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1. (6 marks) Solve the initial-value problem

3x2 − sin(x)

2y 0 = , y(0) = −3.

y

Solution: This is a separable equation. Rearranging, we have

2yy 0 = 3x2 − sin(x).

Integrating with respect to x (and using the substitution rule on the left) yields

Z Z

2ydy = (3x2 − sin(x))dx

y 2 = x3 + cos(x) + c.

p

Thus y = ± x3 + cos(x) + c is the general solution. Since y(0) = −3, we have

√

−3 = ± 1 + c.

Thus we must choose the negative sign and set 1 + c = 9, and so c = 8. The

solution to the initial value problem is

p

y = − x3 + cos(x) + 8.

xy 0 = y 1 + ln(y) − ln(x) , x > 0, y > 0.

y y

y0 =

1 + ln .

x x

This is a homogeneous equation. We set u = xy , so that y = ux and y 0 = u+xu0 .

Then

u + xu0 = u(1 + ln(u)).

Rearranging, we have

1 1

u0 = .

u ln(u) x

This is a separable equation. Integrating both sides with respect to x (and using

the substitution rule on the left), we have

Z Z

1 1

du = dx

u ln(u) x

ln | ln(u)| = ln |x| + c1

| ln(u)| = ec1 |x|

ln(u) = ±ec1 x

ln(u) = cx

u = ecx

1

(to evaluate the integral on the left, the substitution t = ln(u) may be made).

Thus

y = xu = xecx

is the general solution.

x2 y 0 + 2x2 y = x6 + x3 .

y 0 + 2y = x4 + x.

R

2dx

I(x) = e = e2x .

(e2x y)0 = e2x x4 + e2x x.

We integrate to get

Z Z

2x 2x 4 2x

e2x x4 + x dx.

e y= e x + e x dx =

The integral can be evaluated by using the table method or by applying integra-

tion by parts repeatedly (for what it’s worth, there was a typo in the question.

I had intended this integral to be easier to evaluate! Markers were asked to be

fairly lenient with this integral). Doing this, we have

2x 2x 1 4 3 3 2 1

e y=e x −x + x −x+ + c.

2 2 2

Thus the general solution is

1 3 1

y = x4 − x3 + x2 − x + + ce−2x .

2 2 2

2xey + (x2 ey + 4y 3 )y 0 = 0.

Py and Qx are continuous in the entire plane (which is simply connected), and

Py = Qx . A potential function f exists. We use the fact that fx = P and

integrate with respect to x to get

f (x, y) = x2 ey + g(y).

2

We now use the fact that we must have fy = Q to get

x2 ey + g 0 (y) = x2 ey + 4y 3 .

f (x, y) = x2 ey + y 4 + c1 .

this yields the solution

x2 ey + y 4 = k.

y 0 + y = −2e2x y 2 .

Then y = u−1 , and so y 2 = u−2 and y 0 = −u−2 u0 . Substituting this in to the

equation, we get

−u−2 u0 + u−1 = −2e2x u−2 .

Multiplying by −u2 yields

u0 − u = 2e2x .

This is a linear equation. We choose the integrating factor

R

−1dx

I(x) = e = e−x .

(e−x u)0 = 2ex .

We integrate to get

e−x u = 2ex + c

u = 2e2x + cex .

1

y = u−1 = .

2e2x + cex

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