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5 Effmts of Degeneracy 475

well be the least-understood aspect of the phase diagram, and we do not

consider it any further, except as a warning against hasty simplifications
in dealing with other features.


orthorhombic (0)
200 -
. ~=0.180 R

t.. . .0.1
I . . . . , . ,
0.2 - . I . . . . I
0.3 0.4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Magnetic field 0

Figure 8.12: Left: The experimentally determined phase diagram of

Lal-,Sr,MnOs shows magnetic, structural, and metal-non-metal transitions. The
phases are: antiferromagnetic insulator (AFI), ferromagnetic insulator (FI), ferro-
magnetic metal (FM), and a poorly characterized paramagnetic insulator above the
magnetic ordering temperatures. The orthorombic-rhombohedral structural transi-
tion sets in at Tg.Right: the field dependence of Tsfor x = 0.16, 0.17 and 0.18. We
find a magnetostructural transition for z = 0.17: a field of several teslas switches the
structure from orthorombic to rhombohedral if T is in the range 230-270 K. t and 4
indicate warming and cooling (after [30]).

In what follows, we try to discuss magnetic ordering phenomena

with electronic models, and bring in structural aspects only when it is
unavoidable. The prerequisite for describing the doped system should be
a clear understanding of the pure compounds LaMnOs and CaMnOs.
Their magnetic structures are shown in Fig. 5.3. We feel safe about
CaMnO3: it is a Mott insulator consisting of Mn4+ tig ions whose
S = 3/2 spins build a straightforward alternating antiferrornagnet. As
for LaMnOs, its case is not straightforward at all, but its understanding
from a variety of viewpoints is nearing a satisfactory stage thanks to an
intense effort in the late 1990’s [277,368, 362, 1131, We cannot afford