov-
erned as a municipality under the direct
administration of the central govern-
ment. The municipality is divided into
16 urban and suburban districts and two
rural counties extending over approxi-
mately 16 800 km
2
, of which about
62 percent is mountainous. The munici-
pality has been experiencing rapid eco-
nomic growth and urban population
expansion; at the end of 2007 its resident
population was 16.3 million, and per
capita gross domestic product (GDP) was
56 000 yuan (around US$7 370).
1
1
Conversions in this article use the
average annual exchange rate for 2007,
US$1 = 7.598 yuan.
Landscape forest
around the Great Wall:
forests, both natural and
planted, have a critical
role in Beijing’s ecology,
aesthetics and socio-
economic development
Y
.

H
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Forests, both natural and planted, and
including trees spread across the ter-
rain, have a critical role in the ecology,
aesthetics and socio-economic deve-
lopment of the municipality. Beijing’s
forest resources have been increasing
significantly since the 1950s as a result
of active planting and management. At
the end of 2007, the municipalityŏs forest
area reached almost 1.1 million hectares
(Figure 1), with a total standing timber
volume of 13.7 million cubic metres.
The dominant tree species include Quer-
cus mongolica, Platycladus orientalis,
Pinus tabulaeformis, Populus davidiana,
Betula platyphylla, Robinia pseudoaca-
cia and Larix principis-rupprechtii. The
forests are rich in biodiversity, hosting
a variety of fauna and flora.
This article reports an attempt to
estimate the full market and non-mar-
ket values of these forests, using the
latest survey data on Beijing’s forest
resources. Unlike most other valuation
studies, it also includes an analysis of the
distribution of the benefits from forest
goods and services among economic
sectors and among local, regional and
global beneficiaries.
There are naturally many limitations
to both the current and previous studies,
many of which are pointed out in the
article, and it is recognized that experts
are unlikely to reach consensus on non-
market values. Such efforts are neverthe-
less important to help raise awareness of
the multifunctional roles of forest eco-
systems, and can ultimately contribute
to the conservation and sustainability
of forest resources.
STUDY FRAMEWORK
The study applied an updated frame-
work for valuation of forest ecosystems
proposed by Hou and Wu (2008) with
reference to authoritative international
documents in the field (Eurostat, 2002a,
2002b; United Nations et al., 2003; Mil-
lennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2003;
FAO, 2004) (Figure 2).
The framework distinguishes between
assets (natural capital stocks) and pro-
duction (the flow value of forest goods
and services), which have generally been
mixed together in other valuation studies
in China. Change in the former indicates
whether forest management is sustain-
able or not. The latter is what should be
counted in GDP or green GDP.
In this framework, the benefits people
obtain from forests are classified into
three categories: forest goods, environ-
mental services and sociocultural bene-
fits. Forest environmental services have
been included in most studies in China,
but the new framework includes an addi-
tional and innovative category, forest
environmental assets. This concept dif-
ferentiates, for example, forest carbon
storage (as an asset) from forest carbon
sequestration flow (as a service).
The valuation method in this study
involved quantification of all forest eco-
system services and goods. The main
methods used to value these amounts
were the market value, direct revealed
preference (replacement costs, pro-
ductivity loss, cost of illness, etc.) and
benefit transfer methods.
Data on forest area, growing stock,
net increment, age classes and species
were from a survey conducted by the
Beijing Forestry Survey and Design
Institute in 2007 applying 3S technology
(integrating remote sensing, geographic
information systems and global position-
ing systems) and field investigations.
Where value data were taken from earlier
studies, they were converted to 2007
values using the consumer price index
for Beijing.
VALUATION CATEGORIES
Forest natural capital
Forest land assets. Forest land, one of
the most important economic assets, is
generally valued on the basis of market
transactions, either directly (e.g. using
market prices for bare forest land) or as
a ratio of the value of exchanged forest
property. In this study, forest land was
categorized into five types (forested land,
open forest land, shrub land, nursery land
and bare forest land) and valued accor-
ding to the prices of each type. Zhou and
Li (2000) applied a stratified sampling
method to investigate the transaction
1
Distribution of forest
ecosystems and other
land use in Beijing
Forest land
Farm land
Water area
Residential area
Bare land
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prices for different types of forest land
in the Beijing area. Their results were
converted to 2007 values.
Standing timber assets. A simple
stumpage value method was used for the
valuation of standing timber. Stumpage
prices by species and diameter were taken
from existing transactions in the study
area and in southern China. In the latter
case, the prices were adjusted using the
ratio of consumer price index for the
area of origin to that of Beijing (and
other conversion factors as needed).
These prices were applied to the stock
according to its species and diameter
composition.
Forest environmental assets. The
environmental assets considered in the
study were forest carbon stock and forest
wildlife.
Estimates of forest carbon stock and
stock changes were calculated based on
growing stock and net increment using
the biomass expansion factors (BEFs)
of the Intergovernmental Panel on Cli-
mate Change (IPCC, 2004). The value of
forest carbon stock assets was calculated
by multiplying forest carbon stock by the
carbon price derived from the Badaling
forest farm carbon project in Beijing
(178 yuan or US$23 per tonne CO
2
).
For Beijing’s rich wildlife resources,
the study adopted the value estimated by
Zhou and Li (2000) based on a valuation
of wildlife for the whole country (State
Environmental Protection Administra-
tion of China, 1998) and data on Chinaŏs
and Beijing’s wildlife resources, with
conversion to the 2007 value.
Forest goods
Annual increment of standing timber.
The value of the annual increment of
the forest stand was estimated by the
stumpage value method using the annual
increment by species and age classes and
the corresponding stumpage prices per
cubic metre by species.
Products of economic forests. The
market value method was used to esti-
mate the value of fresh fruits, nuts and
flower products from economic forests,
i.e. forests of economic value including
those that have been specifically planted
for these products. The production data
were taken from the China Forestry Sta-
tistical Yearbook 2007 (State Forestry
2
Framework for
valuation of forest
ecosystem services
and natural capital
Source: Adapted from Hou and Wu, 2008.
Forest land assets
Standing timber assets
Annual increment
Water conservation
Agricultural protection
Carbon sequestration
and oxygen supply
Biodiversity conservation
Air purification/
temperature regulation
Forest ecotourism
Job opportunities
Products of economic forests
Science and education
Cultural/artistic services
Spiritual/historical services
Forest environmental assets
Non-wood forest products
Soil protection
Aesthetics and
living conditions
Aiming at macro-level
policy evaluation
and analysis within
and beyond
the forest sector
Valuation of
forest ecosystem
Forest goods
Annual value flow
of forest ecosystem
goods and services
Forest
environmental
services
Sociocultural
benefits
Forest natural
capital stocks
Gross analysis
(GDP, income,
consumption,
savings, investment)
Aiming at the evaluation
of sustainability of
development based
on the change
of capital stocks
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Administration, 2007), and the prices
came from market surveys and direct
observations.
Non-wood forest products (NWFPs).
The value of the main non-wood forest
products (wild medicinal materials,
mushrooms, wild vegetables, bee pro-
ducts and hunting, as well as tree breed-
ing and planting, which are listed as
NWFPs in Chinese forestry statistics)
was calculated using the market value
method. Production data for these pro-
ducts were from a survey conducted by
the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Land-
scape and Forestry in 2007.
Forest ecosystem services
Water conservation. “Green reservoir”
services of forested watersheds include
the capture and storage of water (contri-
buting to the quantity of water available
during the dry season) and the purifica-
tion of water through the filtering of
contaminants and the stabilization of
soils. The total value of water conserva-
tion services was estimated based on the
water regulating capacity and the cost
of supplying water for the city (which
includes the sewage treatment fee).
Water quantity was estimated by the
water balance method, using the forest
area and rainfall data to get the total water
input into the catchments and subtracting
evapotranspiration and surface runoff
for each forest type. The maximum water
quantity regulating capacity was seen
as equal to the total storage capacity of
the catchment forests, and its value was
estimated using the replacement cost
method (using the cost of establishing a
conventional water reservoir in Beijing,
taken from Yu and Wang [1999] and
Zhang et al. [2008] and converted to
the 2007 value).
Soil protection. Forest vegetation helps
stabilize soils, reduce surface erosion and
sedimentation and maintain soil fertility.
The estimated value of soil stabilization
primarily reflects the costs associated
with sediment clearance, calculated with
the replacement cost or avoided cost
method, using the average cost for sedi-
ment dredging in the Beijing area and
the finding of Yu and Wang (1999) that
the soil erosion on non-forested lands is
3.7 tonnes per hectare per year higher
than that on forested lands in Beijing.
The value of soil fertility protection
was estimated by applying the market
value method, assuming that the forested
soil around Beijing contains on average
around 2 percent compound fertilizer
(Yu and Wang, 1999) and using the
observed market price of compound
fertilizer in 2007.
Agricultural protection. The study
focused on the increased crop produc-
tion benefits provided by forest shelter-
belts. The market value method was
adopted to estimate this value based on
the increase in crop production, the area
of cropland with forest shelter and the
price of the crop.
Air purification and temperature
regulation. Air pollution is the great-
est of Beijing’s environmental prob-
lems, and the municipal government
has proposed tree planting as a measure
to alleviate it (Yang et al, 2005). This
study valued the services of forests in
the removal of sulphur dioxide (SO
2
),
nitrogen oxide (NO
X
) and fluoride and
the suppression of dust, based on the
average removal rates for these pol-
lutants by broadleaves and conifers as
“Green reservoir”
services of forests
include the capture,
storage and
puriſcation of water
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Xiangshan (Fragrant
Hills) Park, a popular
scenic spot for
Beijing residents and
visitors of all ages,
has important value
for outdoor recreation
as well as air quality
and temperature
regulation – and also
raises the value of the
surrounding houses
S
.
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reported in the State report on biodiver-
sity of China (State Environmental Pro-
tection Administration of China, 1998).
The costs of removing these pollutants
were calculated based on air pollution
charges in China.
The study also included the value of
noise reduction by the so-called “four
sides” tree belt (comprising trees on
non-forested lands beside villages,
houses, roads and watercourses), esti-
mated based on the length of the tree
belt, its capacity to reduce noise, and
the market price of using soundproof
materials. Based on Leng et al. (2004),
it was assumed that a 4 to 5 m wide tree
belt can reduce noise by 5 decibels if
trees are distributed appropriately. The
“four sides” belt comprises 51.9 mil-
lion trees, i.e. 103.9 million metres of
a double-line tree belt 8 m wide.
The study’s analysis of remote sensing,
field investigation and meteorological
data showed that in areas of Beijing
with forest vegetation, temperature was
decreased by an average of 3͠ in sum-
mer (May to September). Forests also
conserved heat in winter (December to
February), although the effect was less
pronounced. Other studies (e.g. Li et al.,
2002; Jiang, Chen and Li, 2006; Wu,
Wang and Zhang, 2009) have indicated
similar findings in this regard. The value
of temperature regulation by forests was
calculated based on the electricity sav-
ing achieved through reduced use of air
conditioning in summer, applying the
direct market method.
Carbon sequestration and oxygen sup-
ply. Annual carbon sequestration was
estimated using the net primary produc-
tion of forest stands and the soil carbon
sequestration by type of forest stand,
derived from the literature (Fang, Liu and
Xu, 1996). Again, the carbon price was
derived from the forest carbon project
in Badaling forest farm of Beijing. The
oxygen price was the observed price of
industrial oxygen.
Forest ecotourism. The travel cost
method has often been used to estimate
the value of forest ecotourism. Because
of limited time and funding, the present
study applied the results from other
research: the ecotourism value estimated
by Zhou and Li (2000) for the 11 forest
parks of Beiiing, converted to the 2007
value. This value was multiplied by the
total forest area used for ecotourism to
estimate the total value of forest eco-
tourism.
Biodiversity conservation. The study
adopted the average per-hectare value of
forest biodiversity conservation for the
Beiiing area estimated by Zhang (2002)
using the opportunity cost method, mul-
tiplied by the forest area of Beijing.
Forest sociocultural beneſts
Job opportunities. Employment crea-
tion was considered as a social rather
than an economic benefit because the
capacity of forests to provide traditional
employment in remote communities was
seen as more important than the strictly
economic benefits of employment crea-
tion, since employment opportunities
are abundant in Beijing. The analysis
covered direct and indirect employment,
using data on personnel and wages from
the Beijing Statistics Yearbook 2007
(Beiiing Statistics Bureau, 2007).
Science and education. Under socio-
cultural benefits the study focused on
scientific research and education, while
ecotourism benefits were valued sepa-
rately (above). The study adopted as unit
price the average value of science and
education estimated by Zhang (2004) in
Forest ecotourism
– a marketable
environmental service
(collection of entrance
fees, Badaling
National Forest Park)
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the Beijing Songshan National Natural
Reserve using the expenditure method.
The total value was estimated by mul-
tiplying this unit price by the total area
of forest parks and nature reserves in
Beijing.
RESULTS
Stock value of forest natural capital
The value of the capital stock of the
forest resources of Beijing reached 19.5
billion yuan (US$2.6 billion) at the end
of 2007, of which forest environmental
assets accounted for 44.8 percent, stand-
ing timber 39.2 percent and forest land
16.0 percent. The per capita stock of
forest natural capital was 1 192 yuan
(US$157).
Annual ƀow value of forest goods and
services
The flow value of annual output of forest
ecosystem goods and services of Beijing
was 47.9 billion yuan (US$6.3 billion),
of which forest environmental services
accounted for 83.7 percent, forest goods
14.2 percent and forest sociocultural
benefits 2.2 percent. In other words, the
value of intangible forest environmen-
tal services and sociocultural benefits
was six times that of the forest mate-
rial goods. The forest goods were all
marketable. Of the forest environmental
services, only forest ecotourism was
marketable. As for the sociocultural
benefits, job opportunities were market-
able while the scientific and educational
benefits were not. Therefore, most of
the value of the annual output of forest
ecosystem goods and services of Beijing,
39.7 billion yuan (US$5.3 billion), was
not realized through the existing market
system. Non-marketable outputs had 5.1
times the value of marketable outputs
(Table 1).
Among the forest environmental ser-
vices, water conservation and air puri-
fication had the most important role
(Figure 3). This finding accords with the
real situation in Beijing: Forest inven-
tory data indicate that the city has scant
water resources, obtaining 80 percent
of its drinking-water from the Miyun
Reservoir of Beijing. Protection forests
account for 62.1 percent of the forest
area, and watershed forests account for
86.6 percent of these protection forests.
Beijing is listed among the world’s ten
most polluted cities (World Bank, 2000),
but its forests are making a notable con-
tribution to improving environmental
and air quality.
GDP and annual output of forest goods
and services
The flow value of the annual output of
forest ecosystem goods and services in
Beijing amounted to 5.3 percent of its
GDP in 2007. Broken down further, the
value of forest goods amounted to 0.8
percent of GDP and forest environmen-
tal services and sociocultural benefits
amounted to 4.6 percent. The value of
marketable forest outputs amounted to
0.9 percent of Beijing’s GDP, and non-
marketable output 4.5 percent.
However, the share of forest goods and
services included in Beijing’s official
GDP in 2007, in accordance with the
current national accounting system, was
only 0.2 percent.
DISTRIBUTION OF FOREST BENEFITS
Among different economic sectors
The current system of national account-
ing records the direct economic outputs
from forests such as timber and timber-
related products, part of the non-wood
forest products and forest ecotourism.
However, part of these outputs are
counted in the forestry sector, and part
3
Forest environmental
services in the
Beijing municipality
TABLE 1. Different types of output from Beijing’s forests
Output Marketable Non-marketable Total
Billion
yuan
Billion
US$
Billion
yuan
Billion
US$
Billion
yuan
Billion
US$
Forest goods 6.77 0.89 – – 6.77 0.89
Forest ecosystem services
a
1.12 0.15 39.96 5.26 41.08 5.41
Forest environmental services 0.38 0.05 39.66 5.22 40.03 5.27
Forest sociocultural benefits 0.74 0.10 0.30 0.04 1.04 0.14
Total 7.89 1.04 39.96 5.26 47.85 6.30
a
Includes forest environmental services and sociocultural beneſts.
Note: The ratio of services to goods is 6.07. The ratio of non-marketable to marketable goods and services is 5.06.
Water
conservation
52.0%
Agricultural
protection
0.2%
Soil
protection
0.5%
Forest
ecotourism
0.7%
Carbon
sequestration
and oxygen supply
8.8%
Biodiversity
conservation
18.5%
Air purification
and temperature
regulation
19.3%
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in the agriculture and tourism sectors.
Forest ecosystem services besides forest
ecotourism are not included at all in
national economic accounts but are
partly indirectly reflected in the outputs
of related sectors or industries.
The analysis indicated that the value of
forest goods and services to non-forestry
sectors of the economy accounted for
88.6 percent of the total flows, of which
the environment sector accounted for
52.5 percent and the water sector 29.7
percent (Table 2). The importance of
the forests of Beijing to these sectors
of the economy is thus clear.
Among different groups in society
The analysis showed that communities
living just outside the Beijing municipal-
ity and those residing elsewhere in China
were the largest receivers of benefits
from Beijing’s forests, receiving 47.3
percent of the total flow value of forest
ecosystem goods and services (Table 3).
Such non-local communities benefit
directly from recreation and indirectly
from environmental services such as
watershed protection, even though they
may not be fully aware of the value of
the indirect benefits they receive.
Local beneficiaries, living in close
proximity to the forest, received 31.2
percent of the benefits. These benefi-
ciaries are usually aware of the direct
benefits they receive from the forest.
Global beneficiaries received 21.5 per-
cent of the benefits, through services
such as carbon storage, biodiversity con-
servation and international tourism.
CONCLUSIONS: POLICY
IMPLICATIONS
Unless most forest values are recog-
nized through institutionalized valuation
methods, forests as a land use will not
get the societal attention needed to make
them an integral part of a sustainable
global economy. Many attempts in this
direction have been made in China, as
in many other parts of the world, but
because of the wide differences in con-
cepts and methods, the many estimates
of forest ecosystem goods and services
made in the past have been inconsistent
and not amenable to meaningful com-
parison across services and periods.
As natural capital and ecosystem ser-
vices become more stressed in the future,
on account of both greater demand and
reduced supplies (in part due to changing
climate), their value can be expected to
increase. Given the huge uncertainties
involved, it may never be possible to
have a precise estimate of the value of
ecosystem services. Nevertheless, even
crude estimates provide a useful start-
ing point (Costanza et al., 1997), with
implications for decision- and policy-
making. What this study makes clear is
Catchment forests
around the Miyun
Reservoir, which
provides 80 percent
of Beijing’s water
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TABLE 2. Distribution of forest beneſts among different economic sectors
Output Forestry Other sectors
Subtotal Environment Water Agriculture Tourism Science,
education and
culture
Billion
yuan
Billion
US$
Billion
yuan
Billion
US$
Billion
yuan
Billion
US$
Billion
yuan
Billion
US$
Billion
yuan
Billion
US$
Billion
yuan
Billion
US$
Billion
yuan
Billion
US$
Forest goods 4.48 0.59 2.29 0.30 – – – – 2.29 0.30 – – – –
Forest
environmental
services
0.21 0.03 39.82 5.24 25.14 3.31 14.19 1.87 0.11 0.01 0.38 0.05 – –
Forest
sociocultural
benefits
0.74 0.10 0.30 0.04 – – – – – – – – 0.30 0.04
Subtotal 5.44 0.72 42.41 5.58 25.14 3.31 14.19 1.87 2.41 0.32 0.38 0.05 0.30 0.04
Share of total
flows (%)
11.4 88.6 52.5 29.7 5.0 0.8 0.6
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that forest ecosystem services provide an
important part of the total contribution
to economic development and social
welfare of Beijing. The forest natural
capital stock that produces these services
must thus be given adequate weight in
the decision-making process.
In recent years, the importance of forest
ecosystems to Beijing has been well
recognized, and the forest sector has
been getting an increasing share of the
public budget for forest protection and
management. The institutionalization of
payment for forest ecosystem services
has become a prominent policy issue. A
special fund has been allocated to local
communities for tending of protection
forests in the mountainous areas since
2004.
The share of forest goods and ser-
vices actually included in Beijing’s
GDP accounting, however, is a small
fraction of the flow value of the annual
output of forest ecosystem goods and
services shown in this study. This find-
ing could support requests for a larger
share of the national budget for forest
management and investment, which are
often woefully underfunded in many
developing countries.
The demonstrated importance of forest
ecosystem services to other sectors,
especially water and environment, could
contribute to the design of economic
instruments such as water resources fees
and environmental taxes which could be
used to promote sustainable forest use
or to compensate local communities.
Finally, these findings can be used to
raise public awareness of the multiple
values of forests to society.
The absence of a real market for most
of the forest ecosystem services dis-
cussed in this article implies a certain
degree of subjectivity in the valuation
process, and it is likely that many experts
would hesitate to concur with the actual
values assigned to these services, even
if they agree with the methodology in
general. However, the central purpose
of this study will have been achieved if
it helps to further robust debate on the
valuation process. X
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This finding could also be helpful in
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The analysis of distribution of forest
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sustainable forestry. Local communi-
ties in mountainous areas of Beijing,
for example, have had to forego some
forest uses in order to maintain a sustain-
able flow of forest protection services,
and these foregone benefits need to be
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appropriate benefits. The identification
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negotiations over payments for forest
ecosystem services.
Estimation of the full range of values
from forests is helpful in designing forest
management strategies. Forests have
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tifying the economic trade-offs among
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ondary targets for forest management,
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TABLE 3. Distribution of forest beneſts among different groups in society
Output Local beneficiaries Regional
beneficiaries
Global
beneficiaries
Billion
yuan
Billion
US$
Billion
yuan
Billion
US$
Billion
yuan
Billion
US$
Forest goods 6.77 0.89 – – – –
Forest environmental
services
7.4 0.97 22.35 2.94 10.28 1.35
Forest sociocultural
benefits
0.74 0.10 0.30 0.04 – –
Subtotal 14.92 1.96 22.65 2.98 10.28 1.35
Share of total flows (%) 31.2 47.3 21.5
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F
ire is one of the main factors caus-
ing biodiversity losses in tropi-
cal forests. Its main effects on
ecological processes in these forests are
losses in stocks of biomass, changes in
hydrological cycle and nutrients (Salati
and Vosep, 1984) and impoverishment
of native plant and animal communities
(Pinard, Putz and Licona, 1999), which
may be followed by biological invasions
(Mueller-Dombois, 2001).
Biodiversity losses are reported to be
especially intense at forest edges. The
lower humidity and greater number of
dead trees (flammable material) make
edges of fragmented forests more prone
to frequent fires than the forest interior
(Cochrane, 2003; Laurance et al., 2001;
Uhl and Kauffman, 1990). In addition,
a higher density of lianas and exotic
grasses from the surrounding pastures
is common. Previous studies have found
that lianas hamper the regeneration of
fragments affected by fire (e.g. Castel-
lani and Stubblebine, 1993; Rodrigues
et al., 2004) and that decreases in the
density and richness of the seed bank
after fire are greater at the edge of the
forest (Melo, Durigan and Gorenstein,
2007). It could thus be expected that
structural and floristic losses, as well
as the resilience of plant communities,
depend on the distance from the forest
edge.
To test this hypothesis, the study reported
in this article examined the effects of ſre
on plant communities at different dis-
tances from the edge of a fragment of
seasonal semideciduous forest in Brazil.
The article also characterizes the dynam-
ics of the recovery of forest structure and
species richness after the ſre.
Fire in the seasonal semideciduous forest:
impact and regeneration at forest edges
A.C.G. Melo and G. Durigan
Antônio Carlos Galvão de Melo and Giselda
Durigan are forestry engineers and scientiſc
researchers at Assis State Forest, Forestry
Institute, São Paulo State, Brazil.
At the eage of forest fragments.
tree recoverv after hre is
constrained by grasses and vines,
which recover more quickly and
are also more susceptible to hre.
DETAILS OF THE STUDY
The studied area is in the northern part
of the Ecological Station of Caetetus in
the state of São Paulo, Brazil (22º23'17''S
and 49º41'47''W). The climate is tropical
with a dry season usually lasting from
April to August. The forest is separated
from neighbouring coffee plantations by
a dirt road 5 m wide, where the invasive
grass Panicum maximum proliferates.
An accidental fire occurred in October
2003, at the end of an exceptionally
long dry season, burning an area about
60 to 80 m wide and 300 m long. This
area was compared with a neighbouring
unburned forest 40 m distant from the
burned forest, having the same environ-
mental conditions as the control.
Five permanent transects (10 m wide
and 50 m long) were installed in each
sector (burned and unburned), from the
edge to the forest interior, each consist-
ing of five plots of 10 x 10 m
2
. A distance
of at least 10 m was maintained between
transects. For comparison, the plots were
grouped into two strips according to their
distance from the forest edge: 0 to 20 m
(external) and 20 to 50 m (internal).
Six months after the fire, all individuals
of arboreal species (at least 1.7 m tall)
were identified, labelled, measured and
categorized as:
•survivors: living trees with no signs
of burned canopy;
•dead: plants with no leaves and no
signs of regrowth;
•shoots: aerial structures burned,
sprouts from the stem base or from
roots up to a maximum distance of
50 cm from the stem;
•recruits: plants emerging from seed
after the fire.
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Vegetation cover was also assessed, in
percentage of land occupied by the pro-
jection of the aerial structures (branches,
leaves) in two parallel lines in each plot,
3 m from its lateral limits. Trees, lianas
and grasses (P. maximum only) were
measured separately.
In the burned sector, all data were col-
lected at 6, 15 and 24 months after the
fire. In the unburned sector, data were
collected 24 months after the fire.
INTENSITY OF DAMAGE
The fire caused damage of major conse-
quence to the structure and floristic com-
position of the forest. Both internal and
external strips of burned forest differed
considerably from the unburned forest
in tree density and biomass (represented
by basal area) (Table). The shorter the
distance from the edge, the higher the
intensity of damage (Figure 1).
The estimated loss of biomass by fire
ranged from 89 percent of the basal area
in the internal strip to 100 percent in
the external strip. The loss of biomass
indicates the intensity of fire and there-
0–20 m from the edge
6 15 24 Unburned
0
Time (months after fire)
20–50 m from the edge
Basal area (m
2
/ha)
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
1
Arboreal basal area in
different periods post-
ſre in comparison
to unburned forest,
Ecological Station
of Caetetus, Brazil
(vertical lines indicate
standard deviation)
fore the degradation which the event
may have caused the plant community
(Kruger, 1984a; Whelan, 1995). In the
external strip, where trees were fewer,
the fire was probably more intense
because of the greater availability of
easily combustible grasses and lianas,
as well as the lower relative humidity
normally found in edges of forest frag-
ments (Forman, 1995).
RECOVERY OF STRUCTURE AFTER FIRE
The rate of forest recovery also varied
with distance from the edge. Both the
Structural parameters and ƀoristic richness of tree species in forest regeneration after ſre compared with unburned forest
at the Ecological Station of Caetetus, Brazil
Time
after fire
(months)
Basal area
(m
2
/ha)
Density
(trees/ha)
Total Surviving
trees
Seed bank
trees
Sprouting
trees
Total Surviving
trees
Seed bank
trees
Sprouting
trees
External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal
6 0.78 3.58 0 2.12 0.58 1.37 0.20 0.09 1 290 3 559 0 193 1 100 3 235 190 131
15 2.57 6.47 0 2.12 2.16 4.00 0.41 0.36 1 690 4 120 0 193 1 310 3 555 380 372
24 3.49 10.01 0 2.12 2.96 7.48 0.53 0.41 1 890 4 327 0 193 1 430 3 787 460 520
Not
burned 20.68 20.26 1 870 3 607
Time
after fire
(months)
Cover
(%)
Number of tree species
Trees Lianas Grasses Sprouting From seed Surviving Total species
richness
External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal
6 20.0 50.6 79.9 69.3 11.8 0.6 8 10 6 10 0 16 14 26
15 47.7 85.6 81.2 70.1 13.4 1.8 13 22 11 13 0 11 19 32
24 47.3 87.5 85.2 76.9 14.1 0.1 15 23 13 23 0 11 24 37
Not
burned 62.4 70.8 71.4 62.0 9.8 0 45 66
39
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vulnerability to fire and the recovery
varied among species.
Overall, 24 months after the fire, the
biomass measurement of the burned
forest had not reached that of the
unburned forest, and the recovery of
biomass was slower in the external strip
(Figure 1). At this time, trees from the
seed bank or seed rain already accounted
for the largest portion of the basal area
(Table) as compared with surviving
trees and sprouts of pre-existing
individuals.
If the increase in basal area of the
burned forest remained constant at
the rate estimated for the first two
years by regressions, the internal strip
would require 5 years and the external
strip 11 years to achieve their original
biomass.
The tree canopy cover stabilized nearly
15 months after the fire in both strips but
was higher in the internal strip.
The differences in tree biomass (den-
sity, cover and basal area) between the
strips at 24 months after the fire can be
explained by several factors:
•the density of trees was also lower
closer to the edge before fire, de-
creasing the availability of sprouts
for regeneration;
•the seed bank was considerably re-
duced in the external strip (Melo,
Durigan and Gorenstein, 2007);
•the already scarce seedlings and
sprouts of arboreal species in the ex-
ternal strip faced strong competition
from vines and invasive grasses.
Grasses and lianas (from the seed
bank or sprouting from suckers) quickly
recovered in the burned area in the first
six months after fire. Vines quickly cov-
ered the area during this time but did
not increase considerably thereafter.
Vines have a more diverse spectrum of
adaptation to vegetative replication than
trees (Gerwing, 2003) and have great
capacity for regrowth, which ensures
rapid occupation of disturbed sites, so
they are obviously more abundant at
the edges (Janzen, 1980; Putz, 1984).
A
.
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O
Forest edge, two
days after ſre
Forest edge six
months after ſre:
burned trees and high
biomass of the grass
Panicum maximum
are visible
Forest edge 18 months
after ſre, with
abundance of grasses
and lianas climbing
dead and living trees
A
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C
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G
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M
E
L
O
A
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C
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G
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M
E
L
O
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Increased frequency of lianas (woody
and herbaceous) with increased intensity
of fire has also been reported (Cochrane
and Schulze, 1999).
The grass growth rates were very high.
Coverage by P. maximum was always
higher in the external than in the inter-
nal burned plots. It was also generally
higher in the external burned strip than
in unburned forest. Once established,
grasses can reduce the light availabil-
ity on the forest floor up to 99 percent
(Hughes and Vitousek, 1993), impairing
the germination and recruitment of tree
species. In addition to hampering the
development of tree species, grasses
provide dry fuel in the winter, leaving
the area prone to new fires.
IMPACT AND RECOVERY OF
FLORISTIC RICHNESS
The response of plants to fire, even
within the same population, depends
on the intensity of fire in each location
and the morphological characteristics
and location of each individual (Whelan,
1995). Ivanauskas, Monteiro and Rod-
rigues (2003), studying the effects of fire
in seasonal forests in Mato Grosso, Bra-
zil, found mortality rates ranging from 0
to 100 percent among 76 species.
In the present study, the burned forest
had, in general, much lower tree spe-
cies richness than the unburned forest
(Table). Of the 77 tree species sampled
in the unburned forest, 43 (56 percent)
were not sampled in the burned forest
at 24 months after the fire.
The elimination of species in the burned
forest can be temporary if the fire reaches
only part of the forest, as they can be
reintroduced by seed dispersal or wind.
However, the results suggest that fire can
lead to local extinction of some species
if the whole fragment is burned.
In general, both ranges from the edge
showed an increase in the number of
tree species throughout the period of
monitoring (Table). Species returned
over time, for a gradual recovery of the
richness of the community. Even so,
Fire destroys aerial structures of all plant life at the edge.
Lianas and grasses quickly recover in the burned area (mostly
through sprouting), overcoming the arboreal species.
Fire
T
i
m
e
Arboreal species slowly return by sprouting or from the seed bank (pure
stand of pioneer species) but are dominated by grasses and lianas.
Richness and diversity are threatened.
Trees sprouts occur with low density and lower growth rate, but account
for a significant part of the richness of the community.
External strip
Tree density is lower, with greater
biomass of grasses and lianas.
Slow pace of recovery of biomass
and richness indicates low resilience.
Low humidity and large quantity of
fine biomass (grasses and lianas)
point to high propensity for new fires.
Internal strip
Lack of grasses and relatively high
availability of seeds remaining in the
bank encourage relatively quick
recovery of the forest.
Recovery of biomass and richness
demonstrates higher resilience than
in the external strip.
Tree density is lower near the edge.
Liana cover does not differ with distance from the edge.
Grasses occur only near the edge.
2
Model proposed for
two years of post-
ſre regeneration at
the edge of seasonal
semideciduous forest
24 months after the fire the burned forest
still had fewer species than the unburned
forest in both strips.
From the sixth to the twenty-fourth
month after fire, a significant increase
in the density of sprouts was observed
in both strips. The importance of sprout-
ing as a strategy for survival in post-
fire regeneration has been reported
for various tropical forest ecosystems
(Uhl et al., 1981; Kruger, 1984b; Rouwn,
1993; Marod et al., 2002; Kennard
et al., 2002).
Previous studies have shown that sea-
sonal semideciduous forest has a consider-
able number of species capable of regrowth
after ſre (Castellani and Stubblebine,
1993; Hayashi et al., 2001; Rodrigues
et al., 2004). However, the lack of long-
term monitoring of burned communities
makes it impossible to draw conclusions
about ſre as an element of evolutionary
pressure in this type of forest.
41
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CONCLUSIONS
Fire was a strong agent of degradation
in the studied forest, almost completely
destroying the arboreal biomass, as well
as remarkably reducing species richness
in the arboreal layer. Recovery of forest
biomass was very slow (low resilience)
in both strips.
Recovery of the forest structure was
faster the larger the distance from the
edge; this pattern appears to be related to
the edge effects already existing before
the fire.
The grasses, present almost exclusively
near the forest edge, do not prevent the
arrival of seeds but do inhibit germina-
tion, establishment and development of
seedlings. Certainly their rapid prolifera-
tion in the post-fire community inhibits
the development of arboreal species from
the seed bank and affects the regener-
ating community. So, in the strip 0 to
20 m from the edge of the fragment, the
density of trees is much lower than in
the more internal strip, where grasses
are virtually absent.
The results make it possible to infer
a model for structural changes in frag-
ments of semideciduous seasonal forest
over a two-year period after fire (Fig-
ure 2). It is proposed that the rate of
recovery of tree biomass is constrained
mainly by the presence of grasses and
vines which rapidly occupy the burned
area and are highly flammable. The
convergent conclusions from this and
other studies (Cochrane and Schulze,
1999; Pinard, Putz and Licona, 1999;
Cochrane, 2001, 2003; Mueller-Dom-
bois, 2001; Slik et al., 2008; Veldman
et al., 2009) suggest that the proposed
model is applicable to other fragmented
tropical forests wherever fire has been
a persistent threat, exacerbated by edge
effects in a vicious circle.
Management strategies for preventing
fire damage in forest fragments should
be directed towards controlling the pro-
liferation of grasses and vines along the
forest edges rather than just installing
firebreaks. Shelterbelts of fire-resistant
and non-invasive species can be used
to reduce light incidence at the forest
edges to discourage growth of grasses,
as an alternative to chemical control
with herbicides. X
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Claros, M. & Putz, F.E. 2009. Selective
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nternational forest-related discus-
sions emphasize that implementa-
tion of sustainable forest manage-
ment depends on mobilizing adequate
financial resources. In adopting the
Non-Legally Binding Instrument on All
Types of Forests, the United Nations
Forum on Forests (UNFF) agreed to
reverse the decline in official develop-
ment assistance (ODA) for sustainable
forest management, to mobilize signif-
icantly increased, new and additional
financial resources from all sources and
to take action to raise the priority of sus-
tainable forest management in national
development plans and poverty reduction
strategies.
The Paris Declaration on Aid Effective-
ness, endorsed at the Paris High-Level
Forum in 2005, commits donors and
recipients to harmonize, align and man-
age results-based aid and to improve the
quality of aid and its impact on develop-
ment (OECD, 2008). The governments
and development institutions adhering
to the declaration commit themselves
to, among others:
•strengthen partner countries’ deve-
lopment strategies and associated
operational frameworks;
•increase alignment of aid with part-
ner countries’ priorities, systems and
procedures and help to strengthen
their capacities;
•enhance donors’ and partner coun-
tries’ accountability to their citizens
and parliaments;
•define measures and standards of
performance and accountability of
partner country systems.
With changes in civic governance,
domestic public budget is increas-
Challenges oI mobilizing Iorest fnance in a heavily
indebted poor country: case study of Uganda
J. Kamugisha-Ruhombe
Jones Kamugisha-Ruhombe is Coordinator
of the Forest Finance Programme of the Global
Mechanism of the United Nations Convention to
Combat Desertiſcation (UNCCD), Rome, Italy.
This article and the studies on which it is based
were prepared with human and ſnancial resources
provided by the Global Mechanism of UNCCD.
An examination of planning.
buageting ana hscal resource
allocation in Uganda
demonstrates a disconnect
between the global discussion
on forest hnance ana national
realities in heavily indebted poor
countries.
ingly allocated through sector-wide-
approaches (SWAPs), basket funding
and medium-term expenditure frame-
works (MTEFs), and in alignment with
national poverty reduction strategies.
One of the major instruments influ-
encing financial allocation in Uganda
is the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
(HIPC) Initiative, launched in 1996 by
the International Monetary Fund (IMF)
and the World Bank to ensure deep,
broad and fast debt relief to contribute
towards growth, poverty reduction and
debt sustainability in the poorest, most
indebted countries. To qualify for debt
relief, HIPCs must maintain macroeco-
nomic stability, carry out key structural
reforms and satisfactorily implement a
poverty reduction strategy. Uganda has
satisfied these provisions and conse-
quently received “irrevocable” debt
relief amounting to about US$2 bil-
lion (World Bank, 2009). However, the
required fiscal reforms also limit the
funding available to sectors that are not
considered high priority.
The Paris Declaration opens up new
opportunities for countries to secure
increased ODA for sustainable forest
management, but only if forestry is
included as a priority in national develop-
ment. This has not happened in Uganda.
Under the Poverty Action Fund, which
uses the money saved under the HIPC
Initiative, environment and natural
resources (excluding lands) management
is allocated only 0.06 to 0.11 percent
of the budget for 2006/07 to 2009/10
(Table 1) – and this entire allocation
goes to wetlands management; nothing
goes to forestry.
This article examines planning, bud-
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geting and fiscal resource allocation in
Uganda, demonstrating a disconnect
between the global discussion on forest
finance and national realities in heavily
indebted poor countries.
FOREST GOVERNANCE IN UGANDA
In 2005, 17 percent of the total land and
swamp area of Uganda was forested and
41 percent of the forested area was in
protected areas, conservation areas under
the management of the Uganda Wildlife
Authority or forest reserves under the
management of the National Forestry
Authority (NFA) and district forestry
services (NFA, 2007). The rest is on
private land and managed with the tech-
nical support of district forestry services.
Many areas also feature various forms
of farm forestry, and the district forestry
services provide advisory services on
their management. Constitutional pro-
visions commit the State to sustainable
forest management, and the government
approved a National Forestry Plan in
2000, a new Forestry Policy in 2001 and
a National Forestry and Tree Planting
Act in 2003. These instruments commit
government to implement sustainable
forest management and set aside the
permanent forest estate for sustained
provision of forest goods and services.
DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
The National Planning Authority pre-
pares the National Development Plan,
drawing on Uganda’s poverty reduction
strategy (the Poverty Eradication Action
Plan), the anchor of the country’s deve-
lopment. The National Development
Plan is implemented through a rolling
three-year MTEF, which is reviewed and
extended during the annual budgeting
cycle. The budgeting process, based on
a National Budget Framework Paper,
involves consultation with all stake-
holders and approval by Parliament.
At the subnational level, District Coun-
cils prepare comprehensive and inte-
grated development plans. The District
Councils develop the annual workplan
and budget through a conference of all
stakeholders. The Local Governments
Act of 1997 obliges District Councils
to formulate, approve and execute their
plans and budgets in accordance with
national priorities.
FISCAL ARRANGEMENTS AND
FLOWS
The Government of Uganda funds local
governments via three kinds of grants.
•Unconditional grants are paid an-
nually from the Consolidated Fund
for decentralized services and are
calculated on the basis of the human
population in the district. They are
part of District Council revenue and
are integrated in its budget.
•Conditional grants are provided to
finance specific programmes. They
are separate from district government
revenue, budgeted for separately and
appended to the main budget.
•Equalization grants are paid from
the Consolidated Fund to districts
that lag behind the average national
standard for a particular service.
TABLE 1. Poverty Action Fund (PAF) resources combined with medium-term expenditure framework (MTEF) (billion U Sh)
Sector 2006/07 (approved) 2007/08 (projected) 2008/09 (projected) 2009/10 (projected)
PAF MTEF Total PAF MTEF Total PAF MTEF Total PAF MTEF Total
Agriculture 67.48 146.58 214.06 79.49 184.86 264.35 85.18 350 434.71 107.48 542 649.67
Environment and natural
resources (excluding
lands)
0.72 22.54 23.26 0.72 29.73 30.45 1.29 32 33.03 1.57 35 36.17
Security 0.00 377.27 377.27 0.00 396.90 396.90 0.00 397 396.90 0.00 397 396.90
Works and transport 40.99 464.88 505.87 40.99 563.70 604.69 40.99 646 686.67 56.99 744 800.65
Education 585.86 720.81 1306.67 600.83 752.34 1 353.17 621.55 1 975 2 596.27 673.90 3 270 3 944.07
Health 206.01 381.85 587.86 206.36 386.45 592.81 223.81 817 1 040.43 242.51 1 283 1 525.45
Water 62.35 99.23 161.58 83.14 128.32 211.46 80.98 292 373.42 121.98 495 617.38
Justice, law and order 20.88 195.75 216.63 20.88 201.78 222.66 21.68 244 266.02 23.48 290 312.98
Accountability 38.56 197.11 235.67 38.61 216.58 255.19 40.78 296 336.75 41.87 379 420.49
Economic functions and
social services
18.46 670.84 689.3 31.88 720.25 752.13 36.32 788 824.77 57.38 882 939.53
Public-sector management 77.28 258.26 335.54 77.28 288.25 365.53 77.28 443 520.09 77.28 597 674.65
Public administration 318.42 318.42 307.66 307.66 308 307.66 308 307.66
Interest payment due 253.90 253.9 300.02 300.02 300 300.02 300 300.02
Total 1 118.59 4 107.44 5 226 1 180.18 4 476.84 5 657.02 1 229.86 6 887 8 116.74 1 404.44 9 521 10 925.62
% share of environment
and natural resources 0.06 0.45 0.06 0.54 0.10 0.41 0.11 0.33
Source: MoFPED, 2007.
1 US$ = 1730 U Sh (December 2007).
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SECTOR-WIDE APPROACH IN
ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL
RESOURCES
The SWAP shifts focus from institu-
tional to sector-wide interests within a
given sector, promoting shared manage-
ment and implementation systems and
emphasizing common vision, priorities,
objectives and goals. Areas for support
are no longer defined based on institu-
tional priorities and plans. Stakeholders
engage in a participatory process to
define sectoral priorities and plan institu-
tional contributions to realize them. This
approach is intended to provide greater
efficiency and equity in the distribution
of resources, more flexibility in the use
of funds and more effective partnerships
among stakeholders. The SWAP in envi-
ronment and natural resources includes
all stakeholders in forestry, fisheries,
wetlands, climate, wildlife and environ-
ment and is implemented through a sec-
toral working group led by the Ministry
of Water and Environment.
FORESTRY IN NATIONAL
PLANNING
The theme of the National Development
Plan is “Growth, Employment and Pros-
perity for Socio-Economic Transforma-
tion”. The development scenario focuses
spending on the sectors with the great-
est potential to contribute to economic
growth. It curtails spending in non-
priority sectors and supports develop-
ment in priority sectors through increased
aid. Forestry is among the primary growth
sectors (those that directly produce goods
and services), but forest-related objec-
tives are also included in complementary
sectors such as energy, land, water and
environment. The National Development
Plan provides for, among others:
•increasing State investment in re-
forestation, afforestation and forest
restoration;
•increasing private investment
in forestry and promotion of
agroforestry;
•instituting a policy, legal and insti-
tutional framework for governing
privately owned forests.
The MTEF for 2009/10 to 2013/14
(MoFPED, 2009) has the following
forestry priorities:
•strengthening institutional and com-
munity capacity and regulatory and
fiscal framework for forest and
watershed management;
•providing operational resources and
in-service training for national and
subnational teams;
•supporting district and other sub-
national natural resource planning
processes;
•developing participatory plantation
plans and promoting tree planting in
private lands, local forest reserves
and degraded areas;
•mobilizing farmers into tree planting
groups;
•forming and training field teams and
carrying out boundary surveying and
demarcation of forest reserves;
•controlling illegal activities in cen-
tral forest reserves and systemati-
cally removing encroachers;
•training and sensitizing timber trad-
ers and sawmillers;
•developing and implementing forest
management plans;
•monitoring production, processing
and movement of timber products;
•adjusting the size of the NFA
payroll;
•identifying seed sources/stands and
producing seedlings for sale to the
public.
The Sector Investment Plan for envi-
ronment and natural resources covers ten
More than 40
percent of Uganda’s
forest area is
in government-
managed protected
areas, conservation
areas or forest
reserves
S
.
N
S
I
T
A
Much of Uganda’s
forest area is on
private land, and
family and farm
forestry are common
S
.
N
S
I
T
A
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Restoration of
degraded forest
ecosystems is one of
the objectives of the
Sector Investment
Plan for environment
and natural resources
S
.
N
S
I
T
A
1
Environment and natural
resources in Uganda’s
medium-term expenditure
framework (MTEF)
Sector
Budget estimate 2006/07 (billion U Sh)
Energy and natural
resources (excluding lands)
Security
Works and transport
Education
Health
Water
Justice, law and order
Accountability
Economic functions
and social services
Public-sector management
Public administration
Interest payment due
800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0
Donor projects
Government of Uganda
Total
Agriculture
Source: MoFPED, 2007.
Note: US$1 = U Sh1 730 (December 2007).
years (2008/09 to 2017/18) (Ministry of
Water and Environment, 2007). Within
this plan, strategic objectives for forestry
include:
•improving the ability of forests and
trees to yield increased benefits (eco-
nomic, social and environmental) for
all people;
•conserving and managing wildlife
and protected areas;
•establishing laws, policies, regula-
tions, standards and guidelines;
•strengthening the capacity of lead
agencies and other institutions to
implement programmes on environ-
mental management;
•restoring degraded forest ecosys-
tems;
•promoting research.
The budget for forestry constitutes 46
percent of the Sector Investment Plan
budget. This makes forestry a very high
priority. However, the key determinants
regarding the financing actually allo-
cated to a given sector are budget ceilings
which are set by the Ministry of Finance,
Planning and Economic Development on
the basis of resource envelopes avail-
able for fiscal control to ensure macro-
economic stability to qualify for debt
relief. Thus, while the forestry subsec-
tor has the lion’s share of the budget
allocation in the Sector Investment Plan
and could actually mobilize the recom-
mended funding from willing donors,
MTEF ceilings hinder it from accessing
the funding (Figure 1).
So despite strong positive statements,
the environment and natural resources
sector in general and forestry in particu-
lar are not given a corresponding prior-
ity in national and subnational budget
allocation (Table 1). It is clear that the
priorities in the MTEF could never be
achieved with the budgeted funding,
even if all the money were released
(which is often not the case).
REVENUE RETENTION
NFA is a self-accounting statutory body
with its own planning and budgeting
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process. At establishment, the bulk of its
budget was funded through ODA as up-
front investment for the first four years.
Although the agency’s own revenue has
increased over the years, a substantial
proportion of its funding still comes
from ODA (Table 2). The progressive
increase in NFA’s revenue (Table 3)
can be attributed to its businesslike
approach, robust law enforcement, good
governance and initial strong support
from government. For example:
•the Law Enforcement Section moni-
tors the movement of forest pro-
ducts and publicly auctions all il-
legal forest produce impounded, for
transparency and to generate the best
prices the market can offer;
•competitive bidding limits corrup-
tion and creates realistic market
prices – raising the average price
of 1 m
3
of pine roundwood from
28 100 shillings (U Sh) (US$15.7)
in 2004/05 to U Sh70 000 (US$38.3)
in 2005/06;
•revenue collection has been decen-
tralized and expenditure tied to it as an
incentive for staff to develop mecha-
nisms for generating revenue.
It is clear that law enforcement and
governance can generate substantial
forest finance.
BUDGETING THROUGH SPECIFIC
PROJECTS
Experience of using ODA for budget sup-
port increasingly shows that it is difficult
TABLE 2. National Forestry Authority
(NFA) income statements (million U Sh)
Source of
revenue
2004/05 2005/06 2006/07
Own
revenue 5 420.08 6 438.91 8 262.84
Government
subsidy 163.94 194.16 23.97
ODA 6 679.43 7 281.31 6 012.61
Subtotal 12 263.45 13 914.37 14 299.41
Own
revenue as
% of total 44 46 58
Source: NFA Annual Report, 2006/07.
Note: US$1 = U Sh1 730 (December 2007).
to guarantee concrete results, although
the attributes of a holistic approach to
development are theoretically attrac-
tive, particularly in sectors like envi-
ronment and natural resources that are
not politically vote-winning. However,
although the Government of Uganda
encourages budget support funding,
some donors are still funding projects.
Projects funded by ODA are required to
remain within the MTEF ceilings and
must address priorities in the National
Budget Framework Paper. In contrast,
forestry projects implemented by civil
society organizations have no standard
planning and budgeting procedure and
are immune to MTEF ceilings.
PRIVATE-SECTOR FOREST
FINANCE
Private-sector funds have an impor-
tant role in financing forestry nation-
ally and locally, but these sources are
largely undocumented, and therefore
their importance often goes unnoticed.
Investment from private sources is
increasing (Figure 2), even as public-
sector funding decreases (Figure 3). A
stimulus to private investment is the
Sawlog Production Grant Scheme, a
ŝ2 million (US$2.7 million) up-front
grant from the European Union (EU)
that refunds 50 percent of tree farmers’
costs, provided certain technical stand-
ards are followed. In 2009 an additional
ŝ10 million (about US$14 million) was
approved by the EU, as well as another 36
million Norwegian kroner (about US$6
million) to take this scheme to 2013.
The funds are part of ODA although
the activities funded are carried out by
private tree farmers. These grants are
outside MTEF ceilings. Another factor
in the growth of private investment is
the Ugandan Government’s decision to
rent forest reserve land to tree farmers
on flexible terms.
A recent survey (Global Mechanism,
unpublished, 2009) estimated that from
2002 to 2008, private sources contributed
over US$41 million to development of
forest plantations in Uganda. Small- to
medium-scale tree growers (with up to
500 ha) accounted for 99.8 percent of the
investors in commercial forest planta-
tions and 69 percent of the planted area
(15 104 ha), which indicates that tree
growing is becoming an attractive small-
to medium-scale enterprise even if the
payback is long term. Almost half of
the investors (48 percent) used personal
savings, followed by 27 percent using
funds from trading or business, 12 per-
cent using personal loans from financial
TABLE 3. Impact of timber monitoring systems on revenue
Year Total revenue Impounded timber revenue Impounded
timber
revenue as %
of total
Million
U Sh
US$
a
Million
U Sh
US$
1995/96 148.2 142 475 36.8 35 378 24.8
1996/97 602.8 566 290 33.6 31 565 5.6
1997/98 760.4 656 015 111.2 95 935 14.6
1998/99 812.9 594 732 78.9 57 725 9.7
1999/2000 1 044.7 680 498 134.1 87 350 12.8
2000/01 1 518.0 842 197 57.2 31 735 3.8
2001/02 1 159.5 675 898 18.9 11 017 1.6
2002/03 1 408.6 768 405 3.7 2 018 0.3
2003/04 2 563.0 1 294 514 184.7 93 288 7.2
2004/05 3 075.0 1 810 560 247.9 145 964 8.1
2005/06 4 223.0 2 300 858 317.8 173 150 7.5
Source: National Forestry Authority databases, 2007.
a
US$ values are based on mid-year exchange rates.
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institutions and 8 percent using grants
from donors. Not one respondent had
received a loan earmarked for forestry
by a financial institution.
Of the private-sector investment in com-
mercial forestry operations, 71 percent
went to tree growing and management.
Natural forest management accounted for
4 percent. Ecotourism and production of
medicinal plants accounted for 1 percent
each. Forest-based enterprises such as
beekeeping, ecotourism and medicinal
plants, often touted for their importance
in forest management, do not seem to
have interested many private owners of
natural forests as yet.
The survey results suggest that people
are investing in forest management for
profit, motivated by the low risk they
associate with tree growing, the promise
of future income and the availability
of land in central forest reserves under
licence. Financial gain and security are
the driving forces behind their invest-
ment in forest management rather than
environmental protection per se; how-
ever, responsible management of forests
for financial gain should also help con-
serve the environment. The innovative
sources of funding that have become
popular at the international level (car-
bon, payment for environmental ser-
vices, corporate social responsibility)
are virtually unknown at the forest man-
agement level. Since 2003/04, the gap
between donor funding for environment
(which includes forestry) and domestic
investment in commercial timber planta-
tions has been closing (Figure 4).
As observed above, public financing
for environment is expected to continue
declining from 2009/10 to 2011/12
(Figure 3). The MTEF estimates a drop
of nearly 62 percent in public-sector
funding (donor and domestic) over those
three years. On the other hand, invest-
ment in forest management from domes-
tic private-sector sources has grown by
nearly 330 percent. Given the interest
in commercial tree growing generated
since 2002, it is likely that funding from
2
Private-sector
funding from
domestic sources,
Uganda (2002–2008)
5 000
10 000
15 000
20 000
25 000
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Volume of investment (million U Sh)
Year
0
Source: Global Mechanism, unpublished, 2009.
Note: US$1 = U Sh1 988 (December 2008).
3
Public funding
(domestic and donor)
for environment
(including forestry) for
the period 2007/08–
2010/11, Uganda
Year
Projected budget (billion U Sh)
Domestic Donor Total
2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Source: Global Mechanism, unpublished, 2009.
Note: US$1 = U Sh1 927 (December 2009).
0
10
20
30
40
Year
Volume of Investment (billion U Sh)
Donor funding
(environment)
Domestic private
sector (commercial
timber plantations)
2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08
4
Trends in ſnancing
forest management
in Uganda
Source: Global Mechanism, unpublished, 2009.
Note: US$1 = U Sh1 927 (December 2009).
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While public-sector
investment in forestry
is declining, private-
sector investment
in commercial tree
growing is increasing,
especially on a small
to medium scale
S
.
N
S
I
T
A
domestic private-sector sources will con-
tinue to increase.
CONCLUSIONS
Uganda has a new forest policy and new
forestry legislation, has restructured
forestry governance and has developed
a National Forestry Plan, which has been
mainstreamed into the poverty reduc-
tion strategy. Uganda has decentralized
governance, elaborate planning and
budgeting procedures and impressive
fiscal transfers. To the extent possible,
the country has implemented all the key
outcomes of the global forest dialogue
and the tenets of the Paris Declaration.
Despite this effort, forestry is still not
a priority in terms of budget allocation;
there is a mismatch between the poverty
reduction strategy, Sector Investment
Plan and MTEF targets and the even-
tual financial allocations, which severely
hampers implementation. Reasons for
the scantness of forestry funding may
include the following.
•Forestry has a major role in sup-
porting the development of other
sectors of the economy (agriculture,
construction, health, water, energy,
industry and environment) but this
link is difficult to demonstrate,
mainly because it takes a long time
for the impact of forests (or their
absence) to show.
•Forestry in Uganda is dominated by
an informal sector which lacks in-
stitutional visibility, record-keeping
and regulatory and organizational
structure, leading to huge losses in
forest revenues for government.
•Political commitment in favour of
forestry is inconsistent at both the na-
tional and subnational levels. Many
political actors recognize the socio-
economic and environmental value
of forests but have little courage to
support investment in the sector.
•With the advent of electoral de-
mocracy, the average politician’s
immediate interest is to be elected.
Politicians will allocate resources to
projects that will easily garner votes
(roads, schools, hospitals).
Above all, however, budget ceilings are
the main cause of low financial alloca-
tions to forestry. Herein rests an apparent
contradiction in international support:
While the Paris Declaration embraces
respect for country priorities, the budget
ceilings established by Uganda are in
practice a conditionality under the HIPC
Initiative, since heavily indebted poor
countries must have a poverty reduc-
tion strategy and MTEF with ceilings
to qualify for debt relief.
The current global debate on forest
finance revolves around whether
“increased new and additional financial
resources from all sources” should be
provided through a global forest fund or
a facilitative mechanism. The question
is, if either of these were established
tomorrow with billions of dollars, how
would a highly indebted poor country
like Uganda access the resources for
forestry in view of the budget ceil-
ings? There are 40 such countries, a
number of them in the “highly forested
low deforestation” category. The ques-
tion of budget ceilings is therefore a
pertinent one. The debate also appears
to assume that the new and additional
resources must be provided by developed
countries to developing countries. This
attitude not only contradicts other agreed
recommendations, but also ignores the
key clause “from all sources”. Forest
law enforcement and governance can
yield substantial resources as shown in
Table 3, and a simple stimulus can evoke
an enormous private-sector response as
shown in Figure 2.
There is still work to be done at
the national level to unleash the full
Financial gain and security
are the driving forces behind
private investment in forest
management, but responsible
management of forests for
ſnancial gain should also help
conserve the environment
S
.
N
S
I
T
A
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potential for domestic forest finance,
and global dialogue needs to focus on
this. Poor policies and laws, indirect
subsidies, poor law enforcement, weak
institutions, excessive and/or inadequate
regulation, corruption, low absorption
capacities, unstable macroeconomic
regimes, budget ceilings and local
politics are but a few of the issues that
need urgent attention. If these were dealt
with, domestically generated public and
private-sector funds, supported by ODA,
would fulfil an important leveraging
function to boost the quality and quantity
of forest finance at the national level,
hence paving the way towards sustain-
able forest management. X
Bibliography
OECD. 2008. Paris Declaration on Aid
Effectiveness and Accra Agenda for Action.
Paris, France, Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development.
Ministry of Water and Environment.
2007. Environment and natural resources
sector – Sector Investment Plan. Kampala,
Uganda.
MoFPED. 2007. National Budget Framework
Paper for ſnancia| years 2007/08Ō2009/10.
Kampala, Uganda, Ministry of Finance,
Planning and Economic Development.
MoFPED. 2009. National Budget Framework
Paper for ſnancia| years 2009/10Ō2013/14.
Kampala, Uganda.
NFA. 2006. Annual report for 2006/07.
Kampala, Uganda, National Forestry
Authority.
NFA. 2007. National biomass study. Kampala,
Uganda.
World Bank. 2009. HIPC at-a-glance guide.
Washington, DC, USA. X
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Forest cooperatives are generally created
to assist forest owners in obtaining the best
value for goods and services. They help
forest owners participate in activities such
as afforestation, tending and protection; pro-
duce and distribute superior planting stocks;
provide members with up-to-date technical
information and training; and collect, grade,
process, pack and distribute forest products.
They contribute to local skills and business
development, mentoring and employment,
and can also promote democracy and good
governance (ICA, 2003).
In Turkey, where almost 100 percent of for-
est is State owned, forest cooperatives have
been established primarily to improve the
income and living conditions of people living
in forest villages, and thus to reduce the socio-
economic pressures on the forest (Daĩdemir,
2002). Forest villages are those containing
a forest within their administrative borders.
They typically have a living standard far below
the national average, limited education and
healthcare services and high unemployment
rates. Today Turkey has more than 21 000
forest villages; their combined population is
7 million (10 percent of Turkey’s population),
although it has been declining with rural-to-
Erdogan Atmiĩ and H. Batuhan Günĩen are in
the Faculty of Forestry, Bartin University, Bartin,
Turkey.
Sezgin Özden is in the Faculty of Forestry,
Cankiri Karatekin University, Cankiri, Turkey.
How can Turkey’s
forest cooperatives
contribute to
reducing rural
poverty?
E. Atmis. H.B. Günsen ana
S. Ozaen
Constraints on the efhciencv
of Turkevs forest cooperatives
suggest that small is not always
beautiful.
urban migration (ORKÖY, 2009). Forest villag-
ers depend on traditional animal husbandry,
low-productivity agriculture and forestry
work. Their average gross annual income is
only US$400 (OGM, 2004), compared with
US$5 780 in 2004 for the entire country (State
Planning Organization, 2008).
There are 2 123 forest cooperatives in Turkey,
with 290 000 members. Most of them focus on
the production and marketing of wood. Forest
cooperatives distribute among their members
such jobs as timber harvesting, debarking,
removal and transport, under the supervision
of the local forest authority. A small propor-
tion also engage in other businesses such
as ecotourism, local handicrafts, petrol sales,
dairy and honey production, cultivation of fruits
and vegetables, and collection of non-wood
forest products.
As incentives, the General Directorate of
Forestry (OGM) gives priority to cooperatives
in wood production, forest nursery production,
afforestation, forest maintenance and building
of forest roads. Government orders for wood
are not subject to tender, and are placed with
the nearest forest cooperative according to
Turkish forest law. To enable cooperatives’
right to market sale, OGM sells them one-third
of the fuelwood produced in Turkey at cost
(i.e. well below the usual market price), as well
as some of the wood produced, at discounted
prices. The total government subsidy provided
H
.
B
.

G
Ü
N
S
E
N
Turkey’s forest cooperatives
are mostly tasked with
organizing work in village
forests and distributing the
wood harvested from them
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to cooperatives in this way is estimated to be
US$80 million a year (OGM, 2004).
In addition, the General Directorate for
Forest Village Relations (ORKÖY), within
the Ministry of Environment and Forestry,
provides funding and low-interest loans to
forest cooperatives. It supports marketing of
their products, vocational training, preparation
of development plans and rural development
projects (ORKÖY, 2009).
The forest cooperatives have formed 27
regional cooperative unions, which are in turn
under the umbrella of the Central Union of
Turkish Forestry Cooperatives (OR-KOOP),
established in 1997. OR-KOOP includes 1 349
cooperatives, accounting for 70 percent of the
wood production in Turkey. It offers informa-
tion services and legal and managerial guid-
ance to members, and provides leadership
that the forest cooperative system previously
lacked (OR-KOOP, 2009).
However, the forestry cooperatives in Turkey
have contributed less than expected to reduc-
ing rural poverty, decreasing illegal activities
in forests, balancing income distribution, train-
ing villagers or raising economic, social and
cultural levels. A literature review and a survey
of forest cooperative leaders and employees,
as well as ORKÖY staff, examined the rea-
sons. The survey was carried out in Sinop,
Kastamonu, Karabük, Bartìn and Zonguldak
provinces in the Black Sea Region, Turkey’s
most forest-rich region (Atmiĩ et al., 2009).
The following were the main constraints
identified.
Legal and institutional problems and
ambiguities. Forest cooperatives are admini-
stered under three different laws and two
ministries (Environment and Forestry, Agri-
culture), with conflict sometimes resulting.
Although the national forest programme states
that priority will be given to increasing the
capacities of forest cooperatives (OGM,
2004), about three-quarters of the coopera-
tive presidents felt that the government neither
sets policies in favour of the cooperatives nor
provides them with sufficient support.
Small scale of activity. Most cooperatives
were started in a single village with few
members, and thus have trouble operating
efficiently, raising financing and obtaining
loans. Of those surveyed, 42 percent had 7
to 50 members and 40 percent had 51 to 100
members. Many members are elderly and not
actively working.
Single focus on wood production. Because
wood production jobs are seasonal, more than
half of the cooperatives are active only three
months or less per year (and 25 percent only
one month). Only about 10 percent of the
cooperatives have diversified activities and
work year round; these are the ones that
have succeeded in reducing the poverty of
their members (Demirtaĩ, 2008). Ortalìca For-
est Cooperative in Kastamonu Province, for
example, obtains 74 percent of its total income
from activities other than wood production,
particularly dairy production (Çaglar, 2009).
Marketing. About half of the forest coopera-
tives surveyed reported marketing problems.
The biggest problem with marketing (reported
by 83 percent of the cooperatives) was insuf-
ficient capitalization. Since most forest coop-
erative members are poor, all income is shared
among the members; no funds are left in
reserve to serve as operating capital.
Low level of education and training. In
Kastamonu Province, which has the most
forest cooperatives, the survey indicated that
68 percent of the cooperative presidents only
completed primary school; 8 percent were
university graduates. Only 1 percent were
trained in cooperative business and manage-
ment. Indeed, 97.5 percent of the respondents
employed by the State Forest Organization
commented that managers and members of
cooperatives needed training in coopera-
tive business, production, forestry work and
marketing of products. Only 7 percent of the
cooperatives reported cases in which employ-
ers or lenders had provided training before
assigning a job or giving a loan.
Weak leadership. Lacking education and
managerial skills, most cooperative presidents
are unable to provide the leadership required
to win the trust and loyalty of their members.
Furthermore, the cooperatives are hindered
by frequent change of management; more
than half of the presidents surveyed were in
office for only one to three years.
Few women involved. Turkish laws do not
hinder women from starting, joining or lead-
ing cooperatives, but social standards are
such that the cooperatives have few female
members, and none has a woman president.
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A villager’s shed in the forest:
forest villagers typically have
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Greater involvement of women might enhance
the cooperatives’ effectiveness, encourage
the creation of rural women’s organizations
and help promote equal participation of women
in economic, social and political activities.
Conflicts. Communication problems and
lack of concrete short-term benefits cause
frequent conflicts between the members
and management of cooperatives, between
cooperatives and their umbrella organiza-
tions, and between cooperatives and the
forest authorities. In the latter case, the main
cause is disagreement over the unit prices
for wood fixed by the authorities. Competition
for the jobs assigned by the forest authorities
also creates conflict among the many small
cooperatives.
Recommendations
Strategies that could help improve forest
cooperatives’ effectiveness in raising the
economic and social well-being of forest
villages include the following.
xNew laws and administrative procedures
must be developed to increase the forest
cooperatives’ power to contribute to
reducing rural poverty.
xThe possibility for forest cooperatives to
receive external grants or initial assist-
ance should be strengthened.
xMarket analysis of wood and non-wood
forest products is needed.
xLarger cooperatives, started jointly by
several villages, could help overcome
problems of scale and also reduce con-
ƀicts among cooperatives.
xCooperatives should widen the range of
their products to include non-wood pro-
ducts and also forestry services such as
afforestation, natural regeneration and
forest maintenance.
xOR-KOOP should widen its marketing
capacity for new products and provide the
marketing facilities that the cooperatives
cannot afford to establish by themselves.
Quality of existing products should be
evaluated, and new markets should be
created in towns closer to the producers
to avoid problems in transportation of
products.
xManagers and members of cooperatives
need to be trained in cooperative busi-
ness, forestry processes, product deve-
lopment, management and marketing.
Capacity in leadership, entrepreneurship
and organizational aspects should be
strengthened.
xThe umbrella organization OR-KOOP
could help ſll the leadership vacuum at
cooperative level.
xGender awareness raising and train-
ing for women could help cooperatives
beneſt from womenŏs creative power and
leadership skills.
xTo lessen conƀicts, a transparent, plu-
ralistic and democratic management
approach is needed in the coopera-
tives.
Bibliography
Atmis, E., Günsen, H.B., Lise, B.B. &
Lise, W. 2009. Factors affecting forest
cooperative’s [sic] participation in forestry
in Turkey. Forest Policy and Economics,
11(2): 102–108.
Caglar, M. 2009. Türkiyeŏde orman
köylerinin sosyo ekonomik sorunlari
kooper at i f l eĩmeni n bu sor unl ar i n
çözümüne ve kal ki nmal ari na ol an
katkilari (Kastamonu-Ortalica-Tosya
Örnegi) [Socio-economic problems of
forest villages in Turkey and impact of
cooperatives on the development and
solution of these problems (Kastamonu-
Ortalica-Tosya example)], II. In Congress
on Socio-economic Issues in Forestry
proceedings, pp. 108Ō114. Isparta, Turkey,
Forestry Economics-Social Working Group
(ORMIS).
Daĩdemir, ć. 2002. Sarikamiĩ ve Oltu
Yöresindeki Ormancilik Kooperatiƀerinin
Kirsal Kalkinma ve Bölge Ormanciligi
Açisindan Degerlendirilmesi [Evaluation
of forest cooperatives in Sarikamis and
Oltu regions from the perspective of
rural development and regional forestry].
National Forestry Cooperatives Symposium
proceedings, Vol. 1, pp. 107Ō128. Ankara,
Turkey, Central Union of Turkish Forestry
Cooperatives (OR-KOOP).
Demirtaĩ, A. 2008. ORKÖY. In Mühendislik
mimarlik öyküleri – III [Tales of engineering
and architecture], pp. 135–147. Ankara,
Turkey, Türk Mühendis ve Mimar Odalari
Birligi (TMMOB).
ICA. 2003. Co-operatives for social, economic
and democratic development. Press release.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Co-
operative Alliance. Available at: www.
ica.coop/publications/pressreleases/2003-
09-25-ga-oslo.pdf
OGM. 2004. U|usa| ormanci|ik programi
2004Ō2023 [National forest programme
report 2004Ō2023]. Ankara, Turkey,
General Directorate of Forestry. Available
at: www.ogm.gov.tr (2nd draft)
OR-KOOP. 2009. Türkiye ormancilik
kooperatif|eri merkez bir|igi gene|
baĩkan|igi. OR-KOOP promotional
brochure. Ankara, Turkey, Central Union of
Turkish Forestry Cooperatives. Available
at: www.orkoop.org.tr/uploads/files/
Orkoop_Tanitim_Brosuru_2008.doc
ORKÖY. 2009. ORKÖY 2008 yi|i faa|iyet
raporu [ORKÖY 2008 annual report].
Ankara, Turkey, General Directorate
for Forest Village Relations. Available
at : www. sgb. cevr eor man. gov. t r / f _
rapor/2008_Faaliyet_Raporu.pdf
State Planning Organization. 2008.
International economic indicators 2008.
Ankara, Turkey. Available at: ekutup.
dpt.gov.tr
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Promoting good forest governance for sustainable
livelihood improvement: a Tanzanian example
A. Ramadhani
A proiect in four forest-aaiacent
villages helped community
members iaentifv obstacles to
sustainable forest management.
propose solutions and begin to
implement them.
Abdallah Ramadhani works for Envirocare (the
Environmental Human Rights Care and Gender
Organization), Dar es Salaam, United Republic
of Tanzania.
I
n the United Republic of Tanzania,
sustainable management, use and
conservation of forests and wood-
lands (covering over 35 million hectares
or almost 40 percent of the country’s land
area) are essential for lasting poverty
reduction and sustainable development.
Thus good forest governance – referring
for the purposes of this article to the for-
mulation, administration and implemen-
tation of policies, legislation, regulations,
guidelines and norms relating to owner-
ship, access, rights, responsibilities and
practices for sustainable management of
forests at the local or national levels – is of
vital importance. Key principles guiding
good governance of forests include equity
and justice, empowerment, accountabil-
ity, transparency, subsidiarity and sus-
tainability (Kenya Forest Service and
Ministry of Environment and Natural
Resources, 2007).
In 2007, the Tanzania-based non-
governmental organization Envirocare
(see Box) implemented a six-month
project to promote good governance
in forest management for sustainable
livelihood improvement in Kilindi Dis-
trict. The project was supported by the
National Forest Programme Facility.
The project worked with four village
communities adjacent to Songe-Bokwa
forest. It was grounded in the principle
that local people’s ownership rights and
empowerment to govern the resources on
which they depend must be recognized.
The objectives were:
•to build capacity in forest gover-
nance;
•to identify and promote policy, legal,
institutional and economic arrange-
ments that contribute to improved
forest governance;
•to promote and consolidate equal gen-
der participation in forest decision-
making;
The Environmental, Human Rights Care and Gender Organization (Envirocare) is a
Tanzanian non-proñt, non-partisan, non-governmental registered organization founded
in 1993 and funded by Hivos (the Netherlands), FAO, ReCoMaP (the Regional Coastal
Management Programme of the Indian Ocean Countries) and Care Tanzania. Its vision
is to see a society with a clean and safe environment that can beneñt all citizens equally
and in a sustainable way.
Envirocare implements development projects aimed at improving environmental
conservation, people’s livelihoods and equitable sharing of natural resources, with a
human rights and gender based perspective. It has worked in promoting organic farm-
ing and improved farming methods; tree planting and participatory forest management
at household and community levels; civic education and HIV/AIDS awareness of youth;
economic empowerment of vulnerable groups; and women’s rights and agricultural poli-
cies favourable to the environment.
For more information, see: www.envirocaretz.com
About Envirocare
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•to promote and strengthen transpar-
ency in allocation and use of forest
resources.
Although the scale and budget of the
proiect were relatively small, this expe-
rience demonstrates the complex series
of actions required to begin to influence
forest outcomes in a local district.
SONGE-BOKWA FOREST
The Songe-Bokwa forest in Kilindi Dis-
trict covers about 3 000 ha and shares
borders with four villages together hav-
ing about 10 000 inhabitants: Songe,
Bokwa, Vilindwa and Kwamba. The
forest is village land; all community
members have control over it.
The forest is rich in biodiversity.
Economic activities carried out by the
forest-adjacent communities include
beekeeping, hunting, collection of wild
fruits, vegetables, weaving materials
and medicinal plants, and extraction
of timber and precious stones. Forest
resources are thus vital to livelihoods,
poverty alleviation and environmental
sustainability in the district.
As it was non-reserved, Songe-Bokwa
forest did not have a management plan
to ensure that local forest-dependent
people took responsibility for manag-
ing the forest. Sustainability was not
given priority; good practices and good
forest governance were not in place. The
forest was continuously subjected to
heavy pressures from livelihood activi-
ties such as random felling, setting of
forest fires to enable hunting of wild
animals and growth of good forage
for livestock, agriculture (permanent
and shifting cultivation), unmanaged
fuelwood gathering, charcoal making,
collection of other forest products and
herding of cattle, sheep and goats. After
seeing that the resulting depletion of
forest resources was contributing to dry-
ing of water sources, disappearance of
traditional medicines and the need for
women to walk long distances for fuel-
wood, village leaders became interested
in promoting more sustainable use of
the resources.
PROJECT ACTIVITIES
Envirocare organized a series of work-
shops to identify the problems facing
the forest and propose solutions in a
participatory manner. Forest-adjacent
communities in each of the four vil-
lages helped identify the policy, legal,
institutional and economic obstacles to
sustainable management of the Songe-
Bokwa forest and the equitable access
and benefits that sustainable forest
management entails. Next, communi-
ties proposed solutions, and on this
basis devised conservation action plans.
Other key project activities included
training and awareness raising on good
forest governance.
Obstacles identiſed by the
communities
Policy and legal obstacles. The national
forest policy’s failure to regulate trade
in wood- and non-wood forest products
was a factor facilitating their unmanaged
exploitation, permitting forest destruction
and degradation. A further obstacle to sus-
tainable forest management was the lack
of harmonization in the policies and laws
of the various sectors related to land use
– agriculture, wildlife, environment, land
development, water, energy and minerals
– and the lack of an effective mechanism
for intersectoral collaboration.
Institutional obstacles. In the usual pro-
cedure, the yearly plans for conserv-
ing and managing the resources of the
Songe-Bokwa forest were generally first
discussed by village council members,
then taken to the village assembly for
public discussion and agreement, and
then taken to the ward development
council – comprising the village chair-
persons and village executive officers
of the four villages, the ward executive
officer and technical personnel in that
particular ward – for further comments.
Finally, the plans would be approved by
the general meeting of the district (the
full council) for implementation.
Unfortunately, village assemblies were
not well attended. Local officials with
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Songe-Bokwa forest
was continuously
subjected to heavy
pressures from
livelihood activities,
including agricultural
encroachment
Forest-adjacent communities
met in workshops to identify
obstacles to sustainable
forest management, propose
solutions and devise a
conservation action plan
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personal interests in the forest resources
could easily take advantage of the igno-
rance of the community to protect their
own interests.
Local government had limited capa-
city for law enforcement. Forest guards,
forest officers and other stakeholders
needed training on the provisions of the
Forest Act and associated legislation
and guidelines.
Economic obstacles. Poverty had
increasingly become a major cause of
forest decline, since poor forest-adjacent
people saw no option but to overexploit
the natural resources in order to survive.
The communities noted that illegal or
unmanaged logging and hunting, col-
lection of medicinal plants, charcoal
making and extraction of precious stones
were contributing to the degradation
of the forest and reducing the quanti-
ties of resources available. Investors
from outside Kilindi District were also
contributing to depletion of the forest
resources.
Proposed solutions
Solutions proposed by the community
workshops included the following:
•making of by-laws;
•tree nursery establishment;
•alternative income-generating ac-
tivities;
•establishing boundaries for Songe-
Bokwa forest;
•conserving water catchments;
•learning forest policies and laws
taking good governance into consi-
deration;
•land-use planning;
•establishing forest patrol groups;
•involving the community in forest
conservation and planning for sus-
tainable use of forest resources.
Conservation action plan
Following the discussion on the causes of
environmental degradation and proposed
solutions for sustainable management of
Songe-Bokwa forest, the beneficiaries
devised a short-term conservation action
plan listing all activities that were to be
implemented for the period of August
2007 to November 2008 (Table 1).
Training and awareness raising
In addition to holding local discussions
with the communities about good forest
governance, the project organized five
workshops to train community leaders
to promote good practices and raise
village awareness. Training was pro-
vided for 20 village government leaders
and 20 representatives of forest user
groups in each village. The training
emphasized good governance concepts,
local people’s empowerment, policy
options for promoting good governance
in Songe-Bokwa forest, participatory
forest resources assessment and trans-
parent procedures for granting conces-
sions for harvesting forest products.
Trainees were equipped with the neces-
sary materials, knowledge and skills to
train others in their respective com-
munities.
Information materials produced by
Envirocare in the local language, Kiswa-
hili, were given to workshop participants
for distribution in the villages. These
materials included posters on environ-
mental degradation in Mount Bokwa
forest and on good governance in forest
conservation, as well as the booklet
Understanding forest policy, laws and
land rights in Tanzania.
Workshop participants
were trained in
good governance
concepts including
local people’s
empowerment and
participatory forest
resources assessment
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TABLE 1. Short-term conservation action plan for Mount Bokwa forest
Activity Time frame Responsible
Make by-laws 8/07–10/07 Village chairpersons, village executive
secretary, Envirocare
Form forest patrol groups 10/07–12/07 Chairpersons, village executive officers
Start and strengthen beekeeping
groups
10/07–11/07 Beekeeping groups, Envirocare, district
beekeeping officer
Plant trees 9/07–3/08 Tree nursery establishing groups,
Envirocare, district forestry officer
Provide training on hunting wild
rabbits using nets instead of fire
10/07–11/07 Elders and Envirocare
Start small income-generation
projects (e.g. raising chickens,
vegetable gardens, tree nurseries)
10/07–11/07 Group chairpersons, district council,
Envirocare
Create awareness on land-use
planning
10/07–12/07 Village governments, Envirocare, district
land-use officer
Make long-term management plan 8/08–11/08 District council, Envirocare, village
governments
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The project also addressed the different
roles of women and men in livelihood
activities with respect to management of
the available resources and development
of alternative income-generating oppor-
tunities. This gender perspective helped
promote equitable benefit-sharing and
more effective local government.
In addition, village groups were trained
on fire prevention methods by the district
natural resource officer.
Monitoring progress
To track the efficiency and effectiveness
of the planned activities over the course
of the proiect, 20 community members
(five from each village) and the Envi-
rocare project management team came
together to develop a monitoring system.
Measurable indicators were developed
in a participatory manner with the ben-
eficiaries (Table 2).
RESULTS
The project results were monitored
for two years. The following is a sum-
mary of the progress made during that
time.
Increased community awareness of
policy intentions to promote people’s
participation
The community was made aware of pol-
icy aims to encourage people’s partici-
pation in forest activities. For example,
the National Forest Policy includes the
statement that: “Local communities will
be encouraged to participate in forestry
activities. Clearly defined forest land
and tree tenure rights will be instituted
for local communities, including both
men and women.”
Greater community response in village
assemblies
Before implementation of the project,
the attendance at village assemblies
was poor. Of 2 000 people in Songe
village, for example, only 100 attended
the meetings. But following awareness-
TABLE 2. Development of indicators for monitoring progress
Problem Source of the problem Impacts Solution Indicators
Forest wildfire Illegal hunting
Honey harvesting
Pasture regrowth
Forest degradation Start income-generation
activities
Make by-laws
Establish boundaries for
fire control
Increase in the number of households with
small ruminants and chickens
Increase in water availability
Increase in number of beehives
Decrease in cases of forest fire
Increase in number of planted trees
Deforestation Fuelwood collection
Charcoal burning
Illegal timber logging
Unreliable rainfall
patterns
Destruction of water
catchment
Make by-laws
Establish forest patrols
Plant trees
Presence of by-laws
Increase in number of trees planted
Increase in conserved water catchment area
Encroachment of
Mount Bokwa
Shifting cultivation
Land scarcity
Livestock grazing
Soil erosion
Destruction of
catchment areas
Use best agricultural
practices
Create awareness on
land-use plan
Increase in forest area/cover
Increase in water flow
Illegal hunting Need for income
Need for food
Extinction of
endangered animal
species
Make by-laws
Forest patrols
Start alternative income-
generation activities
Presence of by-laws
Increase in number of wild animals
Increase in number of small-scale
livestock keepers
Charcoal burning Lack of income
Lack of alternative
source of energy
Environmental
degradation
Look for alternative sources
of energy and income
Promote tree planting
Increase in number of households using
energy-saving stoves
Increase in number of trees planted in farms
and other areas
Workshop participants
received information
materials to raise
awareness in their
villages
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raising activities on the importance of
participation in forest resource decision-
making, attendance increased to 400.
More members of the community
became concerned about the fast rate
of disappearance of their forest resources
and recognized the need to participate in
decision-making on how the resources
should be managed and used.
Enhanced income opportunities
The project resulted in the formation of
several community groups focused on
alternative income-generating activities,
which are helping to reduce pressure
on the forest.
In Songe, the Tumaini women’s group
started keeping local chickens (200) and
cultivated a 2 ha farm which produced
20 bags of beans. The group also made
1 000 energy-saving stoves which were
sold at an affordable price in their com-
munities, reducing the time needed for
fuelwood collection and giving women
more time for other household tasks and
for rest. In Kwamba, the Mshikamano
group established a 0.4 ha vegetable
garden which produced 10 bags of toma-
toes and 15 bags of sweet peppers. The
income-raising activities have empow-
ered women economically.
The Kiegeya group and the Tumaini
men’s group of Songe and the Uja-
maa group of Bokwa started apiaries
in their respective villages. The hives
were placed in the forest to discourage
villagers from setting forest fires, since
many villagers were investors in the
hives. All together, the groups estab-
lished 100 hives. On average each hive
produces 10 litres of honey per harvest,
which is then sold for 5 000 shillings
(TSh) (about US$4) per litre.
Increased community response to
forest ſre, and decreased incidence
of ſres
Communities in all four villages became
active in the prevention of forest fire.
They established fire boundaries and
engaged forest patrols and income-gen-
erating groups in reporting and fighting
forest fire. On one occasion a pastoralist
set fire to the forest at Kwamba village.
The event was quickly communicated to
the community and the fire was put out
before major damage could occur. The
culprit was caught and fined TSh30 000
(about US$25).
In Bokwa village no forest fire inci-
dent was reported. In Songe village,
which used to experience at least five
forest fires per year, there was only
one reported fire incident, which was
quickly put out by village volunteers.
Vilindwa village also reported a signifi-
cant decrease in forest fire incidence.
In Kwamba village, annual incidents
decreased to three from a previous mini-
mum of seven. It is likely that greater
awareness of the importance of con-
serving forest resources, increased fire
management training and the villagers’
desire to protect their beekeeping activi-
ties in Songe-Bokwa forest all contrib-
uted to the decrease in forest fires.
Decreased encroachment of
Mount Bokwa forest
Implementation of the project resulted in
the recovery of over 20 ha of forest that
had been encroached by cultivators. The
recovery could be partly attributed to the
influence of the district commissioner,
who gave the order for villagers to stop
farming in forest areas. But local peo-
ple’s involvement in creating by-laws to
discourage encroachment by outsiders,
and in convincing their fellow villagers
to stop farming on the forested slopes of
Mount Bokwa, also had a role.
Tree nursery establishment and tree
planting
The project supplied the environmen-
tal committee of each village with 1 kg
of teak (Tectona grandis), arbhorrea
(Gmelina arborea) and Grevillea robusta
seeds and watering cans, racks and shov-
els, with which they established tree
nurseries, raising about 10 000 seedlings
in total. The seedlings were distributed
to the village communities to start their
own forest farms.
Creation of local by-laws
To persuade forest-adjacent communi-
ties to abide by the forest management
rules and regulations, the four villages
made by-laws in Kiswahili related to
the management, access and equitable
sharing of natural resources. These were
to be taken to the ward development
council for discussion and then to the
district council for approval.
Formation of forest patrols
Forest patrols were formed according
to the Forest Act No. 14 of 2002. Four
patrols of five people each were formed
for the four villages. They agreed to
Village groups began
beekeeping to raise
additional income and
discourage villagers
from setting forest ſres
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patrol their respective village forest areas
(ranging from 71 to 1 666 ha) twice a
week on days agreed by them but not
disclosed to others. According to the
new by-laws, the patrol members are
not paid and are therefore exempt from
having to work in other village develop-
ment activities such as construction of
classrooms.
CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Although the concept of good gover-
nance was relatively new among the
beneficiaries, the experience of the
project in Bokwa forest was positive.
Target groups and stakeholders received
the project wholeheartedly; they were
eager to learn and cooperated to the
fullest during the entire period of project
implementation. Forest monitoring con-
tinues within other ongoing Envirocare
projects in Kilindi District, helping to
sustain these outcomes.
The following recommendations may
help to continue promoting good gover-
nance of forest resource management in
the project area and elsewhere.
•Put good governance in forest man-
agement into practice in all village
governments. The village govern-
ments must make a commitment to
the principles of good governance.
•Simplify laws. To be accessible to vil-
lagers, laws need to be drafted in lan-
guage that they can easily understand
– in this case non-technical Swahili.
•Make local government more trans-
parent and accountable. Account-
ability in each office is only possible
if the people at large, as well as the
staff and officers themselves, know
what the office is expected to achieve
and on which parameters their per-
formance will be judged. All offices
involved in natural resource manage-
ment at the village and district levels
should adopt a mission statement and
publicize it widely.
•Protect and reward whistle-blow-
ers. Villages need to devise by-laws
that will protect those who expose
illegal loggers or people who set
forest fires. The village govern-
ment might institute annual awards
to recognize their contributions in
exposing wrongdoings detrimental
to forest resources.
•Maintain discipline in managing
natural resources. Many villagers
consider forests on non-reserved
land as no man’s land. This percep-
tion allows illegal loggers to take
out timber and other resources as
and when they please; it will have to
change if good governance in forest
management is to be a reality.
•Continue fighting corruption in
harvesting and trade of forest pro-
ducts. Each village government
should identify the areas under its
authority that are prone to corrup-
tion and take measures to tighten
procedures, review the delegation of
powers, identify areas of discretion
and prepare associated guidelines.
Wide publicity should be given to
forest-related corruption and the re-
medial steps taken to deal with it. The
public must be convinced that the
village government is honest, means
business and is bent on eradication
of forestry-related corruption.
•Mainstream good governance in vil-
lage meetings. In each meeting, the
village government could review the
steps taken for good governance.
•Set up a standing committee on good
governance. The concept of good
governance will have to be refined
from time to time to adapt to chang-
ing societal requirements. A standing
committee in each village could con-
tinuously interact with stakeholders
to make suitable recommendations
on the subject.
•Strengthen and motivate the forest
patrols. The forest patrols need to
be equipped with the necessary gear
for effective operation (e.g. overalls,
boots, torches) and should continue
to be exempt from participating
in other village development
activities.
•Strengthen income-generation
groups. Groups generating income
through forest conservation related
activities, for example tree nursery
establishment, tree planting and
production of energy-saving stoves,
need to be supported in obtaining ac-
cess to markets for their products.
•Allocate unprotected forest land for
conservation and sustainable use by
villagers. The Kilindi District au-
thority should legally give the com-
munities adjacent to Songe-Bokwa
forest the role of conserving it and
using its resources sustainably. X
Bibliography
Kenya Forest Service & Ministry of
Environment and Natural Resources.
2007. Forest law enforcement and
governance in Kenya, by W. Mathu.
Nairobi, Kenya. X
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F
orests cover one-third of the
worldŏs land area, and 84 per-
cent of them are publicly owned.
In 2006 global gross value added from
forest products was US$467 908 million,
accounting for 1 percent of gross domes-
tic product (GDP). Forestry (considered
here as wood production, wood process-
ing and pulp and paper industries) pro-
vided employment to 13.7 million people
in 2006, accounting for 0.4 percent of the
worldŏs iobs (Table 1) (FAO, 2009).
The International Labour Organization
(ILO, 2005a) defines work as “human
activities, paid or unpaid, that produce
the goods or services in an economy,
or supply the needs of a community, or
provide a person’s accustomed means of
livelihood”. In the past decade, ILO has
shown a special concern for decent work,
which is defined as that performed “in
conditions of freedom, equity, security
and human dignity” (ILO, 1999). Decent
work is characterized as being:
•productive and secure;
•respectful of labour rights;
•providing adequate income;
Work in the forestry sector: some issues
for a changing workforce
C. Ackerknecht
On labour unions, occupational
health ana safetv. training ana
changes in the workforce with
particular reference to Chile.
Carlos Ackerknecht is Director of the Forestry
and Wood Industries Safety Programme,
Asociación Chilena de Seguridad (Chilean Safety
Association, ACHS), Santiago, Chile.
•having social protection;
•maintaining a social dialogue with
freedom of union association, col-
lective negotiation and participation
of all the parties involved.
This article addresses some common
issues of relevance to the world’s forest
workers. It does not, however, address
the negative impacts of the international
financial crisis on work in the forest
sector. [Ed note: That subject has been
addressed in depth in Unasylva 233.]
At the global level, information on
forestry employment is scarce or incon-
sistent. This article relies heavily on
examples and data from Chile, which has
statistics and specific studies related to
the forestry sector available covering the
past 40 years, as well as an occupational
health and safety system recognized as
one of the best in the world.
FOREST EMPLOYMENT
The Global Forest Resources Assess-
ment 2005 (FAO, 2006) collected infor-
mation on forestry employment just in
primary production (excluding process-
TABLE 1. Employment in the formal forestry sector (wood production, wood
processing, pulp and paper) in 2006, by region
Region Forest
employment 2006
(‘000 workers)
% of total
employment
Growth trend
Africa 530 0.1 Unstructured
Asia and Paciſc 5 811 0.3 Increasing slightly
Europe 3 815 1.1 Decreasing
Latin America and the
Caribbean
1 510 0.7 Increasing
North America 1 677 0.8 Decreasing
Western and Central Asia 365 0.2 Increasing moderately
World total 13 709 0.4
Source: FAO, 2009.
61
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ing of wood and non-wood forest pro-
ducts). Although 138 countries reported
on this parameter, differences in the
data collected made it difficult to draw
conclusions. Some countries, for exam-
ple, reported part-time work without
converting to full-time equivalents;
some included sawmilling while others
included only roundwood production;
and some included fuelwood collection,
while others did not.
Even before the financial crisis, the
number of forest workers was declining;
it had fallen by about 1 million since 1990
(FAO, 2009). The decline was substantial
particularly in Asia and Europe as a result
of mechanization, business restructuring
and the privatization of State activities.
Other countries saw slight increases.
Blombäck and Poschen (2003) estimated
that the forest workforce would decrease
by 7 percent between 2003 and 2013
in Europe and the Commonwealth of
Independent States because of reductions
in tree felling quotas imposed by legisla-
tion or environmental regulations. In the
United States of America it was estimated
that sources of employment in agricul-
ture, forestry, hunting and fisheries
would decrease by 0.8 percent annually
between 2006 and 2016 (United States
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007).
Although there are no firm estimates,
much of the work in the world’s forests
and wood industries is informal; in other
words, it does not provide social security
protection for workers. This is particu-
larly true in developing countries, where
only 23 percent of workers in all sectors
are enrolled in some form of social secu-
rity or welfare system for themselves and
their families, as compared with 86 per-
cent in developed countries (Superin-
tendencia de Seguridad Social, Chile,
2007). Informal work is often character-
ized by deplorable working conditions,
low pay, and lack of job security and
health and safety protection.
However, international regulations that
companies must observe in order to gain
or retain access to external markets, such
as clean production mechanisms, cor-
porate social responsibility obligations
and commitments involved in obtaining
forest certification, are being put in place
to improve the situation.
UNIONIZATION AND
ORGANIZATION OF WORKERS
Forest workers’ union activities date
back at least a century in Europe and
spread to other parts of the world with
immigration. In the North American
forest sector, the union movement began
with the founding of the International
Woodworkers of America (IWA) in the
United States in 1937; a branch opened
in Canada in 1946. IWA had its highest
membership – about 115 000 workers
– in the 1970s, but by 1994 the United
States branch had only about 20 000
active members, so it merged into the
International Association of Machin-
ists as the Woodworkers Department
(IAM, 2009).
In Latin America, the labour union
movement has not been as pervasive as
in North America. Chile, for example,
has about 136 unions, but it is estimated
that no more than 10 percent of the forest
sector workforce has union membership
(Ackerknecht, 2003).
The body currently covering the great-
est number of forest-sector workers is
the Building and Wood Workers’ Inter-
national (BWI), created in December
2005 from the International Federation
of Building and Wood Workers and the
World Federation of Construction and
Wood Workers. The current organiza-
tion comprises 318 unions representing
approximately 12 million members in
F
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9
8
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A
.
W
H
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E
M
A
N
Much of the work
in the world’s
forests is informal,
characterized by poor
working conditions,
low pay, and lack
of job security and
health and safety
protection
A
C
H
S
Training is key to
improving safety
and productivity in
forest operations
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the building, building materials, wood,
forestry and related sectors in 130 coun-
tries (BWI, 2009).
TRAINING AND SKILLS
CERTIFICATION
In many countries, the main problem fac-
ing forest enterprises seeking to improve
the productivity and safety of their
operations is the lack of good training
for the workforce. Most countries have
adequate training systems for engineer-
ing and other high-level technical skills,
but few programmes to develop the skills
needed by timber- and woodworkers to
perform safely and productively while
protecting the environment.
The compulsory training programmes
established in some developed countries
are worthy of note. In Germany, for
example, operators of power saws and
other forestry equipment are required by
law to follow a three-year course under
the guidance of a forestry supervisor. An
additional 800-hour advanced course is
required for those desiring to become
supervisors.
In an attempt to standardize training
for workers in Europe, the Leonardo da
Vinci Learn for Work Project in Austria,
Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland,
France, Germany and the Netherlands
produced a methodology to monitor
and evaluate the level of skills among
forestry workers.
In 2006, 47 percent of forest enter-
prises in Australia reported that 80 to
100 percent of their workers were trained
(FAFPESC, 2006). In New Zealand, it
was estimated in 2008 that about 80 per-
cent of the forest-sector workforce had
the necessary qualifications (I. Boyd
and J. Siegfried, personal communica-
tion, 2009).
Despite these efforts, many countries,
especially developing countries, still
have large numbers of workers requiring
proper training.
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND
HEALTH
In many countries, the failure to report
health and safety incidents in the work-
place hampers provision of the effective
medical and preventive attention needed
to improve forest workers’ quality of life
and also makes it impossible to obtain
reliable statistics to assess the true state
of occupational safety and health in the
sector.
The world’s countries have not adopted
common indicators or criteria for occu-
pational safety and health in the forest
sector, making comparison almost
impossible. Many countries use incident
rate or frequency rate Ō per 200 000,
500 000, 1 million or other amount of
worked hours – to calculate occupational
safety levels. In most countries, time
lost due to accidents is counted from the
third day. But in Argentina it is counted
from day 11, while Chile counts lost time
from the day of the accident. Employers
sometimes hide accidents by sending
injured people to work doing light duties
or counting them as first-aid cases; in
some countries, this alternative is for-
bidden by law. Finally, some countries
include accidents during travel time in
their statistics, while others do not.
The number of fatal accidents per mil-
lion cubic metres of harvested wood
is perhaps the only category for which
figures can be compared (Table 2).
Standards and regulations developed
since the 1990s to reduce the accident
rate in forest operations and to contribute
to the creation of healthier and safer
working environments in the sector
include:
•ILO codes of good forest practices
promoted (ILO, 1998);
•principles and criteria for worker
protection included in criteria and
indicators used for certifying sus-
tainable forest management (see
Box, left);
•International Organization for Stand-
ardization (ISO) standards for quality
management (ISO 9001) and environ-
TABLE 2. Fatalities per million cubic
metres of wood harvested, 1999 to 2004
Country All operations Small-scale
operations
Sweden 0.11 0.80
Germany 0.67 2.20
Chile 0.95 –
Austria 1.84 3.60
Switzerland 1.94 –
Slovenia 4.90 –
Sources: Klun and Medved, 2007, cited by Hudson,
2007; ACHS, 2009a.
FOREST STEWARDSHIP COUNCIL (FSC)
Principle 4. Community relations and workers’ rights. Forest management operations
shall maintain or enhance the long-term social and economic well-being of forest workers
and local communities.
Criterion 4.2. Forest management should meet or exceed all applicable laws and/or regula-
tions covering health and safety of employees and their families.
CHILEAN SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT CERTIFICATION
(CERTFOR)
Principle 7. Those responsible for forest management must respect forest workers’ direct
and indirect rights, compensate them adequately and equitably, safeguarding their health
and safety in the workplace.
Criterion 7.4. Those responsible for the forest management unit shall safeguard workers’
health and safety.
Principles and criteria for occupational health
and safety: some examples
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mental management (ISO 14001), and
the subsequent addition of a series of
occupational health and safety evalu-
ation criteria (OHSAS 18001).
The combination of these management
systems with sustainable forest man-
agement regulations can help reduce
occupational risks in forests (see Box
p. 64).
CHANGES IN THE FOREST-SECTOR
WORKFORCE
Ageing
Perhaps the greatest challenge facing
forest-sector enterprises in the creation
of healthier and safer working condi-
tions is that of adapting to a workforce
that is ageing in every part of the world
(Table 3). Ageing is a positive trend
inasmuch as it is a sign of improved life
expectancy as well as improved qual-
ity of life increasing the number of old
people capable of working (although it is
also an outcome of a reduced birth rate).
However, greater longevity also entails
new social risks, such as destabilization
of pensions and other social security
protection systems (ILO, 2005b).
It is likely that in most countries, the
harsh conditions of forest work con-
tribute to the ageing of the sector’s
workforce, as fewer young people are
motivated to pursue a career in forestry
at all levels (engineer, technician and
labourer) (van Lierop, 2003).
Women in the workforce
The gradual entrance of women into vari-
ous forest activities and the woodworking
industry has also altered the workforce.
Female employees are often preferred for
tedious tasks or those requiring delicacy
and precision. At the engineer level many
women work in research, development
and planning, while at the medium and
lower levels women are found mainly
in jobs involving supervision, risk pre-
vention and tasks involving fine motor
skills, such as applied genetics (ACHS,
2009a). In many countries, women are
not equally represented in management
and decision-making (Blombäck and
Poschen, 2003). One of the maior chal-
lenges facing working women today (and
increasingly, working men) is that of
combining their working activities with
caring for their family and the needs
of their personal life (ILO and UNDP,
2009). Some enterprises have improved
social benefits and working conditions
to address this balance.
CONCLUSIONS
Adequate social security coverage –
including attention to risk prevention,
health care and economic compensation
for the harsh and potentially dangerous
working conditions – is fundamental to
improving working conditions in forests
and timber industries.
Codes of good practices, holistic man-
agement systems and sustainable forest
management models can contribute to
healthier and safer working environ-
ments in the world’s forests and wood
industries.
Where the social status of forest work-
ers is low, its improvement requires sys-
tems for training them and for certifying
their skills, to make them true forest
professionals.
The world’s workforce is ageing, and
this general trend may be compounded
in the forest sector by a lack of motiva-
tion for young people to take up a forest
career. Social and welfare protection
may need to be intensified commensurate
with the increase in age index and in the
number of dependent older adults.
Women are increasingly finding
employment in the sector, particularly
F
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Women’s participation is
increasing in forestry work,
typically in tasks requiring
delicacy and precision,
such as applied genetics
in spheres requiring attention to detail.
This trend could be encouraged through
improved social benefits and working
conditions to facilitate a balance between
the roles of worker and mother.
A final conclusion is that informa-
tion on employment in the forest sector
must be improved if policies related
to safety and working conditions in
forests and forest industries are to be
improved. X
Bibliography
ACHS. 2009a. Estadísticas y estudios varios
sobre seguridad en el trabajo forestal.
Santiago, Chile, Asociación Chilena de
Seguridad.
ACHS. 2009b. Relación edad y accidentalidad
en trabajadores del sector forestal en Chile.
Santiago, Chile. (Unpublished document)
Ackerknecht, C. 2003. Forest: life and
work, prospects of health and occupational
safety. In Congress proceedings, XII World
Forestry Congress, Vol. A, p. 241. Quebec
TABLE 3. Growth in the world
population and percentage of older
adults between 2000 and 2050
Period Growth
rate of total
population
(%)
Over age 60
% of total
population
Annual
growth rate
(%)
2000 1.6 8.1 3.2
2025 0.9 14.5 3.7
2050 0.2 24.1 1.8
Sources: UN, 2004, cited by Bertranou, 2005.
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Some indicators suggest a trend towards improved safety and health in Chile’s forest sector. For example, reductions have been observed
since 1993 in both the accident rate (relating the number of accidents to the average number of workers) and the loss rate (relating the
number of days lost through workplace accidents and work-related disease to the average number of workers) (Figures 1 and 2).
With a view to assessing the impact of sustainable forest management systems on occupational safety and health, the Chilean Safety
Association (ACHS), working with the University of la Frontera, monitored 25 forest harvesting enterprises over ten years. Since
implementation of ISO 14001 or since adoption of Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) requirements, the enterprises saw signiñcant
increases in their competitiveness as a result of improvements in the accident and loss rates and in the average number of days lost
through accidents (Ackerknecht et al., 2005).
Some change has also been observed in the age of workers suffering accidents in the sector since 1998 (ACHS, 2009b) (Figure 3).
Occupational health and safety in Chile
0
5
10
15
20
25
1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007
Forest Industry Forest sector
Source: ACHS, 2009a.
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007
Forest Industry Forest sector
2
Evolution of the loss rate in
Chile’s forest sector between
1989 and 2008 in enterprises
belonging to the Chilean
Safety Association (ACHS)
Source: ACHS, 2009a.
1
Evolution of the accident
rate in Chile’s forest sector
between 1989 and 2008 in
1 892 enterprises belonging
to the Chilean Safety
Association (ACHS)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
1998 –2002 2001–2005 2004–2008
>60
51-60
41-50
36-40
31-35
26-30
21-25
18-20
<18
Age
%
6.9
14.9
18.0
18.4
5.6
2.0
1.0
16.1
1.9
7.1
10.4
18.5
2.9
25.3
15.5
16.5
16.7
16.5
17.4
5.7 0.5
11.6 0.2
0.1
17.1
16.3
16.9
Source: ACHS, 2009b.
Note: Average population = 55 098 workers
3
Evolution of the age of
workers suffering accidents
in forest sector enterprises
belonging to the Chilean
Safety Association (ACHS)
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City, Canada, 21Ō23 September 2003.
(Abstract)
Ackerknecht, C., Bassaber, C., Reyes, M.
& Miranda, H. 2005. Environmental
certiſcation systems and impacts of their
implementation on occupational health
and safety in Chilean forest companies.
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science,
35(2/3): 153Ō165.
Bertranou, F. 2005. Envejecimiento de la
población y los sistemas de protección
social en América Latina. Santiago, Chile,
ILO Subregional Ofſce for the South Cone
of Latin America.
Blombäck, P. & Poschen, P. 2003. Decent
work in forestry? Enhancing forestry work
and forest-based livelihoods. In Congress
proceedings, XII World Forestry Congress,
Vol. A, pp. 231Ō240. Quebec City, Canada,
21Ō23 September 2003.
BWI. 2009. About BWI. Carouge, Switzerland,
Building and Wood Workers’ International.
Internet document. Available at: www.
bwint.org
FAFPESC. 2006. Forest and forest products
industry workforce and industry data
collection survey report 2006. Victoria,
Australia, Forest and Forest Products
Employment Skills Company Ltd.
FAO. 2006. Global Forest Resources
Assessment 2005 – Progress towards
sustainable forest management. FAO
Forestry Paper No. 147. Rome.
FAO. 2009. State of the World’s Forests
2009. Rome.
Hudson, B. 2007. The importance of safety
in forestry. In Second International
Conference on Safety and Health in
Forestry. Annecy, France.
IAM. 2009. Woodworkers history. Upper
Marlboro, Maryland, USA, International
Association of Machinists. Internet
document. Available at: www.goiam.
org/index.php/headquarters/departments/
woodworkers/woodworkers-history
ILO. 1998. Safety and health in forestry
work. Geneva, Switzerland, International
Labour Ofſce.
ILO. 1999. Report of the Director-General:
Decent work. International Labour Conference,
87th Session. Geneva, Switzerland.
ILO. 2005a. ILO thesaurus 2005. Geneva,
Switzerland. Available at: www.ilo.org/
public/libdoc/ILO-Thesaurus
ILO. 2005b. 7th European Regional Meeting
in Budapest – The impact of ageing on
labour markets and pension reform. Feature
article, 17 February, Geneva, Switzerland.
Available at: www.ilo.org/global/About_
the_ILO/Media_and_public_information
ILO & United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP). 2009. Work and
family: towards new forms of reconciliation
with social co-responsibility. Santiago,
Chile.
Superintendencia de Seguridad Social,
Chile. 2007. Sistema de mutualidades
chileno. Presented at V Congreso
Internacional de Prevención de Riesgos
Laborales, Santiago, Chile.
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics.
2007. Employment projections 2006–16.
Washington, D.C.
van Lierop, P. 2003. The changing world of
forest education: global trends? Presented
at the XII World Forestry Congress, Quebec
City, Canada, 21Ō28 September 2003. X
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World forestry at a crossroads: going it
alone or joining with others?
H. Savenije and K. van Dijk
Some renections on forest sector
trenas. in light of the XIII Worla
Forestry Congress.
Herman Savenije is in the Ministry of
Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, The
Hague, the Netherlands.
Kees van Dijk is with Tropenbos International,
Wageningen, the Netherlands.
A longer version of this article has previously
been published online.
T
he XIII World Forestry Con-
gress was hosted by Argentina
from 18 to 23 October 2009. Its
theme, “Forests in Development: a Vital
Balance”, referred to the importance of
establishing a sustainable equilibrium
not only among the ecological, social
and economic functions of forests, but
also between forestry and other sectors.
Extremely wide-ranging topics Ō virtu-
ally every current forestry issue – were
considered during the various plenary
sessions, thematic sessions, side events,
specialized fora and poster sessions.
The congress was attended by more
than 7 000 forestry experts from over
160 countries, representing a wide
range of disciplines (technical, social,
economic, ecological) and functions
(policy-makers, scientists, trade and
industry, non-governmental organiza-
tions [NGOs], and students). Since the
World Forestry Congress is the largest
forestry gathering in the world, its find-
ings collectively provide a picture of
views and trends in the forest sector.
This article identifies some trends per-
ceived by the authors, using as the point
of reference their observations from the
XII World Forestry Congress, held six
years earlier in Canada (see Box). The
article concludes with the authors’ rec-
ommendations for change to ensure the
sector’s relevance and effectiveness in
sustainable development.
TOPICS AND TRENDS
Globalization and social integration of
forests continue unabated, and display
great dynamism and diversity
Although the congress’s Final Declaration
states that people are becoming increas-
ingly alienated from forests (because of
urbanization, for example), it has become
evident that many more people (city dwell-
ers, NGOs, etc.) are becoming stakeholders
in those same forests. Forests are increas-
ingly considered as part of a larger whole.
Many forest-related problems extend
beyond geographic borders, and most
are closely interwoven with other issues
beyond the forest sector.
The increasing number of claims on
forests – economic, social and environ-
mental – and the plurality of stakeholders at
all scales (global, national and local), with
different and sometimes conƀicting inter-
ests, values and vocabularies, complicate
the play of forces and the decision-making
regarding forests, requiring an integrated,
coordinated, collaborative approach.
A general shift can be observed in
many countries in governance practice
and policy-making and in the role and
position of central government, i.e. from
government to governance. Two ten-
dencies in governance are prominent: a
vertical expansion up towards the global
and down to the local levels (multilevel
governance) and a horizontal expansion
to include markets and society (multi-
actor governance). Forests are increas-
ingly becoming a societal concern, of
interest to others besides foresters.
The vertical and horizontal
connections are only developing with
difſculty
The connection between international
dialogue and local implementation of
sustainable forest management has
improved little since 2003. The sole
change is that regional forestry proc-
esses are now encouraged to fill the
67
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gap in communication between the local
and international levels and to facilitate
national and local implementation of
internationally agreed principles.
The effects of other economic sectors
on forests are becoming greater, espe-
cially those of large-scale agriculture
and bioenergy. But while the importance
of cross-sectoral relationships and plan-
ning continues to be emphasized, in most
countries these have improved little if
In 2003 the authors recorded the following impressions after attending the XII World
Forestry Congress in Quebec City, Canada.
Treaties were seen increasingly to shape the broad
environmental context for national forest policies and management, but the links to global
developments in land use, trade, information and communication technology, urban-rural
relationships and institutional and administrative developments were not automatic.
The multifunctionality of forests, the multi-
dimensional nature of inƀuences, the plurality of stakeholders and the need to build bridges
through partnerships, participation and new alliances were recognized. Forests could no
longer be viewed as the exclusive domain and responsibility of the forest sector.
Policy-making at the global level had
increased, while connections to the local level were decreasing. Locally generated experi-
ence was often failing to inƀuence international discussion.
Increasing interest in a landscape
approach to forests was resulting in greater emphasis on intersectoral relationships and
the underlying causes of deforestation.
It had become apparent that strict separa-
tion between protected areas and utilization areas was neither tenable nor feasible, and
that utilization and protection objectives needed to be achieved as part of sustainability
to support livelihoods and combat poverty.
Good governance, based on
democratization, accountability, empowerment, transparency and equitability, was being
allocated a more important place in discussion of forests at all levels.
Much
interest was seen in payment or compensation for environmental functions of forests by
the beneſciaries; thus, discussion of the ſnancing of forest management was increasingly
shifting away from development cooperation to international cooperation.
The increasing appreciation that the sector cannot “go
it alone” was leading to the development of many new types of partnership, for example
involving local communities and businesses, or NGOs and businesses. Stakeholders
seemed to be ſnding more common ground and more opportunities for cooperation than
in the past.
Some trends observed at the XII World
Forestry Congress in 2003
at all. Much is said about integrating
forests into landscape approaches and
into national policy, and about strength-
ening the relationships with others that
inƀuence (or are inƀuenced by) forests.
Yet neither those in the forest sector nor
those in other sectors have been able to
give effective shape to this integration.
The lack of intersectoral connections also
applies to international climate discus-
sions, where the forestry community
frequently watches from the sidelines
and feels to a certain extent excluded
from decisions.
The real challenge for the forest sector
lies in forging links with other sectors
and among various levels.
Growing awareness of the
multifunctionality and importance
of forests is encouraging, but forest
management and protection are still
improving too slowly
The greatest threats to forests come from
beyond the domain of forestry, arising
from the rapidly increasing demand for
food, feed and fuel. Given the major
predicaments facing humanity – poverty,
famine, energy, water, climate change,
financial crisis, emergencies, conflicts
– and the political and social urgency of
tackling them, forests, if seen in isolation
from these, easily become a secondary
political priority, despite the rhetoric
devoted to them.
Despite growing recognition of the
importance of protecting forests for their
regulatory functions and biodiversity,
increasing claims on land and on wood
as a raw material (for construction and
energy) are leading to greater pressures
on forests. Whether an equilibrium can
be found among these competing claims,
in the form of sustainable, integrated
forest management, is open to ques-
tion, especially because the production
functions of forests immediately provide
money (whether legally or not), while
collective goods such as the regulatory
functions of forests are rarely priced
and compensated.
Forests and climate: justiſable
expectations or just the latest hype?
The topic of forests and climate had little
visibility in 2003 and hardly any role at
the XII World Forestry Congress, but
in 2009 it was of the greatest interest,
attracting the largest audiences.
A message formulated by the congress
for delivery to the United Nations Climate
Change Conference in Copenhagen,
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Denmark in December 2009 őnote[d]
with concern the impacts of climate
change on forests and strongly empha-
size[d] the important role forests play in
climate change mitigation and adaptation
as well as the need for forest-dependent
people and forest ecosystems to adapt
to this challenge”. The general message
was that forests provide far more than
just carbon sequestration.
Reducing emissions from deforestation
and forest degradation in developing
countries (REDD), in particular, was
presented as an opportunity to channel
more money into forest protection, forest
recovery and other aspects of sustainable
forest management. It is clear that the
“climate trump card” (or should that be
“straw to clutch at”?) has quickly had a
positive effect on the overall mood in the
forest sector. It has led, in a relatively
short time, to new fervour, high expecta-
tions and a large number of new initia-
tives regarding forests and carbon.
Doubts and misgivings have also
arisen, however, as to the extent to which
these expectations can be met. There
are still major problems in technology,
methodology and implementation, for
example regarding deſnitions and the
monitoring and veriſcation of changes.
There are also concerns that a REDD
mechanism could be iust as complex
and unworkable for forests as the Clean
Development Mechanism (CDM) was
in the past (as evidenced by the dearth
of afforestation/reforestation projects
under the CDM). Most countries that
are candidates for REDD funding do not
currently have the institutional capacity
to use it effectively. Deforestation and
forest degradation remain deeply rooted
in macroeconomic, political and institu-
tional conditions, power relations, land-
ownership and poverty; there are no quick
solutions to any of these problems.
Forests and energy: a controversial
dilemma
Opinions at the congress differed regard-
ing whether rapidly developing industrial
demand for renewable sources of energy
is good or bad for forests and forestry.
Some predict that future developments
in biorefining and bioprocessing tech-
nology will lead to major opportunities
for bioenergy from forests, including
potential for the expansion of intensively
managed forest plantations for biomass
production.
Others are concerned that the increasing
demand for bioenergy, particularly first-
generation biofuels, is already bringing
about major changes in land use that
directly or indirectly threaten forests, for
example the conversion of natural forest
into plantations for soybean, oil-palm or
other rapidly growing biomass crops.
Potential social and environmental risks
of this type of land-use change were
pointed out, including potential impact
on soil, water and biodiversity and on the
income, property rights and livelihoods
of local populations.
Whether bioenergy development will
have positive or negative outcomes for
forests and forest-dependent people will
depend to a great extent on the rules,
standards and incentives created for the
production of biomass and the effective-
ness of their implementation.
What was striking (and perhaps also a
warning) was that the congress dealt with
issues of forests and energy primarily
from an environmental perspective (i.e.
as an alternative to fossil-fuel-generated
energy) and almost entirely overlooked
the socio-economic issues, particularly
the ties between fuelwood use and pov-
erty. This remains a dire problem in
many countries but has almost entirely
disappeared from international develop-
ment cooperation agendas.
Forest landscape recovery and
management of secondary forests
should not be neglected
The climate and energy discussion has
generated additional interest in the
conservation of natural forests and the
creation of forest plantations. However,
recovery of degraded forest landscapes
and effective management of secondary
forests are equally important, because
forests are often essential components of
the landscape on which poor local people
depend for their livelihood and culture,
and they are also vital for biodiversity
(and the recovery of biodiversity) and
ecological regulation. Sessions on forest
landscape recovery and management
of secondary forests concluded that
these are two of the main challenges for
forestry and require more attention.
What has happened to the interest in
community forestry and social forestry?
For many years, participation by local
populations in forest management, in the
form of community forestry and social
forestry, was strongly promoted as the
way to sustainable forest management.
Although interest in this subject has not
actually disappeared, it no longer takes an
important place in discussion. For exam-
ple, projects and programmes concerning
the relationship of people and forests in
dry areas generated abundant experience
in the past, but this issue has been sidelined
The importance of
protecting forests for their
biodiversity and other
environmental services is
increasingly recognized
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as others – particularly climate change
– have attracted more attention.
Valuation of forests is not enough;
ultimately, what is needed is a healthy
ſnancial basis for management and
protection
Financing is increasingly seen as the key
to effective management and protection
of forests, and there is a great deal of
innovative thinking and experimenta-
tion in this area. The multifunctionality
of forests is emphasized as a basis for
generating investment and extra income
for forest management. New ideas are
also being developed for setting up green
national accounts (which incorporate
the value of environmental services in
economic accounting), within which
the actual contribution of forests to the
economy and society is quantified.
There is a great deal of interest in pay-
ment for ecosystem services (PES), a
concept that was still new and unelabo-
rated at the 2003 congress but has now
become part of mainstream thinking.
Significant experience has been gained,
but the many publications on the subject
make clear that the PES concept is still
under development. Problems that still
need to be solved include, for example,
how the value of a certain ecosystem
service can be quantified, how the price
should be determined, who the users
are, and how those users should pay for
the service. But paying for ecosystem
services need not necessarily be done
through the market, as is often supposed;
in some cases it may involve obligatory
payment in the form of a tariff or tax.
Attention is also focusing on new
sources of funding, including institutional
investors. Many countries, however, are
only beginning to tap such sources. One
major challenge is how more money
can be generated from the capital mar-
ket (already the most important source)
and used in a socially responsible and
sustainable manner for forest recovery,
management and protection. More than
in the past, the forest sector must create
a workable link to the financial sector;
this involves the two sectors learning “to
speak each other’s languages” in order
to do business together, particularly as
regards the provision of formal financing
to small producers.
Is certiſcation effective, or does
it simply lead to proliferation of
standards?
Forest product certiſcation continues to
have appeal as a market instrument to
promote sustainable management and
production, but it has not really taken
hold yet for tropical forests (for which
the concept was originally developed).
Certiſcation processes are still driven by
the international market; the concept has
barely taken hold in national markets,
where the largest quantities of timber
and other forest products are sold and
where certiſcation could achieve the
greatest beneſt in terms of sustainable
management. Reasons for this limited
success include the direct and indirect
costs involved in certiſcation, which are
not compensated for in prices; the speciſc
requirements set; and above all the lack
of policy and institutional preconditions
for sustainable forest management.
At the same time, forest managers are
confronted by a plethora of new standards
and certification or verification schemes,
for example for biomass, energy, car-
bon-dioxide sequestration, fair trade and
legality. This proliferation not only may
lead to confusion and higher costs for
producers and consumers; it also entails
the risk of unequal requirements for the
various systems. The certification market
requires harmonization and coherence if
it is to achieve its intended credibility,
effectiveness and scope.
Forest landscape
recovery is a key
challenge, as many
poor local people
depend on forests
for their livelihood
and culture
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The forest and
ſnancial sectors
must learn more
about each other in
order to do business
together, particularly
as regards the
provision of formal
ſnancing to small
producers
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70
Without good governance and
effective institutions, the extent of
sustainable forest management will
remain limited
Governance was an emerging topic at
the 2003 congress, with cautious discus-
sion of corruption, illegality and bad
governance. Attention to it has grown,
as shown by Forest Law Enforcement
and Governance (FLEG) and Forest Law
Enforcement, Governance and Trade
(FLEGT) processes. Good governance
and sound institutions are viewed as the
decisive factors for sustainable forest
management. Good (or good enough)
forest governance is now a generally
accepted concept in discussion of
forests; this is seen as involving not only
trust, transparency and accountability,
but also fair and equitable participation
and organization of roles, rights, respon-
sibilities and powers among stakeholders
and institutions at all levels, and not only
in the forest sector. Substantial progress
has been made in sustainable production
chains, combating illegality, modern-
izing the forest sector and responsible
business activity.
AND THE FUTURE?
The trends observed above suggest that
the forest sector must focus, more than
in the past, on the outside world and
questions and perceptions that are aris-
ing there. Currently, the sector focuses
inward in its approach to problems and
solutions – often viewing other sectors
and society at large as the cause of the
problems (or lamenting their lack of sup-
port and recognition) rather than as part-
ners and facilitators in solving them.
Many of the solutions to forest prob-
lems have to come from other sectors,
society in general and political circles.
Conversely, major functions that prop-
erly managed forests can provide to
society and the cost of losing forests
are often not highlighted sufficiently.
The forest sector must adopt a more
active, strategic and political position
in public debate and must contribute
to current political and intersectoral
agendas, indicating what it has to offer.
Persuasiveness vis-à-vis the agricultural
sector, the financial sector and political
circles in general will be decisive. New
agendas, such as that for the world’s
climate, can bring new opportunities to
the forest sector.
However, the necessary skills to oper-
ate and communicate strategically are
not currently well developed in the forest
sector. Investment is needed to develop
skills in communicating, managing con-
flict, achieving consensus and collabo-
rating with others. This entails giving
up some of the autonomy (or supposed
autonomy) of the sector and learning
to accept being only a small part of a
larger dimension.
Forestry institutions will need to focus
outward, to become service providers
that can supply concepts and methods,
substantive and policy-oriented forestry
expertise and implementation capacity
so that forests can deliver the best pos-
sible contribution to sustainable deve-
lopment. In this context, it is the task of
the forest sector to make clear the value
of forests, i.e. the value of all the goods
and services they provide, including their
role in combating poverty.
The world in 2009 is different for
forests than it was in 2003, and it is
difficult to predict what the situation will
be in 2015 when the next World Forestry
Congress will be held. What is certain,
however, is that the developments and
tendencies sketched here – ongoing glo-
balization and decentralization, social
integration, interconnection, complex-
ity, governance changes and increasing
competing claims on forests – constitute
major challenges for the forest sector
and for forestry specialists. The ques-
tion is how those challenges are to be
tackled.
Forestry cannot “go it alone” in isola-
tion from other sectors. In addition to
maintaining and guaranteeing substan-
tive expertise, actors in the sector will
need to be flexible in their ideas, attitudes
and methods if they wish to remain inter-
esting, relevant and effective partners in
developing and implementing global and
local forestry agendas.
In Buenos Aires, the Director General
of the Center for International Forestry
Research (CIFOR), Francis Seymour,
wondered: “Can we orchestrate good
vibrations?”, referring to the question
of what policy and institutions are nec-
essary so that sustainable forest man-
agement has a positive impact on local
households and society in general.
The authors believe that this is indeed
possible if the forest sector manages to
come out of its shell and make progress
in connecting and cooperating with other
parties, as a fully recognized and equal
stakeholder. X
Going it alone, or
joining with others?
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New leader for FAO forestry
The FAO Forestry Department welcomes a new head, Assistant
Director-General Eduardo Rojas-Briales, effective 1 March 2010.
Rojas-Briales, a Spanish national, comes to FAO from the Faculty
of Agronomy of the Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain,
where he was a professor in the M.Sc. programme in Forestry from
2003. In 2004 he was appointed Vice-Dean of the Faculty.
Rojas-Briales holds an M.Sc. degree in Forestry from the
University of Freiburg, Germany and a Ph.D. from the Polytechnic
University of Madrid, Spain. From 1992 to 1998, he was Director
of the Catalan Forest Owners Association. He also served as
part-time Professor of Forestry Policy at the University of Lleida,
Spain (between 1994 and 2000). From 1996 to 1999 he headed
the Forest Policy Area for the Mediterranean Regional Ofſce of
the European Forest Institute (EFI), where he was responsible
for projects on multifunctional forestry as a means for rural
development, on multifunctional forest management and policy
for mountainous regions and on national forest programmes.
From 1999 to 2003 he did consulting work in forest policy. Earlier
in his career, he worked for the forest services of Germany and
Catalonia, Spain.
His particular areas of interest and expertise include silviculture,
afforestation, forest law, forest policy, national and regional forest
programmes, and institutional reform.
Since 1997 Eduardo Rojas-Briales has been on a number of
boards and panels, among others the Scientiſc Advisory Board of
EFI from 1998 to 2002.
FAO re|eoses key ſnd|ngs of Ihe G|obo| ForesI
kesources AssessmenI 2010
World deforestation, mainly the conversion of tropical forests
to agricultural land, has decreased over the past ten years but
continues at an alarmingly high rate in many countries, according to
the results of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA
2010), released in March.
FAO’s most comprehensive forest review to date indicates that
globally, just under 13 million hectares of forests were converted to
other uses or lost through natural causes each year in 2000–2010,
as compared with close to 16 million hectares per year during the
1990s. The study covers 233 countries and areas. It indicates that
the world’s total forest area is just over 4 billion hectares or
31 percent of the total land area.
Brazil and Indonesia, which had the highest loss of forests in
the 1990s, have signiſcantly reduced their deforestation rates. Ìn
addition, ambitious tree planting programmes, especially in China,
India, the United States of America and Viet Nam – combined with
natural expansion of forests in some regions – have added more
than 7 million hectares of new forests annually. The net loss of
forest area has thus been reduced to 5.2 million hectares per year
in 2000–2010 (an area equivalent to that of Costa Rica), down
from 8.3 million hectares per year in the 1990s.
South America and Africa had the highest net annual loss
of forests in 2000–2010, with 4.0 and 3.4 million hectares
respectively. Oceania also registered a net loss, due partly to
severe drought in Australia since 2000.
Asia, on the other hand, registered a net gain of some 2.2 million
hectares annually in the last decade, mainly because of large-
scale afforestation programmes in a few countries, especially
China. However, conversion of forested lands to other uses
continued at high rates in many countries in South and Southeast
Asia.
In North and Central America, the forest area remained fairly
stable, while in Europe it continued to expand, although at a
slower rate than previously.
Ìn general, the results are encouraging, showing for the ſrst
time that the rate of deforestation has decreased globally through
concerted efforts taken at both the local and international levels.
However, the rate of deforestation is still very high in many
countries. Primary forests – forests undisturbed by human activity
– account for 36 percent of total forest area but have decreased
by more than 40 million hectares since 2000. This change is
largely due to reclassiſcation of primary forest to őother naturally
regenerated forests” because of selective logging or other human
interventions.
Other key ſndings of FRA 2010 include the following:
xThe area of forest in national parks, wilderness areas and
other legally protected areas has increased by more than
94 million hectares since 1990, now equalling 13 percent of
the total forest area.
xForests – among the world’s most important carbon sinks
– store some 289 gigatonnes (Gt) of carbon in trees and
vegetation. Carbon stocks in forest biomass decreased by an
estimated 0.5 Gt per year in 2000–2010, mainly because of a
reduction in total forest area.
xFires, pests and diseases are causing increased damage to
forests in some countries. On average, 1 percent of all forests
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was reported to be signiſcantly affected each year by forest
ſres. Outbreaks of forest insects damage some 35 million
hectares of forest annually. Extreme weather events such as
storms, blizzards and earthquakes also took a heavy toll in the
past decade.
xSeventy-six countries have issued or updated their forest
policies since 2000, and 69 countries – primarily in Europe
and Africa – have enacted or amended their forest laws since
2005.
Data collection for the Global Forest Resources Assessment
is becoming more comprehensive and precise. New data and
additional information on afforestation and on natural expansion of
forests for the past 20 years has made it possible to estimate rates
of deforestation and loss from natural causes more accurately.
The new global estimate for 1990 to 2000 (close to 16 million
hectares per year) is higher than was estimated in FRA 2005
(13 million hectares), because it now also includes deforestation
within countries that have had an overall net gain in forest area.
FAO’s Global Forest Resources Assessments are published
every ſve years. More than 900 specialists from 178 countries
and forest-related international organizations were involved in
the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010. The full report of
this assessment will be released in October 2010. In addition, an
FAO-led global remote-sensing survey of forests, sampling some
13 500 sites in the world over a 15-year period, will be completed
towards late 2011, providing even more accurate information
on rates of deforestation, afforestation and natural expansion of
forests.
A brochure reporting the key ſndings is available at: www.fao.org/
forestry/fra/fra2010
keforesIoI|on ond ogroforesIry for |onger-Ierm
recovery |n Ho|I|
The magnitude 7.0 earthquake that struck Haiti on 12 January
2010 was devastating in terms of fatalities, injuries and loss
of housing, infrastructure and livelihoods. Recovery will be
an enormous undertaking. The United Nations immediately
launched a Flash Appeal for US$1.4 billion to cover emergency
humanitarian assistance and key early recovery projects until
December 2010.
In the longer term, relief efforts will have to focus on “building
back better” – ensuring that Haitian institutions are stronger and
more resilient than before, and that the most vulnerable people
are protected. With more than 65 percent of Haitians engaged
primarily in agriculture, FAO has already begun to provide seeds,
fertilizer and tools, aiming to reach 180 000 smallholder farming
families.
Forestry will have a key role in improving the country’s low
agricultural productivity. Over time, Haiti has suffered from
loss of fertile soils and potential farmlands as a result of heavy
deforestation and poor watershed management, which have
caused severe soil erosion and vulnerability to ƀooding from
frequent tropical storms and hurricanes. Some 95 percent of
Haiti’s original forests have been destroyed; nearly 10 percent of
the country’s forest cover (11 000 ha) was lost between 1990 and
2005.
The earthquake creates a risk of even greater deforestation as
displaced residents of Port-au-Prince, seeking food and shelter
in the countryside, are likely to cut remaining trees as a source of
energy and construction material.
The restoration of the protective and productive functions of
forests through reforestation and agroforestry on the barren hills of
Haiti will play a critical role to prevent soil erosion and landslides,
protect downstream agricultural production and act as a protective
buffer to regulate the quantity and quality of water to downstream
communities, agriculture and ſsheries. FAO considers upland
reforestation and agroforestry as urgent priorities, as any initiatives
in downstream rural areas and cities can be destroyed without
related upstream integrated watershed management. FAO has
developed project proposals on reforestation and agroforestry
which are to be presented for funding at the International Donors’
Conference “Towards a New Future for Haiti” in New York on
31 March 2010. The conference has been organized by the
United Nations Ofſce of the Special Envoy for Haiti to mobilize
international support to lay the foundation for Haiti’s long-term
recovery.
The proposed reforestation programme includes targeted
measures to protect reforested areas from overexploitation
for fuelwood and charcoal to ensure the sustainable long-term
rehabilitation of Haiti.
FAO has also launched the initiative “Fruit Trees for Haiti” in
support of the Haitian Government’s campaign to plant 10 million
trees. FAO Director-General Jacques Diouf, during a four-day visit
to the country in March, noted that a signiſcant increase in national
food production, rural employment and reforestation are the keys
to a greener, more productive Haiti. The FAO initiative focuses on
providing fast-growing fruit trees for school gardens. Later other
tree species will be included. A mere US$5 donation will buy an
avocado or mango tree for a Haitian school garden, and covers
fertilizer and other inputs as well as educational material to build
awareness of the role of trees in protecting the environment and
reducing risks from hurricanes, ƀooding and erosion. For more
information, or to contribute, see: getinvolved-donate.fao.org
FAO ond CPF |nvesI|goIe meosuremenI of foresI
degrodoI|on
Rates of deforestation and forest loss are regularly measured, but
forest degradation is harder to measure, even though it is similarly
important. Many recent environmental goals and initiatives rely
on measurement of forest degradation Ō including the ſrst Global
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Objective of the United Nations Forum on Forests, climate change
initiatives for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest
degradation (REDD) in developing countries, and the 2010
Biodiversity Target of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Ìnternational forest-related organizations have deſned forest
degradation as the reduction of the capacity of a forest to provide
goods and services. Beyond this core deſnition, however,
perceptions regarding forest degradation are many and varied,
depending on the driver of degradation and the main point of
interest – biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, wood
production, soil conservation or recreation, for example. In the
absence of agreed deſnitions and assessment methods, few
countries are currently able to report on the area of degraded
forests or the degree of forest degradation.
FAO and other members of the Collaborative Partnership on
Forests (CPF), together with other partners, are undertaking a
special study to identify the elements of forest degradation and
the best practices for assessing them. The main objective of the
study, which is carried out under the umbrella of the Global Forest
Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010), is to help strengthen
the capacity of countries to assess, monitor and report on forest
degradation by:
xidentifying speciſc elements and indicators of forest
degradation and degraded forests;
xclassifying elements and harmonizing deſnitions;
xidentifying and describing existing and promising assessment
methodologies;
xdeveloping assessment tools and guidelines.
Forests may be degraded in terms of loss of any of the goods
and services that they provide (ſbre, food, habitat, water, carbon
storage and other protective, socio-economic and cultural values).
By using the seven thematic elements of sustainable forest
management, the study will identify suitable indicators to assess
the degree of degradation of a forest at different management
levels.
The study approach includes a survey of existing country
practices to see what is being measured; an analytical study on
deſnitions to provide a framework for the process; and a series of
case studies to describe proven or promising methodologies and
tools for assessing different aspects of forest degradation.
From 8 to 10 September 2009 a technical meeting was held
at FAO headquarters in Rome to review the results and to
recommend actions to improve measurement, assessment and
reporting on forest degradation. Participants included all the
contributors to the study and representatives of international
agencies.
The case studies and an analysis of deſnitions of forest
degradation were presented and discussed. Working groups then
discussed indicators of degradation and proven and promising
assessment methodologies in more detail. A session was also held
on forest degradation and climate change.
Among its main outcomes, the meeting endorsed a generic
deſnition of őforest degradationŒ as a reduction in the capacity of a
forest to provide goods and services, and noted that this deſnition
provides a framework for developing more speciſc deſnitions for
particular purposes. Participants also called for:
ximproved communication of the many different aspects of
forest degradation to climate change negotiators;
xfocused attention on harmonization of deſnitions and methods
for monitoring ſve aspects of forest degradation: stocking
level, biodiversity, forest health, level of use/production and
forest soil;
xthe inclusion of forest degradation in terms of climate
change into the proposed mechanism for reducing emissions
from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), since
methodologies do exist to monitor changes in carbon stocks;
xthe development of tools and guidelines for measuring
different aspects of forest degradation.
Further information is available at: www.fao.org/forestry/
degradation-cpf
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Grow|ng v|s|b|||Iy for foresIs |n c||moIe d|scuss|ons
Good progress was made on forest issues at the climate change
meetings held in Copenhagen, Denmark from 7 to 18 December
2009, even though the outcomes were generally disappointing in
most other respects.
At the ſfteenth session of the Conference of the Parties
(COP 15) to the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC), the two ad hoc bodies tasked with
delivering a follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol and agreement on
further action under the convention – the Ad Hoc Working Group
on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto
Protocol (AWG-KP) and the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term
Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA) – were
unable to conclude their work, and their terms were extended. The
Copenhagen Accord was “noted” but not approved. Parties agreed
to notify the UNFCCC Secretariat of their wish to associate with
the accord and their mitigation targets or activities by 31 January
2010.
The Copenhagen Accord recognizes the importance of holding
the increase in global temperature to 2°C. However, no aggregate
emission reduction commitments were agreed. Countries
pledged funding of US$30 billion for the 2010–2012 period and
up to US$100 billion a year from 2020. The accord called for the
establishment of the Copenhagen Green Climate Fund.
The Copenhagen Accord includes the following text on reducing
emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD): “We
recognize the crucial role of reducing emissions from deforestation
and forest degradation and the need to enhance removals of
greenhouse gas emission by forests and agree on the need to
provide positive incentives to such actions through the immediate
establishment of a mechanism including REDD-plus, to enable the
mobilization of ſnancial resources from developed countries.Œ
During the meetings, six countries (Australia, France, Japan,
Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States of America)
collectively agreed to dedicate US$3.5 billion “as initial public
ſnance towards slowing, halting and eventually reversing
deforestation in developing countries”.
The COP adopted a decision on methodological guidance
for REDD-plus (covering REDD plus conservation, sustainable
management of forests and enhancement of forest stocks). The
decision, reƀecting the outcome of several years of work under
UNFCCCŏs Subsidiary Body for Scientiſc and Technological
Advice (SBSTA), requests Parties to identify drivers of
deforestation and forest degradation; to identify REDD-plus actions
to take; to use the most recent Intergovernment Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) guidance and guidelines for carbon accounting;
to establish national forest monitoring systems; and to engage
indigenous people and local communities in monitoring and
reporting. It also calls for stronger capacity building and increased
coordination of support.
Good progress was made on negotiations on policy approaches
and positive incentives in REDD-plus in the AWG-LCA
discussions. The draft text outlines principles, safeguards, scope
and a phased approach for implementing REDD-plus actions
under a UNFCCC instrument. It requests SBSTA to identify
drivers of deforestation and to work on methodologies to estimate
emissions and removals and assess mitigation potential, and
calls for coordination of REDD-plus activities among those
supporting them. Issues still to be resolved include national versus
subnational approaches to REDD-plus; measurement, reporting
and veriſcation of developed country support; the relationship
between REDD-plus and nationally appropriate mitigation actions
(NAMAs); and the ſnancing modality (fund versus market-based or
mixed).
Negotiations of AWG-KP on land use, land use change and
forestry (LULUCF) in industrialized (Annex 1) countries addressed
the rules relating to accounting of greenhouse gas emissions and
removals. Key issues include accounting for forest management
activities and for carbon in harvested wood products. AWG-KP
also discussed the proposal to broaden the scope of activities
eligible for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. The
draft text calls on SBSTA to begin exploring ways to move towards
more comprehensive accounting of greenhouse gas emissions and
removals by sinks by LULUCF activities.
Regarding adaptation, the draft AWG-LCA text calls for a
Copenhagen adaptation framework or programme, under which
action would be initiated by countries. Aspects that remain
undecided, however, include institutional structures (new versus
existing) and the establishment of an insurance mechanism for
climate change–induced losses. Agreement seemed clear on the
need for enhanced regional cooperation on adaptation, and the
draft AWG-LCA text calls for establishment of regional adaptation
“centres” or “platforms”.
On 13 December 2009, the Government of Denmark and the
Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) with the
other members of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests
(CPF) co-hosted Forest Day 3, attended by 1 600 participants.
It included three subplenary sessions (on mitigation, adaptation
and forest degradation) and eight parallel learning events. This
Forest Day, as did the previous two, provided an opportunity to
extend messages from the forestry community to the UNFCCC
discussions.
Though inconclusive, the Copenhagen meetings were
signiſcant for the forest sector. Political visibility for forests is
at an all-time high. The focus on adaptation and mitigation has
become more balanced. It appears likely that REDD-plus funding
could increase dramatically in the short term; as a consequence,
capacity strengthening for developing countries will take on
increased urgency. Proposed changes related to LULUCF
accounting and offset rules have the potential to improve forest
management and increase forest-based mitigation in developed
countries as well.
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InIernoI|ono| Yeor of ß|od|vers|Iy
As many as 13 million different living species, including plants,
animals and bacteria, share the earth; only 1.75 million of these
have been named and recorded. This incredible natural wealth
is a priceless treasure forming the ultimate foundation of human
well-being.
Safeguarding biodiversity and reducing biodiversity loss are
vital for current and future human well-being. To raise global
awareness and increase understanding of the crucial role that
biodiversity plays in sustaining life on Earth, the United Nations
has proclaimed 2010 as the International Year of Biodiversity. At
the ofſcial launch of the year on 11 January 2010, United Nations
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon proclaimed the need for a new
biodiversity vision and called upon every country and every citizen
of the planet to engage in a global alliance to protect life on earth.
The celebrations for the International Year of Biodiversity are led
by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD),
with numerous partners. Throughout the year countless initiatives
will be organized to disseminate information, promote the
protection of biodiversity and encourage organizations, institutions,
companies and individuals to take direct action to reduce the
constant loss of biological diversity worldwide.
Under the slogan “Biodiversity is life. Biodiversity is our life”, the
celebration of the year draws attention to four key messages:
• Humans are part of nature’s rich diversity and have the power
to protect or destroy it.
• Biodiversity, the variety of life on earth, is essential to
sustaining the living networks and systems that provide all
people with health, wealth, food, fuel and the vital services that
their lives depend on.
• Human activities – felling or burning of forests, removal of
mangroves, intensive farming, pollution stress, overſshing
and the impacts of climate change – are causing the diversity
of life on earth to be lost at a greatly accelerated rate. These
losses are irreversible, impoverish everyone and damage the
life support systems people rely on every day. But they can be
prevented.
• The International Year of Biodiversity provides an occasion
to reƀect on prior achievements to safeguard biodiversity
and to focus on the urgency of challenges for the future. The
International Year of Biodiversity is a chance to prove the will
to stop the losses.
For more information, see: www.cbd.int/2010
$econd Wor|d Congress of AgroforesIry
In tropical countries, agricultural expansion is often a cause of
deforestation. But farming and forests do not have to be mutually
exclusive. Agroforestry has a key role in addressing the challenges
of food security that are inevitable with the world’s rapid population
growth, while contributing to rural livelihood improvement and
delivering a wide range of beneſts including increased soil fertility,
absorption of atmospheric carbon and restoration of degraded land.
The science and practice of agroforestry offer useful directions
in solving the problem of how to feed a growing population while
protecting the environment. Forests and trees in agricultural
landscapes are central to sustainable agriculture. The practice
of conservation agriculture and increasing tree cover on farms
can also offer prospects to smallholder farmers for diversifying
livelihoods and incomes via emerging carbon markets.
“Agroforestry, the future of global land use” was the theme of the
second World Congress of Agroforestry, cohosted by the World
Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP) in Nairobi, Kenya from 23 to 28 August 2009.
The congress attracted almost 1 200 researchers, educators,
practitioners and policy-makers from around the world, who came
to share new research ideas and experiences, explore partnership
opportunities and strengthen communities of practice, while
strengthening links between science and policy.
The congress had three subthemes: food security and
livelihoods; conservation and rehabilitation of natural resources;
and policies and institutions.
A clear message that came out of the congress was that over the
past 30 years, agroforestry has matured into a robust, science-
based discipline, and a land use that can address many of the
world’s most pressing problems.
The question therefore arises of why, although the number of
trees on farms is steadily increasing, agroforestry is not being
adopted more widely and rapidly. The congress attributed this in
part to the failure of agroforesters to communicate the beneſts of
agroforestry in a compelling and intelligible way to policy-makers,
politicians and the public. The importance of good public relations
was highlighted.
In the Congress Declaration, the participants expressed their
belief that widespread scaling-up of agroforestry innovations
during the next decade could greatly facilitate the success of
global commitments and conventions such as the United Nations
Millennium Development Goals and the conventions on biological
diversity, climate change and combating desertiſcation. The
declaration included the following proposals:
xvigorous development of cross-sectoral policy and institutional
frameworks that support agroforestry at regional and national
levels in the context of development strategies and multilateral
environmental agreements;
xenhanced public and private investment in agroforestry
initiatives, including research, education and development;
xaccelerated development of methodologies for measuring,
valuing and monitoring ecosystem services provided by
agroforestry;
xenhanced research and development in tree domestication,
genetic improvement, use of biotic resources and value
adding to agroforestry products at all levels;
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xexpansion of choices available for women and vulnerable
groups to further increase their access to land and tree-based
products and services;
xconcerted efforts to popularize the deployment of agroforestry
through an integrated, interdisciplinary, multi-institutional and
multistakeholder approach;
ximproved communication about the beneſts of agroforestry
for social, economic, cultural, ecological and environmental
sustainability;
xincreased recognition of agroforestry as an important area of
investment for land rehabilitation, biodiversity conservation,
climate change mitigation and adaptation, and improved food
and nutritional security.
Further information is available at: www.worldagroforestry.
org/WCA2009
Amb|I|ous mongrove offoresIoI|on progromme |n
Omon
Oman has intensiſed its mangrove afforestation programme over
the past several years, in the wake of hard evidence of the vital
coastal protection that mangroves provide. The tropical cyclone
Gonu devastated large areas on the coast of Oman in June 2007,
leaving 70 people dead. It also damaged parts of the mangrove
forests around the capital and in the Qurum (“mangrove”) area of
the city. But the surviving mangrove forests protected the coastal
areas against the tidal waves, ƀooding and inland intrusion of salt
water.
Oman has 1 700 km of coastline, which was densely covered
by mangroves in ancient times. Human activities – cattle herding,
fuelwood collection, building and agriculture – reduced these
forests to some isolated areas around lagoons, inlets, tidal
channels and islands. The Marine Environmental Conservation
Department in the Ministry of Environment started a mangrove
conservation programme in 2000 with support from the Japan
International Cooperation Agency (JICA). A master plan for
mangrove afforestation was drafted in 2002. JICA also helped
establish Omanŏs ſrst permanent, pump-irrigated mangrove
nursery in Qurum, and provided the ſrst 11 000 seedlings.
Today there are four nurseries, both pump irrigated and tidal
irrigated, and the planting and soil preparation work continues. In
connection with the JICA aid, over 250 000 seedling pots were
planted. After that, the Omanis continued the work. Between 2000
and spring 2009, over 418 000 transplantable seeds had been
raised in the four nurseries. Trees have been planted all along
the coast wherever possible. Some of the plantations have now
become self-seeding. In the coastal area, there are at present
only some 1 000 ha of mangrove forests, but much more can
be created. The most common mangrove species in Oman is
Avicennia marina, which is also the dominant species along the
coasts of the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea.
Strict laws, or royal decrees, now protect the existing forests
and suitable areas. The development of tourism, for instance, is
not allowed to disturb mangrove forests. Only careful ecotourism
such as birdwatching is allowed on a small scale. Any coastal
development must be at least 50 m above the highest tide and
150 m from any lagoon.
Education and awareness raising for the population is a very
important part of the mangrove afforestation strategy. The
importance of mangroves is stressed in newspapers, magazines
and posters. Schools provide regular environmental education for
children. The Omani Women’s Association is very active in this
ſeld.
One of the areas identiſed for immediate transplantation of
mangroves is the island of Mahout, located about 400 km south of
Muscat, which is the seat of the Sultanateŏs shrimp ſshery centre.
The Omanis hope that ſshing will generate income in the post-oil
years. In recent years, the catches of economically valued species
have all declined signiſcantly through overſshing (including ſshing
by foreign vessels) and reduction in mangroves. Sustainable
ſsheries, however, have great potential, and the mangrove forests
play an important part in efforts to conserve and develop the ſsh
stocks in the countryŏs rich ſshing grounds. Mangroves in the Qurum
Reserve and Mahout are nursery grounds for juveniles of many
commercial ſsh, including mullet, milkſsh, snapper and sea bream.
L. Dammert (lauri.dammert@umpihankimedia.fi)
$c|ence Iro|n|ng workshop seeks Io |nIegroIe new
concepIs |nIo Congo ßos|n foresI monogemenI
The Congo Basin holds the second largest primary tropical forest
in the world. Home to an immense biodiversity, the Congo Basin
forest is a source of subsistence for local populations, and of
income and wealth to the region through the export of wood and
non-wood products. At the regional scale, the Congo Basin forest
inƀuences climate through its contribution to the hydrological cycle.
At the global scale, this forest basin mitigates climate change by
sequestering carbon in its biomass.
L
.

D
A
M
M
E
R
T
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At the start of the twenty-ſrst century, the Congo Basin forest is
under a double threat. The ſrst, more apparent, comes from the
direct pressure of human activities. The second and less apparent
threat is linked to climate and global changes and the ensuing
perturbations to the ecosystem dynamics of this forest, including
the century-long equilibrium with the extensive human use of its
resources.
Within this context, the École Nationale des Eaux et Forêts
(ENEF, Gabon) and Université Laval organized the subregional
science training workshop Linking Ecoagriculture, Ecoforestry,
Biodiversity and Climate Change in the Congo Basin, held in
Libreville, Gabon from 4 to 8 January 2010, for researchers and
teachers involved in forestry training in the Congo Basin subregion
at the university and technical levels. Over 50 participants from
Canada, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and
Gabon, including specialists, researchers, teachers and high-level
civil servants, examined the linkages between ecoagriculture,
ecoforestry, biodiversity and climate change, as well as issues
related to the conservation and ecosystem management of Congo
Basin forests. The workshop also covered issues related to the
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and reducing deforestation
and forest degradation (REDD), as well as socio-economic and
cultural aspects of sustainable forest management.
As part of its outputs, the workshop produced recommendations
to the Network of Central African Forestry and Environmental
Training Institutions (RIFFEAC) for the inclusion of new concepts
into the curriculum. Recommendations were also produced for
the Central African Forest Commission (COMIFAC) and for
national governments for the inclusion of biodiversity and climate
change concerns in subregional priorities. Finally, the workshop
enabled the establishment of strong scientiſc collaborations
between Canadian and Congo Basin researchers on the practice
of ecoforestry and ecoagriculture and on the adaptation to climate
change.
This workshop was held as part of the project “Appui à la
Formation en Gestion des Ressources Naturelles dans le Bassin
du CongoŒ, ſnanced by the Canadian Ìnternational Development
Agency (CIDA). The project has as its objective to increase
the number of trained specialists in tropical ecoforestry and
ecoagriculture in the subregion in order to help meet the twenty-
ſrst century challenges in the management of natural resources in
the Congo Basin.
The workshop was also supported by the Center for Forest
Research (Canada), Natural Resources Canada and the German
Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ).
For further information, please contact the project coordinator:
Marie-France.Gevry@sbf.ulaval.ca
78
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Monog|ng conƀ|cIs beIween peop|e ond w||d||fe
Human-wildlife conƀict in Africa Ō causes, consequences and management strategies.
F. Lamarque, J. Anderson, R. Fergusson, M. Lagrange, Y. Osei-Owusu & L. Bakker.
2009. FAO Forestry Paper No. 157. Rome, FAO. ISBN 978-92-5-106372-9.
Conƀicts between humans and wildlife have occurred since the
dawn of humanity. Impacts include human injuries and deaths,
crop destruction, attacks on domestic animals, transmission of
disease to livestock or humans, and threats to other plant and
animal species (particularly those that are endangered or highly
valuable).
While smaller animals present in vast numbers, such as birds,
grasscutters and locusts, may actually have greater impact,
the larger herbivores (elephants, buffalo and hippopotamus),
mammalian carnivores (lions, leopards, cheetahs, spotted hyenas
and wild dogs) and crocodiles are generally seen as more
threatening to humans and are the focus of this book.
This book presents the issues, describes many different methods
of conƀict management and outlines a three-step framework for
decision-making. After a global introduction, the text focuses on
Africa, where human-wildlife conƀicts are particularly prevalent. And
they have become more frequent and severe over recent decades
as a result of human population growth, extension of transport
routes and expansion of agricultural and industrial activities, which
together have led to increased human encroachment on previously
wild and uninhabited areas.
Human-wildlife conƀict exists in one form or another all over the
world. Thus this publication will be of interest beyond Africa. Its
audience will include wildlife practitioners, development workers
and researchers, local, regional and national authorities, and
ultimately anybody keen to learn more about the issue.
PromoI|ng non-wood foresI producIs Io d|vers|fy
farmers’ livelihoods
Non-farm income from non-wood forest products. E. Marshall & C. Chandrasekharan.
2009. FAO Diversiſcation Booklet No. 12. Rome, FAO. ÌSBN 978-92-5-106140-4.
This short publication, aimed at people and organizations that
provide advisory, business and technical support services to
resource-poor small-scale farmers and local communities in
low- and middle-income countries, is intended to raise awareness
about rural livelihood opportunities arising from non-wood forest
products (NWFPs). It explores the sustainable and complementary
contribution that NWFPs can make to livelihoods through
subsistence and trade, and provides advice about how the right
support and services can help promote NWFPs as a successful
livelihood option. Ìt examines the potential beneſts, farmer
requirements and constraints, and critical success factors in
NWFP-based activities.
An introduction outlining the history of NWFPs, their current
status and their role in improving rural livelihoods is followed
by an overview of the many NWFPs and their principal uses.
Subsequent chapters address NWFP assets for sustainable
livelihoods Ō natural, social, human, physical and ſnancial
– and NWFP value chains, covering stages from production to
harvesting, post-harvest, transport, processing and marketing.
The publication next examines strategies for successful NWFP
trade. This chapter explores sustainable management of the
natural resources; social assets and personal skills for successful
trade; value chain analysis; improving physical access, transport
and communication; support and services to help promote
NWFPs; and policy, assistance and extension.
The FAO Diversiſcation Booklet series proſles farm or non-farm
enterprises that can be integrated into small farms to increase
incomes and enhance livelihoods, based on their suitability in
terms of resource requirements, costs, exposure to risk and
complexity. Most volumes emphasize products or services aimed
at local markets. However, the present booklet also considers
export markets, because international market demand for NWFPs
inƀuences small enterprise development and local markets.
In addition to helping service providers support small-scale
farmers in exploring new opportunities, this publication also
suggests actions that policy-makers and programme managers in
government and non-governmental organizations can take to help
create enabling environments for small-scale farmers to diversify
their income-generating activities.
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CurrenI |ssues for p|onIed foresIs
Planted forests Ō uses, impacts and sustainability. J. Evans, ed. 2009. Wallingford,
UK, CAB International (CABI) & FAO. ISBN 978-92-5-106222-7 (FAO), 978-1 84593
564 1 (CABI).
Although planted forests make up only 7 percent of the world’s
forest resources, they have superseded naturally regenerating
forests as the principal source of industrial wood products.
Representing a complement, not an alternative, to natural forests,
planted forests have become increasingly important for reversing
deforestation, forest ecosystem loss and forest degradation.
This book provides a synthesis of the uses, impacts and
sustainability of planted forests, beginning with their history
and looking forward to their potential for the future. It considers
management objectives for their use and aspects of ownership
and policy, addressing questions such as: Can planted forests
help mitigate climate change? Do they adversely affect hydrology?
How will they contribute to bioenergy production in the future?
What is their role in biodiversity conservation?
A chapter on deſnitions probes the continuum of forests (and
trees outside forests) managed with different levels of intensity and
for different objectives (productive or protective). Other chapters
summarize recent FAO studies on the current state of planted
forests and the outlook to 2030.
The publication emphasizes the multiple roles of planted forests
– economic, social, environmental and ecological. These include
production of wood, ſbre and fuel; soil and water protection;
climate change mitigation; and landscape restoration and site
reclamation. A chapter on policy, institutional and ownership
issues highlights private-sector and smallholder considerations
from an investment perspective. Finally, a chapter on sustainable
silviculture and management reviews the impact of planted forests
on soils, nutrient balance, insect pest and disease threats and
site changes, as well as invasive species risks. Management
interventions to minimize risks are suggested.
This book will be an essential resource for forestry researchers,
policy-makers, planners and all concerned with land use and the
environment. To order, see: www.cabi.org/CABIPages/
bk_BookDisplay.asp?PID=2192
Imp||coI|ons of foresI governonce reform |n Afr|co
Governing Africa’s forests in a globalized world. L.A. German, A. Karsenty & A.-M.
Tiani, eds. 2010. London, UK, Earthscan. ISBN 978-1-84407-756-4.
Many countries in Africa, as elsewhere in the world, are engaged
in processes to decentralize forest management. Yet most
African countries continue to face serious problems of forest
governance, from inequitable beneſt sharing to unsustainable
forest management and illegal activities. This book summarizes
experiences and outcomes of decentralization to date and
explores the viability of different governance instruments in the
context of expanding commercial pressures on forests.
After an introductory section framing the evolution of forest
governance in Africa, Part II addresses the different forms and
outcomes of decentralized forest management, emphasizing
livelihoods, sustainability of natural resource use, gender issues,
participation and distribution of beneſts. Speciſc cases are
presented from Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo,
Madagascar, Mali, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda, the United
Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe.
Part III addresses the implications of forest sector governance
reforms for international trade and ſnance. The ſrst two chapters
analyse experiences in Ghana and Tanzania. Additional chapters
consider the African Forest Law Enforcement and Governance
(AFLEG) and Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade
(FLEGT) processes; business networks in the African
forest sector; and implications of climate change for forest
governance.
This book builds on earlier volumes exploring different
dimensions of decentralization and perspectives from other
regions of the world. It examines dimensions of forest governance
that are both unique to Africa and representative of broader global
patterns. The authors conclude by drawing out implications of their
ſndings for policy and practice.
This volume will be of interest to policy- and decision-makers
at all levels – local, national, regional and global – and to anyone
concerned with the state of forestry in Africa.
80
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ConnecI|ng foresI cerI|ſcoI|on ond fo|r Irode Io
supporI commun|Iy producers
Distinguishing community forest products in the market: industrial demand for a
mechanism that brings together forest certiſcation and fair trade. D. Macqueen, A. Dufey,
A.P. Cota Gomes, N. Sanchez Hidalgo, M.R. Nouer, R. Pasos, L.A. Argüelles Suárez,
V. Subendranathan, Z.H. García Trujillo, S. Vermeulen, M. de Almeida Voivodic &
E. Wilson. 2008. Small and Medium Forestry Enterprise No. 22. Edinburgh, UK,
International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). ISBN 978-1-84369-682-7.
Evidence increasingly shows that small forest enterprises,
especially those democratically managed by communities, have
more potential for reducing poverty than large-scale commercial
forestry, even though policy and practice often favour the latter.
However, voluntary market mechanisms such as certiſcation
have not yet helped community enterprises on a signiſcant scale.
Community forest producers must match what the buyer wants,
often in competition with other more powerful, better informed
and better ſnanced enterprises. This report asks whether it might
be possible to develop a mechanism to bring together forest
certiſcation and fair trade in the timber market, to enable ethical
consumers to distinguish responsibly produced community forest
products in the market so as to open up new market niches in
support of small forest enterprise.
The publication ſrst describes the results of an international
demand survey of timber buyers in 21 countries. It showed that of
more than 180 companies known for their social or environmental
interest, over two-thirds were interested in principle in the idea
of distinguishing community forest products in the market. Their
interest was mainly based on increasing customer demand for
knowledge about the sustainability of fair trade timber items.
Next, the publication presents four case studies on the demand
for community forest products in Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico and
Papua New Guinea, based on literature reviews and interviews
along value chains involving community forest producers. In each
country, one value chain was reviewed in more detail, to determine
whether and how a mechanism to distinguish community forest
products might be developed for the beneſt of those involved.
The report concludes that there does seem to be signiſcant
demand for a mechanism to credibly distinguish community forest
products in the market, both from international and national buyer
groups and from community forest producers. The experiences
described in this publication suggest that the main prerequisites for
successful trade with communities include the formation of strong
community business organizations and the stepwise development
of community forest management and business capacity. The
experience of the fair trade movement in addressing these issues
makes it logical to build better links between forestry and fair trade.
I|nks beIween foresIs ond humon heo|Ih
Human health and forests Ō a global overview of issues, practice and policy. C.J.P.
Colfer, ed. 2008. People and Plants International Conservation Series. London, UK,
Earthscan. ISBN 978-1-84407-532-4.
The relationship between the health of the world’s forests and the
health of the hundreds of millions of people who live and work
in them is a topic that researchers have only recently begun to
examine. This book is a comprehensive introduction to the issues
surrounding the health of people living in and around forests,
particularly in Asia, South America and Africa.
Part I presents a set of policy, public health, environmental
conservation and ecological perspectives on health and forests.
Chapters focus on medicinal plants, nutrition, woodfuel, women’s
and children’s health, and tropical forest diseases such as Ebola,
Nipah encephalitis and malaria. Part II features four case studies:
on the links between HIV/AIDS and the forest sector; on forest
disturbance and health risk to the Yanomani in the Amazon region;
on biodiversity, environment and health issues among rainforest
dwellers around the world; and on links between diet and health.
Part ÌÌÌ looks at the speciſc challenges to health care delivery
in forested areas, including remoteness and the integration of
traditional medicine with modern health care.
The book concludes with a synthesis designed to enable
practitioners and policy-makers to work with forest dwellers to
improve their health and their ecosystems.
This publication will be a vital addition to the knowledge base of
professionals, academics and students working on forests, natural
resources management, health and development worldwide.

ISSN 0041-6436

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

An international journal of forestry and forest industries

Vol. 61 2010/1-2

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Editor: A. Perlis Editorial Advisory Board: T. Hofer, F. Kafeero, H. Ortiz Chour, A. Perlis, E. Rametsteiner, S. Rose, J. Tissari, P. van Lierop, P. Vantomme, M.L. Wilkie Emeritus Advisers: J. Ball, I.J. Bourke, C. Palmberg-Lerche, L. Russo Regional Advisers: F. Bojang, C. Carneiro, P. Durst Unasylva is published in English, French and Spanish. Payment is no longer required. Free subscriptions can be obtained by sending an e-mail to unasylva@fao.org Subscription requests from institutions (e.g. libraries, companies, organizations, universities) rather than individuals are preferred to make the journal accessible to more readers. All issues of Unasylva are available online free of charge at www.fao.org/forestry/unasylva Comments and queries are welcome: unasylva@fao.org Reproduction and dissemination of material in this publication for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this publication for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the Chief, Publishing Policy and Support

Contents
Editorial 2 O. Serrano XIII World Forestry Congress – Forests in development: a vital balance 3
D.K. Lee and J. Heino Sixty years of collaborative partnership between FAO and IUFRO: towards the next sixty

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R.S. Purnamasari Dynamics of small-scale deforestation in Indonesia: examining the effects of poverty and socio-economic development
E. Durán, J.J. Figel and D.B. Bray Uncertain coexistence: jaguars and communities in montane forests of Mexico M. Jack and P. Hall Large-scale forests for bioenergy: land-use, economic and environmental implications

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S. Wu, Y. Hou and G. Yuan Valuation of forest ecosystem goods and services and forest natural capital of the Beijing municipality, China A.C.G. Melo and G. Durigan Fire in the seasonal semideciduous forest: impact and regeneration at forest edges J. Kamugisha-Ruhombe

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not necessarily those of FAO. Designations employed and presentation of opinion on the part of FAO concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The FAO publications reviewed in Unasylva may be ordered from any of the FAO sales agents listed on the inside back cover. FAO will process orders from countries where there are no sales agents. Contact the Sales and Marketing Group, , FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy. Tel.: (+39) 06 57051; E-mail: publications-sales@fao.org

country: case study of Uganda
How can Turkey’s forest cooperatives contribute to reducing rural poverty?

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A. Ramadhani Promoting good forest governance for sustainable livelihood improvement: a Tanzanian example C. Ackerknecht Work in the forestry sector: some issues for a changing workforce H. Savenije and K. van Dijk World forestry at a crossroads: going it alone or joining with others? FAO Forestry World of Forestry Books

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Cover photos: XIII WFC

EDITORIAL

XIII World Forestry Congress
he World Forestry Congress is the world’s largest gathering focused on forests and forestry, and the thirteenth congress was the largest ever, with more than 7 000 attending. Held in Buenos Aires, Argentina from

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watchers and workers of every kind. This issue of Unasylva summarizes the event and provides a taste of the impressive variety of knowledge and information presented there. It begins with an overview by O. Serrano describing the congress and summarizing a number of special events, as well as the strategic actions recommended by the congress in its final declaration. The bulk of the issue is developed from papers presented in Buenos Aires. The content is organized around the seven main thematic areas of the congress. We have selected material with potential appeal for a broad audience, representing a wide geographic range and presenting topics not recently covered in Unasylva. Theme 1, “Forests and biodiversity” covered, among others, issues related to the state of the forest and deforestation, including many technical contributions on forest inventory and the role of poverty and regional socio-economic development in the dynamics of small-scale deforestation in Indonesia. The results show that regions with the highest percentage of poor people actually have less deforestation, probably because people with some means to invest in agricultural production are more likely to deforest. Deforestation at first increases with wealth, but decreases after a certain wealth level is reached. Also under Theme 1, a shorter piece (by E. Durán, J.J. Figel and D.B. Bray) reports the results of a study of the potential for community conservation of jaguars in four communities

sectoral and spatial distribution of the forest benefits. The authors acknowledge that efforts to assign an economic value to all forest benefits – and the methods for doing so – may be open to debate, but they are useful to raise awareness of the multifunctional roles of forest ecosystems and can ultimately help contribute to forest conservation. Theme 4, “Caring for our forests”, is represented by a study of the impact of fire in seasonal semideciduous forest fragments in São Paulo State, Brazil. A.C.G. Melo and G. Durigan find that tree recovery at the forest edges is slower than in the interior, suggest why, and draw conclusions for fire management and prevention in forest fragments. Under Theme 5, “Development opportunities”, J. Kamugisha-Ruhombe resource allocation for forestry in Uganda, illustrating the gap between the global discussion on forest finance and national realities in heavily indebted poor countries. He finds that budget ceilings established by Uganda in order to qualify for debt relief are the main reason for the country’s low financial

and the constraints that prevent them from contributing to poverty reduction as well as intended. Theme 6, “Organizing forest development”, included a wide range of macroeconomic, institutional and governance issues. A. Ramadhani describes a project to promote good forest governance for sustainable livelihood improvement in four forest-adjacent villages in the United Republic of Tanzania. He summarizes the outcomes two years after the project, and recommends measures for promoting good governance that may also be applicable elsewhere. For Theme 7, “People and forests in harmony”, we include the introductory paper for the subtheme “Work in the forestry sector”. C. Ackerknecht reviews topics such as labour unions, occupational health and safety, training and changes in the workforce. The article is global in scope, but makes particular reference to Chile. The issue concludes with a provocative essay in which H. Savenije and K. van Dijk surmise forest sector trends since observations in Buenos Aires. Although an earlier version of this article has already been circulated widely through the Internet, it is included here to stimulate readers to consider the wider implications of the XIII World Forestry Congress for the future of forestry. We hope this whole issue of Unasylva will serve the same purpose.

of forest production. One of its subthemes, forests and energy, was also discussed in a special half-day forum. M. Jack and P. Hall for bioenergy in New Zealand, and the implications for landuse, the economy and the environment. Under Theme 3, “Forests in the service of people”, an important subtheme was valuation of environmental services. S. Wu, Y. Hou and G. Yuan describe an attempt to estimate the complete market and non-market values of the forests of

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XIII WFC

XIII World Forestry Congress – Forests in development: a vital balance
O. Serrano

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he first World Forestry Congress years later, and congresses have

viduals and do not represent their countries or organizations – came from all continents, with the greatest part, America, and fully half from Argentina. They included policy-makers (including a number of ministers responsible for forestry), researchers, forest practitioners and representatives from industry, financial institutions and development agencies. All 14 members of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF) were represented, as were many nongovernmental organizations. The attendance of students was remarkable: some versities, many supported by associations such as the International Forest Students Association (IFSA) and the Latin

years since 1949, in partnership between FAO and a host country. The XIII World Forestry Congress, held in Buenos Aires, was the largest forestry gathering ever. to present and discuss their work, share works across the continents. Participants bition grounds of the conference centre the theme of the congress, “Forests in development: a vital balance”. Participants – who take part as indi-

Olman Serrano was Associate Secretary General of the XIII World Forestry Congress.

Unasylva 234/235, Vol. 61, 2010

China. the Sudan. Chile. Saudi Arabia. Most of the world’s heads of forestry services were present. to be held in Tunis. the Syrian Arab Republic. Tunisia and Yemen. the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Secretary General of the XIII World Forestry Congress. CONGRESS PROGRAMME presentations. countries from the Near East were strongly represented at the World Forestry Congress and organized a special event to present their comWhile the World Forestry Congress is a global technical forum. NGOs and research institutions. Costa Rica. Participants underlined that further efforts should be developed to integrate appropriate forest policies and strategies in general land resources management. policy-makers and representatives from government. Lebanon. among others. forest plantations in arid and semi-arid zones and the role of Near East forestry in the international dialogue This special event offered a unique opportunity for forestry experts. 18 October FAO Director-General Jacques Diouf addressed the opening plenary. developed by a core team of forest experts attending the event.4 XIII WFC XIII WFC Leopoldo Montes. hunger and malnutrition Near East Forestry Day 19 October 2009 Near East Forestry Day was organized in conjunction with the XIII World Forestry Congress. welcomed participants to the congress on Sunday evening. it attracted the interest of high-level policy-makers. as paramount for the promotion and valorization of forest products and services in drylands. Spain. Nearly 600 participants came from participants from developing countries were able to attend thanks to a sponsorship programme coordinated by FAO and of Finland. noting that considering forests as an integral part of wider economic and social development goals will help greatly in efforts to reduce poverty. American Forest Science Students Association (ALECIF). wildlife and protected areas. New Zealand and the Republic of the Congo. Morocco. selected from over 3 000 abstracts submitted. to share with the international forestry community the key concerns of forestry in the Near East and North African Region – including rangelands and biodiversity conservation. It attracted representatives from Egypt. covering the seven Unasylva 234/235. the private sector and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to exchange views and experience. Much attention was focused on how to mobilize the necessary resources to reverse the declining trend of forest resources in the region. The gathering raised awareness on the need to share lessons learned and to follow up scarcity and soil erosion. under the aegis of the FAO Near East Forestry Commission. to be presented to the next session of the Near East Forestry Commission. Tunisia from 5 to 9 April 2010. Jordan. 2010 . Participants also emphasized the importance of collaboration between the private and public sectors and among governments. The host country organized a ministerial event attended by ministers responsible for forestry in Argentina. explore business opportunities and interact with high-level panellists from the region. A concrete outcome was a set of recommendations and conclusions. For the first time. Vol. 61.

• Caring for our forests – forest fire. deforestation and forest fragmentation. invasive species. urban and peri-urban forests. gender and forestry. forests and climate change. • People and forests in harmony – land tenure. indigenous peoples. he drew attention rather to indigenous peoples’ long experience in conserving their lands. forest certification. President of Argentina. 2010 . other disturbances. • Organizing forest development – international dialogue and pro- SPECIAL FEATURES Fora on topical issues Full-afternoon fora were dedicated to two subjects: forests and energy. natural resources. participatory management and processes. The main outcome from the climate change forum was a message from the organizers of the World Forestry Congress to the fifteenth Conference of the Parties (COP 15) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Participants in the Forests and Energy XIII WFC Unasylva 234/235. agroforestry systems. forest products trade. for indigenous practices have always involved intervention in nature (including the development of food crops that have contributed to feeding the world). pests and diseases. water and biodiversity related interests. • Forests in the service of people – forests and water. intersectoral policies and influences. conservation management. included high-level keynote presentations followed by substantive panel discussions. More than 1 500 posters were displayed. tourism and recreation. including indigenous peoples. held in the plenary hall. restoration and rehabilitation. maintaining and increasing forests’ productive capacity. trees outside forests and other wooded land. planted forests. law compliance and good education. industry and forest development. biological diversity and financing. providing an additional opportunity for presenta- • Forests and biodiversity – state of the forest and assessment techniques. forests and poverty alleviation. communities and institutions. biodiversity. These wellattended sessions. mountain ecosystems. planted a tree at the Casa Rosada – the presidential headquarters – symbolizing the country’s commitment to the conservation and management of forest resources cesses. dismissed the notion of an “untouched” Amazon. introduced the main thematic areas in plenary. forest utilization practices.5 XIII WFC To celebrate the opening of the congress. • Development opportunities – sustainability and economic viability. Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. non-wood forest products. mountain forests and livelihoods. contribution of the forest sector to national and local economies. institutional settings. • Producing for development – forest management. wildlife. valuation of environmental services and benefit sharing. work in the forestry sector. and forests and climate change. instruments for forest planning and development. In addition over 100 side events were organized by institutions with particular forestEuclides Pereira. forest information. small and medium-scale forest enterprises. forest genetic diversity. Vol. forests and energy. representing the indigenous peoples of the Brazilian Amazon. sions and three special fora provided multiple opportunities for participants to share and increase their knowledge of forest and cross-sectoral issues. 61.

the social and environmental impacts of bioenergy production and the opportunities that bioenergy-related policies present for The Investment and Financing Forum Representatives of financial and development institutions. Maintaining high carbon stocks by reducing deforestation and forest degradation and promoting the sustainable management of all types of forests. should be among the world’s highest priorities for the forestry sector. industry restructuring. • Accurate forest monitoring and assessment help inform decision-making and should be strengthened in a coordinated and transparent manner. Forum debated the implications of bioenergy production for the forest sector. forest and investment funds. of its Expert Panel on Adaptation of Forests to Climate Change. food. Forests are more than carbon. impacts and adaptation. Business meetings – for business and others Parallel to the main programme. The XIII WFC calls for urgent action and endorses the main messages of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests’ Strategic Framework for Forests and Climate Change. forest governance should be improved. forestry enterprises. space was set aside to accommodate interaction among private-sector participants. • Sustainably harvested forest products and wood fuels can reduce greenhouse gas emissions if they substitute neutral or low emission. private equity funds. • Intersectoral collaboration. and recognizes the important roles that the private sector and civil society play in climate change adaptation and mitigation. Denmark. including the conservation of biodiversity. The XIII WFC stresses the need to reduce poverty as a driver of deforestation and to safeguard the rights of indigenous peoples and forest-dependent communities. and of The Forests Dialogue’s Statement on Forests and Climate Change. • Sustainable forest management provides an effective framework for forest-based climate change mitigation and adaptation. forest carbon and carbon markets). COP 15 of UNFCCC (Copenhagen. December 2009): The XIII World Forestry Congress (WFC) notes with concern the impacts of climate change on forests and strongly emphasizes the important role forests play in climate change mitigation and adaptation as well as the need for forest-dependent people and forest ecosystems to adapt to this challenge. Vol. • For forests to fully achieve their potential in addressing the challenges of climate change. strengthening forest governance. The XIII WFC supports the inclusion of REDD-plus in the agreement on long-term cooperative action under UNFCCC. policies and institutions. banks and government representatives discussed strategies on how to overcome the current financial crisis with new business models. and improving sustainable livelihoods of the poor are essential for reducing deforestation and forest degradation. and during a half-day forum entitled “Forestry and climate change: to Copenhagen and beyond”. Unasylva 234/235. climate change would in the long run exceed the adaptive capacity of many forests and therefore forest-based climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should proceed concurrently. and income from over 5 000 commercial forest products. foremost among them the indigenous peoples and local communities. • Even if adaptation measures are fully implemented. and generate critical ecosystem goods and services such as water. renewable materials for high-emission materials. sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries. 2010 . Forests sustain the cultural and spiritual identity of billions of people. and calls for further support for adaptation in the forest sector. 61. in 14 special events organized by partner organizations. They harbor two thirds of all land-based biodiversity. establishing positive economic incentives. be strengthened. professionals. new financing instruments and non-traditional investment opportunities. They shared their perspectives on the state of the art of wood-based energy production technologies. including enhanced incentives for conservation. in particular the following: • Forests contribute positively to the global carbon balance.6 Forests and climate change: from Buenos Aires to Copenhagen Linkages of forests and climate change were discussed in four technical sessions (mitigation. peoples and other forest dependent communities. forest protection and restoration.

for example the formulation of principles. but the technology to produce liquid biofuels from wood is improving and production is expected to increase greatly in the future. and the socio-economic implications of large-scale changes in land use. A number of presenters described the ambitious bioenergy policies already in place in North America and Europe and noted that many developing countries are also developing or implementing policies in this area. but more modern uses of wood for heat and power generation are rapidly becoming more widespread. The pulp and paper industry shows keen interest to develop both biochemical and thermochemical technologies to convert cellulose into expected to be an important technological platform. landownership and land tenure. totalling U$35 million in business pledges. it seems that many issues of concern must be examined and resolved before the forestry community can give its wholehearted support to bioenergy development. the use of wood for bioenergy will increase total wood demand. criteria and indicators for bioenergy production. Thus. After the technical presentations. In general. Business Roundtable brought together involved in forestry-related activities. Wood is • already by far the largest source of bioenergy and it will remain so in the future. In addition. from 31 countries. several international partnerships are addressing technical and policy issues related to bioenergy and its sustainable development. Most biofuel • development at present focuses on liquid biofuel production derived from agricultural crops. the members of the audience voted on whether they thought bioenergy development would be good or bad for the forestry sector. so the sustainability of production and competition with other existing wood uses are important issues that should be considered.7 including forest products producers. The use of degraded land and existing biomass wastes reduces the impact of bioenergy developments on land use.8 billion is currently invested in research and development into such second-generation technologies. However. Much of this is fuelwood and charcoal used in developing countries. Unasylva 234/235. About US$3. taking advantage of world. The discussion came back often to three major issues: Many • presenters noted that the replacement of fossil fuels with biofuels will have sigthat have to be considered in this respect include the possible conversion of forests to biofuel crops. Many forest-related groups and organitive Partnership on Forests (CPF) and the Board of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) – held meetings in Buenos Aires prior to the congress week. 2010 . The interesting result was that about 50 percent thought it would be bad and 40 percent thought it would be good (with about 10 percent undecided). wood has many advantages for bioenergy production compared with existing alternatives. increased competition for agricultural crops between food and fuel use. Vol. FAO and the German Agency for XIII WFC More than 1 500 contributors presented posters Congress participants express caution about bioenergy developments The Forum on Forests and Energy attracted about 2 500 participants and included presentations from nine speakers covering a wide range of technical and policy issues related to the subject. but is not entirely without problems. Over 1 000 face-toface meetings were registered. 61. they have now reached demonstration plant scale but are still some way from being economically viable compared to existing types of liquid biofuel.

The host country organized a special training course on forest genetics with global specialists a few days before the opening of the congress. To improve the investment conditions in tropical forest countries. winner Valter Ziantoni won Forestry Congress photo contest for his image “Everyday Amazon” XIII WFC for an “ever-green” revolution based Unasylva 234/235. REDD-plus must be able to foster the establishment of sustainable private enterprises in order to be successful. sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest stocks (REDD-plus) could catalyse economic transformations and increase investments in tropical countries. To put the matter in human terms. Vol. and some 50 million people live literally within forests. 61. The National Forest Programme Facility met with South American partners. strengthening of price signals for sustainable products. For days and organized parallel to the main programme was the Second International Forum on Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS). Swaminathan. Therefore. The barriers to forest investment in developing economies include the perception of high risk in long-term investments (because of insecure land tenure.8 billion people use forests and trees for part of their subsistence. but embraced other subjects having an impact on forests. A mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) that includes conservation. establishment of fully functioning carbon markets and long-term carbon framework agreements. Keynote speaker M. 2010 . weak institutions and regulatory of suitable partners and shortage of skills).8 Conclusions from the Investment and Financing Forum 22 October 2009 development assistance (ODA) is devoted to tropical forestry. insurance for • the knowledge gap – through enhanced investor relations. some 1. some 500 million people directly depend on forest resources for their livelihoods. reduction of transaction costs. REDD-plus should help these people have a decent life. improved price transparency and promotion of country or sector investment plans. But deforestation goes far beyond the carbon issue. • the market gap – through correction of market failures. political instability. Reaching beyond the forest sector The World Forestry Congress was not only for foresters to discuss traditional forest topics. Technical Cooperation (GTZ) organized an event on regional forest cooperation. it is necessary to bridge four gaps: • • the risk gap for investments – through an enhanced role of the multilateral development banks (long-term loans. capacity building of local banks and support for innovations.S. and the carbon market does not really function yet.

adding an enormous amount of carbon these emissions and contribute to climate change mitigation. Vol. summarizing the most relevant issues and recommendations resulting from the numerous presentations and discussions throughout the week. The Forum discussed agricultural systems and landscapes created. 61. sea or road. shaped and maintained by generations of farmers and herders based on diverse natural resources and using locally adapted management practices. The declaration that: Forests are an invaluable asset for humanity providing livelihoods for billions of people. 2010 . and serving Some scenes from the exhibition hall. CLOSING AND DECLARATION The XIII World Forestry Congress concluded with a final declaration. including the inauguration by the congress organizers XIII WFC Unasylva 234/235. Minister of Forest Economy. Offsetting the carbon footprint of the congress The enormous participation in the World Forestry Congress entailed high consumption of energy and thousands of kilometres of travel by air. brought forestry into the GIAHS perspective. the Republic of the Congo. A special address by Henri Djombo. These wellbalanced agro-ecological systems include agroforestry practices in martrees have an important role. helping achieve environmental sustainability.9 on dynamic conservation of agricultural heritage sites in an era of climate change. the congress organizers arranged to purchase carbon credits from a biomass energy project in Brazil – creating the first “carbon neutral” World Forestry Congress.

• Provide better mechanisms to recognize and value women’s roles in both informal and formal domains. water. Economic mechanisms to take full account of forests’ value to society • Foster the development of mechanisms at local. Fragile ecosystems. • Focus immediately on climate change ity with particular attention to REDD issues. inputs to climate change negotiations. • Expand research on adaptation to climate change and its impacts on ecosystems. including arid zones. 61. biodiversity. social and environmental needs. agriculture and energy sectors.10 Strategic actions recommended by the XIII World Forestry Congress Working with partners outside the forest sector • Initiate integrated cross-sectoral actions at global. • Advocate that local needs currently met in international climate change-oriented mechanisms and policies. • Develop financing strategies within the framework of national forest programmes using innovative instruments for investment and market development in forestry. • Develop and implement technologies to maintain and enhance the productivity of planted forests and their contributions at local and landscape levels. • Implement good governance policies for sustainable bioenergy development. Unasylva 234/235. • Expand research to develop new clean technologies and forest products. • Promote land tenure reform providing secure rights to communities and local stakeholders to use and manage forest resources. good governance and institutions • Improve governance at all levels of the forest sector. especially restoration of degraded forest lands. through forestry-related actions. and facilitate sustainable forest management by state and non-state actors. • Simplify AR CDM rules and implementation of REDD-plus. including building capacity of forestry institutions to enforce laws and regulations. regional. bioenergy. national and local scales on key issues. • Develop and improve technologies for of biomass for energy including second generation technologies. small islands. Forest industry • Create an enabling environment of policy and legal framework for the forest industry sector. • Improve worker skills and working conditions needed for safe and productive work in the expanding forest sector. • Implement mechanisms for crosssectoral monitoring and reporting to to forestry. • Increase efforts to develop integrated policies and strategies for effective management of forest and water resources. national and global levels for realizing new economic values tives for landowners and communities to manage for these values. • Strengthen interfaces between forest knowledge and society. Planted forests • Recognize the importance of planted forests in meeting economic. including climate change. including food security and livelihoods for their inhabitants. focusing in particular on opinion leaders in local makers. 2010 . regional. the value of forests • Create innovative mechanisms that incorporate local and indigenous knowledge as a source of valid information to enrich global knowledge and the understanding of sustainable forest management. Forest-related policies. wetlands and mountains • Promote protection and restoration of fragile ecosystems to improve their resilience and adaptation to changing climates and human impacts and to maintain their vital environmental services. Forest bioenergy • Develop energy forests within the context of a sustainability framework to minimize the risk of unintended consequences across the forest. food security and poverty alleviation to reduce adverse impacts on forests. Vol. economies and societies. Forests and climate change • Develop new approaches to enhancing carbon sequestration using forests and new options for managing forests in the face of climate changes and implement them widely. • Focus activities on degraded landscapes.

communities and nations. the high-quality cuisine and the ample choice of cultural events made the participants’ stay a very pleasant one. Unasylva 234/235. and that ongoing United Nations conventions and processes. contributes to achieving the vital balance between humanity and nature that is needed for sustainable development. in one way or another. 61. A congress in Buenos Aires would not have been complete without tango The declaration affirms that sustainable forest management. and the final declaration. providing the broad range of goods and services for present and future generations. in the context of a changing climate. safeguarding biodiversity. Through their sustainable management. The whole congress week was rich in discussions. will guide efforts towards the vital balance of forests in development. provide useful institutional frameworks for action. while not a legally binding document. everywhere from the plenary hall and the 14 other meeting rooms to the Forestry and people who use or depend on forest resources will. although not sufficient alone to address the multitude of challenges facing forests. forests can contribute to alleviating poverty. 2010 .11 as a source of social and spiritual values for peoples. Planning and holding a World Forestry Congress is a long-term investment. despite the tight technical programme and the multitudes attending. CONCLUSIONS XIII WFC the ample space for journalists and the The well-known Argentinian hospitality. feel the positive impact of this major event. Vol. such as the Non-Legally Binding Instrument on All Types of Forests.

however. FAO asked to be released from the obligation of providing the Secretariat. FAO Unasylva 234/235. the two organizations worked out an agreement in 1949 whereby IUFRO was given a special consultative status with FAO. IUFRO and FAO established the IUFRO Special Programme for Developing Countries (IUFRO-SPDC) to strengthen research related to forest resources in developing countries. Its first coordinator was Oscar Fugalli. commended the IUFRO-FAO collaboration for creating and maintaining an active interface between science and policy. Vienna. Instead. the idea of incorporating IUFRO into FAO was considered. FAO’s first Assistant Director-General for Forestry. Through this programme. the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) and FAO celebrated the sixtieth anniversary of their collaboration. Buenos Aires. History of cooperation During the Second World War. and development and implementation of guidelines for planted forests. FAO started working with international nongovernmental organizations shortly after its creation in 1945. Argentina. 2010 Unasylva 213. At the time. but IUFRO’s consultative status with FAO remained unchanged. the IUFRO Secretariat was established at FAO headquarters in Rome. Research capacity development In 1983. but IUFRO remained independent. In a recorded message sent from Sweden. IUFRO. initiated with a first Memorandum of Understanding in 1949. Heino long-term partnership at the World Forestry Congress. many of which are IUFRO members. its main IUFRO President Don Koo Lee (left) and then Assistant Director-General for Forestry of FAO Jan Heino sign an agreement for continued collaboration at the XIII World Forestry Congress. Austria. now 97 years old. From mid-1998 to 2004. the IUFRO Secretariat was located in Sweden. 61. In 1959. provides access for its partners to a global “brain pool” of about 700 member organizations in 110 countries and more than 15 000 scientists. For 60 years. incorporating science in national forest programmes. the two organizations have provided mutual support in areas such as forestry education. support to national forest monitoring systems. Börje Steenberg.12 Sixty years of collaborative partnership between FAO and IUFRO: towards the next sixty D. forest extension. established in 1892. Lee and J. At the XIII World Forestry Congress in Buenos Aires. community through direct relations with regional. In return. Vol. forest genetic resources and forest fire management. Jan Heino was Assistant Director-General. national and subnational research institutions. Argentina in October 2009. forest protection. that is. IUFRO provides assistance for the long-term development of the capacity of individual scientists and research institutions in developing countries. FAO was made a member of the extended IUFRO Board and maintains this status today. XIII WFCXX . FAO and IUFRO share the common goal of promoting conservation and sustainable use of the world’s forests. between research and practice. FAO. to make it possible to formulate research aims more clearly. avoid unnecessary duplication of research projects and reduce costs.K. October 2009 task after the war was to re-establish international contacts. the IUFRO-SPDC Deputy Coordinator Don Koo Lee is President of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO). who had just retired from leading FAO’s Forest Management Branch.

workshops and training must be continued. Policies and Practices. Partnering into the future Future collaboration between IUFRO and FAO should emphasize training and networking activities. training workshops carried out through partnership of IUFRO-SPDC and FAO’s Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. A recent example was the international conference on Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Changing Climate with Emphasis on Forest Health: A Review of Science. Sweden. Finnish. The Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. FAO and IUFRO are continuing to explore opportunities for mutual strengthening of SilvaVoc and FAOTERM. In the early 2000s. developed jointly (from 2000 to 2004. Unasylva 213. with considerable follow-up action. Collaborative Partnership on Forests The Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF). Joint activities such as publications.13 for Africa shared office space with Forestry staff in FAO’s Regional Office for Africa in Accra. FAO’s terminology database. was released in 2009. Three expert meetings on harmonizing forest-related definitions for use by various stakeholders. Terminology and definitions The organizations have long collaborated in multilingual terminology initiatives. and possibly to harmonize. German. IUFRO-SPDC offers training courses on working effectively at the interface of forest science and forest policy. the Global Forest Expert Panels. held at FAO headquarters in Rome in 2002 and 2005. French. is led by FAO. 234/235. A mutual concern and one of the most important future tasks will be to help institutions and countries build their capacity for research and for educating young people. With forestry today very much in the limelight. with interfaces now in English. Russian and Spanish. launched in 2007 to provide objective of key issues to support more informed decision-making at the global level. For example. terminology issues. engaging students and young researchers. and IUFRO is an active partner. a consortium of 14 forest-related organizations and agencies. In January 2008. IUFRO. above all because of climate change challenges and growing awareness of the need to reduce deforestation. 1). technology. developed with IUFRO’s SilvaVoc Terminology Project. the Joint FAO/IUFRO Committee of Experts on Forestry Bibliography and Terminology published the Terminology of forest science. biodiversity loss and poverty. online learning and other forms of forestry education. and on linking science with practice in the context of international forest-related initiatives and agreements and their implementation in the context of national forest programmes. FAO provided financial and technical support for a multilingual Glossary on forest genetic resources. the Forestry Research Network for SubSaharan Africa (FORNESSA). began a process to enhance common understanding of. concepts and classifications in forestry. spearheaded the process. forest-related definitions that are used internationally or are being developed by various international processes and bodies. IUFRO and FAO will have an increasingly important role to play in enhancing global forestry. financial support provided by FAO to IUFRO-SPDC’s Scientist Assistance Programme (SAP). organizations and countries. 61. Africa and Latin America in the 1980s. FAO and CIFOR organized a side event on terminology and definitions at the second session of UNFF in March 2002. 2010 212. forest genetic resources workshops in Asia and the Pacific. Vol. managers and decision-makers from 50 countries. In 1998. practice. In addition. which recorded not only the established and widely accepted definitions of some common terms. conferences. developed from a IUFRO-SPDC project and involving FAO experts. FAO and IUFRO have organized joint technical conferences. An upgraded version of the GFIS gateway was opened in January 2007. In the context of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. and products (Multilingual Forestry Terminology Series No. water shortage. Other cooperative activities FAO contributed to the elaboration of the IUFRO Position Statement on Benefits and Risks of Transgenic Plantations (1999) and subsequent work on biotechnologies in forestry. such as the environmental conventions. Their partnership will be an important element in international efforts to address these and other crucial issues affecting forests and forestry such as bioenergy. Collaborative activities of IUFRO-SPDC and FAO have included: the Global Forest Information Service (GFIS) Africa project. organized together with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in August 2008 in Umeå. IUFRO-led CPF initiatives in which FAO participates include: the Global Forest Information Service (GFIS). Ghana. the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF). the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and FAO. and related financing. together with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). developed under CPF since 2005. in 1971. The conference attracted more than 300 researchers. IUFRO carried out a comparative study on terminology with FAO financial support (1996–1997) to improve the comparability of national terminologies. FAO’s Assistant DirectorGeneral for Forestry chaired an independent review initiated by the IUFRO Management Committee to assess the potential for adaptation and thematic reorientation of IUFRO’s strategic priorities. but also the use of the terms by some professions. the IUFROSPDC Deputy Coordinator for Africa was the FORNESSA Secretary). FAO and IUFRO. .

Indonesia while on the other hand. Does this mean that poverty in the frontier areas is the driving factor of small-scale deforestation? Should areas of greater prosperity.S. PURNAMASARI Ririn Salwa Purnamasari is an Economist in is a Research Partner of the Poverty Environment Network (PEN) of the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). Better understanding is therefore needed of the impact of regional development on rural livelihoods and the well-being of people in forest areas and.THEME 1 FORESTS AND BIODIVERSITY 14 Dynamics of small-scale deforestation in Indonesia: examining the effects of poverty and socio-economic development R. Opportunity costs of labour are low.S. is often the only option available for the livelihoods of farmers living in forested areas (Angelsen. with better infrastructure and market integralower deforestation? Previous studies of poverty and deforestation have given ambiguous results. 1999). As in other developing countries. a certain wealth level is reached. Sumatra and Sulawesi – which together constitute about 60 percent of Indonesia’s total forest cover. in turn. On the one to create new opportunities for local people and improve their livelihoods. 2010 . the implications for the rate of small-scale deforestation. The areas are often remote from markets and services and lack infrastructure. F orest-dense areas are frequently associated with high levels of poverty (Chomitz et al. The population also often lacks the finance necessary for investments to maintain the quality of soil or increase yields on including clearing for agricultural activities. deforestation in Indonesia is the result Poverty is widely considered to be an important underlying cause of forest conversion by small-scale farmers. Small-scale deforestation in East Kalimantan. 61. Purnamasari An empirical analysis suggests actually lower in poorer regions. R. poverty alleviation and improvements in well-being could also ease capital constraints and facilitate more forest conversion. This article presents the findings of a study ferent regional-level socio-economic and physiogeographic factors (such as altitude and slope of land) to the dynamics of small-scale deforestation in three primary forest areas in Indonesia – Kalimantan. Vol. Unasylva 234/235.

the National Forest Inventory project of the Ministry of Forestry for Unasylva 234/235. it can be considered and included as one of the potential costs of allowing land to remain in its traditional forested state. If forest conversion is costly and/or there is a long gestation period for positive returns from agriculture. 1999). increase. POVERTY CONTEXT Individual farmers make land-use costs and revenues associated with each alternative. This means that. transport infrastructure. means and services. given location-specific factors affecting returns from the land. Clearly. in general. The decision is also affected by farmers’ resource constraints. the nature of property rights and changes in traditional community ownership systems produce incentives to induce earlier land conversion. as most cleared land is not returned to its previous forested state (Kerr et al. deforestation refers to smallscale district-level deforestation. et may reduce deforestation because of the lack of capital necessary to clear land (Wibowo and Byron. Even when the increase in commodity price is only tions about future prices. Nevertheless. then deforestation rates are likely to increase.THEME 15 1 FORESTS AND BIODIVERSITY The analysis was conducted at the district level. The assumption about the irreversibility of land-use change is broadly consistent with the reality of tropical deforestation today. 1996.. In this situation. Therefore. Dependent variable: deforestation rate Data on forest area and forest area change were derived from geographic information system (GIS) analysis of satellite images of land cover observed at five nationwide integrated data on land cover. forests are generally regarded by communities as an open access resource with free entry and no restrictions on land use. 1995. in Indonesia property rights over forest land are not well defined in practice. there is no simple theoretical on land-use activities. A temporal and spatial econometrics approach was used to facets of poverty and regional development motivated people to clear forest the study. agriculture is seen clearly in the case of the impact of agricultural commodity prices on deforestation. it leaves out some key factors that can influence the deci- they lacked either forest area or the data needed for the estimations. including poverty and development (the Some have argued that poor people clear forests and cultivate new lands in order to maintain yields because they cannot finance the necessary investments to tend to be clustered in frontier areas with inadequate access to market institutions (which would limit transaction costs). The technical details are omitted from this article but are available from the author. while the loss of property rights to a parcel of forested land is not directly measured and incorporated in the model. unless otherwise indicated. then poorer. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS A population-averaged panel model was used to estimate the annual deforestation rate (the dependent variable) as a function of relative returns from forest conversion to agriculture and factors affecting them. labour-intensive land clearing is more profitable than other activities for these poor people (Deininger and Minten. the price fall might not lead to abandonment and hence reforestation on recently cleared land. Sunderlin et al. fall to a level insufficient to stimulate clearing. 2010 . The signs and relative magnitudes of the different factors associated with poverty need to be investigated empirically. sion-making of farmers living on forest frontiers. However. Vedeld et al of cultivated areas for crop diversification is a coping strategy for poor people who are vulnerable to price volatility and other types of uncertainty (Sunderlin. In most frontier areas. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The theoretical framework employed in this study is a dynamic optimization model of irreversible land-use change The framework models the decision of an individual land user about whether or not to convert a patch of land from its forested state to agricultural use in response to changing economic conditions over space and time. Thus. This model provides some key insights into the process of irreversible land conversion. although most forest land is formally controlled by the State. forest cover data are derived from land cover maps from several sources: the Regional Physical Planning Programme maps. 61. increasing clearance and conversion to agriculture (Angelsen. an individual land-use options for any selected patch of forest land and decide whether to keep the land in its current forest state or convert it to agricultural production. liquidity-constrained farmers are less likely to shift to increased land-clearing activities. Vol. In particular.

4692 25.0001 0.0000 37.0001 0.2553 19.0000 34.7450 2.1355 1. Formally.0000 0. and the Planning Department of the Ministry of Forestry for 1996/1997.0470 1. 61.7547 6. Vol. Dewi et al and are supported by some field observations.0002 0.1856 2.0000 752.0062 0.2866 0.2874 6. Nevertheless.1667 34.0687 0.0000 Maximum 1.0622 0.1596 18. The small-scale deforested area for the district level is obtained by aggregating all small-scale cleared patches in the whole district. annual deforestation rates were used for the estimation.0000 100.1145 0.0356 0. 1990 maps.0001 18. 2010 .3463 0.0003 0. most forests in Indonesia are State owned. and they should be interpreted with caution (Chomitz et al. that small patches of deforestation are mostly associated with smallholders’ activities in agriculture. they vary in terms of scale and precision and possibly contain inconsistencies.9920 2.2611 Standard deviation 0.2052 20.0000 2.9143 21.0181 0. The new maps were then overlaid with the 1996 district boundary maps to generate data sets on forest area by district for each point in time.6667 100.8792 42. 1995).4055 0.4845 0. assuming that this annual rate was the same in each year within the period.0000 0. the study used data dates Poverty measure.0441 0.2651 5. The forest and non-forest maps were then the large-scale concession areas from the forest area considered to be potentially clearable by small-scale farmers.4606 7.1802 0.0000 0. although in practice they are open access.6198 0.1927 0.4294 0.6464 1.2830 127. small- scale deforestation activity normally only takes place in areas not designated for HPH.0000 19.2017 0.9607 For this table the deforestation rates are presented in % (the actual values and their standard deviations are multiplied by 100).0393 23.4597 682.2635 13.0237 0.1925 24. forests allocated for logging concession (referred to as hak pengusahaan hutan data are the best available.0000 0.9690 3.0000 0.0081 2. Annual deforestation rates were calculated using the FAO formula for calculating the annual rate of forest change.8067 28.0475 0.0186 0. Explanatory variables To match with the dates of the dependent variable. based on compound interest principles (FAO.9305 141.THEME 1 FORESTS AND BIODIVERSITY 16 Summary statistics of the variables Variable Annual deforestation rate (%)a 1985–1990 (%) 1990–1996 (%) 1996–2000 (%) 2000–2003 (%) Wealth index 1986 1990 1996 2000 Return proxies Industrial crops suitable (% forests at risk) Arable suitable (% forests at risk) Distance to province capital (km) River density (km/km2) Proxies for regional developments Per capita regional GDP (million Rp) Industrial workers – proportion of population (per 1 000 persons) (Lagged) Population density (persons/km2) (Lagged) Annual HPH deforestation rate (Lagged) Cumulative deforestation (% total forests period 1) Neighbouring district variables (average) Per capita regional GDP (million Rp) Industrial workers – proportion of population (per 1 000 persons) a No.1043 12.0000 0. The deforestation rates were generated for the time intervals are different across the periods.0000 0.4142 0. Small-scale deforestation is defined here as a cleared patch in the range of 0. of observations 496 124 124 124 124 496 124 124 124 124 496 496 496 496 496 496 372 372 372 496 496 Mean 0.1420 25. is defined as the area deforested between periods divided by the total forest area in the initial period of interest. and for this reason the HPH that can potentially be cleared by smallscale farmers.1494 24.0543 0.2887 1.6346 9.1549 1.0000 39.5602 Minimum 0.0000 3.0333 105. All series of the land cover maps were first regrouped into two broad categories – forests and non-forests – so they could be integrated across time.2487 5760. The use of poverty as model can lead to an endogeneity prob- Unasylva 234/235.05 to 10 ha.6198 39.8967 26. the annual deforestation rate (in percentage).0130 0.0948 258. The dependent variable.

Several studies of deforestation have included population density in the analysis. HPH activities could stimulate local development in the surrounding areas. Instead. The land suitability assessments. natural resources and socio-economic conditions at the district level. however. 1999. indicate the most beneficial or productive use of the land. Poverty and deforestation The estimation results show a significant impact of poverty on deforestation. but may also reflect the characteristics of neighbouring districts as a result of shared constraints and The study therefore included variables reflecting economic development.. in addition to regional GDP. the at about the ninetieth percentile of the Unasylva 234/235. which were based on topography. To capture unobserved agricultural productivity. two district land suitability measures. Therefore. Since direct information on agricultural and forest-product returns which is consistent across different products and over used. possibly because the people now can afford to put more land into production. The observed relationship between poverty and deforestation follows an inverted U-shape which implies that deforestation is lower in the poorest districts. The increase in deforestation. offfarm employment opportunities and population density in neighbouring districts. As the people in an area become wealthier. the proportion of the population engaged in the district’s industries was included opportunities. 1999. possibly when people have the required capital inputs for agricultural intensification or better access to other incomegenerating options. the estimations include the annual HPH deforestation rate. and that income is a function of deforestation activities. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (Statistics Indonesia).e. poverty incidence on infrastructure and facilities. Pfaff. the social and economic welfare condition of the regions and also to offer more economic opportunities to people – an important factor affecting deforestation rates (Angelsen. population density was included in the study as one of the In Indonesia. The study also included a district’s cumulative deforestation as another Land-use patterns in a given district are possibly not only a function of variables for that district.THEME 17 1 FORESTS AND BIODIVERSITY lem. palm oil. A regional National Village Potential Survey The first measure of district development is per capita non-oil regional gross domestic product (regional GDP) measure is based on the market value of all final goods and services in the region over time. were used: the proportion of the district forested area at the beginning of each period that was suitable for food crops (arable suitable) and for tree crops such as cocoa. The impact of population density on deforestation has been a subject of controversy. climate. per capita income is not used as a poverty measure in the estimation. the increment in the deforestation rate decreases as wealth increases). Vol. As shown in the Figure. derived from RePPProT maps. 1995) or stimulate off-farm economic activities which could cause a To capture these potential effects. deforestation rates increase. 61. River density and distance between district and provincial capital cities were used to markets.g. Cropper. One severe poverty lack the means to convert land to agricultural cultivation and prefer to have income that can be generated quickly – in the form of cash or subsistence – such as that obtained argument is consistent with a study by Wibowo and Byron (1999) showing that poverty conditions prevented deforestation in Kerinci-Seblat National Park. 1999. Proxies for returns to clearing. rubber and coffee (industrial crops suitable). Although the effect of development is already indirectly taken into account through several factors in the wealth includes some direct measures for disdirect effect of the development process on relative returns and hence clearing patterns. there is less demand The estimated relationship between poverty and the deforestation rate could be graphed (Figure) with the predicted values of the deforestation rates estimated by varying the value of the disof the other variables constant at their mean values. which in turn could either stimulate deforestation in the area (Angelsen. Proxies for regional development. Godoy et al. 2010 . is at a decreasing rate (i. but no systematic relationship has been seen (e. the impact of population on the pace of deforestation. resulting from the possibility of reverse causality: poverty is normally defined as a lack of income. including infrastructure and institutional development. regional GDP represents regional economic and general development. which suggests that after a certain wealth level. Indonesia. water and soil characteristics. Uusivuori. Griffiths and Mani.

rather than staple-crop shifting cultivation. Overall. Vol. on average. The significant coefficients of river density and distance confirm the important role of transportation costs and access to markets in the deforestation process. development processes and their enced throughout the district and hence the district-level variables do not reflect conditions in frontier regions. plays the largest role in small-scale deforestation in Indonesia (Chomitz and Griffiths. to work in industry. The positive sign of the distance variable suggests that greater distance to big cities increases deforestation. This may reflect limited opportunities for local people. new concessionaires’ roads which stimulate land clearing for shifting cultivation). This is consistent with a previous finding that tree-crop shifting cultivation. This indicates that areas suitable for tree crops. isolated areas with limited transportation facilities and poor access to markets The results show that the per capita regional GDP variable is not significant that within-region disparities are still a serious problem in Indonesia. Returns and development proxies portion of available forest land suitable for tree crops leads to significantly higher deforestation. On average. improved legal systems inducing productive investments in the accelerate deforestation (e. are of greater interest to smallscale farmers in frontier areas. these results suggest that the impact of development on deforestation varies depending on the current state of grew at an average rate of 3. Alternatively.3 percent for each 100 km of distance from a pro- ing that the deforestation rates of most districts are still increasing. the negative sign of this variable when it is interacted with a time variable suggests that this effect diminishes with time. 61. However. 2010 .g.01 percent.7 percent per year. the estimation showed the proportion of forest land suitable for wetland and dryland agriculture to be insignificant.THEME 1 FORESTS AND BIODIVERSITY 18 Deforestation rate (%) 0. who are generally involved in small-scale land clearing. Limited skills and fears about the reliability of local workers are often given as the main reasons firms are reluctant to hire them in the area increase demand for food and other agricultural products which can induce the farmers at the forest frontier to increase their agricultural production The insignificant effect of population density on deforestation is consistent 0. it could be that there are offsetting effects between development factors that actually reduce small-scale deforestation rates (e. the district 7. instead of food crops.g. by 14. as most of the new employment opportunities resulting from growth in industry or concessions are often taken by outsiders who migrate to the area. shows a decrease to 0.9 percent and the deforestation rate year. 1996).04 0.01 0 20 p10 p25 p50 p75 p90 25 30 District wealth index 35 40 Inverted U-shaped relationship between poverty and deforestation for industrial or estate crops will increase However. The estimate shows that the deforestation rate increases. The annual deforestation rate for growth rate of the per capita regional variables constant. able reflecting the number of industrial workers was found to have a positive and significant correlation with deforestation.03 vincial capital. The negative coefficient of river density suggests that in the study regions the net impact of better transport facilities is to reduce deforestation. During this time. Since wealth reflects development.02 0. land clearing for tree crops increased as a result of the severe economic crisis that hit the country in 1997. a 1 percent increase in the proportion of the district forested area that is suitable Unasylva 234/235. perhaps because of improved transport infrastructure and vehicles over time. Sunderlin et al. That is.

it may be that these lagged variables are insignificant because they are at the district rather than local. such as off-farm activities and infrastructure availability. that is most suitable for tree crops that is most vulnerable to deforestation. and deforestation: modelling the impact of population. World Development Angelsen. Roads. the percentage of total forest area cleared in the preceding period has statistically insignificant effects on the deforestation rate.. B. Thus. and tree crops in Indonesia: nationwide patterns of smallholder agriculture at the forest frontier. 1996. B. Deforestation: Who does what? Paper presented to the International Symposium of Land Use. Deforestation increases until a certain wealth level is reached and then declines. & Wertz-Kanounnikoff. G. T. Thus. C. The poverty measure incorporates both Unasylva 234/235. when controlled for other influences. M. Poverty.S. suggesting that spatial interactions are not very important.THEME 19 1 FORESTS AND BIODIVERSITY with the argument that. However. poverty reduction. Buys. Chomitz.D. allowing for a comprehenthe pace of deforestation. is the finding that lower transport costs and better access to markets reduce deforestation. & Griffiths.. the study is one of the most compreby small-scale farmers undertaken for Indonesia. rather than on farmers’ new clearing of forested land (Geist and Results show that. World Bank. Environment. population per se is unlikely to be the underlying cause of deforestation The insignificance of HPH activities tion of a positive correlation between logging concessions and small-scale deforestation. This could be because the level of local development has already been controlled for by the variables representing the proportion of forest area suitable for farming and tree crops available for clearing in each period in the specifications. J. 1995. & Minten. A. At loggerheads? Agricultural expansion. USA. S. K. Journal of Development Economics. For most districts. population pressures. and environment in the tropical forests. population is potentially determined by other factors that influence economic activity. S. The study also found that greater off-farm employment opportunities were associated with less forest clearing. Poverty. Nature Conservation and the Stability of Rainforest Margin in Southeast Asia. Washington. and Growth Working Paper No 4. Belcher. Deforestation. Counterbalancing this concern. Alternatively. however. the empirical analysis in this study utilizes a data set combining spatial data on forest cover and physiogeographic factors from satellite imagery with socio-economic panel data from several national surveys. 1996. The findings of this study suggest that the impact of development on deforestation depends on the current state of wealth and the level of development in the frontier regions. World Bank. USA. K. Chomitz. Thomas. P. Environment. The empirical results show an inverted U-shaped relationship between district wealth and deforestation where the rate of deforestation increases with wealth. Poorer districts – those with a higher percentage of poor people – tend to deforest less. DC. & Widodo. but at a decreasing rate. A. shifting cultivation. the challenge for districts Bibliography Angelsen. will initially increase deforestation.M. Washington. Indonesia.. Luca. 30 September – . When the land is suitable for tree crops. the incentives are obviously higher for forests to be cleared for establishment of cash crops such as oil palm. 2010 . Bogor. This has been a factor driving a significant part of land conversion through deforestation in the past. at the regional level. and also has implications for the future.. K. Unlike most previous studies on the deforestation-poverty link. 1999. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS human well-being and location welfare components. The regional GDP and number of industrial workers in neighbouring areas appear to have insignificant effects on a district’s deforestation. Puntodewo. Poverty.W. Shifting cultivation and deforestation: a study from Indonesia.M. With data span- will be to manage development in such a way as to ensure good and equitable access to labour markets and remunerative off-farm employment opportunities for rural people. Washington. However. World Bank Policy Research Report. it starts to decrease only at the top decile of the current district wealth distribution. Tarigan. A worrying feature of these findings is that policies aimed at stimulating regional development may stimulate further deforestation. frontier level. Dewi. as was the case for the per capita regional GDP variable. Vol. previous studies on the impact of logging intensity on small-scale deforestation focused on small-scale farming in abandoned logging plots. policies. increased wealth. 5. 61. and deforestation: the case of Mexico.. market forces and property rights. World Bank. and Growth Working Paper No.. DC. DC. USA. other things being equal. and Land Economics Deininger. A.

S. Cambridge. Agricultural Economics Vedeld. Bogor. Rome.1 (F) – Forest. & Angelsen. Wellington.. & Palo. International Journal of Social Economics. H. J. Kerr. E. 1995. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management Shively. In Technical report.. & Timmins. P. Counting on the environment: forest incomes and the rural poor. Brussels. deforestation? Econometric evidence from Peru. Forest Resources Assessment 1990 – global synthesis. Vol. A. A. Global Environmental Change Vance. 109–130. Badan Pusat Statistik.. USA.P. Bogor. R. Kerr. Massachusetts. Davis. 1999. Lehto.. nz/docs/publications/costa. FAO Forestry Paper No. Forest Watch Indonesia & Global Forest Watch. C.S.THEME 1 FORESTS AND BIODIVERSITY 20 FAO. Effects of poverty on deforestation: distinguishing behaviour from location. J.. & Geoghegan. Deforestation mechanisms: a survey. 2010 . Bogor. D. Gray-Molina.. Escobar. pp. spatial modelling of tropical deforestation: a survival analysis linking satelite and household survey data. 28(E). E.P. Unasylva 234/235. Statistics Indonesia. I. A. Bogor. J. CIFOR Occasional Paper No. 2002. P.S. M.. What drives tropical deforestation? LUCC Report Series. A. The effects of economics development on neotropical deforestation: household and village evidence from Amerindians in Bolivia. R.J. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). Pfaff. D.. Wilkie. Franks. Pfaff. S.. 04-19.P.. Cavatassi. on forests. 1999.. & Byron. B. Zwane. science and sustainability: the Bulungan model forest. & Angelsen.motu.F. S. Wibowo. & Cardenas. conditions as determinants of forest area variation in the tropics. G. Rianto. Kaimowitz. & Lambin. A. Available at: www. 124. D. M. 540. E.N. A. Alvarado... ITTO Project PD 12/97 Rev. Angelsen.P.P. outer islands. G. Resosudarmo. Harvard Institute for International Development.org. Rome.K.A. 2000.H. W. & Pagiola. A. Phase I 1997–2001. Roca. & Berg. Uusivuori. LandUse and Land-Cover Change (LUCC) Godoy. R. Environment and Development Economics. J. Jakarta. R. DC. Pendapatan Domestik Regional Bruto (PDRB) Propinsipropinsi di Indonesia Menurut Lapangan Usaha 2002–2006. Economic models of tropical deforestation: a review. Indonesia. Belgium. Sunderlin. local labor markets. Sanchez. CIFOR. Geist. A. Indonesia. Sjaastad. & Sanchez. Journal of Development Economics. Lipper. E.R. Discussion Paper No. A. and deforestation in the Philippines. M. L. Indonesia.. intensification.D. Environment Department Paper No. Indonesia.. Motu Economic and Public Policy Research. FAO. 1996. FWI & GFW. Indonesia. The dynamic of deforestation: evidence from Costa Rica..rica.. G. ESA Working Paper No. New Zealand. Indonesia & Washington. J. USA.S. Pfaff.E. What drives deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon? Evidence from satellite and socioeconomic data.pdf Levang. 61. CIFOR.

Figel and D. Interviewees were legal community members aged 17 to 93 years old. In recent years. and 95 percent of the territory is under common property governance regimes.J. Most (152 individuals) were crop farmers. J. there has been a significant movement towards community-based biodiversity conservation. Thus. 79 percent of the interviewees valued jaguars for biological control of these pest animals. Camera-trap surveys in the region established the presence of at least two jaguars and 10 species of prey animals (Table 1). Potential jaguar prey species photographed by camera traps in the study communities Spanish common name J. existing protected areas are not always effective for species and habitat conservation. The interviews explored knowledge about jaguars. among other community governance issues. including the establishment of indigenous/community conserved areas (a category established by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources [IUCN] in 2004 and recognized legally in Mexico since 2008). which is dominated by montane tropical forests. Bray Oaxaca. Mexico. and Mexico’s widespread common property land tenure limits opportunities for declaring new areas. A total of 103 jaguar sightings were documented by 67 individuals – 83 since 1990 and 60 since 1999. Tejón Tepezcuintle Tlacuache Venado Unasylva 213. 234/235. use restricted Yes: low risk No No Armadillo Hocofaisán Mapache Mazate Elvira Durán is a Researcher at the Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigación para el Pecari Serete Joe J. red brocket deer and peccary. armadillo. Figel is a Ph. Human-jaguar interactions were explored through semi-structured and structured interviews in over 100 households in the four communities during 2007/08. Most farmers expressed positive (68 percent) or mixed (20 percent) attitudes towards TABLE 1. Notably. student at Louisiana State University. as for many other forms of wildlife. use restricted Yes: low risk Yes: extinction risk Yes: low risk. David Barton Bray is a Professor and Associate Chair. Miami. The most common prey species mentioned were coati.THEME 21 1 FORESTS AND BIODIVERSITY Uncertain coexistence: jaguars and communities in montane forests of Mexico E. 2005). United States. needs to be focused on larger landscapes where high biodiversity coexists with human activities. Louisiana. the conservation of the jaguar (Panthera onca) has mainly focused on large public protected areas. FIGEL English common name Armadillo Great curasow Racoon Brocket deer Collared peccary Central American agouti Coati Paca Possum Deer Scientific name Dasypus novemcinctus Crax rubra Procyon lotor Mazama americana Tayassu tajacu Dasyprocta mexicana Nasua narica Agouti paca Didelphis marsupialis Odocoileus virginianus National endangered category Yes: low risk Yes: threatened No Yes: low risk. protection for the jaguar. jaguars in traditional culture. land use and conservation.D. the study combined both ecological and social methods. Department of Earth and Environment. Because “negative attitudes and perceptions by humans towards jaguars are clearly the greatest imminent threat to the species’ survival” (Rabinowitz. United States of America. wildlife and hunting. 2010 212. Florida. 18 of these also engaged in small-scale cattle ranching. However. Legal community members under the age of 60 are obligated to participate actively in decisions about natural resources management. since few women are legal community members under Mexico’s agrarian laws. The region’s biodiversity is among the highest in Mexico. Baton Rouge. Jaguar sighted by a camera trap In Mexico. Vol. Durán. all considered to be abundant both in forests and in agricultural areas (where they are considered pests). livestock predation and conservation.B.J. 61. Only three were women. Florida International University. prey. . Jaguar conservation issues were examined in four communities with over 32 000 ha of territory in the Chinantla ethnic region of the Sierra Norte in the state of Oaxaca. largely by indigenous peoples.

People and wildlife: conflict or coexistence? UK. cows Chickens. horses Sheep Total a b do not specifically prohibit retaliation killings. Rabinowitz. Jaguar predation was commonly mentioned as a reason for a decline in the number of cattle in the four communities from a peak of around 300 in the 1980s to about half that in 2007/08. . Today the jaguar image is used as an icon for recent conservation-related institutions and cultural practices. they also approved new community statutes which ban the hunting of red brocket deer as well as other jaguar prey species unless they are pests in agricultural areas. Jaguars still remain vulnerable to retaliation killings by those whose livelihoods are most directly affected. donkeys. Future research will need to establish the connectivity of this region with other adjacent regions which may also provide viable jaguar habitat. Interest in agriculture and cattle ranching has declined with outmigration. Events reporteda 10 4 10 4 4 32 Deaths reported 17 24 16 5 11 73 Events with jaguar sightingb 2 1 3 0 2 8 Deaths with jaguar sighting 6 1 6 0 4 17 Reported by 7 farmers. The statutes also ban the killing of jaguars but E. The 12 percent that expressed negative attitudes were those with cattle: As in most regions. 61. Attacks on livestock and other domestic animals attributed to jaguars in four study communities during the past ten years Animals attacked Calves. In 2005 the communities declared community conserved areas. Most respondents (92. turkeys Dogs Mules. human beings who can change themselves into jaguars. A. and 63 percent – irrespective of age – said that they believed in nahuales. living with the world’s third largest cat. 2010 Unasylva 213.THEME 1 FORESTS AND BIODIVERSITY 22 jaguars. These results suggest the possibility of positive prospects for conservation of large charismatic carnivores such as jaguars in community-dominated landscapes beyond protected areas. in nearly 80 percent of their territories. eds. and the viability of economic alternatives to cattle for the few people who have them. and most felt that they received benefits from conservation. S. building on the jaguar as a conservation image (jaguar sculpture near an ecotourism cottage) Bibliography Rabinowitz. E. particularly manifested in a belief in nahuales. predation on livestock and domestic animals was the principal source of conflict between humans and jaguars (Table 2). Vol. nearly all in retaliation for livestock predation. DURÁN Unasylva 234/235. The study confirmed that the Chinantec people have a deeply rooted cultural connection with jaguars. but the potential of alternative economic activities may further diminish the economic importance of cattle. Thirgood & A. mostly from a programme for payments for hydrological services administered by the Mexican Government. The interviews suggested that a new awareness is emerging which may favour jaguar conservation. Lethal control of jaguars by humans had occasionally occurred. and the communities are attempting to turn to ecotourism and other conservationoriented activities to raise income. Communities are turning to ecotourism to raise income.5 percent) were aware of the community statutes. DURÁN Today the jaguar image is used as an icon in the region – as seen in this football shirt worn by a Chinantec villager TABLE 2. In R. Cambridge University Press. Respondents reported the killing of seven jaguars and one puma in past years. Woodroffe. Nearly 50 percent of the respondents said that they had heard stories about jaguars from parents or grandparents. where hunting is banned.

• available technologies for converting biomass into consumer energy. Assessment of a country’s bioenergy options should thus include analysis of: • potential biomass resources. it raises pertinent questions that other countries may consider in analysing their bioenergy options. economic and environmental implications M. New Zealand. Jack and P. development of biofuels may also have negative impacts. An assessment of this type has been carried out in New Zealand. 61. Hall An analysis of national-level impacts of plantation forestry for energy production in New Zealand – a useful tool for strategic decision-making. While its potential positive contributions are well recognized. • competition with food production. SCION Unasylva 234/235.THEME 23 2 PRODUCING FOR DEVELOPMENT Large-scale forests for bioenergy: land-use. 2010 . Rotorua. A longer more detailed discussion of the methodology and assumptions behind the work. • consumer energy demand (given other potential renewable energy options). It highlighted the country’s potential for producing bioenergy from large-scale forestry and would have for land use. Vol. Although the study was specific to New Zealand. The development of a largescale forestry resource on marginal land represents New Zealand’s greatest opportunity for bioenergy Michael Jack is Senior Scientist and Team Leader (Green Processing) and Peter Hall is Senior Scientist and Project Leader (Renewable Energy). • potential reduction in greenhouse gases. the economy and the environment. While socio-political aspects are also key components to such decisionmaking. This article summarizes the results of the study. C oncerns about climate change and energy security have driven many countries to reconsider their renewable energy options and strategies. Energy from biomass is has received significant attention in recent years. • economic cost. they were outside the scope of this study and not addressed in detail. Scion. • impacts of land-use change.

consumer energy technologies (Hall • economic costs and environmental impacts (through life-cycle assessment) of nationally relevant biomass-to-consumer energy conversion pathways (Hall and Jack. which mitigates risk for the forest owner. only 4 percent is harvested per year (Table 4). • Technological maturity and cost. Largely positive biodiversity impacts were also found. because of the significant potential of other renewable resources for electricity generation. timber or carbon credits). Because of reduced levels of pastoral production (Table 5). The assessment also identified the development of a large-scale forestry resource utilizing marginal land as the most significant opportunity for bioenergy in New Zealand from the following perspectives. slope. • Potential scale of energy supply.to medium-productivity grazing land – over 60 percent (9. The scenarios differ in land-use class.. altitude and current land use. the scenarios also showed benefits in a number of areas of environmental concern in New Zealand including erosion. the potential of purpose-grown options. 61. it can provide ASSESSMENT OF LARGE-SCALE FORESTRY FOR BIOMASS PRODUCTION The authors assessed the impacts of displacing agriculture (mainly lowproductivity grazing) with forestry on hilly land for four large-scale afforestation scenarios (Table 1). Potential environmental impacts All scenarios were associated with sigtions (estimated using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] methodologies). greenhouse gas emissions associated with agriculture. the return from the land depends on the price of carbon (Table 6) and the competitiveness of biomass for fuel compared with current land use depends on the price of oil. In these scenarios. Lifecycle assessment of the full production chain showed that producing lignocellulosic biofuel from planta- between energy production and other end uses (e. Emission because of the lower-intensity land use that is displaced in these scenarios. year rotation forest. tion forestry feedstock would have much lower environmental impact than producing first-generation biofuel from oil and starch crops. Vol. The scenarios presume the use of scrub. New Zealand has sufficient low. It was assumed that lowest-value land would be used first (Scenario 1) and that subsequent scenarios would embrace land of progressively increasing value. Afforestation of land that was not historically forested may not be desirable from a biodiversity perspective as it reduces native grassland habitats. The scenarios were associated with increased carbon stocks. potential land for afforestation was selected from a Geographic Information Systems land-use class database. Potential for competition from alternative land uses The current return for the land under the scenarios was assessed to determine the economic viability of forestry for biomass for energy production (Todd. The analysis showed that in some areas ing water allocations – large-scale afforestation could have negative impacts on water availability and its suitability would thus be questionable. in improved species richness of insects. The study determined that the main role of bioenergy in New Zealand is likely to be for heat and liquid transport fuels. idle. sedimentation and nutrient leaching into waterways (estimated using a nutrient model and a spatial erosion model) (Table 4). using all this area for crops for first-generation liquid biofuel would provide insufficient liquid fuels to meet the national demand and would be detrimental to food crop production and agricul• Greenhouse gas reductions. both from displacement of fossil fuel and from the change in land Unasylva 234/235.3 million hectares) of available productive land – to establish a plantation forest resufficient scale to supply all of the country’s demand for liquid fuels. use from agriculture (which accounts for about half of New Zealand’s emissions) to forestry (Table 4). plants and native birds in comparison with pasture and fication of these benefits requires further research.g. mainly because of the less intensive farming practices per unit of biomass. The potential biomass productivity for the scenarios was calculated based economic cost of biomass production land in New Zealand is suitable for agricultural crops.THEME 2 PRODUCING FOR DEVELOPMENT 24 ANALYSIS OF BIOENERGY OPTIONS The above parameters were assessed through: • rent biomass residual resources. 2010 . Based on the biofuel production costs assumed in the study (Table 7). bioenergy from forestry is a more profitable option. Technology for converting lignocellulosic biomass to liquid transport fuels is progressing rapidly towards commercial viability (Sims et al. marginal and low-to-moderate productivity grazing land as the resource area arable land.

Energy content of a litre of ethanol is 0. or 72% of liquid transport fuel. Energy content of Fischer-Tropsch biodiesel is assumed to be the same as fossil diesel.8 2. c Relative to current levels. 2010 .0 11.5 Deer 2. 75 km.1 32. land preparation. Afforestation scenarios derived using criteria based on land-use class. b equivalent. such as deer farming. planting.3 46.1 14. slope. TABLE 4.62 0.2 Sheep 2.11 US$/ha 66 101 113 112 Feedstock productiond Conversione Total 0. TABLE 7. Reduction in livestock numbers (%) Scenario 1 2 3 4 Beef cattle 3. Percentage change in key environmental parameters relevant to New Zealand Scenario Reduction in greenhouse gas emissionsa (%) 6 20 37 48 Carbon stocks (million tonnes CO2 equivalent) 208 647 1 183 2 034 Reduction in nitrogen leachingb (%) 0. Assumed costs of biofuel production (per litre)a before interest and taxes) on land selected for bioenergy Scenario Without carbon price NZ$/ha 1 2 3 4 a a Process Bioethanolb NZ$ US$ 0.1 42.73 94 144 162 160 All costs were determined under local conditions and converted to US$ assuming Assumes a yield of 140 litres/m3.0 33. Vol. 6%). e Unasylva 234/235.49 1.12 1. not included) Scenario Total area (‘000 ha) 831 1 856 3 475 4 927 Area from scrubland (‘000 ha) 0 51 69 198 Area of sheep and beef pasture (‘000 ha) 533 1 619 3 160 4 412 TABLE 2. 61. weed control and forest maintenance (discount rate. or 20% of liquid transport fuel 100% of heat and 42% of liquid transport fuel.8 15.61 1. Range of biomass yields and production costsa Scenario Biomass yield (m3/ha) 640–850 940–1 240 940–1 240 910–1 200 Costs per cubic metreb Growing NZ$ 1 2 3 4 a c Roads NZ$ 4–6 3–4 3–4 3–4 US$ 3–4 2–3 2–3 2–3 Harvest NZ$ 34–38 34–38 34–38 34–38 US$ 24–27 24–27 24–27 24–27 Transportd NZ$ 13–15 13–15 13–15 13–15 US$ 9–11 9–11 9–11 9–11 Total NZ$ 72–87 64–76 64–76 65–77 US$ 50–70 45–53 45–53 46–54 US$ 15–20 10–13 10–13 11–14 21–28 14–19 14–19 15–20 b c d Includes land rental.0 3. or 73% of electricity 100% of heat and 100% of liquid transport fuel 100% of heat and 100% of liquid transport fuel and 85% of electricity 1 2 3 4 Note: In this table “heat” refers to all industrial and domestic heat.0 1 2 3 4 a b Relative to current levels.9 27. Note that leaching rates can remain high for several years if the soil already contains a large amount of surplus nitrogen.0 15.89 0. d As percentage of annual water balance.59 US$ 0.70 1. and “electricity” is large-scale centralized electricity generation.THEME 25 2 PRODUCING FOR DEVELOPMENT TABLE 1. TABLE 3. altitude and current land use (area from minor contributing land uses.21 With carbon priceb NZ$/ha 60 100 114 108 US$/ha 42 70 80 76 a Fischer-Tropsch biodieselc NZ$ 0.8 Dairy cattle 0.67 litres of b All prices were determined under local conditions and converted to US$ assuming equivalent. d This value represents the upper bound of the values shown in Table 3.43 0.3 3 8 12 Reduction in erosionc (%) 1 8 17 20 Reduction in available waterd (%) 1 3 5 7 TABLE 5. Total sustainably extractable biomass and corresponding energy potential of each afforestation scenario to meet consumer energy demand Scenario Total extractable biomass (million m3/year) 23 74 127 169 % of current consumer energy demanda 1 2 3 4 a 68% of heat.1 0.78 1. c Assumes a yield of 95 litres/m3.

This trade also has a major impact on domestic greenhouse gas emissions.2 0 –0. Therefore. The Figure demonstrates how biofuels could reduce the economic impact of higher oil prices in the future. with and without biofuels and other measures to mitigate climate change 250 300 350 business-as-usual picture of the economy Currently.8 million hectares (ethanol) No biofuels 3. 2010 SCION . domestic production of low-carbon biofuels could reduce the economic impact of both rising oil prices and stricter emission controls in the future. as it includes both the direct carbon emissions from oil consumption and the indirect greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural activities used to pay for imported oil. oil prices and carbon stocks were compared with a Unasylva 234/235. as historically farmers have tended to stay with sheep and cattle farming even when its profitability is low. 61.6 0. which were not considered in this study. The points show the impact of changes in oil prices and biofuel production on pri- per hectare when the oil price reaches oil price was US$147 per barrel in July may not be sufficient to lead to landuse change.THEME 2 PRODUCING FOR DEVELOPMENT 26 Private consumption (% change) 1 0. If carbon pricing in New Zealand includes all sectors of the economy in the future (which is likely under the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme). and its oil consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) is the third high- production.5 million hectares (ethanol and biodiesel) + increased efficiency + high carbon price Economic impact of changes in oil prices in New Zealand. New Zealand obtains half its consumer energy and 93 percent of its transport fuels from imported oil.8 0. Thus.4 0. then this trade will magnify the potential impact of emission controls on the economy. Macroeconomic impact A general equilibrium model was used to estimate the consequences of using the nation’s land resources to produce biomass for fuel instead of other purchase this oil comes from agricultural Residues from timber production for use in bioenergy: multipurpose forests producing a range of products including timber and biomass for fuel are likely to be the most economically viable option Several economic scenarios based on assumed production costs. More research is required to understand the social drivers.8 50 100 150 200 Oil price (US$/bbl) 0. a rise in oil prices relative to agricultural goods would have detrimental effects on terms of trade and consequently the economy as a whole.4 –0.2 –0. Vol.6 –0.

& Gifford. P. This is a case where land-use change would thus have positive environmental Unasylva 234/235..pdf Sims. growing large-scale forest plantations for bioenergy on lowproductivity agricultural land can have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions through both land-use change from agriculture to forestry and displacement of fossil fuels.THEME 27 2 PRODUCING FOR DEVELOPMENT vate consumption (a measure of economic welfare) compared with a baseline and an economy similar in structure to today’s. It can also have other environmental benefits in terms of improved water quality and erosion control in comparison with agriculture. and the economic benefits of biofuels are greatest when they are competitive ple shows. pastoral agricultural and scrub lands. Saddler. S. Scion. Available at: www. Rotorua. long-term energy policies should take into account that biofuels may result in macroeconomic benefits in the future even though their current production costs are higher than the costs of imported fossil fuels. Zhang. 2010 . plus efficiency gains and a high carbon price. Scion. R. Multipurpose forests producing a range of products including timber and biomass for fuel are likely to be the most economically viable source of biofuels. With no biofuels.scionresearch. situationAnalysis. J. Bioenergy options for New Zealand: situation analysis.7 percent (compared with the baseline) because of million hectares used for ethanol production. Available at: www. Available at: www. Paris. Scion.to 2nd-generation biofuel technologies. scionresearch.. Bioenergy options for New Zealand: analysis of large-scale bioenergy from forestry.pdf Hall. an increase in oil price to US$300 per barrel would reduce private consumption by about 0. 61. Vol.. From 1st. New Zealand. Competition for land between biofuels. the macroeconomic impact of an increase in oil price to US$300 per barrel would be more than completely mitigated. Todd. oil imports would be 15 percent less and the same oil price increase would result in a smaller decline in private consumption (of about 0.pdf Hall. M. Rotorua. Bibliography Delbruck.com/__data/assets/ Options_Pathways-Analysis. Bioenergy options for New Zealand: pathways analysis. New Zealand. reducing oil imports by 63 percent). W. Zealand economy. Contributing report to Hall & Jack. P. CONCLUSIONS impacts. New Zealand. Taylor. This type of assessment of land-use.scionresearch.45 percent). Contributing A key finding of this assessment is that in New Zealand. & Jack. & Jack. M. Rotorua. W. Stroombergen. J. fuels (3. & Mabee. These results would most likely hold for other countries where forests can be grown with low inputs on lowproductivity agricultural land. M. A. M. Hall. P. environmental and economic impacts of bioenergy at the national level can help governments make strategic decisions about large-scale bioenergy opportunities as part of national energy supply. International Energy Agency (IEA).com/__data/assets/pdf_ from-forestry. The approach can also help to identify national and regional issues that need to be addressed to realize the benefits of these opportunities. Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletin. F.5 million hectares used. General equilibrium analysis of bioenergy options. & Kerr. France.

perspectives and purposes and using different valuation concepts and methods. make significant direct and indirect contributions to national economies and human welfare. Chinese Academy of Forestry. 61. Beijing is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of the central government. both natural and planted. they have come up with widely varying results. There have been many attempts to value these contributions. Beijing. Wu. aesthetics and socioeconomic development As the capital of China. and Yuanzhao Hou is Professor. In the past two decades a good deal of progress has been achieved in developing valuation methods for forest ecosystem services and promoting their inclusion in national economic accounts. Hou and G. Vol. 1 Conversions in this article use the or US$1 yuan. and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) was 56 000 yuan (around US$7 370). as well as the sectoral and spatial distribution F orest ecosystem goods and services. Gongying Yuan is Senior Engineer at the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Landscape and Forestry. have a critical role in Beijing’s ecology.THEME 3 FORESTS IN THE SERVICE OF PEOPLE 28 Valuation of forest ecosystem goods and services and forest natural capital of the Beijing municipality. Landscape forest around the Great Wall: forests. and the natural capital stocks that produce them. Y. HOU Shuirong Wu is Associate Professor. carried out with different scales. Wen and on Beijing. of which about nomic growth and urban population population was 16. In China the valuation of forest ecosystem goods and services has been one of the most researched topics over the past decade. at the Research Institute of Forestry Policy and Information. provincial and local management unit levels (Yang. with a rising number of studies at national. China S. Unasylva 234/235. The municipality is divided into 16 urban and suburban districts and two .1 Y.3 million. 2010 . Yuan An attempt to estimate the full market and non-market values of Beijing’s forests. Beijing.

2010 . This concept difstorage (as an asset) from forest carbon sequestration flow (as a service). - Forest land Farm land Water area Residential area Bare land The framework distinguishes between Unasylva 234/235. The main methods used to value these amounts were the market value. In this framework. is generally valued on the basis of market transactions. using market prices for bare forest land) or as property. and can ultimately contribute to the conservation and sustainability of forest resources. have a critical role in the ecology. Robinia pseudoacacia and Larix principis-rupprechtii. growing stock.g. which have generally been in China. VALUATION CATEGORIES Forest natural capital Forest land assets. The latter is what should be counted in GDP or green GDP. Vol.1 million hectares (Figure 1). direct revealed preference (replacement costs. both natural and planted. using the latest survey data on Beijing’s forest resources. hosting a variety of fauna and flora. forest environmental assets. environmental services and sociocultural benefits. In this study. Pinus tabulaeformis. The valuation method in this study involved quantification of all forest ecosystem services and goods. Forest environmental services have been included in most studies in China. The dominant tree species include Quercus mongolica. Where value data were taken from earlier for Beijing. STUDY FRAMEWORK assets (natural capital stocks) and production (the flow value of forest goods and services). cost of illness. Change in the former indicates whether forest management is sustainable or not. Beijing’s forest resources have been increasing significantly since the 1950s as a result of active planting and management. net increment.7 million cubic metres. nursery land and bare forest land) and valued according to the prices of each type. 61. open forest land. This article reports an attempt to estimate the full market and non-market values of these forests. it also includes an analysis of the distribution of the benefits from forest goods and services among economic sectors and among local. The forests are rich in biodiversity. with a total standing timber volume of 13.THEME 29 3 FORESTS IN THE SERVICE OF PEOPLE Forests. either directly (e. Platycladus orientalis. 1 Distribution of forest ecosystems and other land use in Beijing Data on forest area. shrub land. At area reached almost 1. Forest land. geographic information systems and global positioning systems) and field investigations. but the new framework includes an additional and innovative category. many of which are pointed out in the are unlikely to reach consensus on nonmarket values. Populus davidiana. etc. one of the most important economic assets. regional and global beneficiaries. and including trees spread across the terrain. Unlike most other valuation studies. There are naturally many limitations to both the current and previous studies. Zhou and method to investigate the transaction The study applied an updated framework for valuation of forest ecosystems reference to authoritative international et al. productivity loss. forest land was categorized into five types (forested land.) and benefit transfer methods. Betula platyphylla. the benefits people obtain from forests are classified into three categories: forest goods. Such efforts are nevertheless important to help raise awareness of the multifunctional roles of forest ecosystems. aesthetics and socio-economic development of the municipality. age classes and species were from a survey conducted by the Beijing Forestry Survey and Design (integrating remote sensing.

e. The environmental assets considered in the study were forest carbon stock and forest wildlife. nuts and flower products from economic forests. income. forests of economic value including those that have been specifically planted for these products. Estimates of forest carbon stock and stock changes were calculated based on growing stock and net increment using of the Intergovernmental Panel on Cliforest carbon stock assets was calculated by multiplying forest carbon stock by the carbon price derived from the Badaling forest farm carbon project in Beijing ). The production data were taken from the China Forestry Statistical Yearbook 2007 (State Forestry Unasylva 234/235. These prices were applied to the stock according to its species and diameter composition. 2008.THEME 3 FORESTS IN THE SERVICE OF PEOPLE 30 Forest land assets Forest natural capital stocks Standing timber assets Forest environmental assets Aiming at the evaluation of sustainability of development based on the change of capital stocks Annual increment Valuation of forest ecosystem Forest goods Products of economic forests Non-wood forest products Water conservation Soil protection Annual value flow of forest ecosystem goods and services Agricultural protection Carbon sequestration and oxygen supply Forest environmental Biodiversity conservation services Air purification/ temperature regulation Forest ecotourism Job opportunities Science and education Aesthetics and living conditions Sociocultural benefits Source: Adapted from Hou and Wu. For Beijing’s rich wildlife resources. 2010 . Vol. i. Gross analysis (GDP. Forest goods Annual increment of standing timber. The market value method was used to estimate the value of fresh fruits. A simple stumpage value method was used for the valuation of standing timber. the study adopted the value estimated by of wildlife for the whole country (State Environmental Protection Administra- and Beijing’s wildlife resources. The value of the annual increment of the forest stand was estimated by the stumpage value method using the annual increment by species and age classes and the corresponding stumpage prices per cubic metre by species. consumption. savings. Stumpage prices by species and diameter were taken area and in southern China. Products of economic forests. Their results were Forest environmental assets. 61. with Standing timber assets. investment) Aiming at macro-level policy evaluation and analysis within and beyond the forest sector Cultural/artistic services Spiritual/historical services 2 Framework for valuation of forest ecosystem services and natural capital prices for different types of forest land in the Beijing area. the prices were adjusted using the area of origin to that of Beijing (and other conversion factors as needed). In the latter case.

a popular scenic spot for Beijing residents and visitors of all ages. Air purification and temperature regulation. The total value of water conservation services was estimated based on the water regulating capacity and the cost of supplying water for the city (which includes the sewage treatment fee). 61. assuming that the forested soil around Beijing contains on average (Yu and Wang. bee products and hunting. which are listed as NWFPs in Chinese forestry statistics) was calculated using the market value method. taken from Yu and Wang [1999] and Zhang et al Agricultural protection. based on the average removal rates for these pollutants by broadleaves and conifers as Forest ecosystem services Water conservation. has important value for outdoor recreation as well as air quality and temperature regulation – and also raises the value of the surrounding houses S. The value of the main non-wood forest products (wild medicinal materials. Water quantity was estimated by the water balance method. 1999) and using the observed market price of compound Y. Air pollution is the greatest of Beijing’s environmental problems. WU Unasylva 234/235.7 tonnes per hectare per year higher than that on forested lands in Beijing. mushrooms. using the average cost for sediXiangshan (Fragrant Hills) Park. ) and fluoride and X the suppression of dust. The market value method was adopted to estimate this value based on the increase in crop production. The study focused on the increased crop production benefits provided by forest shelterbelts. Non-wood forest products (NWFPs).THEME 31 3 FORESTS IN THE SERVICE OF PEOPLE “Green reservoir” services of forests include the capture. The value of soil fertility protection was estimated by applying the market value method. and the municipal government has proposed tree planting as a measure to alleviate it (Yang et al study valued the services of forests in ). calculated with the replacement cost or avoided cost method. and its value was estimated using the replacement cost method (using the cost of establishing a conventional water reservoir in Beijing. the area of cropland with forest shelter and the price of the crop. as well as tree breeding and planting. using the forest area and rainfall data to get the total water input into the catchments and subtracting evapotranspiration and surface runoff Soil protection. Forest vegetation helps stabilize soils. The estimated value of soil stabilization primarily reflects the costs associated with sediment clearance. Vol. “Green reservoir” services of forested watersheds include the capture and storage of water (contributing to the quantity of water available during the dry season) and the purification of water through the filtering of contaminants and the stabilization of soils. HOU came from market surveys and direct observations. reduce surface erosion and sedimentation and maintain soil fertility. 2010 . storage and ment dredging in the Beijing area and the finding of Yu and Wang (1999) that the soil erosion on non-forested lands is 3. Production data for these products were from a survey conducted by the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Land- quantity regulating capacity was seen as equal to the total storage capacity of the catchment forests. wild vegetables.

using data on personnel and wages from the Beijing Statistics Yearbook 2007 Science and education.9 million trees. derived from the literature (Fang. since employment opportunities are abundant in Beijing. The study also included the value of noise reduction by the so-called “four sides” tree belt (comprising trees on non-forested lands beside villages. and the market price of using soundproof materials. although the effect was less pronounced. Vol. Li et al. CARLE using the opportunity cost method. Biodiversity conservation.. houses. estimated based on the length of the tree belt. Again. The study adopted as unit price the average value of science and Unasylva 234/235. Annual carbon sequestration was estimated using the net primary produc- Job opportunities. Liu and Xu.e. multiplied by the forest area of Beijing.9 million metres of The study’s analysis of remote sensing. The study adopted the average per-hectare value of forest biodiversity conservation for the FAO/J. Employment creation was considered as a social rather than an economic benefit because the capacity of forests to provide traditional employment in remote communities was seen as more important than the strictly economic benefits of employment creation. 1996). applying the direct market method.g. i. Based on Leng et al. the carbon price was derived from the forest carbon project in Badaling forest farm of Beijing. Carbon sequestration and oxygen supply. Under sociocultural benefits the study focused on scientific research and education. This value was multiplied by the total forest area used for ecotourism to estimate the total value of forest ecotourism. Badaling National Forest Park) tion of forest stands and the soil carbon sequestration by type of forest stand.THEME 3 FORESTS IN THE SERVICE OF PEOPLE 32 Forest ecotourism – a marketable environmental service (collection of entrance fees. similar findings in this regard. Other studies (e. the present study applied the results from other research: the ecotourism value estimated value. 2010 . Because of limited time and funding. The analysis covered direct and indirect employment. it was assumed that a 4 to 5 m wide tree belt can reduce noise by 5 decibels if trees are distributed appropriately. The “four sides” belt comprises 51. reported in the State report on biodiversity of China (State Environmental ProThe costs of removing these pollutants were calculated based on air pollution charges in China. field investigation and meteorological data showed that in areas of Beijing with forest vegetation. The travel cost method has often been used to estimate the value of forest ecotourism. 61. temperature was decreased by an average of 3 in summer (May to September). The Forest ecotourism. roads and watercourses). while ecotourism benefits were valued separately (above). The value of temperature regulation by forests was calculated based on the electricity saving achieved through reduced use of air conditioning in summer. 103. its capacity to reduce noise. Forests also conserved heat in winter (December to February).

39.12 0.0% Unasylva 234/235. 2010 .7 billion yuan (US$5.5 DISTRIBUTION OF FOREST BENEFITS 16.27 0.89 0.3 percent of its 6.89 5. 61.3 billion). However.77 1.96 39.85 Billion US$ 0. The per capita stock of (US$157).6 percent.5% Agricultural Carbon 0.22 0.0 percent.96 Billion US$ – 5. job opportunities were marketable while the scientific and educational benefits were not.04 but its forests are making a notable contribution to improving environmental and air quality. GDP and annual output of forest goods and services The flow value of the annual output of forest ecosystem goods and services in Beijing amounted to 5. RESULTS ecosystem goods and services of Beijing. However.06. Non-marketable outputs had 5. Beijing is listed among the world’s ten services The flow value of annual output of forest ecosystem goods and services of Beijing was 47.04 5.05 0.03 1. Therefore.THEME 33 3 FORESTS IN THE SERVICE OF PEOPLE TABLE 1. Vol.38 0.3 billion). most of the value of the annual output of forest Air purification and temperature regulation 19. Of the forest environmental services.66 0.7% protection sequestration 0. part of these outputs are counted in the forestry sector.08 40. and part 3 Forest environmental services in the Beijing municipality Soil Forest protection ecotourism 0.26 5.15 0.9 percent of Beijing’s GDP.30 39.1 times the value of marketable outputs (Table 1). The value of marketable forest outputs amounted to 0. and watershed forests account for percent of GDP and forest environmental services and sociocultural benefits amounted to 4.26 Total Billion yuan 6.14 6.5 percent. and nonmarketable output 4. This finding accords with the real situation in Beijing: Forest inventory data indicate that the city has scant of its drinking-water from the Miyun Reservoir of Beijing.9 billion yuan (US$6. the share of forest goods and services included in Beijing’s official current national accounting system.5% value of intangible forest environmental services and sociocultural benefits rial goods.10 1. As for the sociocultural benefits. Different types of output from Beijing’s forests Output Marketable Billion yuan Forest goods Forest ecosystem servicesa Forest environmental services Forest sociocultural benefits Total a Non-marketable Billion yuan – 39. The ratio of non-marketable to marketable goods and services is 5. Among the forest environmental services.3% Water conservation 52. The forest goods were all marketable.04 47. part of the non-wood forest products and forest ecotourism. was system. Protection forests area.89 Note: The ratio of services to goods is 6.8% Biodiversity conservation 18.2% and oxygen supply 8.30 Billion US$ 0.41 5. only forest ecotourism was marketable. of which forest environmental services Among different economic sectors The current system of national accounting records the direct economic outputs from forests such as timber and timberrelated products. was Stock value of forest natural capital The value of the capital stock of the forest resources of Beijing reached 19.77 41.07. the Beijing Songshan National Natural The total value was estimated by multiplying this unit price by the total area of forest parks and nature reserves in Beijing.74 7. water conservation and air purification had the most important role (Figure 3).

The analysis indicated that the value of forest goods and services to non-forestry sectors of the economy accounted for the environment sector accounted for the forests of Beijing to these sectors of the economy is thus clear. forests as a land use will not get the societal attention needed to make them an integral part of a sustainable global economy.30 0. on account of both greater demand and reduced supplies (in part due to changing increase.0 – 0.72 0.19 Billion US$ – 1.31 – 14.30 5. These beneficiaries are usually aware of the direct benefits they receive from the forest. living in close percent of the benefits. it may never be possible to have a precise estimate of the value of ecosystem services.7 – 1. 2010 . receiving 47.30 0. the many estimates of forest ecosystem goods and services made in the past have been inconsistent and not amenable to meaningful comparison across services and periods.11 Billion US$ 0.01 Billion yuan – 0.74 5. education and culture Billion yuan – – Billion US$ – – Billion yuan Forest goods Forest environmental services Forest sociocultural benefits Subtotal Share of total flows (%) 4.03 Billion yuan 2.44 11. Local beneficiaries.30 42.19 29. Vol.87 – 2.6 0. 1997).29 39.05 0. as in many other parts of the world.41 88. As natural capital and ecosystem services become more stressed in the future.38 0.8 – 0.. Nevertheless.29 0. but because of the wide differences in concepts and methods.05 0.and policymaking.10 0. which provides 80 percent of Beijing’s water Among different groups in society The analysis showed that communities living just outside the Beijing municipality and those residing elsewhere in China were the largest receivers of benefits from Beijing’s forests.04 5. through services such as carbon storage.32 – 0. biodiversity conservation and international tourism.04 0.58 – 25. Catchment forests around the Miyun Reservoir.87 Billion yuan 2. Given the huge uncertainties involved. Many attempts in this direction have been made in China.24 Billion yuan – 25.38 Billion US$ – 0.30 0.4 0.48 0.82 Billion US$ 0. Such non-local communities benefit directly from recreation and indirectly from environmental services such as watershed protection.21 Billion US$ 0. CONCLUSIONS: POLICY IMPLICATIONS Unless most forest values are recognized through institutionalized valuation methods.3 percent of the total flow value of forest ecosystem goods and services (Table 3).6 0. with implications for decision. 61.5 – 3. even crude estimates provide a useful starting point (Costanza et al.14 52. even though they may not be fully aware of the value of the indirect benefits they receive. cent of the benefits.59 0.14 Billion US$ – 3. HOU Unasylva 234/235.31 Billion yuan – 14. What this study makes clear is Y.04 in the agriculture and tourism sectors. Forest ecosystem services besides forest ecotourism are not included at all in national economic accounts but are partly indirectly reflected in the outputs of related sectors or industries.THEME 3 FORESTS IN THE SERVICE OF PEOPLE 34 Output Forestry Subtotal Environment Other sectors Water Agriculture Tourism Science.41 5.

The identification of stakeholders provides a good basis for negotiations over payments for forest ecosystem services. use and investment. Manual for environmental and economic accounts for forestry: a tool for cross-sectoral policy analysis. and these foregone benefits need to be compensated adequately.. & van den Belt. China Statistics Press. Fang. S. Rome. Grasso.5 Billion US$ – 1. as well as within the forest sector.. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital.. Estimation of the full range of values from forests is helpful in designing forest management strategies.. which are often woefully underfunded in many developing countries. FAO Forestry Department Working Paper. Limburg.THEME 35 3 FORESTS IN THE SERVICE OF PEOPLE Output Local beneficiaries Regional beneficiaries Billion yuan – 22. The absence of a real market for most of the forest ecosystem services discussed in this article implies a certain degree of subjectivity in the valuation would hesitate to concur with the actual values assigned to these services. It can help identify potential conflicts between the development objectives of forestry and those of other sectors. J. Biomass and net production of forest vegetation in China.77 7. especially water and environment. & Wu. S.. however. even if they agree with the methodology in general.. The institutionalization of payment for forest ecosystem services has become a prominent policy issue. for the design of a forest strategy that takes into account all stakeholders. Lange. Hannon. Forest valuation can also demonstrate the impacts of non-forestry policies on forest use.65 47. Beijing Statistics Yearbook 2007.30 22.10 1.’Neill.97 0. Y. Raskin. This finding could also be helpful in building cross-sectoral alliances based on mutual benefits. J.. Natural resource accounts for forests European Communities..92 31. O. Nature Eurostat.M. G. The analysis of distribution of forest benefits among different groups in society is useful in identifying obstacles to sustainable forestry. R. The incentive for sustainable forestry declines when local communities do not receive appropriate benefits. Forests have multifunctional uses to society.. Acta Ecologica Sinica Chinese with English abstract) FAO.04 2. d’Arge. This finding could support requests for a larger share of the national budget for forest management and investment. & Xu. Farber.94 0.28 21. Vol. P. B. S. R.74 14. R. The forest natural capital stock that produces these services must thus be given adequate weight in the decision-making process. Sutton. K.2 Billion US$ 0. Paruelo.35 Billion yuan Forest goods Forest environmental services Forest sociocultural benefits Subtotal Share of total flows (%) 6. could contribute to the design of economic instruments such as water resources fees used to promote sustainable forest use or to compensate local communities. Bibliography Beijing Statistics Bureau.96 Finally. In recent years. Liu.3 Billion US$ – 2. by G. The demonstrated importance of forest ecosystem services to other sectors. theory and method of ecosystem valuation Unasylva 234/235. Local communities in mountainous areas of Beijing. it should be possible to determine optimal and secondary targets for forest management. Eurostat. 1996. China. S. Hou. deGroot.G. Communities. M. R. the importance of forest ecosystems to Beijing has been well recognized. is a small fraction of the flow value of the annual output of forest ecosystem goods and services shown in this study.V. the central purpose of this study will have been achieved if it helps to further robust debate on the valuation process. However.4 0.28 – 10. and by quantifying the relative values and identifying the economic trade-offs among competing uses of forests. 2010 .98 Global beneficiaries Billion yuan – 10. The European framework for integrated environmental and economic accounting for forests – IEEAF. M. these findings can be used to raise public awareness of the multiple values of forests to society. that forest ecosystem services provide an important part of the total contribution to economic development and social welfare of Beijing. and to take appropriate measures to achieve them.35 0. forest uses in order to maintain a sustainable flow of forest protection services.35 – 1. R. 61.. and the forest sector has been getting an increasing share of the public budget for forest protection and management. Beijing. 1997...89 0. A special fund has been allocated to local communities for tending of protection forests in the mountainous areas since The share of forest goods and services actually included in Beijing’s GDP accounting. Costanza. Naeem.

Masters Thesis. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment 106. European Commission. & Wu. Zhang. United Nations. S. J. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Yang. (In Chinese with English abstract) Yang. Evaluation on forest biodiversity of China. adjusting temperature/humidity in Xi’an during midsummer. Yang. Washington. Beijing. and water. Chen. 31(5): 54–60. F. World Forestry Research. Chinese Forestry Press. Hayama. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series. Zhang. resources in Beijing. & Li. Journal of Beijing Forestry University. in air pollution reduction. Sun. G. & Wang. China. B. G. L. Y. J. Chinese Academy of Forestry. State Environmental Protection AdminiState report on stration of China biodiversity of China. Economic valuation of urban green space Journal of Beijing Agricultural College. China: air. DC. New York.. Value of forest Zhou.. effect of Beijing based on Landsat TM data. Jiang. X. Beijing. Z. & Zhang.THEME 3 FORESTS IN THE SERVICE OF PEOPLE 36 and discrimination on the related concepts popular in China. China. China Forestry Publishing Press. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University Chinese with English abstract) Leng. & Xiao. Ecological Economics. & Song. Y. China. China. B. land-use change and forestry. United Nations. Valuation on use value of biodiversity of Songshan Natural Reserve. & Xiao.. J. X.. & Sun. International Monetary Fund. Su. DC.. Washington. China Environmental Science Press. The study on forest. McBride. Li.. B. Wen. 19(4): Li. Water conservation of forest ecosystem in Beijing and its value. J. (In Chinese) State Forestry Administration. Z. & Li. Relationship between vegetation greenness and urban heat island effect in Beijing. research advances in valuation of forest ecosystem services. (In Chinese) Unasylva 234/235.. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. P. USA. J.. USA. Xie. X. Z. China Forestry Publishing Press.. China. China Forestry Publishing Press. System of integrated environmental and economic accounting 2003 ( SEEA–2003). abstract) IPCC. 61. Japan. X. Q. (In Chinese with English abstract) Zhang. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development & World Bank. Vol. eds. 1999. Beijing. Beijing. W. Wu. World Bank. (In Chinese with English abstract) Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Ecosystems and human well-being: a framework for assessment. Journal of Southwest Forestry College with English abstract) Yu.. Z. China. P. land.. Y. Wang. Good practice guidance for land use. USA. B. M. Island Press. 2010 . J. China Forestry Statistical Yearbook 2007.. Zhou. Beijing. Beijing. Wang.

• shoots: aerial structures burned. each consist. having the same environmental conditions as the control. • dead: plants with no leaves and no signs of regrowth. 61. Castellani and Stubblebine. Its main effects on ecological processes in these forests are losses in stocks of biomass. burning an area about area was compared with a neighbouring unburned forest 40 m distant from the burned forest. To test this hypothesis.C. Forestry Institute. Vol. depend on the distance from the forest edge. Durigan and Gorenstein. The article also characterizes the dynamics of the recovery of forest structure and with a dry season usually lasting from April to August. structural and floristic losses. which may be followed by biological invasions Biodiversity losses are reported to be especially intense at forest edges. 1993. the study reported on plant communities at different distances from the edge of a fragment of seasonal semideciduous forest in Brazil. Durigan constrained by grasses and vines. Unasylva 234/235. The forest is separated from neighbouring coffee plantations by a dirt road 5 m wide.7 m tall) were identified. 2010 . grasses from the surrounding pastures is common. • recruits: plants emerging from seed after the fire. Five permanent transects (10 m wide and 50 m long) were installed in each sector (burned and unburned). For comparison. which recover more quickly and F ire is one of the main factors causing biodiversity losses in tropical forests. density and richness of the seed bank after fire are greater at the edge of the forest (Melo. Putz and Licona. Melo and G. where the invasive grass Panicum maximum proliferates.g. Rodrigues et al. São Paulo State. An accidental fire occurred in October long dry season. Uhl and Kauffman. Previous studies have found that lianas hamper the regeneration of fragments affected by fire (e. measured and categorized as: • survivors: living trees with no signs of burned canopy. In addition.G. Antônio Carlos Galvão de Melo and Giselda Durigan researchers at Assis State Forest. A distance of at least 10 m was maintained between transects. Brazil. as well as the resilience of plant communities. 1999). sprouts from the stem base or from 50 cm from the stem. The lower humidity and greater number of dead trees (flammable material) make edges of fragmented forests more prone to frequent fires than the forest interior et al. labelled.THEME 37 4 CARING FOR OUR FORESTS Fire in the seasonal semideciduous forest: impact and regeneration at forest edges A. from the edge to the forest interior. changes in hydrological cycle and nutrients (Salati DETAILS OF THE STUDY The studied area is in the northern part of the Ecological Station of Caetetus in of native plant and animal communities (Pinard. the plots were grouped into two strips according to their of arboreal species (at least 1. 1990).

1 8 13 15 10 22 23 6 11 13 10 13 23 0 0 0 16 11 11 14 19 24 26 32 37 62. data were 1 Arboreal basal area in different periods postto unburned forest.3 50. Ecological Station of Caetetus. 3 m from its lateral limits.78 2.9 81. Both the Unasylva 234/235.4 62.5 79.8 0.4 14.16 2. in percentage of land occupied by the projection of the aerial structures (branches. In the unburned sector.3 70.26 0 0 0 2.00 7. 61.36 0.1 76.96 1.58 2.01 20. Brazil (vertical lines indicate standard deviation) Basal area (m2/ha) 35 30 25 20 15 10 INTENSITY OF DAMAGE The fire caused damage of major consequence to the structure and floristic composition of the forest. The shorter the distance from the edge. In the burned sector. Both internal and considerably from the unburned forest in tree density and biomass (represented by basal area) (Table).8 13.12 2. all data were colfire.6 85. maximum only) were measured separately.1 0.6 87. the higher the intensity of damage (Figure 1).THEME 4 CARING FOR OUR FORESTS 38 at the Ecological Station of Caetetus. Trees.68 3. Vol.2 69.58 6.20 0.9 11.12 2.8 71.47 10.7 47. The estimated loss of biomass by fire in the internal strip to 100 percent in indicates the intensity of fire and there- 5 0 6 15 24 Unburned Time (months after fire) 0–20 m from the edge 20–50 m from the edge fore the degradation which the event may have caused the plant community as well as the lower relative humidity normally found in edges of forest fragments (Forman.49 20.8 0 45 66 Vegetation cover was also assessed.12 0.6 1.48 0.41 1 290 1 690 1 890 1 870 3 559 4 120 4 327 3 607 0 0 0 193 193 193 1 100 1 310 1 430 3 235 3 555 3 787 190 380 460 131 372 520 Time after fire (months) Trees External Internal Cover (%) Lianas External Internal Number of tree species Grasses External Internal Sprouting External Internal From seed External Internal Surviving External Internal Total species richness External Internal 6 15 24 Not burned 20.37 4. leaves) in two parallel lines in each plot.53 0.09 0. 1995).0 9.0 47.41 0.4 70. 2010 .2 85. The rate of forest recovery also varied with distance from the edge. RECOVERY OF STRUCTURE AFTER FIRE the fire was probably more intense because of the greater availability of easily combustible grasses and lianas. Brazil Time after fire (months) Total Basal area (m2/ha) Surviving trees Seed bank trees Sprouting trees Total Density (trees/ha) Surviving trees Seed bank trees Sprouting trees External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal 6 15 24 Not burned 0. lianas and grasses (P.57 3.

The tree canopy cover stabilized nearly 15 months after the fire in both strips but was higher in the internal strip. the internal strip strip 11 years to achieve their original biomass.C. so they are obviously more abundant at Unasylva 234/235.G.G.C. Vol. which ensures rapid occupation of disturbed sites. The differences in tree biomass (density. Vines have a more diverse spectrum of adaptation to vegetative replication than capacity for regrowth. MELO . • the seed bank was considerably re- Forest edge 18 months abundance of grasses and lianas climbing dead and living trees • the already scarce seedlings and ternal strip faced strong competition from vines and invasive grasses.THEME 39 4 CARING FOR OUR FORESTS Forest edge. At this time. and the recovery of (Figure 1). MELO Forest edge six burned trees and high biomass of the grass Panicum maximum are visible A.C. cover and basal area) between the A. decreasing the availability of sprouts for regeneration. Grasses and lianas (from the seed bank or sprouting from suckers) quickly recovered in the burned area in the first ered the area during this time but did not increase considerably thereafter. two vulnerability to fire and the recovery varied among species. MELO • the density of trees was also lower closer to the edge before fire. trees from the seed bank or seed rain already accounted for the largest portion of the basal area (Table) as compared with surviving individuals. If the increase in basal area of the burned forest remained constant at the rate estimated for the first two years by regressions. 61.G. biomass measurement of the burned forest had not reached that of the unburned forest. 2010 A.

Slow pace of recovery of biomass and richness indicates low resilience. Lianas and grasses quickly recover in the burned area (mostly through sprouting). for a gradual recovery of the richness of the community. 1999). term monitoring of burned communities makes it impossible to draw conclusions pressure in this type of forest. Marod et al. Recovery of biomass and richness demonstrates higher resilience than in the external strip. 2010 . impairing the germination and recruitment of tree species. However. Low humidity and large quantity of fine biomass (grasses and lianas) point to high propensity for new fires. Even so. Richness and diversity are threatened. Brazil. with greater biomass of grasses and lianas. In addition to hampering the development of tree species. depends on the intensity of fire in each location and the morphological characteristics and location of each individual (Whelan. Once established. Ivanauskas. 1993). maximum was always nal burned plots. even within the same population. IMPACT AND RECOVERY OF FLORISTIC RICHNESS still had fewer species than the unburned forest in both strips. overcoming the arboreal species. In the present study. grasses can reduce the light availability on the forest floor up to 99 percent (Hughes and Vitousek. month after fire. Internal strip Lack of grasses and relatively high availability of seeds remaining in the bank encourage relatively quick recovery of the forest. In general. Monteiro and Rodrigues in seasonal forests in Mato Grosso. The importance of sprouting as a strategy for survival in postfire regeneration has been reported for various tropical forest ecosystems (Uhl et al. the burned forest had. Hayashi et al. leaving the area prone to new fires. Vol. Trees sprouts occur with low density and lower growth rate. The grass growth rates were very high. in general. Fire destroys aerial structures of all plant life at the edge. as they can be reintroduced by seed dispersal or wind. both ranges from the edge showed an increase in the number of tree species throughout the period of monitoring (Table). Unasylva 234/235. Coverage by P. Species returned over time. but account for a significant part of the richness of the community. 2 Model proposed for two years of postthe edge of seasonal semideciduous forest Tree density is lower near the edge. 1993. the results suggest that fire can if the whole fragment is burned. et al. found mortality rates ranging from 0 to 100 percent among 76 species. 43 (56 percent) were not sampled in the burned forest The elimination of species in the burned forest can be temporary if the fire reaches only part of the forest. a significant increase in the density of sprouts was observed in both strips. It was also generally in unburned forest. Of the 77 tree species sampled in the unburned forest. much lower tree species richness than the unburned forest (Table). Liana cover does not differ with distance from the edge. 61. 1995). et al. External strip Tree density is lower.THEME 4 CARING FOR OUR FORESTS 40 Increased frequency of lianas (woody and herbaceous) with increased intensity of fire has also been reported (Cochrane and Schulze. grasses provide dry fuel in the winter. T i m e Arboreal species slowly return by sprouting or from the seed bank (pure stand of pioneer species) but are dominated by grasses and lianas. Grasses occur only near the edge. Fire The response of plants to fire. Previous studies have shown that seasonal semideciduous forest has a considerable number of species capable of regrowth 1993.

D. & Morales. W. Booysen & N. establishment and development of seedlings. Hughes. Galley & T. SP.. Putz. Durigan. near the forest edge.D. Gould.V. Delamonica. D.E. Sucessão secundária em mata tropical Revista Brasileira de Botânica Cochrane.C. 1995.. biomass and species composition.J. Fire as a recurrent event in tropical forests of the eastern Amazon: effects on forest structure.M. evergreen tropical forests. Survival by sprouting Amazon. A. Tall Timbers Research Station.A. Proceedings of the invasive species and spread of invasive species Tallahassee.G. SpringerVerlag. M. p. Germany.T. Fearnside. Booysen & N. of Alto Rio Xingu. 93: 557–563. 49: 745–751..V. regeneration mechanisms in a tropical dry forest. Florida.M. UK..H. Melo. S. F. Vol. U. Anatomical studies of shoot bud-forming roots of Brazilian tree species. T. Management strategies for preventing fire damage in forest fragments should be directed towards controlling the proliferation of grasses and vines along the forest edges rather than just installing firebreaks. Kutintara.M.T.. 1993.K.R. Australian Journal of Botany. T. 7. as an alternative to chemical control with herbicides. dynamics in a tropical seasonal forest in Thailand.. Vol. Rodrigues.. rainforests. A. Janzen. 1999. Cambridge. In P. R. & Lovejoy. 95–119. M. Cochrane. Tainton. et al. p. Oecologia.J. São Paulo. Monteiro. Tainton. Brazil. Biotropica. Belém. EPU/EDUSP.S. & Nakashikuza. F.P. The convergent conclusions from this and other studies (Cochrane and Schulze. A. Perez-Salicrup. A. P. do not prevent the arrival of seeds but do inhibit germination. Ecological . Forest Ecology and Management Unasylva 234/235. L. 1999.. Dangelo. model is applicable to other fragmented tropical forests wherever fire has been effects in a vicious circle. B. 161: 41–57.. J. Certainly their rapid proliferation in the post-fire community inhibits the development of arboreal species from the seed bank and affects the regenerating community.M. Ecologia vegetal nos trópicos. R. In K. 1999. Kauffman. R. Brasil.S. Fredericksen. eds. T..J. Ecology Marod. Conservation Biology Cochrane. Vidal & J. Wilson. 1993.F. USA. Jerolinski.B. Recovery of forest biomass was very slow (low resilience) in both strips. Verlag. M. In P. Temas de Biología.A. Gerwing. 2010 . Pohl. de vida natural entre seis espécies de cipós In E. vegetation structure and dynamics. Cambridge University Press. Hayashi. M. Ivanauskas.H. Kruger. & Vitousek. eds. M. & Stubblebine. D. 177–197.. Kruger. Ecological . J.. & Schulze.E. Shelterbelts of fire-resistant and non-invasive species can be used to reduce light incidence at the forest edges to discourage growth of grasses.E. The results make it possible to infer a model for structural changes in fragments of semideciduous seasonal forest over a two-year period after fire (Figrecovery of tree biomass is constrained mainly by the presence of grasses and vines which rapidly occupy the burned area and are highly flammable. K. 1991. M.M. as well as remarkably reducing species richness in the arboreal layer. T. D.. W. Estacional Semidecidual. Berlin. & Licona. & Gorenstein. Forest Ecology and Management. Imazon. 1999. R. F. Gerwing. Nature Forman.R. P.H. 61. F.J. Acta Botânica Brasilica Mueller-Dombois.M.E. invasions and fire in tropical biomes.. Penha. D. eds. Laurance. where grasses are virtually absent. F. Brazil. N. this pattern appears to be related to the fire.A. structure of Amazonian liana communities. Ecologia e manejo de cipós na Amazônia Oriental. H. Plant Ecology. F. P. Putz. Tree mortality and vine proliferation Bibliography Castellani. in the strip 0 to density of trees is much lower than in the more internal strip. & Rodrigues. Pinard. D. Recovery of the forest structure was faster the larger the distance from the edge. Putz and Licona.. et al. Pinard. Barriers the seasonal submontane zone of Hawaii. almost completely destroying the arboreal biomass.C. Biotropica Kennard. Tanaka.. Land mosaics: the ecology of landscapes and regions. J.THEME 41 4 CARING FOR OUR FORESTS CONCLUSIONS Fire was a strong agent of degradation in the studied forest.R. eds.A. So. & Appezzato-da-Glória.

Oecologia Uhl. A..E invasion in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.O Tree diversity. 1993. A..W. Clark. R.E. Vol. & Putz. Deforestation effects on fire susceptibility and the in the rain forest of the eastern Amazon. & Murphy. J. & Penha.R. lianas on Barro Colorado Island.C. Torres. W. Matthes. J. Unasylva 234/235. F.S. F. R.A. 61. PeñaClaros.. M. Ecology Rodrigues. 71: 437–449. C. Whelan.B. J. Forest Ecology and Management. Mostacedo.F. F. Panamá. 1995. UK. C. 1990. M. K. composition.A. Cambridge. K.F.. resprouting from root buds in a semideciduous Brazil. 258: 1643–1649.. L. forest structure and aboveground biomass dynamics after forest.F. & Vosep. C. Uhl. P. & Kauffman. Forest Ecology and Management Putz. Science Slik. B. Breman. H... Veldman. Regeneration by sprouting in slash and burn rice cultivation. Clark.B. Cambridge University Press. The ecology of fire. & Eichhorn. Bernard.THEME 4 CARING FOR OUR FORESTS 42 forest in eastern Bolivia. a system in equilibrium. Ecology. 2010 . Journal of Ecology... Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology Rouwn. Van Beek. B. cutting and burning in the upper Rio Negro region of the Amazonian basin. Taï rain Journal of Tropical Ecology Salati. E. 69: 631–649.

broad and fast debt relief to contribute towards growth. but only if forestry is included as a priority in national development. which uses the money saved under the HIPC Initiative. launched in 1996 by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank to ensure deep. poverty reduction and debt sustainability in the poorest. With changes in civic governance. Vol. Kamugisha-Ruhombe allocation in Uganda demonstrates a disconnect between the global discussion realities in heavily indebted poor countries. This has not happened in Uganda. • increase alignment of aid with partner countries’ priorities. environment and natural is allocated only 0. In adopting the Non-Legally Binding Instrument on All Types of Forests. systems and procedures and help to strengthen their capacities. Under the Poverty Action Fund. nothing goes to forestry. To qualify for debt relief. new and additional financial resources from all sources and to take action to raise the priority of sustainable forest management in national development plans and poverty reduction strategies. • enhance donors’ and partner countries’ accountability to their citizens and parliaments. The Paris Declaration opens up new opportunities for countries to secure increased ODA for sustainable forest management. The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. Uganda has satisfied these provisions and consequently received “irrevocable” debt required fiscal reforms also limit the funding available to sectors that are not considered high priority. 2010 . Jones Kamugisha-Ruhombe is Coordinator of the Forest Finance Programme of the Global Mechanism of the United Nations Convention to This article and the studies on which it is based provided by the Global Mechanism of UNCCD. HIPCs must maintain macroeconomic stability. basket funding works (MTEFs). among others: • strengthen partner countries’ development strategies and associated operational frameworks. domestic public budget is increas- I ingly allocated through sector-wideapproaches (SWAPs). most indebted countries. align and manage results-based aid and to improve the quality of aid and its impact on developand development institutions adhering to the declaration commit themselves to.06 to 0. 61. Unasylva 234/235. • define measures and standards of performance and accountability of partner country systems. the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) agreed to reverse the decline in official development assistance (ODA) for sustainable forest management. One of the major instruments influencing financial allocation in Uganda is the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative. and in alignment with national poverty reduction strategies. endorsed at the Paris High-Level recipients to harmonize. carry out key structural reforms and satisfactorily implement a poverty reduction strategy. nternational forest-related discussions emphasize that implementation of sustainable forest management depends on mobilizing adequate financial resources.THEME 43 5 DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES indebted poor country: case study of Uganda J.11 percent (Table 1) – and this entire allocation goes to wetlands management. to mobilize significantly increased.

They are part of District Council revenue and are integrated in its budget.67 689. • Conditional grants are provided to finance specific programmes.41 0.46 222.90 4 107.78 216. They are separate from district government revenue.88 77.42 253.65 307. budgeted for separately and appended to the main budget.85 99.32 201.26 2007/08 (projected) PAF 79.48 41. law and order Accountability Economic functions and social services Public-sector management Public administration Interest payment due Total % share of environment and natural resources Source: 1 118.58 216.14 20.27 505.67 2 596.53 674.90 563.10 8 116.25 288.00 40.00 40.42 266. DEVELOPMENT PLANNING stakeholders.17 592.28 397 744 3 270 1 283 495 290 379 882 597 308 300 9 521 396. involves consultation with all stakeholders and approval by Parliament.78 36.57 MTEF 542 35 Total 649. based on a National Budget Framework Paper.86 0. drawing on Uganda’s poverty reduction strategy (the Poverty Eradication Action Plan).27 1 040.81 211.48 1.71 33.13 365. and the government approved a National Forestry Plan in The National Planning Authority prepares the National Development Plan.11 670.61 31. The budgeting process.68 40.27 464.67 36.81 80.25 307.02 0.48 0. the anchor of the country’s development.38 77.18 1. Vol.74 1 404.45 128.86 29.3 335.07 1 525. and the district forestry services provide advisory services on their management.28 397 646 1 975 817 292 244 296 788 443 308 300 6 887 396.81 1306.45 1 180. Many areas also feature various forms of farm forestry. 2010 .43 373.90 242.33 720. FISCAL ARRANGEMENTS AND FLOWS swamp area of Uganda was forested and 41 percent of the forested area was in protected areas.77 520.72 MTEF 146.53 307.02 336. Poverty Action Fund (PAF) resources combined with medium-term expenditure framework (MTEF) (billion U Sh) Sector 2006/07 (approved) PAF Agriculture Environment and natural resources (excluding lands) Security Works and transport Education Health Water Justice.THEME 5 DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES 44 TABLE 1.9 5 226 0.28 396.98 23.65 3 944.44 0.66 255. Unasylva 234/235.90 604.90 686. FOREST GOVERNANCE IN UGANDA a National Forestry and Tree Planting government to implement sustainable forest management and set aside the permanent forest estate for sustained provision of forest goods and services.06 23.86 161.63 235. The District Councils develop the annual workplan and budget through a conference of all The Government of Uganda funds local governments via three kinds of grants.32 77.87 0.35 30.00 56.49 0.69 1 353.99 673.51 121.83 206.02 10 925.44 587.29 MTEF 350 32 Total 434.62 0.99 600.38 312.19 752.84 0. Constitutional provisions commit the State to sustainable forest management.46 77.01 62.66 300.87 57.58 22.49 939. demonstrating a disconnect between the global discussion on forest finance and national realities in heavily indebted poor countries.86 206.99 621.02 0.73 Total 264.03 2009/10 (projected) PAF 107.45 2008/09 (projected) PAF 85. At the subnational level.58 720.66 300. The Local Governments Act of 1997 obliges District Councils plans and budgets in accordance with national priorities.66 300.88 38.55 223.88 377.66 300.06 5 657.35 20. • Equalization grants are paid from the Consolidated Fund to districts that lag behind the average national standard for a particular service.09 307.11 geting and fiscal resource allocation in Uganda.45 617.70 752.17 0.23 195. which is reviewed and cycle.98 420.75 824.56 18.06 67.54 318.34 386.54 0. 61.36 83. District Councils prepare comprehensive and integrated development plans.18 4 476. The National Development Plan is implemented through a rolling three-year MTEF. conservation areas under the management of the Uganda Wildlife Authority or forest reserves under the management of the National Forestry Authority (NFA) and district forestry private land and managed with the technical support of district forestry services.42 253.99 585.02 1 229.28 377.90 800.75 197. • Unconditional grants are paid annually from the Consolidated Fund for decentralized services and are calculated on the basis of the human population in the district.88 38.59 0.02 396.54 Total 214.26 318.98 21.72 MTEF 184.00 40.84 258.67 381.

• adjusting the size of the NFA payroll. local forest reserves and degraded areas. • providing operational resources and in-service training for national and subnational teams. 2010 S. wetlands. promoting shared management and implementation systems and emphasizing common vision. fisheries. and family and farm forestry are common Unasylva 234/235. Much of Uganda’s forest area is on private land. This approach is intended to provide greater efficiency and equity in the distribution of funds and more effective partnerships among stakeholders. • monitoring production. The SWAP in environment and natural resources includes all stakeholders in forestry. but forest-related objecMore than 40 percent of Uganda’s forest area is in governmentmanaged protected areas. water and environment. land. • training and sensitizing timber traders and sawmillers. among others: • increasing State investment in reforestation. Employment and Prosperity for Socio-Economic Transformation”. conservation areas or forest reserves tives are also included in complementary sectors such as energy. The development scenario focuses spending on the sectors with the greatest potential to contribute to economic growth. Vol. FORESTRY IN NATIONAL PLANNING The theme of the National Development Plan is “Growth. The National Development Plan provides for.THEME 45 5 DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES SECTOR-WIDE APPROACH IN ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES The SWAP shifts focus from institutional to sector-wide interests within a given sector. • forming and training field teams and carrying out boundary surveying and demarcation of forest reserves. • controlling illegal activities in central forest reserves and systematically removing encroachers. objectives and goals. legal and institutional framework for governing privately owned forests. Stakeholders engage in a participatory process to define sectoral priorities and plan institutional contributions to realize them. 61. afforestation and forest restoration. NSITA . NSITA forestry priorities: • strengthening institutional and community capacity and regulatory and fiscal framework for forest and watershed management. Forestry is among the primary growth sectors (those that directly produce goods and services). The Sector Investment Plan for environment and natural resources covers ten S. It curtails spending in nonpriority sectors and supports development in priority sectors through increased aid. Areas for support are no longer defined based on institutional priorities and plans. • mobilizing farmers into tree planting groups. processing and movement of timber products. • instituting a policy. • increasing private investment in forestry and promotion of agroforestry. wildlife and environment and is implemented through a sectoral working group led by the Ministry of Water and Environment. • identifying seed sources/stands and producing seedlings for sale to the public. climate. priorities. • supporting district and other subnational natural resource planning processes. • developing participatory plantation plans and promoting tree planting in private lands. • developing and implementing forest management plans.

policies. law and order Accountability Economic functions and social services Public-sector management Public administration Interest payment due 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Budget estimate 2006/07 (billion U Sh) Donor projects Government of Uganda Total NFA is a self-accounting statutory body with its own planning and budgeting Source: MoFPED. The budget for forestry constitutes 46 percent of the Sector Investment Plan budget. 61. even if all the money were released (which is often not the case). • strengthening the capacity of lead agencies and other institutions to implement programmes on environmental management. the key determinants regarding the financing actually allocated to a given sector are budget ceilings which are set by the Ministry of Finance. social and environmental) for all people. Vol. 2007. • conserving and managing wildlife and protected areas. However. the environment and natural resources sector in general and forestry in particular are not given a corresponding priority in national and subnational budget allocation (Table 1). This makes forestry a very high priority. while the forestry subsector has the lion’s share of the budget allocation in the Sector Investment Plan and could actually mobilize the recommended funding from willing donors. MTEF ceilings hinder it from accessing the funding (Figure 1).THEME 5 DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES 46 this plan. So despite strong positive statements. • establishing laws. regulations. • promoting research. strategic objectives for forestry include: • improving the ability of forests and trees to yield increased benefits (economic. REVENUE RETENTION Restoration of degraded forest ecosystems is one of the objectives of the Sector Investment Plan for environment and natural resources S. Note: US$1 = U Sh1 730 (December 2007). • restoring degraded forest ecosystems. 2010 . standards and guidelines. Thus. NSITA 1 Environment and natural resources in Uganda’s medium-term expenditure framework (MTEF) Sector Agriculture Energy and natural resources (excluding lands) Security Works and transport Education Health Water Justice. It is clear that the priorities in the MTEF could never be achieved with the budgeted funding. Planning and Economic Development on the basis of resource envelopes available for fiscal control to ensure macroeconomic stability to qualify for debt relief. Unasylva 234/235.

16 7 281. which indicates that tree growing is becoming an attractive smallto medium-scale enterprise even if the payback is long term. 61. Projects funded by ODA are required to remain within the MTEF ceilings and must address priorities in the National Budget Framework Paper. In contrast.5 1 408.4 812. good governance and initial strong support • the Law Enforcement Section monitors the movement of forest products and publicly auctions all illegal forest produce impounded.THEME 47 5 DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES TABLE 2. A stimulus to private investment is the Sawlog Production Grant Scheme.8 US$ Impounded timber revenue as % of total 24.43 194. • revenue collection has been decenincentive for staff to develop mechanisms for generating revenue. and therefore their importance often goes unnoticed.8 1.6 9. a grant from the European Union (EU) over US$41 million to development of forest plantations in Uganda.9 3.9 134. particularly in sectors like environment and natural resources that are not politically vote-winning.6 111.0 3 075. It is clear that law enforcement and governance can generate substantial forest finance.6 0.3 7.5 5 420. PRIVATE-SECTOR FOREST FINANCE that refunds 50 percent of tree farmers’ costs.94 6 679. Almost half of percent) used personal cent using personal loans from financial port increasingly shows that it is difficult Unasylva 234/235. National Forestry Authority TABLE 3. as well as another 36 million Norwegian kroner (about US$6 The funds are part of ODA although the activities funded are carried out by private tree farmers.7 247.9 317.8 33.0 4 223. robust law enforcement.to medium-scale tree growers (with up to investors in commercial forest plantations and 69 percent of the planted area (15 104 ha). although the attributes of a holistic approach to development are theoretically attractive. However.2 18. At establishment.84 142 475 566 290 656 015 594 732 680 498 842 197 675 898 768 405 1 294 514 1 810 560 2 300 858 35 378 31 565 95 935 57 725 87 350 31 735 11 017 2 018 93 288 145 964 173 150 12 263. the bulk of its budget was funded through ODA as upfront investment for the first four years. 2010 .9 1 044.8 5.1 57.45 13 914. but these sources are largely undocumented.31 23. a substantial proportion of its funding still comes increase in NFA’s revenue (Table 3) can be attributed to its businesslike approach.7 1 518.8 760.0 1 159.6 14.61 1997/98 1998/99 1999/2000 2000/01 44 46 58 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 148. Impact of timber monitoring systems on revenue (NFA) income statements (million U Sh) Year Total revenue Impounded timber revenue Source of revenue Own revenue Government subsidy ODA Subtotal Own revenue as % of total Source: Note: 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 Million U Sh 1995/96 1996/97 163. Vol. Although the agency’s own revenue has increased over the years. Investment from private sources is sector funding decreases (Figure 3). Another factor in the growth of private investment is the Ugandan Government’s decision to rent forest reserve land to tree farmers A recent survey (Global Mechanism.0 US$a Million U Sh 36.2 602. Small. forestry projects implemented by civil society organizations have no standard planning and budgeting procedure and are immune to MTEF ceilings.37 14 299. although the Government of Uganda encourages budget support funding. BUDGETING THROUGH SPECIFIC PROJECTS Private-sector funds have an important role in financing forestry nationally and locally. for transparency and to generate the best prices the market can offer.7 184.41 process.2 78.2 8. some donors are still funding projects. provided certain technical stand- approved by the EU.97 6 012.08 6 438.6 2 563. • competitive bidding limits corruption and creates realistic market prices – raising the average price of 1 m 3 of pine roundwood from 2004/05 2005/06 Source: a to guarantee concrete results.1 7. These grants are outside MTEF ceilings.8 3.91 8 262.7 12.

Ecotourism and production of medicinal plants accounted for 1 percent each. public financing 2 Private-sector funding from domestic sources. the promise of future income and the availability of land in central forest reserves under licence. As observed above. 2006/07 2007/08 Domestic private sector (commercial timber plantations) Unasylva 234/235. unpublished. however. The innovative sources of funding that have become popular at the international level (carbon. Uganda Projected budget (billion U Sh) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2007/08 2008/09 Year Domestic Source: Global Mechanism. responsible management of forests for financial gain should also help conserve the environment. Vol. 2009. investment in forest management from domestic private-sector sources has grown by nearly 330 percent.THEME 5 DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES 48 from donors. payment for environmental services. do not seem to have interested many private owners of natural forests as yet. 71 percent went to tree growing and management. Of the private-sector investment in commercial forestry operations. unpublished. Natural forest management accounted for 4 percent. Note: US$1 = U Sh1 927 (December 2009). often touted for their importance in forest management. unpublished. Uganda (2002–2008) Volume of investment (million U Sh) 25 000 20 000 15 000 10 000 5 000 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 Year Source: Global Mechanism. corporate social responsibility) are virtually unknown at the forest manbetween donor funding for environment (which includes forestry) and domestic investment in commercial timber plantations has been closing (Figure 4). Note: US$1 = U Sh1 988 (December 2008). 61. Note: US$1 = U Sh1 927 (December 2009). ecotourism and medicinal plants. Forest-based enterprises such as beekeeping. The survey results suggest that people are investing in forest management for profit. motivated by the low risk they associate with tree growing. On the other hand. Financial gain and security are the driving forces behind their investment in forest management rather than environmental protection per se. 2010 . Given the interest in commercial tree growing generated 10 0 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 Year Donor funding (environment) Source: Global Mechanism. Not one respondent had received a loan earmarked for forestry by a financial institution. 2009. 2009. 2006 2007 2008 3 Public funding (domestic and donor) for environment (including forestry) for the period 2007/08– 2010/11. 2009/10 2010/11 Donor Total 4 Volume of Investment (billion U Sh) forest management in Uganda 40 30 20 (Figure 3). The MTEF estimates a drop funding (donor and domestic) over those three years.

leading to huge losses in forest revenues for government. hospitals). which has been mainstreamed into the poverty reduction strategy. Herein rests an apparent contradiction in international support: While the Paris Declaration embraces respect for country priorities. record-keeping and regulatory and organizational structure. health. how would a highly indebted poor country like Uganda access the resources for forestry in view of the budget ceilings? There are 40 such countries. privatesector investment in commercial tree growing is increasing. has restructured forestry governance and has developed a National Forestry Plan. and a simple stimulus can evoke an enormous private-sector response as There is still work to be done at the national level to unleash the full Unasylva 234/235. The debate also appears to assume that the new and additional resources must be provided by developed countries to developing countries. Politicians will allocate resources to projects that will easily garner votes (roads. • With the advent of electoral democracy. water. construction. • Forestry has a major role in supporting the development of other sectors of the economy (agriculture. mainly because it takes a long time for the impact of forests (or their absence) to show. • Political commitment in favour of forestry is inconsistent at both the national and subnational levels. but responsible management of forests for conserve the environment resources from all sources” should be provided through a global forest fund or a facilitative mechanism. Many political actors recognize the socioeconomic and environmental value of forests but have little courage to support investment in the sector. CONCLUSIONS Uganda has a new forest policy and new forestry legislation. but also ignores the key clause “from all sources”. forestry is still not a priority in terms of budget allocation. • Forestry in Uganda is dominated by an informal sector which lacks institutional visibility. there is a mismatch between the poverty reduction strategy. energy. budget ceilings are the main cause of low financial allocations to forestry. Reasons for the scantness of forestry funding may include the following. The current global debate on forest finance revolves around whether “increased new and additional financial While public-sector investment in forestry is declining. the budget ceilings established by Uganda are in practice a conditionality under the HIPC Initiative. schools. especially on a small to medium scale S. Vol. Above all. elaborate planning and budgeting procedures and impressive the country has implemented all the key outcomes of the global forest dialogue and the tenets of the Paris Declaration. The question is. Sector Investment Plan and MTEF targets and the eventual financial allocations. industry and environment) but this link is difficult to demonstrate. NSITA . however. which severely hampers implementation. Forest law enforcement and governance can yield substantial resources as shown in Table 3. This attitude not only contradicts other agreed recommendations. since heavily indebted poor countries must have a poverty reduction strategy and MTEF with ceilings to qualify for debt relief. a number of them in the “highly forested low deforestation” category. if either of these were established tomorrow with billions of dollars. the average politician’s immediate interest is to be elected. Despite this effort. The question of budget ceilings is therefore a pertinent one. NSITA Financial gain and security are the driving forces behind private investment in forest management.THEME 49 5 DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES domestic private-sector sources will continue to increase. 2010 S. Uganda has decentralized governance. 61.

domestically generated public and private-sector funds. would fulfil an important leveraging function to boost the quality and quantity of forest finance at the national level. DC. supported by ODA. World Bank. Ministry of Finance. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. National Forestry Authority. If these were dealt with. NFA. Planning and Economic Development. 2010 .THEME 5 DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES 50 potential for domestic forest finance. Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and Accra Agenda for Action. and global dialogue needs to focus on this. Paris. Uganda. Unasylva 234/235. MoFPED. National biomass study. Uganda. Uganda. Environment and natural resources sector – Sector Investment Plan. poor law enforcement. Ministry of Water and Environment. Vol. Uganda. Kampala. weak regulation. budget ceilings and local politics are but a few of the issues that need urgent attention. National Budget Framework . France. NFA. HIPC at-a-glance guide. hence paving the way towards sustainable forest management. indirect subsidies. Uganda. Bibliography OECD. Poor policies and laws. Kampala. MoFPED. low absorption capacities. unstable macroeconomic regimes. Kampala. National Budget Framework . Kampala. Kampala. 61. USA. corruption. Annual report for 2006/07. Washington.

mentoring and employment. In Turkey. tending and protection. grade. 2003).THEME 51 5 DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES How can Turkey’s forest cooperatives contribute to reducing rural poverty? suggest that small is not always Forest cooperatives are generally created to assist forest owners in obtaining the best value for goods and services. pack and distribute forest products. Forest villagers depend on traditional animal husbandry. and thus to reduce the socio2002). .e. low-productivity agriculture and forestry work. forest nursery production. although it has been declining with rural-toTurkey’s forest cooperatives are mostly tasked with organizing work in village forests and distributing the wood harvested from them urban migration (ORKÖY. There are 2 123 forest cooperatives in Turkey. at discounted prices. To enable cooperatives’ right to market sale. Forest villages are those containing a forest within their administrative borders. Sezgin Özden is in the Faculty of Forestry. 2008). Vol. debarking. forest maintenance and building of forest roads. petrol sales. OGM sells them one-third of the fuelwood produced in Turkey at cost (i. where almost 100 percent of forest is State owned. forest cooperatives have been established primarily to improve the income and living conditions of people living in forest villages. cultivation of fruits and vegetables. under the supervision of the local forest authority. and collect. process. with 290 000 members. and collection of non-wood forest products. Their average gross annual income is only US$400 (OGM. Unasylva 213. and are placed with the nearest forest cooperative according to Turkish forest law. well below the usual market price). Most of them focus on the production and marketing of wood. 61. Today Turkey has more than 21 000 forest villages. As incentives. dairy and honey production. They help forest owners participate in activities such as afforestation. limited education and healthcare services and high unemployment rates. 2009). compared with US$5 780 in 2004 for the entire country (State Planning Organization. the General Directorate of Forestry (OGM) gives priority to cooperatives in wood production. 234/235. removal and transport. provide members with up-to-date technical information and training. They contribute to local skills and business development. The total government subsidy provided and are in Turkey. 2004). as well as some of the wood produced. produce and distribute superior planting stocks. Government orders for wood are not subject to tender. local handicrafts. They typically have a living standard far below the national average. Forest cooperatives distribute among their members such jobs as timber harvesting. A small proportion also engage in other businesses such as ecotourism. their combined population is 7 million (10 percent of Turkey’s population). afforestation. and can also promote democracy and good governance (ICA. 2010 212.

The forest cooperatives have formed 27 regional cooperative unions. raising financing and obtaining loans. Furthermore. the survey indicated that 68 percent of the cooperative presidents only completed primary school. It offers information services and legal and managerial guidance to members. In addition. 2004). Indeed. 2010 Unasylva 213. However. 2004). In Kastamonu Province. 97. OR-KOOP includes 1 349 cooperatives. Forest cooperatives are administered under three different laws and two ministries (Environment and Forestry. Legal and institutional problems and ambiguities. training villagers or raising economic. obtains 74 percent of its total income from activities other than wood production. The biggest problem with marketing (reported by 83 percent of the cooperatives) was insufficient capitalization. most cooperative presidents are unable to provide the leadership required to win the trust and loyalty of their members. About half of the forest cooperatives surveyed reported marketing problems. 2009). as well as ORKÖY staff. sons. Although the national forest programme states that priority will be given to increasing the capacities of forest cooperatives (OGM. Lacking education and managerial skills. these are the ones that have succeeded in reducing the poverty of est Cooperative in Kastamonu Province. A literature review and a survey of forest cooperative leaders and employees. and none has a woman president. and provides leadership that the forest cooperative system previously lacked (OR-KOOP. Agriculture). which are in turn under the umbrella of the Central Union of Turkish Forestry Cooperatives (OR-KOOP). Because wood production jobs are seasonal. A villager’s shed in the forest: forest villagers typically have a living standard far below the national average Marketing. provides funding and low-interest loans to forest cooperatives. Only 7 percent of the cooperatives reported cases in which employers or lenders had provided training before assigning a job or giving a loan. with conflict sometimes resulting. Vol. about three-quarters of the cooperative presidents felt that the government neither sets policies in favour of the cooperatives nor provides them with sufficient support. which has the most forest cooperatives. no funds are left in reserve to serve as operating capital. vocational training. and thus have trouble operating efficiently. to cooperatives in this way is estimated to be US$80 million a year (OGM. Few women involved. Many members are elderly and not actively working.THEME 5 DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES 52 months or less per year (and 25 percent only one month). It supports marketing of their products. Only about 10 percent of the cooperatives have diversified activities and work year round. forestry work and marketing of products. Since most forest cooperative members are poor. more than half of the presidents surveyed were in office for only one to three years. within the Ministry of Environment and Forestry. Only 1 percent were trained in cooperative business and management. provinces in the Black Sea Region. preparation of development plans and rural development projects (ORKÖY. social and cultural levels. the General Directorate for Forest Village Relations (ORKÖY). accounting for 70 percent of the wood production in Turkey. Turkish laws do not hinder women from starting. The survey was carried out in Sinop. established in 1997. Of those surveyed. Single focus on wood production. 2009). the cooperatives are hindered by frequent change of management. but social standards are such that the cooperatives have few female members. 42 percent had 7 to 50 members and 40 percent had 51 to 100 members. . 2009). Small scale of activity. for example. balancing income distribution. the forestry cooperatives in Turkey have contributed less than expected to reducing rural poverty. decreasing illegal activities in forests. Turkey’s et al. more than half of the cooperatives are active only three Low level of education and training. production. Weak leadership. Most cooperatives were started in a single village with few members. all income is shared among the members. examined the rea- Unasylva 234/235. 61. 8 percent were university graduates. joining or leading cooperatives.5 percent of the respondents employed by the State Forest Organization commented that managers and members of cooperatives needed training in cooperative business. The following were the main constraints identified..

2010 212. Quality of existing products should be evaluated. and between cooperatives and the forest authorities. In the latter case. forestry processes. Ankara. . Larger cooperatives. Vol. entrepreneurship and organizational aspects should be strengthened. OR-KOOP should widen its marketing capacity for new products and provide the marketing facilities that the cooperatives cannot afford to establish by themselves. Capacity in leadership. Competition for the jobs assigned by the forest authorities also creates conflict among the many small cooperatives. köylerinin sosyo ekonomik sorunlari forest villages in Turkey and impact of cooperatives on the development and solution of these problems (KastamonuIn Congress on Socio-economic Issues in Forestry Forestry Economics-Social Working Group (ORMIS). National Forestry Cooperatives Symposium Turkey. Available at: ekutup. 2009. Türkiye ormancilik Bibliography OR-KOOP promotional brochure. ralistic and democratic management approach is needed in the cooperatives. Unasylva 213. 234/235. 135–147. W.tr Lise. [National forest programme General Directorate of Forestry. management and marketing.tr/uploads/files/ ORKÖY. International Cooperative Alliance. tr /f _ State Planning Organization.gov. Communication problems and lack of concrete short-term benefits cause frequent conflicts between the members and management of cooperatives. raporu Ankara. New laws and administrative procedures must be developed to increase the forest cooperatives’ power to contribute to reducing rural poverty. could help overcome problems of scale and also reduce conCooperatives should widen the range of their products to include non-wood products and also forestry services such as afforestation. ICA. Turkey. Available at: www. social and political activities. Turkey. Available OR-KOOP. encourage the creation of rural women’s organizations and help promote equal participation of women in economic. Factors affecting forest cooperative’s [sic] participation in forestry in Turkey. 11(2): 102–108.orkoop. between cooperatives and their umbrella organizations. Managers and members of cooperatives need to be trained in cooperative business. product development. Mühendislik mimarlik öyküleri – III [Tales of engineering and architecture]. of forest cooperatives in Sarikamis and Oltu regions from the perspective of rural development and regional forestry]. started jointly by several villages. Central Union of Turkish Forestry Cooperatives (OR-KOOP). Conflicts. the main cause is disagreement over the unit prices for wood fixed by the authorities. The possibility for forest cooperatives to receive external grants or initial assistance should be strengthened. dpt. Available a t : w w w . International economic indicators 2008. Switzerland. 61. General Directorate for Forest Village Relations. Central Union of Turkish Forestry Cooperatives. Press release. Geneva. Ankara. Recommendations Strategies that could help improve forest cooperatives’ effectiveness in raising the economic and social well-being of forest villages include the following. The umbrella organization OR-KOOP cooperative level. Available at: www. g o v . Forest Policy and Economics. natural regeneration and forest maintenance. Ankara. pp. sg b .THEME 53 5 DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES Greater involvement of women might enhance the cooperatives’ effectiveness.org. OGM. and new markets should be created in towns closer to the producers to avoid problems in transportation of products. Market analysis of wood and non-wood forest products is needed. Turkey. c e v r e o r m a n . and democratic development. Gender awareness raising and training for women could help cooperatives leadership skills.

transparency. Envirocare implements development projects aimed at improving environmental conservation. About Envirocare The Environmental. It was grounded in the principle that local people’s ownership rights and empowerment to govern the resources on which they depend must be recognized. with a human rights and gender based perspective. access. economic empowerment of vulnerable groups. administration and implementation of policies. Key principles guiding good governance of forests include equity and justice. rights. Dar es Salaam. legislation. 61. The objectives were: • to build capacity in forest governance. The project was supported by the National Forest Programme Facility.THEME 6 ORGANIZING FOREST DEVELOPMENT 54 Promoting good forest governance for sustainable livelihood improvement: a Tanzanian example A. Unasylva 234/235. guidelines and norms relating to ownership. accountability. ReCoMaP (the Regional Coastal Management Programme of the Indian Ocean Countries) and Care Tanzania. civic education and HIV/AIDS awareness of youth. institutional and economic arrangements that contribute to improved forest governance. subsidiarity and sustainability (Kenya Forest Service and Ministry of Environment and Natural governmental organization Envirocare project to promote good governance in forest management for sustainable livelihood improvement in Kilindi District. Ramadhani villages helped community propose solutions and begin to implement them. Vol. • to identify and promote policy. and women’s rights and agricultural policies favourable to the environment. The project worked with four village communities adjacent to Songe-Bokwa forest. Human Rights Care and Gender Organization (Envirocare) is a in 1993 and funded by Hivos (the Netherlands). regulations. use and conservation of forests and woodlands (covering over 35 million hectares or almost 40 percent of the country’s land area) are essential for lasting poverty reduction and sustainable development. It has worked in promoting organic farming and improved farming methods. empowerment. sustainable management. tree planting and participatory forest management at household and community levels. • to promote and consolidate equal gender participation in forest decisionmaking.envirocaretz. For more information. Its vision and in a sustainable way. responsibilities and practices for sustainable management of forests at the local or national levels – is of vital importance. Thus good forest governance – referring for the purposes of this article to the formulation.com Abdallah Ramadhani works for Envirocare (the Environmental Human Rights Care and Gender Organization). I n the United Republic of Tanzania. people’s livelihoods and equitable sharing of natural resources. see: www. 2010 . FAO. United Republic of Tanzania. legal.

Finally. After seeing that the resulting depletion of forest resources was contributing to drying of water sources. all community members have control over it.and non-wood forest products was a factor facilitating their unmanaged and degradation. 2010 . vegetables. agriculture (permanent and shifting cultivation). sheep and goats. poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability in the district. Songe-Bokwa forest did not have a management plan to ensure that local forest-dependent people took responsibility for managing the forest. Local officials with Forest-adjacent communities met in workshops to identify obstacles to sustainable forest management. water. As it was non-reserved. PROJECT ACTIVITIES Institutional obstacles. Although the scale and budget of the of actions required to begin to influence forest outcomes in a local district. Vol. propose solutions and devise a conservation action plan Envirocare organized a series of workshops to identify the problems facing the forest and propose solutions in a participatory manner. institutional and economic obstacles to sustainable management of the SongeBokwa forest and the equitable access and benefits that sustainable forest ties proposed solutions. charcoal making. village leaders became interested in promoting more sustainable use of the resources. The forest was continuously subjected to heavy pressures from livelihood activities such as random felling. unmanaged fuelwood gathering. Unfortunately. In the usual procedure. F. Vilindwa and Kwamba. Forest-adjacent communities in each of the four villages helped identify the policy. SILAYO • to promote and strengthen transparency in allocation and use of forest resources. the plans would be approved by the general meeting of the district (the full council) for implementation. land development. The national forest policy’s failure to regulate trade in wood. SONGE-BOKWA FOREST The Songe-Bokwa forest in Kilindi District covers about 3 000 ha and shares borders with four villages together having about 10 000 inhabitants: Songe. collection of other forest products and herding of cattle. environment. disappearance of traditional medicines and the need for women to walk long distances for fuelwood. good practices and good forest governance were not in place. Forest resources are thus vital to livelihoods. The forest is village land. village assemblies were not well attended. then taken to the village assembly for public discussion and agreement. hunting. energy and minerals – and the lack of an effective mechanism for intersectoral collaboration. Sustainability was not given priority. and on this basis devised conservation action plans. Economic activities carried out by the forest-adjacent communities include beekeeping. The forest is rich in biodiversity. including agricultural encroachment communities Policy and legal obstacles. the yearly plans for conserving and managing the resources of the Songe-Bokwa forest were generally first discussed by village council members. collection of wild fruits. legal. A further obstacle to sustainable forest management was the lack of harmonization in the policies and laws of the various sectors related to land use – agriculture.THEME 55 6 ORGANIZING FOREST DEVELOPMENT Songe-Bokwa forest was continuously subjected to heavy pressures from livelihood activities. Other key project activities included training and awareness raising on good forest governance. SILAYO Unasylva 234/235. and then taken to the ward development council – comprising the village chair- officer and technical personnel in that particular ward – for further comments. wildlife. weaving materials of timber and precious stones. setting of forest fires to enable hunting of wild animals and growth of good forage for livestock. F. Bokwa. 61.

Envirocare Village governments. district beekeeping officer Tree nursery establishing groups. Vol. The training emphasized good governance concepts. Local government had limited capacity for law enforcement. were given to workshop participants for distribution in the villages. district land-use officer District council. • learning forest policies and laws taking good governance into consideration. policy options for promoting good governance Workshop participants were trained in good governance concepts including local people’s empowerment and participatory forest resources assessment in Songe-Bokwa forest. village governments 10/07–12/07 8/08–11/08 devised a short-term conservation action plan listing all activities that were to be implemented for the period of August Training and awareness raising In addition to holding local discussions with the communities about good forest governance. SILAYO . Kiswahili. • conserving water catchments. 2010 F. forest officers and other stakeholders needed training on the provisions of the Forest Act and associated legislation and guidelines. charcoal were contributing to the degradation of the forest and reducing the quantities of resources available. Economic obstacles. district council. Short-term conservation action plan for Mount Bokwa forest Activity Make by-laws Form forest patrol groups Start and strengthen beekeeping groups Plant trees Provide training on hunting wild rabbits using nets instead of fire Start small income-generation projects (e. Information materials produced by Envirocare in the local language. • establishing boundaries for SongeBokwa forest. Trainees were equipped with the necessary materials. The communities noted that illegal or unmanaged logging and hunting. local people’s empowerment. Poverty had increasingly become a major cause of forest decline. Envirocare. village executive officers Beekeeping groups. Forest guards. as well as the booklet Understanding forest policy. • land-use planning. Training was pro- groups in each village. laws and land rights in Tanzania. vegetable gardens. district forestry officer Elders and Envirocare Group chairpersons. Proposed solutions Solutions proposed by the community workshops included the following: • making of by-laws. • establishing forest patrol groups. Envirocare. Unasylva 234/235.g. collection of medicinal plants. since poor forest-adjacent the natural resources in order to survive. knowledge and skills to train others in their respective communities. These materials included posters on environmental degradation in Mount Bokwa forest and on good governance in forest conservation. the beneficiaries TABLE 1. Conservation action plan Following the discussion on the causes of environmental degradation and proposed solutions for sustainable management of Songe-Bokwa forest. the project organized five workshops to train community leaders to promote good practices and raise village awareness. 61. Envirocare. Investors from outside Kilindi District were also contributing to depletion of the forest resources. participatory forest resources assessment and transparent procedures for granting concessions for harvesting forest products. village executive secretary. tree nurseries) Create awareness on land-use planning Make long-term management plan Time frame 8/07–10/07 10/07–12/07 10/07–11/07 9/07–3/08 10/07–11/07 10/07–11/07 Responsible Village chairpersons.THEME 6 ORGANIZING FOREST DEVELOPMENT 56 personal interests in the forest resources could easily take advantage of the ignorance of the community to protect their own interests. • tree nursery establishment. • involving the community in forest conservation and planning for sustainable use of forest resources. raising chickens. Envirocare. • alternative income-generating activities. Envirocare Chairpersons.

61. SILAYO The project also addressed the different roles of women and men in livelihood activities with respect to management of the available resources and development of alternative income-generating opportunities.THEME 57 6 ORGANIZING FOREST DEVELOPMENT Workshop participants received information materials to raise awareness in their villages RESULTS The project results were monitored for two years. the attendance at village assemblies F. 2010 . Measurable indicators were developed in a participatory manner with the ben- the meetings. The following is a summary of the progress made during that time. including both men and women. Vol. Increased community awareness of policy intentions to promote people’s participation The community was made aware of policy aims to encourage people’s particithe National Forest Policy includes the statement that: “Local communities will be encouraged to participate in forestry activities. village groups were trained on fire prevention methods by the district natural resource officer. Clearly defined forest land and tree tenure rights will be instituted for local communities.” Greater community response in village assemblies Before implementation of the project. Monitoring progress To track the efficiency and effectiveness of the planned activities over the course (five from each village) and the Envirocare project management team came together to develop a monitoring system. But following awareness- TABLE 2. In addition. Development of indicators for monitoring progress Problem Forest wildfire Source of the problem Illegal hunting Honey harvesting Pasture regrowth Impacts Forest degradation Solution Start income-generation activities Make by-laws Establish boundaries for fire control Indicators Increase in the number of households with small ruminants and chickens Increase in water availability Increase in number of beehives Decrease in cases of forest fire Increase in number of planted trees Deforestation Fuelwood collection Charcoal burning Illegal timber logging Unreliable rainfall patterns Destruction of water catchment Soil erosion Destruction of catchment areas Extinction of endangered animal species Make by-laws Establish forest patrols Plant trees Presence of by-laws Increase in number of trees planted Increase in conserved water catchment area Encroachment of Mount Bokwa Shifting cultivation Land scarcity Livestock grazing Use best agricultural practices Create awareness on land-use plan Make by-laws Forest patrols Start alternative incomegeneration activities Increase in forest area/cover Increase in water flow Illegal hunting Need for income Need for food Presence of by-laws Increase in number of wild animals Increase in number of small-scale livestock keepers Increase in number of households using energy-saving stoves Increase in number of trees planted in farms and other areas Charcoal burning Lack of income Lack of alternative source of energy Environmental degradation Look for alternative sources of energy and income Promote tree planting Unasylva 234/235. This gender perspective helped promote equitable benefit-sharing and more effective local government.

since many villagers were investors in the hives. attendance increased to 400. The income-raising activities have empowered women economically. The Kiegeya group and the Tumaini men’s group of Songe and the Ujamaa group of Bokwa started apiaries in their respective villages. raising about 10 000 seedlings in total. access and equitable sharing of natural resources. with which they established tree nurseries. racks and shovels. there was only one reported fire incident. All together. reducing the time needed for fuelwood collection and giving women more time for other household tasks and for rest. SILAYO raising activities on the importance of participation in forest resource decisionmaking. The seedlings were distributed to the village communities to start their own forest farms. These were to be taken to the ward development council for discussion and then to the district council for approval. forest fires per year. But local people’s involvement in creating by-laws to discourage encroachment by outsiders. arbhorrea (Gmelina arborea) and Grevillea robusta seeds and watering cans. the groups established 100 hives. the four villages made by-laws in Kiswahili related to the management. Tree nursery establishment and tree planting The project supplied the environmental committee of each village with 1 kg of teak (Tectona grandis).4 ha vegetable garden which produced 10 bags of tomatoes and 15 bags of sweet peppers. increased fire management training and the villagers’ desire to protect their beekeeping activities in Songe-Bokwa forest all contributed to the decrease in forest fires. Creation of local by-laws To persuade forest-adjacent communities to abide by the forest management rules and regulations. which is then sold for 5 000 shillings (TSh) (about US$4) per litre. and in convincing their fellow villagers to stop farming on the forested slopes of Mount Bokwa. They established fire boundaries and engaged forest patrols and income-generating groups in reporting and fighting forest fire. The recovery could be partly attributed to the influence of the district commissioner. On average each hive produces 10 litres of honey per harvest. which was quickly put out by village volunteers. Enhanced income opportunities The project resulted in the formation of several community groups focused on alternative income-generating activities. The event was quickly communicated to the community and the fire was put out before major damage could occur. Vilindwa village also reported a significant decrease in forest fire incidence. who gave the order for villagers to stop farming in forest areas. 2010 . In Songe. In Kwamba village. 61. It is likely that greater Unasylva 234/235. In Songe village. On one occasion a pastoralist set fire to the forest at Kwamba village.THEME 6 ORGANIZING FOREST DEVELOPMENT 58 awareness of the importance of conserving forest resources. The hives Communities in all four villages became active in the prevention of forest fire. annual incidents decreased to three from a previous minimum of seven. also had a role. Decreased encroachment of Mount Bokwa forest Implementation of the project resulted in had been encroached by cultivators. The culprit was caught and fined TSh30 000 In Bokwa village no forest fire incident was reported. the Mshikamano group established a 0. In Kwamba. Increased community response to 1 000 energy-saving stoves which were sold at an affordable price in their communities. Vol. Formation of forest patrols Forest patrols were formed according patrols of five people each were formed for the four villages. They agreed to Village groups began beekeeping to raise additional income and discourage villagers F. More members of the community became concerned about the fast rate of disappearance of their forest resources and recognized the need to participate in decision-making on how the resources should be managed and used. the Tumaini women’s group were placed in the forest to discourage villagers from setting forest fires. which are helping to reduce pressure on the forest.

helping to sustain these outcomes. The public must be convinced that the village government is honest. by W. Vol. • Maintain discipline in managing natural resources.THEME 59 6 ORGANIZING FOREST DEVELOPMENT patrol their respective village forest areas (ranging from 71 to 1 666 ha) twice a week on days agreed by them but not disclosed to others. tree planting and production of energy-saving stoves. Groups generating income through forest conservation related establishment.g. Target groups and stakeholders received the project wholeheartedly. Unasylva 234/235. • Protect and reward whistle-blowers. The forest patrols need to be equipped with the necessary gear for effective operation (e. Each village government should identify the areas under its authority that are prone to corruption and take measures to tighten procedures. overalls. Nairobi. torches) and should continue in other village development activities. need to be supported in obtaining access to markets for their products. The Kilindi District authority should legally give the communities adjacent to Songe-Bokwa forest the role of conserving it and using its resources sustainably. Mathu. The following recommendations may help to continue promoting good governance of forest resource management in the project area and elsewhere. The concept of good governance will have to be refined from time to time to adapt to changing societal requirements. Although the concept of good governance was relatively new among the project in Bokwa forest was positive. Villages need to devise by-laws Bibliography Kenya Forest Service & Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources. • Allocate unprotected forest land for conservation and sustainable use by villagers. Forest law enforcement and governance in Kenya. boots. • Set up a standing committee on good governance. • Make local government more transparent and accountable. • Put good governance in forest management into practice in all village governments. • Strengthen income-generation groups. review the delegation of powers. A standing committee in each village could continuously interact with stakeholders to make suitable recommendations on the subject. they were eager to learn and cooperated to the fullest during the entire period of project implementation. • Mainstream good governance in village meetings. laws need to be drafted in language that they can easily understand – in this case non-technical Swahili. In each meeting. • Strengthen and motivate the forest patrols. The village governments must make a commitment to the principles of good governance. To be accessible to villagers. know and on which parameters their performance will be judged. 2010 . Forest monitoring continues within other ongoing Envirocare projects in Kilindi District. Many villagers consider forests on non-reserved land as no man’s land. means business and is bent on eradication of forestry-related corruption. identify areas of discretion and prepare associated guidelines. Wide publicity should be given to forest-related corruption and the remedial steps taken to deal with it. Accountability in each office is only possible if the people at large. • Continue fighting corruption in harvesting and trade of forest products. • Simplify laws. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS illegal loggers or people who set forest fires. it will have to change if good governance in forest management is to be a reality. All offices involved in natural resource management at the village and district levels should adopt a mission statement and publicize it widely. Kenya. as well as the staff and officers themselves. 61. This perception allows illegal loggers to take out timber and other resources as and when they please. The village government might institute annual awards to recognize their contributions in to forest resources. According to the new by-laws. the village government could review the steps taken for good governance. the patrol members are having to work in other village development activities such as construction of classrooms.

ACHS). pulp and paper) in 2006. which is defined as that performed “in conditions of freedom. • providing adequate income. This article addresses some common issues of relevance to the world’s forest workers.8 0. occupational F orests cover one-third of the cent of them are publicly owned. paid or unpaid. In the past decade. Ackerknecht On labour unions. Santiago.THEME 7 PEOPLE AND FORESTS IN HARMONY 60 Work in the forestry sector: some issues for a changing workforce C.7 million people The International Labour Organization “human activities.3 1. Employment in the formal forestry sector (wood production. or supply the needs of a community. information on forestry employment is scarce or inconsistent. by region Region Forest employment 2006 (‘000 workers) 530 5 811 Europe Latin America and the Caribbean North America 3 815 1 510 1 677 365 13 709 % of total employment 0.1 0. Chile.2 0. It does not. 61. equity. Decent work is characterized as being: • productive and secure. Western and Central Asia World total Source: Unasylva 234/235. address the negative impacts of the international financial crisis on work in the forest sector. FOREST EMPLOYMENT The Global Forest Resources Assessmation on forestry employment just in - TABLE 1. or provide a person’s accustomed means of livelihood”. ILO has shown a special concern for decent work. • respectful of labour rights. 1999). collective negotiation and participation of all the parties involved. that produce the goods or services in an economy. This article relies heavily on statistics and specific studies related to the forestry sector available covering the past 40 years.4 Growth trend Africa Unstructured Increasing slightly Decreasing Increasing Decreasing Increasing moderately Carlos Ackerknecht is Director of the Forestry and Wood Industries Safety Programme. wood processing. Asociación Chilena de Seguridad (Chilean Safety Association.1 0. security and human dignity” (ILO. 2010 . Vol.7 0. [Ed note: That subject has been addressed in depth in Unasylva At the global level. Forestry (considered here as wood production. wood processing and pulp and paper industries) provided employment to 13. however. as well as an occupational health and safety system recognized as one of the best in the world. • having social protection. accounting for 1 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). • maintaining a social dialogue with freedom of union association.

some included sawmilling while others included only roundwood production. much of the work in the world’s forests and wood industries is informal. and some included fuelwood collection. it had fallen by about 1 million since 1990 particularly in Asia and Europe as a result of mechanization.THEME 61 7 PEOPLE AND FORESTS IN HARMONY Much of the work in the world’s forests is informal. but by 1994 the United active members. a branch opened in Canada in 1946. The current organiza- ing of wood and non-wood forest proon this parameter. 2010 . characterized by poor working conditions. the number of forest workers was declining. low pay. Chile. Other countries saw slight increases. ized by deplorable working conditions. Training is key to improving safety and productivity in forest operations Although there are no firm estimates. but it is estimated that no more than 10 percent of the forest sector workforce has union membership The body currently covering the greatest number of forest-sector workers is the Building and Wood Workers’ International (BWI). it does not provide social security ACHS Unasylva 234/235. corporate social responsibility obligations and commitments involved in obtaining forest certification. This is particularly true in developing countries. business restructuring and the privatization of State activities. IWA had its highest membership – about 115 000 workers – in the 1970s. Vol. In the United States of America it was estimated that sources of employment in agriculture. hunting and fisheries protection for workers. low pay. are being put in place to improve the situation. differences in the data collected made it difficult to draw ple. In the North American forest sector. the labour union movement has not been as pervasive as has about 136 unions. in other words. where are enrolled in some form of social security or welfare system for themselves and cent in developed countries (Superintendencia de Seguridad Social. However. forestry. so it merged into the International Association of Machinists as the Woodworkers Department In Latin America. Even before the financial crisis. international regulations that companies must observe in order to gain as clean production mechanisms. while others did not. and lack of job security and health and safety protection. reported part-time work without converting to full-time equivalents. created in December of Building and Wood Workers and the World Federation of Construction and Wood Workers. the union movement began with the founding of the International Woodworkers of America (IWA) in the United States in 1937. 61. and lack of job security and health and safety protection UNIONIZATION AND ORGANIZATION OF WORKERS FAO/FO-6982/A. WHITEMAN Forest workers’ union activities date back at least a century in Europe and spread to other parts of the world with immigration. that the forest workforce would decrease in Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States because of reductions in tree felling quotas imposed by legislation or environmental regulations.

Unasylva 234/235. Forest management should meet or exceed all applicable laws and/or regulations covering health and safety of employees and their families. wood.84 1. while Chile counts lost time from the day of the accident. CHILEAN SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT CERTIFICATION (CERTFOR) Principle 7. 2010 . while others do not. Those responsible for the forest management unit shall safeguard workers’ health and safety. some countries include accidents during travel time in their statistics.THEME 7 PEOPLE AND FORESTS IN HARMONY 62 the building. Siegfried. In most countries. personal communicaDespite these efforts. The compulsory training programmes established in some developed countries are worthy of note.2. Forest management operations shall maintain or enhance the long-term social and economic well-being of forest workers and local communities. In an attempt to standardize training for workers in Europe. pational safety and health in the forest sector. Criterion 7. Community relations and workers’ rights.and woodworkers to perform safely and productively while protecting the environment. Most countries have adequate training systems for engineering and other high-level technical skills.11 0. time lost due to accidents is counted from the third day. The number of fatal accidents per million cubic metres of harvested wood is perhaps the only category for which Standards and regulations developed since the 1990s to reduce the accident rate in forest operations and to contribute to the creation of healthier and safer working environments in the sector include: • ILO codes of good forest practices • principles and criteria for worker protection included in criteria and indicators used for certifying sustainable forest management (see • International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for quality management (ISO 9001) and environ- In many countries. Belgium. still have large numbers of workers requiring proper training. safeguarding their health and safety in the workplace. Criterion 4. Vol. but few programmes to develop the skills needed by timber. Germany and the Netherlands produced a methodology to monitor and evaluate the level of skills among forestry workers. this alternative is forbidden by law. 61. 1999 to 2004 Country Sweden Germany Chile Austria Switzerland Slovenia Sources: All operations 0. making comparison almost impossible. compensate them adequately and equitably. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH TABLE 2. the main problem facing forest enterprises seeking to improve the productivity and safety of their operations is the lack of good training for the workforce. Those responsible for forest management must respect forest workers’ direct and indirect rights. An required for those desiring to become supervisors. building materials.90 Small-scale operations 0.60 – – In many countries. for other forestry equipment are required by law to follow a three-year course under the guidance of a forestry supervisor. in some countries. Many countries use incident 500 000. the Leonardo da Vinci Learn for Work Project in Austria.20 – 3. especially developing countries. But in Argentina it is counted from day 11.95 1. the failure to report health and safety incidents in the workplace hampers provision of the effective medical and preventive attention needed to improve forest workers’ quality of life and also makes it impossible to obtain reliable statistics to assess the true state of occupational safety and health in the sector. Fatalities per million cubic metres of wood harvested. Boyd and J. Finland. many countries. Employers sometimes hide accidents by sending injured people to work doing light duties or counting them as first-aid cases. In Germany. the Czech Republic.67 0. 1 million or other amount of worked hours – to calculate occupational safety levels. Finally.94 4.80 2.4. 100 percent of their workers were trained cent of the forest-sector workforce had the necessary qualifications (I. The world’s countries have not adopted common indicators or criteria for occu- Principles and criteria for occupational health and safety: some examples FOREST STEWARDSHIP COUNCIL (FSC) Principle 4. forestry and related sectors in 130 coun- TRAINING AND SKILLS CERTIFICATION France.

Chile. to make them true forest professionals. working men) is that of combining their working activities with caring for their family and the needs of their personal life (ILO and UNDP. This trend could be encouraged through improved social benefits and working conditions to facilitate a balance between the roles of worker and mother. Relación edad y accidentalidad en trabajadores del sector forestal en Chile. Estadísticas y estudios varios sobre seguridad en el trabajo forestal. Social and welfare protection may need to be intensified commensurate number of dependent older adults.7 1. not equally represented in management and decision-making (Blombäck and lenges facing working women today (and increasingly.9 0. Ageing is a positive trend inasmuch as it is a sign of improved life ity of life increasing the number of old people capable of working (although it is also an outcome of a reduced birth rate). C. Growth in the world population and percentage of older adults between 2000 and 2050 Period Growth Over age 60 rate of total % of total Annual population population growth rate (%) (%) 1.2 8. its improvement requires systems for training them and for certifying their skills. Unasylva 234/235. CONCLUSIONS mental management (ISO 14001). such as applied genetics (ACHS. However. Where the social status of forest workers is low. holistic management systems and sustainable forest management models can contribute to healthier and safer working environments in the world’s forests and wood industries.THEME 63 7 PEOPLE AND FORESTS IN HARMONY TABLE 3. (Unpublished document) Ackerknecht. technician and Adequate social security coverage – including attention to risk prevention.5 24. 61. Codes of good practices. 2010 . Chile.8 2000 2025 2050 Sources: Female employees are often preferred for tedious tasks or those requiring delicacy and precision. and the subsequent addition of a series of occupational health and safety evaluThe combination of these management systems with sustainable forest management regulations can help reduce p. health care and economic compensation for the harsh and potentially dangerous working conditions – is fundamental to improving working conditions in forests and timber industries. as fewer young people are motivated to pursue a career in forestry at all levels (engineer.2 3. Vol. Women are increasingly finding employment in the sector.1 3. while at the medium and lower levels women are found mainly in jobs involving supervision. such as applied genetics Ageing Perhaps the greatest challenge facing forest-sector enterprises in the creation of healthier and safer working conditions is that of adapting to a workforce that is ageing in every part of the world (Table 3). 64). Santiago. the harsh conditions of forest work contribute to the ageing of the sector’s workforce. The world’s workforce is ageing. CHANGES IN THE FOREST-SECTOR WORKFORCE FAO/J. CARLE Women’s participation is increasing in forestry work. social benefits and working conditions to address this balance. A final conclusion is that information on employment in the forest sector must be improved if policies related to safety and working conditions in forests and forest industries are to be improved. XII World Forestry Congress Women in the workforce The gradual entrance of women into various forest activities and the woodworking industry has also altered the workforce. risk prevention and tasks involving fine motor skills. development and planning. prospects of health and occupational safety. ACHS. At the engineer level many women work in research. greater longevity also entails new social risks. Asociación Chilena de Seguridad.1 14. In Congress proceedings. and this general trend may be compounded in the forest sector by a lack of motivation for young people to take up a forest career. work.6 0. Santiago. Bibliography ACHS. particularly in spheres requiring attention to detail. typically in tasks requiring delicacy and precision. such as destabilization of pensions and other social security It is likely that in most countries.

Note: Average population = 55 098 workers Unasylva 234/235.6 0.9 6.. 1 Evolution of the accident rate in Chile’s forest sector between 1989 and 2008 in 1 892 enterprises belonging to the Chilean Safety Association (ACHS) 3 Evolution of the age of workers suffering accidents in forest sector enterprises belonging to the Chilean Safety Association (ACHS) % 100 1997 1999 Industry 2001 2003 2005 Forest sector 2007 90 16.0 16.THEME 7 PEOPLE AND FORESTS IN HARMONY 64 Occupational health and safety in Chile Some indicators suggest a trend towards improved safety and health in Chile’s forest sector. reductions have been observed since 1993 in both the accident rate (relating the number of accidents to the average number of workers) and the loss rate (relating the number of days lost through workplace accidents and work-related disease to the average number of workers) (Figures 1 and 2). 25 20 15 10 5 0 1989 1991 1993 1995 Forest Source: ACHS.7 0.1 2004– 2008 Source: ACHS.9 2. 2005). Some change has also been observed in the age of workers suffering accidents in the sector since 1998 (ACHS.4 <18 1. 2009a.4 30 17.5 21-25 18-20 40 16.9 2. monitored 25 forest harvesting enterprises over ten years. 2009b) (Figure 3). With a view to assessing the impact of sustainable forest management systems on occupational safety and health. 2009a. the Chilean Safety Association (ACHS).2 0.4 Age >60 51-60 41-50 36-40 31-35 26-30 50 18.6 1.1 80 18.1 10.0 7.9 2 Evolution of the loss rate in Chile’s forest sector between 1989 and 2008 in enterprises belonging to the Chilean Safety Association (ACHS) 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 Forest Source: ACHS.3 11. 61. For example. Vol.5 16.7 16. 2009b. working with the University of la Frontera.1 10 5.5 60 20 17.0 0 1998 – 2002 2001– 2005 Industry Forest sector 5.5 25.3 70 14.9 16.5 18. 2010 . Since increases in their competitiveness as a result of improvements in the accident and loss rates and in the average number of days lost through accidents (Ackerknecht et al. 15.

Rome. M.ilo. State of the World’s Forests 2009. 61. Available at: www. Switzerland. chileno. USA. ILO thesaurus 2005.. Santiago. In Congress proceedings. Forest and Forest Products Employment Skills Company Ltd. About BWI. Presented at V Congreso Internacional de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales. Santiago. Geneva. FAO. implementation on occupational health and safety in Chilean forest companies. work in forestry? Enhancing forestry work and forest-based livelihoods.ilo.org FAFPESC. Superintendencia de Seguridad Social.InternationalLabourConference. in forestry. C. In Second International Conference on Safety and Health in Forestry. Reyes. Chile. Geneva. Woodworkers history. H. C. Chile. International ILO. Report of the Director-General: Decentwork. Rome. FAO Forestry Paper No. 147. P. Chile. Feature article. XII World Forestry Congress. Annecy. Available at: www. Chile. Available at: www. & Poschen. Internet document. Envejecimiento de la población y los sistemas de protección social en América Latina. 17 February. Hudson. Switzerland. D.goiam. BWI. Internet document. Bassaber. Work and family: towards new forms of reconciliation with social co-responsibility. Safety and health in forestry work. & Miranda.org/ public/libdoc/ILO-Thesaurus ILO. International Association of Machinists. P. France. IAM. 1999. Bertranou. in Budapest – The impact of ageing on labour markets and pension reform. Building and Wood Workers’ International. woodworkers/woodworkers-history ILO. FAO. Forest and forest products industry workforce and industry data collection survey report 2006. Washington. Switzerland. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science. 2010 . Available at: www. P.THEME 65 7 PEOPLE AND FORESTS IN HARMONY (Abstract) Ackerknecht. Maryland. Switzerland. van Lierop. Victoria. Blombäck. forest education: global trends? Presented Unasylva 234/235.. ILO. F. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Upper Marlboro. Carouge. Geneva. Employment projections 2006–16.C.org/global/About_ the_ILO/Media_and_public_information ILO & United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). of Latin America. Santiago. Vol. Australia. B. bwint. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 – Progress towards sustainable forest management.

specialized fora and poster sessions. The congress was attended by more 160 countries. The vertical and horizontal connections are only developing with The connection between international dialogue and local implementation of sustainable forest management has change is that regional forestry processes are now encouraged to fill the theme. economic. etc. Wageningen. This article identifies some trends perceived by the authors. trade and industry. non-governmental organizations [NGOs]. from government to governance. “Forests in Development: a Vital Balance”. referred to the importance of establishing a sustainable equilibrium not only among the ecological. the Netherlands. side events. Herman Savenije is in the Ministry of Hague. representing a wide range of disciplines (technical. ally every current forestry issue – were considered during the various plenary sessions. Vol. TOPICS AND TRENDS Globalization and social integration of forests continue unabated. social. but also between forestry and other sectors. scientists. the Netherlands. ecological) and functions (policy-makers. Two tendencies in governance are prominent: a and down to the local levels (multilevel to include markets and society (multiactor governance). Forests are increasingly becoming a societal concern. using as the point of reference their observations from the article concludes with the authors’ recommendations for change to ensure the sector’s relevance and effectiveness in sustainable development. 2010 . social and economic functions of forests. values and vocabularies. i. thematic sessions. its findings collectively provide a picture of views and trends in the forest sector. The increasing number of claims on forests – economic. of interest to others besides foresters. Kees van Dijk is with Tropenbos International. and students). coordinated. A longer version of this article has previously been published online. A general shift can be observed in many countries in governance practice and policy-making and in the role and position of central government. social and environmental – and the plurality of stakeholders at all scales (global. beyond geographic borders. Since the World Forestry Congress is the largest forestry gathering in the world. Forests are increasingly considered as part of a larger whole. T he XIII World Forestry Congress was hosted by Argentina ingly alienated from forests (because of evident that many more people (city dwellers. requiring an integrated.66 World forestry at a crossroads: going it alone or joining with others? H. 61.e. and display great dynamism and diversity Although the congress’s Final Declaration states that people are becoming increas- Unasylva 234/235. van Dijk Forestry Congress. collaborative approach. NGOs. with ests.) are becoming stakeholders in those same forests. Savenije and K. national and local). complicate the play of forces and the decision-making regarding forests. and most are closely interwoven with other issues beyond the forest sector.

famine. easily become a secondary political priority. Forests could no longer be viewed as the exclusive domain and responsibility of the forest sector. where the forestry community expectations or just the latest hype? The topic of forests and climate had little the XII World Forestry Congress. but attracting the largest audiences. gap in communication between the local and international levels and to facilitate national and local implementation of internationally agreed principles. feed and fuel. Treaties were seen increasingly to shape the broad environmental context for national forest policies and management. integrated forest management. in the form of sustainable. or NGOs and businesses. Whether an equilibrium can be found among these competing claims. if seen in isolation from these. empowerment. 61. despite the rhetoric devoted to them. participation and new alliances were recognized. The multifunctionality of forests. especially those of large-scale agriculture and bioenergy. information and communication technology. based on democratization. But while the importance of cross-sectoral relationships and planning continues to be emphasized. Unasylva 234/235. Stakeholders in the past. especially because the production functions of forests immediately provide money (whether legally or not). Despite growing recognition of the importance of protecting forests for their regulatory functions and biodiversity. The lack of intersectoral connections also applies to international climate discussions. is open to question. Vol. and that utilization and protection objectives needed to be achieved as part of sustainability to support livelihoods and combat poverty. from decisions. Much is said about integrating forests into landscape approaches and into national policy. The effects of other economic sectors on forests are becoming greater. Given the major predicaments facing humanity – poverty. the multithrough partnerships. while connections to the local level were decreasing. arising from the rapidly increasing demand for food. but forest management and protection are still improving too slowly The greatest threats to forests come from beyond the domain of forestry. but the links to global developments in land use. Growing awareness of the multifunctionality and importance of forests is encouraging. 2010 . and about strengthening the relationships with others that Yet neither those in the forest sector nor those in other sectors have been able to give effective shape to this integration. energy. A message formulated by the congress for delivery to the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen. for example involving local communities and businesses. The increasing appreciation that the sector cannot “go it alone” was leading to the development of many new types of partnership. climate change. transparency and equitability. The real challenge for the forest sector lies in forging links with other sectors and among various levels. while collective goods such as the regulatory functions of forests are rarely priced and compensated.67 frequently watches from the sidelines Some trends observed at the XII World Forestry Congress in 2003 In 2003 the authors recorded the following impressions after attending the XII World Forestry Congress in Quebec City. emergencies. urban-rural relationships and institutional and administrative developments were not automatic. conflicts – and the political and social urgency of tackling them. trade. It had become apparent that strict separation between protected areas and utilization areas was neither tenable nor feasible. water. Locally generated experiIncreasing interest in a landscape approach to forests was resulting in greater emphasis on intersectoral relationships and the underlying causes of deforestation. in most countries these have improved little if at all. Policy-making at the global level had increased. financial crisis. Much interest was seen in payment or compensation for environmental functions of forests by shifting away from development cooperation to international cooperation. forests. accountability. Good governance. increasing claims on land and on wood as a raw material (for construction and energy) are leading to greater pressures on forests. was being allocated a more important place in discussion of forests at all levels. Canada.

power relations. including potential impact on soil. However. oil-palm or other rapidly growing biomass crops. Although interest in this subject has not actually disappeared. water and biodiversity and on the income. particularly firstgeneration biofuels. but this issue has been sidelined are still major problems in technology. was strongly promoted as the way to sustainable forest management. What has happened to the interest in community forestry and social forestry? For many years. including managed forest plantations for biomass production. was presented as an opportunity to channel more money into forest protection.68 with concern the impacts of climate change on forests and strongly emphasize[d] the important role forests play in climate change mitigation and adaptation as well as the need for forest-dependent people and forest ecosystems to adapt to this challenge”. it no longer takes an ple. Most countries that are candidates for REDD funding do not currently have the institutional capacity to use it effectively. for into plantations for soybean. Doubts and misgivings have also demand for renewable sources of energy is good or bad for forests and forestry. in particular.e. landownership and poverty. Forest landscape recovery and management of secondary forests should not be neglected The climate and energy discussion has generated additional interest in the conservation of natural forests and the creation of forest plantations. Sessions on forest landscape recovery and management of secondary forests concluded that these are two of the main challenges for forestry and require more attention. Vol. Forests and energy: a controversial dilemma Opinions at the congress differed regarding whether rapidly developing industrial The importance of protecting forests for their biodiversity and other environmental services is increasingly recognized Unasylva 234/235. 2010 H. Deforestation and forest degradation remain deeply rooted in macroeconomic. and they are also vital for biodiversity (and the recovery of biodiversity) and ecological regulation. there are no quick solutions to any of these problems. particularly the ties between fuelwood use and poverty. This remains a dire problem in many countries but has almost entirely disappeared from international development cooperation agendas. for There are also concerns that a REDD and unworkable for forests as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was in the past (as evidenced by the dearth of afforestation/reforestation projects under the CDM). projects and programmes concerning the relationship of people and forests in in the past. SAVENIJE . participation by local populations in forest management. What was striking (and perhaps also a warning) was that the congress dealt with issues of forests and energy primarily from an environmental perspective (i. It has led. property rights and livelihoods of local populations. The general message was that forests provide far more than just carbon sequestration. as an alternative to fossil-fuel-generated energy) and almost entirely overlooked the socio-economic issues. in the form of community forestry and social forestry. methodology and implementation. Some predict that future developments in biorefining and bioprocessing technology will lead to major opportunities for bioenergy from forests. in a relatively tions and a large number of new initiatives regarding forests and carbon. political and institutional conditions. because forests are often essential components of the landscape on which poor local people depend for their livelihood and culture. Others are concerned that the increasing demand for bioenergy. Whether bioenergy development will have positive or negative outcomes for forests and forest-dependent people will standards and incentives created for the production of biomass and the effectiveness of their implementation. forest recovery and other aspects of sustainable forest management. Potential social and environmental risks of this type of land-use change were pointed out. recovery of degraded forest landscapes and effective management of secondary forests are equally important. 61. It is clear that the “climate trump card” (or should that be “straw to clutch at”?) has quickly had a positive effect on the overall mood in the forest sector. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD). is already bringing about major changes in land use that directly or indirectly threaten forests.

a concept that was still new and unelabobecome part of mainstream thinking. but the many publications on the subject make clear that the PES concept is still under development. At the same time. New ideas are also being developed for setting up green national accounts (which incorporate the value of environmental services in economic accounting). There is a great deal of interest in payment for ecosystem services (PES). in some cases it may involve obligatory Attention is also focusing on new sources of funding. however. including institutional investors. More than in the past. and there is a great deal of tion in this area. But paying for ecosystem requirements set. Problems that still how the value of a certain ecosystem service can be quantified. 61. forest managers are confronted by a plethora of new standards and certification or verification schemes. within which the actual contribution of forests to the economy and society is quantified. SAVENIJE Unasylva 234/235. particularly as regards the provision of formal producers management. as many poor local people depend on forests for their livelihood and culture it simply lead to proliferation of standards? have appeal as a market instrument to promote sustainable management and production. particularly as regards the provision of formal financing to small producers. The multifunctionality of forests is emphasized as a basis for for forest management. and how those users should pay for the service. as is often supposed. Reasons for this limited success include the direct and indirect ultimately. management and protection. the concept has barely taken hold in national markets. where the largest quantities of timber and other forest products are sold and H. The forest and must learn more about each other in order to do business together.69 Forest landscape recovery is a key challenge. legality. This proliferation not only may lead to confusion and higher costs for producers and consumers. 2010 . the international market. The certification market requires harmonization and coherence if it is to achieve its intended credibility. One major challenge is how more money can be generated from the capital market (already the most important source) and used in a socially responsible and sustainable manner for forest recovery. are only beginning to tap such sources. it also entails the risk of unequal requirements for the various systems. but it has not really taken hold yet for tropical forests (for which the concept was originally developed). this involves the two sectors learning “to speak each other’s languages” in order to do business together. who the users are. SAVENIJE as others – particularly climate change – have attracted more attention. Vol. the forest sector must create a workable link to the financial sector. H. services need not necessarily be done through the market. and above all the lack of policy and institutional preconditions for sustainable forest management. how the price should be determined. Many countries. effectiveness and scope. what is needed is a healthy protection Financing is increasingly seen as the key to effective management and protection of forests.

61. and not only in the forest sector. i. social ity. 2010 H. Substantial progress has been made in sustainable production chains. this is seen as involving not only trust. Many of the solutions to forest problems have to come from other sectors. more than in the past. Vol. Congress will be held. Forestry cannot “go it alone” in isolation from other sectors. Governance and Trade (FLEGT) processes. modernizing the forest sector and responsible business activity. Conversely. or joining with others? Unasylva 234/235. Going it alone. but also fair and equitable participation and organization of roles. such as that for the world’s climate. Good (or good enough) forest governance is now a generally accepted concept in discussion of forests. illegality and bad governance. society in general and political circles. rights. Forestry institutions will need to focus outward. Persuasiveness vis-à-vis the agricultural sector. as a fully recognized and equal stakeholder. the sector focuses inward in its approach to problems and solutions – often viewing other sectors and society at large as the cause of the problems (or lamenting their lack of support and recognition) rather than as partners and facilitators in solving them. indicating what it has to offer. Francis Seymour. the Director General of the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). In Buenos Aires.e. The forest sector must adopt a more active. including their role in combating poverty. Investment is needed to develop skills in communicating. SAVENIJE . Attention to it has grown. to become service providers that can supply concepts and methods.70 Without good governance and effective institutions. transparency and accountability. referring to the question of what policy and institutions are necessary so that sustainable forest management has a positive impact on local households and society in general. responsibilities and powers among stakeholders and institutions at all levels. as shown by Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (FLEG) and Forest Law Enforcement. wondered: “Can we orchestrate good vibrations?”. The question is how those challenges are to be tackled. In addition to maintaining and guaranteeing substan- The trends observed above suggest that the forest sector must focus. relevant and effective partners in developing and implementing global and local forestry agendas. achieving consensus and collaborating with others. the extent of sustainable forest management will remain limited Governance was an emerging topic at sion of corruption. Currently. combating illegality. This entails giving up some of the autonomy (or supposed autonomy) of the sector and learning to accept being only a small part of a larger dimension. New agendas. What is certain. the necessary skills to operate and communicate strategically are not currently well developed in the forest sector. However. major functions that properly managed forests can provide to society and the cost of losing forests are often not highlighted sufficiently. the financial sector and political circles in general will be decisive. the value of all the goods and services they provide. Good governance and sound institutions are viewed as the decisive factors for sustainable forest management. strategic and political position in public debate and must contribute difficult to predict what the situation will and methods if they wish to remain interesting. substantive and policy-oriented forestry so that forests can deliver the best possible contribution to sustainable devethe forest sector to make clear the value of forests. is that the developments and tendencies sketched here – ongoing globalization and decentralization. governance changes and increasing competing claims on forests – constitute major challenges for the forest sector and for forestry specialists. can bring new opportunities to the forest sector. The authors believe that this is indeed possible if the forest sector manages to come out of its shell and make progress in connecting and cooperating with other parties. on the outside world and questions and perceptions that are arising there. managing conflict. AND THE FUTURE? to current political and intersectoral agendas. however.

71

FAO FORESTRY

FAO’s most comprehensive forest review to date indicates that globally, just under 13 million hectares of forests were converted to other uses or lost through natural causes each year in 2000–2010, as compared with close to 16 million hectares per year during the 1990s. The study covers 233 countries and areas. It indicates that the world’s total forest area is just over 4 billion hectares or 31 percent of the total land area. Brazil and Indonesia, which had the highest loss of forests in addition, ambitious tree planting programmes, especially in China, India, the United States of America and Viet Nam – combined with natural expansion of forests in some regions – have added more than 7 million hectares of new forests annually. The net loss of forest area has thus been reduced to 5.2 million hectares per year in 2000–2010 (an area equivalent to that of Costa Rica), down from 8.3 million hectares per year in the 1990s. South America and Africa had the highest net annual loss of forests in 2000–2010, with 4.0 and 3.4 million hectares respectively. Oceania also registered a net loss, due partly to severe drought in Australia since 2000. Asia, on the other hand, registered a net gain of some 2.2 million hectares annually in the last decade, mainly because of largescale afforestation programmes in a few countries, especially China. However, conversion of forested lands to other uses continued at high rates in many countries in South and Southeast Asia. In North and Central America, the forest area remained fairly stable, while in Europe it continued to expand, although at a slower rate than previously. time that the rate of deforestation has decreased globally through concerted efforts taken at both the local and international levels. However, the rate of deforestation is still very high in many countries. Primary forests – forests undisturbed by human activity – account for 36 percent of total forest area but have decreased by more than 40 million hectares since 2000. This change is regenerated forests” because of selective logging or other human interventions. The area of forest in national parks, wilderness areas and other legally protected areas has increased by more than 94 million hectares since 1990, now equalling 13 percent of the total forest area. Forests – among the world’s most important carbon sinks – store some 289 gigatonnes (Gt) of carbon in trees and vegetation. Carbon stocks in forest biomass decreased by an estimated 0.5 Gt per year in 2000–2010, mainly because of a reduction in total forest area. Fires, pests and diseases are causing increased damage to forests in some countries. On average, 1 percent of all forests

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New leader for FAO forestry
The FAO Forestry Department welcomes a new head, Assistant Director-General Eduardo Rojas-Briales, effective 1 March 2010. Rojas-Briales, a Spanish national, comes to FAO from the Faculty of Agronomy of the Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain, where he was a professor in the M.Sc. programme in Forestry from 2003. In 2004 he was appointed Vice-Dean of the Faculty. Rojas-Briales holds an M.Sc. degree in Forestry from the University of Freiburg, Germany and a Ph.D. from the Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain. From 1992 to 1998, he was Director of the Catalan Forest Owners Association. He also served as part-time Professor of Forestry Policy at the University of Lleida, Spain (between 1994 and 2000). From 1996 to 1999 he headed the European Forest Institute (EFI), where he was responsible for projects on multifunctional forestry as a means for rural development, on multifunctional forest management and policy for mountainous regions and on national forest programmes. From 1999 to 2003 he did consulting work in forest policy. Earlier in his career, he worked for the forest services of Germany and Catalonia, Spain. His particular areas of interest and expertise include silviculture, afforestation, forest law, forest policy, national and regional forest programmes, and institutional reform. Since 1997 Eduardo Rojas-Briales has been on a number of EFI from 1998 to 2002.

World deforestation, mainly the conversion of tropical forests to agricultural land, has decreased over the past ten years but continues at an alarmingly high rate in many countries, according to the results of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010), released in March.

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deforestation and poor watershed management, which have hectares of forest annually. Extreme weather events such as storms, blizzards and earthquakes also took a heavy toll in the past decade. Seventy-six countries have issued or updated their forest policies since 2000, and 69 countries – primarily in Europe and Africa – have enacted or amended their forest laws since 2005. Data collection for the Global Forest Resources Assessment is becoming more comprehensive and precise. New data and additional information on afforestation and on natural expansion of forests for the past 20 years has made it possible to estimate rates of deforestation and loss from natural causes more accurately. The new global estimate for 1990 to 2000 (close to 16 million hectares per year) is higher than was estimated in FRA 2005 (13 million hectares), because it now also includes deforestation within countries that have had an overall net gain in forest area. FAO’s Global Forest Resources Assessments are published and forest-related international organizations were involved in the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010. The full report of this assessment will be released in October 2010. In addition, an FAO-led global remote-sensing survey of forests, sampling some 13 500 sites in the world over a 15-year period, will be completed towards late 2011, providing even more accurate information on rates of deforestation, afforestation and natural expansion of forests. forestry/fra/fra2010 frequent tropical storms and hurricanes. Some 95 percent of Haiti’s original forests have been destroyed; nearly 10 percent of the country’s forest cover (11 000 ha) was lost between 1990 and 2005. The earthquake creates a risk of even greater deforestation as displaced residents of Port-au-Prince, seeking food and shelter in the countryside, are likely to cut remaining trees as a source of energy and construction material. The restoration of the protective and productive functions of forests through reforestation and agroforestry on the barren hills of Haiti will play a critical role to prevent soil erosion and landslides, protect downstream agricultural production and act as a protective buffer to regulate the quantity and quality of water to downstream reforestation and agroforestry as urgent priorities, as any initiatives in downstream rural areas and cities can be destroyed without related upstream integrated watershed management. FAO has developed project proposals on reforestation and agroforestry which are to be presented for funding at the International Donors’ Conference “Towards a New Future for Haiti” in New York on 31 March 2010. The conference has been organized by the international support to lay the foundation for Haiti’s long-term recovery. The proposed reforestation programme includes targeted measures to protect reforested areas from overexploitation for fuelwood and charcoal to ensure the sustainable long-term rehabilitation of Haiti. FAO has also launched the initiative “Fruit Trees for Haiti” in support of the Haitian Government’s campaign to plant 10 million trees. FAO Director-General Jacques Diouf, during a four-day visit food production, rural employment and reforestation are the keys to a greener, more productive Haiti. The FAO initiative focuses on providing fast-growing fruit trees for school gardens. Later other tree species will be included. A mere US$5 donation will buy an avocado or mango tree for a Haitian school garden, and covers fertilizer and other inputs as well as educational material to build awareness of the role of trees in protecting the environment and information, or to contribute, see: getinvolved-donate.fao.org

The magnitude 7.0 earthquake that struck Haiti on 12 January 2010 was devastating in terms of fatalities, injuries and loss of housing, infrastructure and livelihoods. Recovery will be an enormous undertaking. The United Nations immediately launched a Flash Appeal for US$1.4 billion to cover emergency humanitarian assistance and key early recovery projects until December 2010. In the longer term, relief efforts will have to focus on “building back better” – ensuring that Haitian institutions are stronger and more resilient than before, and that the most vulnerable people are protected. With more than 65 percent of Haitians engaged primarily in agriculture, FAO has already begun to provide seeds, fertilizer and tools, aiming to reach 180 000 smallholder farming families. Forestry will have a key role in improving the country’s low agricultural productivity. Over time, Haiti has suffered from loss of fertile soils and potential farmlands as a result of heavy

Rates of deforestation and forest loss are regularly measured, but forest degradation is harder to measure, even though it is similarly important. Many recent environmental goals and initiatives rely

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Objective of the United Nations Forum on Forests, climate change initiatives for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries, and the 2010 Biodiversity Target of the Convention on Biological Diversity. degradation as the reduction of the capacity of a forest to provide perceptions regarding forest degradation are many and varied, depending on the driver of degradation and the main point of interest – biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, wood production, soil conservation or recreation, for example. In the countries are currently able to report on the area of degraded forests or the degree of forest degradation. FAO and other members of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF), together with other partners, are undertaking a special study to identify the elements of forest degradation and the best practices for assessing them. The main objective of the study, which is carried out under the umbrella of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010), is to help strengthen the capacity of countries to assess, monitor and report on forest degradation by: degradation and degraded forests; identifying and describing existing and promising assessment methodologies; developing assessment tools and guidelines. Forests may be degraded in terms of loss of any of the goods storage and other protective, socio-economic and cultural values). By using the seven thematic elements of sustainable forest management, the study will identify suitable indicators to assess the degree of degradation of a forest at different management levels. The study approach includes a survey of existing country practices to see what is being measured; an analytical study on case studies to describe proven or promising methodologies and tools for assessing different aspects of forest degradation. From 8 to 10 September 2009 a technical meeting was held at FAO headquarters in Rome to review the results and to recommend actions to improve measurement, assessment and reporting on forest degradation. Participants included all the contributors to the study and representatives of international agencies. The degradation were presented and discussed. Working groups then discussed indicators of degradation and proven and promising assessment methodologies in more detail. A session was also held on forest degradation and climate change.

Among its main outcomes, the meeting endorsed a generic

particular purposes. Participants also called for: improved communication of the many different aspects of forest degradation to climate change negotiators;

level, biodiversity, forest health, level of use/production and forest soil; the inclusion of forest degradation in terms of climate change into the proposed mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), since methodologies do exist to monitor changes in carbon stocks; the development of tools and guidelines for measuring different aspects of forest degradation. Further information is available at: www.fao.org/forestry/ degradation-cpf

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Good progress was made on forest issues at the climate change meetings held in Copenhagen, Denmark from 7 to 18 December 2009, even though the outcomes were generally disappointing in most other respects. (COP 15) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the two ad hoc bodies tasked with delivering a follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol and agreement on further action under the convention – the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) and the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA) – were unable to conclude their work, and their terms were extended. The Copenhagen Accord was “noted” but not approved. Parties agreed to notify the UNFCCC Secretariat of their wish to associate with the accord and their mitigation targets or activities by 31 January 2010. The Copenhagen Accord recognizes the importance of holding the increase in global temperature to 2°C. However, no aggregate emission reduction commitments were agreed. Countries pledged funding of US$30 billion for the 2010–2012 period and up to US$100 billion a year from 2020. The accord called for the establishment of the Copenhagen Green Climate Fund. The Copenhagen Accord includes the following text on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD): “We recognize the crucial role of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the need to enhance removals of greenhouse gas emission by forests and agree on the need to provide positive incentives to such actions through the immediate establishment of a mechanism including REDD-plus, to enable the During the meetings, six countries (Australia, France, Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States of America) collectively agreed to dedicate US$3.5 billion “as initial public deforestation in developing countries”. The COP adopted a decision on methodological guidance for REDD-plus (covering REDD plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest stocks). The

and positive incentives in REDD-plus in the AWG-LCA discussions. The draft text outlines principles, safeguards, scope and a phased approach for implementing REDD-plus actions under a UNFCCC instrument. It requests SBSTA to identify drivers of deforestation and to work on methodologies to estimate emissions and removals and assess mitigation potential, and calls for coordination of REDD-plus activities among those supporting them. Issues still to be resolved include national versus subnational approaches to REDD-plus; measurement, reporting between REDD-plus and nationally appropriate mitigation actions mixed). Negotiations of AWG-KP on land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) in industrialized (Annex 1) countries addressed the rules relating to accounting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals. Key issues include accounting for forest management activities and for carbon in harvested wood products. AWG-KP also discussed the proposal to broaden the scope of activities eligible for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. The draft text calls on SBSTA to begin exploring ways to move towards more comprehensive accounting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals by sinks by LULUCF activities. Regarding adaptation, the draft AWG-LCA text calls for a Copenhagen adaptation framework or programme, under which action would be initiated by countries. Aspects that remain undecided, however, include institutional structures (new versus existing) and the establishment of an insurance mechanism for climate change–induced losses. Agreement seemed clear on the need for enhanced regional cooperation on adaptation, and the draft AWG-LCA text calls for establishment of regional adaptation “centres” or “platforms”. On 13 December 2009, the Government of Denmark and the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) with the other members of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF) co-hosted Forest Day 3, attended by 1 600 participants. It included three subplenary sessions (on mitigation, adaptation and forest degradation) and eight parallel learning events. This Forest Day, as did the previous two, provided an opportunity to extend messages from the forestry community to the UNFCCC discussions. Though inconclusive, the Copenhagen meetings were at an all-time high. The focus on adaptation and mitigation has become more balanced. It appears likely that REDD-plus funding could increase dramatically in the short term; as a consequence, capacity strengthening for developing countries will take on increased urgency. Proposed changes related to LULUCF accounting and offset rules have the potential to improve forest management and increase forest-based mitigation in developed countries as well.

Advice (SBSTA), requests Parties to identify drivers of deforestation and forest degradation; to identify REDD-plus actions to take; to use the most recent Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidance and guidelines for carbon accounting; to establish national forest monitoring systems; and to engage indigenous people and local communities in monitoring and reporting. It also calls for stronger capacity building and increased coordination of support. Good progress was made on negotiations on policy approaches

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including research. the participants expressed their belief that widespread scaling-up of agroforestry innovations during the next decade could greatly facilitate the success of global commitments and conventions such as the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and the conventions on biological declaration included the following proposals: vigorous development of cross-sectoral policy and institutional frameworks that support agroforestry at regional and national levels in the context of development strategies and multilateral environmental agreements. Throughout the year countless initiatives will be organized to disseminate information. • The International Year of Biodiversity provides an occasion and to focus on the urgency of challenges for the future. 61. These losses are irreversible. In the Congress Declaration. A clear message that came out of the congress was that over the past 30 years. removal of and the impacts of climate change – are causing the diversity of life on earth to be lost at a greatly accelerated rate. with numerous partners. The congress attributed this in agroforestry in a compelling and intelligible way to policy-makers. politicians and the public. enhanced public and private investment in agroforestry initiatives.75 million of these have been named and recorded. including plants.75 WORLD OF FORESTRY As many as 13 million different living species. the variety of life on earth. although the number of trees on farms is steadily increasing. agricultural expansion is often a cause of deforestation. while strengthening links between science and policy. companies and individuals to take direct action to reduce the constant loss of biological diversity worldwide. and a land use that can address many of the world’s most pressing problems. Under the slogan “Biodiversity is life. educators. only 1. The question therefore arises of why. cohosted by the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in Nairobi. Safeguarding biodiversity and reducing biodiversity loss are vital for current and future human well-being. agroforestry has matured into a robust. is essential to sustaining the living networks and systems that provide all people with health. practitioners and policy-makers from around the world. use of biotic resources and value adding to agroforestry products at all levels. share the earth. the United Nations has proclaimed 2010 as the International Year of Biodiversity. The congress attracted almost 1 200 researchers. conservation and rehabilitation of natural resources. fuel and the vital services that their lives depend on. To raise global awareness and increase understanding of the crucial role that biodiversity plays in sustaining life on Earth. impoverish everyone and damage the life support systems people rely on every day. the future of global land use” was the theme of the second World Congress of Agroforestry. The importance of good public relations was highlighted. see: www. • Human activities – felling or burning of forests. while contributing to rural livelihood improvement and Unasylva 234/235. In tropical countries. This incredible natural wealth is a priceless treasure forming the ultimate foundation of human well-being.int/2010 absorption of atmospheric carbon and restoration of degraded land. The celebrations for the International Year of Biodiversity are led by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). genetic improvement. accelerated development of methodologies for measuring. and policies and institutions. The congress had three subthemes: food security and livelihoods. food. who came to share new research ideas and experiences. At Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon proclaimed the need for a new biodiversity vision and called upon every country and every citizen of the planet to engage in a global alliance to protect life on earth. institutions. the celebration of the year draws attention to four key messages: • Humans are part of nature’s rich diversity and have the power to protect or destroy it. Agroforestry has a key role in addressing the challenges of food security that are inevitable with the world’s rapid population growth. Kenya from 23 to 28 August 2009. For more information. Biodiversity is our life”. promote the protection of biodiversity and encourage organizations. The International Year of Biodiversity is a chance to prove the will to stop the losses. Forests and trees in agricultural landscapes are central to sustainable agriculture. animals and bacteria. wealth. explore partnership opportunities and strengthen communities of practice.cbd. education and development. The practice of conservation agriculture and increasing tree cover on farms can also offer prospects to smallholder farmers for diversifying livelihoods and incomes via emerging carbon markets. But farming and forests do not have to be mutually exclusive. Vol. sciencebased discipline. enhanced research and development in tree domestication. But they can be prevented. agroforestry is not being adopted more widely and rapidly. • Biodiversity. 2010 . The science and practice of agroforestry offer useful directions in solving the problem of how to feed a growing population while protecting the environment. “Agroforestry. valuing and monitoring ecosystem services provided by agroforestry.

ecological and environmental sustainability.worldagroforestry. Vol. leaving 70 people dead. Any coastal development must be at least 50 m above the highest tide and 150 m from any lagoon. At the regional scale. In recent years. The importance of mangroves is stressed in newspapers. both pump irrigated and tidal irrigated. is not allowed to disturb mangrove forests. The Marine Environmental Conservation Department in the Ministry of Environment started a mangrove conservation programme in 2000 with support from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). biodiversity conservation. Further information is available at: www. economic. over 250 000 seedling pots were planted. In connection with the JICA aid. increased recognition of agroforestry as an important area of investment for land rehabilitation. cultural. Between 2000 and spring 2009. DAMMERT Strict laws. which was densely covered by mangroves in ancient times. In the coastal area. Only careful ecotourism such as birdwatching is allowed on a small scale. magazines and posters. Some of the plantations have now become self-seeding. interdisciplinary.76 WORLD OF FORESTRY expansion of choices available for women and vulnerable groups to further increase their access to land and tree-based products and services. building and agriculture – reduced these forests to some isolated areas around lagoons. now protect the existing forests and suitable areas. for instance. the catches of economically valued species by foreign vessels) and reduction in mangroves. Oman has 1 700 km of coastline. Unasylva 234/235. Dammert (lauri. concerted efforts to popularize the deployment of agroforestry through an integrated. Education and awareness raising for the population is a very important part of the mangrove afforestation strategy. over 418 000 transplantable seeds had been raised in the four nurseries. the Congo Basin forest is a source of subsistence for local populations. Sustainable Reserve and Mahout are nursery grounds for juveniles of many L. Schools provide regular environmental education for children. but much more can be created. Trees have been planted all along the coast wherever possible. 61. multi-institutional and multistakeholder approach. and of income and wealth to the region through the export of wood and non-wood products. this forest basin mitigates climate change by sequestering carbon in its biomass. JICA also helped mangroves is the island of Mahout. the Omanis continued the work. the Congo Basin forest At the global scale. The tropical cyclone Gonu devastated large areas on the coast of Oman in June 2007. and the planting and soil preparation work continues. and improved food and nutritional security.fi) Today there are four nurseries.dammert@umpihankimedia. It also damaged parts of the mangrove forests around the capital and in the Qurum (“mangrove”) area of the city. for social. Home to an immense biodiversity. which is also the dominant species along the coasts of the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea. org/WCA2009 L. or royal decrees. The most common mangrove species in Oman is Avicennia marina. Human activities – cattle herding. The development of tourism. inlets. located about 400 km south of years. The Congo Basin holds the second largest primary tropical forest in the world. in the wake of hard evidence of the vital coastal protection that mangroves provide. The Omani Women’s Association is very active in this the past several years. climate change mitigation and adaptation. But the surviving mangrove forests protected the coastal water. 2010 . After that. there are at present only some 1 000 ha of mangrove forests. tidal channels and islands. A master plan for mangrove afforestation was drafted in 2002. fuelwood collection.

The workshop also covered issues related to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and reducing deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). teachers and high-level civil servants. Vol.Gevry@sbf. researchers. as well as socio-economic and cultural aspects of sustainable forest management. Natural Resources Canada and the German For further information.ca Unasylva 234/235. for researchers and teachers involved in forestry training in the Congo Basin subregion at the university and technical levels. Gabon from 4 to 8 January 2010. Ecoforestry. Cameroon. the workshop between Canadian and Congo Basin researchers on the practice of ecoforestry and ecoagriculture and on the adaptation to climate change. Within this context. as well as issues related to the conservation and ecosystem management of Congo Basin forests. The workshop was also supported by the Center for Forest Research (Canada). Gabon) and Université Laval organized the subregional science training workshop Linking Ecoagriculture. the École Nationale des Eaux et Forêts (ENEF. including the century-long equilibrium with the extensive human use of its resources. Finally. including specialists. Recommendations were also produced for the Central African Forest Commission (COMIFAC) and for national governments for the inclusion of biodiversity and climate change concerns in subregional priorities. please contact the project coordinator: Marie-France. the workshop produced recommendations to the Network of Central African Forestry and Environmental Training Institutions (RIFFEAC) for the inclusion of new concepts into the curriculum. examined the linkages between ecoagriculture. This workshop was held as part of the project “Appui à la Formation en Gestion des Ressources Naturelles dans le Bassin Agency (CIDA). Biodiversity and Climate Change in the Congo Basin. The second and less apparent threat is linked to climate and global changes and the ensuing perturbations to the ecosystem dynamics of this forest. biodiversity and climate change.ulaval. 61. ecoforestry. 2010 . held in Libreville. The project has as its objective to increase the number of trained specialists in tropical ecoforestry and ecoagriculture in the subregion in order to help meet the twentythe Congo Basin. Over 50 participants from Canada.77 WORLD OF FORESTRY direct pressure of human activities. the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Gabon. As part of its outputs.

crop destruction. After a global introduction. processing and marketing. which together have led to increased human encroachment on previously wild and uninhabited areas. While smaller animals present in vast numbers. development workers and researchers. Y.78 BOOKS resource-poor small-scale farmers and local communities in low. post-harvest. and policy. support and services to help promote NWFPs. However. Its audience will include wildlife practitioners. transport. M. such as birds. This book presents the issues. Rome. Anderson. This short publication. business and technical support services to Unasylva 234/235. is intended to raise awareness about rural livelihood opportunities arising from non-wood forest products (NWFPs). E. may actually have greater impact. Fergusson. This chapter explores sustainable management of the natural resources. Subsequent chapters address NWFP assets for sustainable F. because international market demand for NWFPs In addition to helping service providers support small-scale farmers in exploring new opportunities. the larger herbivores (elephants. regional and national authorities. Osei-Owusu & L. It explores the sustainable and complementary contribution that NWFPs can make to livelihoods through subsistence and trade. R. enterprises that can be integrated into small farms to increase incomes and enhance livelihoods. the text focuses on they have become more frequent and severe over recent decades as a result of human population growth. local. Chandrasekharan. transport and communication. Lagrange. farmers’ livelihoods Non-farm income from non-wood forest products. Thus this publication will be of interest beyond Africa. cheetahs. Marshall & C. dawn of humanity. buffalo and hippopotamus). – and NWFP value chains. extension of transport routes and expansion of agricultural and industrial activities. FAO. An introduction outlining the history of NWFPs. mammalian carnivores (lions. assistance and extension. attacks on domestic animals. value chain analysis. the present booklet also considers export markets. FAO Forestry Paper No. exposure to risk and complexity. describes many different methods decision-making. leopards. transmission of disease to livestock or humans. and critical success factors in NWFP-based activities. spotted hyenas and wild dogs) and crocodiles are generally seen as more threatening to humans and are the focus of this book.and middle-income countries. 157. their current status and their role in improving rural livelihoods is followed by an overview of the many NWFPs and their principal uses. 61. grasscutters and locusts. 2010 . world. and ultimately anybody keen to learn more about the issue. J. based on their suitability in terms of resource requirements. ISBN 978-92-5-106372-9. The publication next examines strategies for successful NWFP trade. 2009. Most volumes emphasize products or services aimed at local markets. and provides advice about how the right support and services can help promote NWFPs as a successful requirements and constraints. this publication also suggests actions that policy-makers and programme managers in government and non-governmental organizations can take to help create enabling environments for small-scale farmers to diversify their income-generating activities. covering stages from production to harvesting. aimed at people and organizations that provide advisory. Lamarque. Vol. Bakker. costs. and threats to other plant and animal species (particularly those that are endangered or highly valuable). improving physical access. social assets and personal skills for successful trade. Impacts include human injuries and deaths.

to natural forests.asp?PID=2192 Unasylva 234/235. Although planted forests make up only 7 percent of the world’s forest resources. German. The publication emphasizes the multiple roles of planted forests – economic. This book provides a synthesis of the uses. Representing a complement. This book builds on earlier volumes exploring different dimensions of decentralization and perspectives from other regions of the world. Uganda. addressing questions such as: Can planted forests help mitigate climate change? Do they adversely affect hydrology? How will they contribute to bioenergy production in the future? What is their role in biodiversity conservation? trees outside forests) managed with different levels of intensity and for different objectives (productive or protective). and landscape restoration and site reclamation. the United Part III addresses the implications of forest sector governance analyse experiences in Ghana and Tanzania. Evans. J. as well as invasive species risks.A. Tiani. 61. UK. Finally. A. 2010. ISBN 978-1-84407-756-4. beginning with their history and looking forward to their potential for the future. L. forest ecosystem loss and forest degradation. regional and global – and to anyone concerned with the state of forestry in Africa. This book summarizes experiences and outcomes of decentralization to date and explores the viability of different governance instruments in the context of expanding commercial pressures on forests. impacts and sustainability of planted forests. This book will be an essential resource for forestry researchers. CAB International (CABI) & FAO. Madagascar. emphasizing livelihoods. eds. Senegal. It considers management objectives for their use and aspects of ownership and policy. presented from Cameroon. A chapter on policy. planners and all concerned with land use and the environment.org/CABIPages/ bk_BookDisplay. see: www. are engaged in processes to decentralize forest management. sustainability of natural resource use.-M.cabi. ISBN 978-92-5-106222-7 (FAO). Part II addresses the different forms and outcomes of decentralized forest management. 2009. Karsenty & A. London. 2010 . Many countries in Africa. ed. as elsewhere in the world.79 BOOKS Governing Africa’s forests in a globalized world. To order. Yet most African countries continue to face serious problems of forest forest management and illegal activities.and decision-makers at all levels – local. Vol. they have superseded naturally regenerating forests as the principal source of industrial wood products. Management interventions to minimize risks are suggested. South Africa. Additional chapters consider the African Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (AFLEG) and Forest Law Enforcement. UK. gender issues. a chapter on sustainable silviculture and management reviews the impact of planted forests on soils. business networks in the African forest sector. planted forests have become increasingly important for reversing deforestation. environmental and ecological. the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Governance and Trade (FLEGT) processes. Wallingford. Mali. insect pest and disease threats and site changes. It examines dimensions of forest governance that are both unique to Africa and representative of broader global patterns. national. 978-1 84593 564 1 (CABI). Other chapters summarize recent FAO studies on the current state of planted forests and the outlook to 2030. institutional and ownership issues highlights private-sector and smallholder considerations from an investment perspective. social. Earthscan. These include climate change mitigation. nutrient balance. policy-makers. and implications of climate change for forest governance. not an alternative. After an introductory section framing the evolution of forest governance in Africa. The authors conclude by drawing out implications of their This volume will be of interest to policy.

Argüelles Suárez. London. women’s and children’s health. one value chain was reviewed in more detail. R. and tropical forest diseases such as Ebola. 2008. often in competition with other more powerful. based on literature reviews and interviews along value chains involving community forest producers.R. environment and health issues among rainforest dwellers around the world. Colfer. C. N. Nouer. health and development worldwide. over two-thirds were interested in principle in the idea of distinguishing community forest products in the market. have more potential for reducing poverty than large-scale commercial forestry. public health. particularly in Asia. Nipah encephalitis and malaria. It showed that of more than 180 companies known for their social or environmental interest. 22. especially those democratically managed by communities. on forest disturbance and health risk to the Yanomani in the Amazon region. the publication presents four case studies on the demand for community forest products in Brazil. This book is a comprehensive introduction to the issues surrounding the health of people living in and around forests. Dufey. People and Plants International Conservation Series. 2008. Part I presents a set of policy. UK. Guatemala. woodfuel. Cota Gomes. Mexico and Papua New Guinea.P. Edinburgh. The experiences described in this publication suggest that the main prerequisites for successful trade with communities include the formation of strong community business organizations and the stepwise development of community forest management and business capacity. Distinguishing community forest products in the market: industrial demand for a D. Community forest producers must match what the buyer wants. academics and students working on forests. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Wilson. M.A. Their interest was mainly based on increasing customer demand for knowledge about the sustainability of fair trade timber items.J. South America and Africa. even though policy and practice often favour the latter. ed. ISBN 978-1-84407-532-4. to determine whether and how a mechanism to distinguish community forest The relationship between the health of the world’s forests and the health of the hundreds of millions of people who live and work in them is a topic that researchers have only recently begun to examine. and on links between diet and health. Pasos. both from international and national buyer groups and from community forest producers. environmental conservation and ecological perspectives on health and forests.80 BOOKS products in the market. ISBN 978-1-84369-682-7. Part II features four case studies: on the links between HIV/AIDS and the forest sector. Small and Medium Forestry Enterprise No. Evidence increasingly shows that small forest enterprises. nutrition. The book concludes with a synthesis designed to enable practitioners and policy-makers to work with forest dwellers to improve their health and their ecosystems. 61. Sanchez Hidalgo. natural resources management. Next. better informed be possible to develop a mechanism to bring together forest consumers to distinguish responsibly produced community forest products in the market so as to open up new market niches in support of small forest enterprise. This publication will be a vital addition to the knowledge base of professionals. 2010 . The experience of the fair trade movement in addressing these issues makes it logical to build better links between forestry and fair trade. Macqueen. Chapters focus on medicinal plants. E. Earthscan. In each country. Vol. demand for a mechanism to credibly distinguish community forest Unasylva 234/235. L. including remoteness and the integration of traditional medicine with modern health care.P. A. demand survey of timber buyers in 21 countries. in forested areas. UK. A. on biodiversity.

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