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Procedures

0.0 Denitions

1. Angular acceleration: acceleration of an aircraft around some of its

2 2 2

d θ d φd ψ

axes. Expressed with the Euler angles: , ,

dt2 dt2 dt2

2. Inertial acceleration: acceleration of the CoG with respect to Earth-

d2 x d2 y d2 z

centered Axes. , ,

dt2 dt2 dt2

3. Point Performance: performance of an aircraft in a given point of its

trajectory, in which the steady ight is possible.

along a nite portion of the trajectory. It usually implies an integration

among some initial conditions and some nal conditions.

current engine rpm and the maximum ones. It is equivalent to "Position

of the Throttle Lever" of the engine. The relation0 < δP < 1 is always

accomplished. If the engine admits post-combustion, it must be specied.

1

Chapter 0. Procedures

same lift and the same moments around the Xb and Yb axes.

b2

of a wing. The most usual denition is AR = A = w .

Sw

constant altitude.

9. Altitude: the height (z ) of the aircraft center of gravity above the mean

sea level. (There are other denitions of altitudes. By context, it will be

clear which of them we are referring to).

characterized by two constants. One of them is the damping.

11. Reference Angle of Attack: the angle of attack of the aircraft along

the dened reference trajectory.

12. Zero-lift Angle of Attack: angle of attack (αzero−lif t ) for which the

wing lift or the aircraft lift is zero.

13. Pitching Angle (θ): the angle that the Xb axis shapes with the plane

Xh − Y h. It is a geometrical angle and it would have a sense even if the

airplane had a null speed. It may be measured in ight and is part of the

parameters of the Flight Recorder. If the horizontal reference is known,

an appropriate picture of the aircraft would allow to obtain it.

14. Downwash Angle: the air that ows over a lifting wing is deviated a

certain angle. This angle is called "Downwash" when the deviation is

downwards, and "Upwash" when it is upwards. Its accurate calculation

is complicated, since it greatly depends on the wing geometry.

∂δE ∆δE

curve. ≈

∂n ∆n

16. Lateral inclination Angle: the angle among the aircraft plane of sym-

metry and the Z Local Horizon (Vertical) during a horizontal turn.

17. Flight trajectory slope Angle: the angle among the Xw wind axis

and the XL Local Horizon axis. Also: angle among the velocity vector

and the horizontal. Normally represented by the greek letter γ. It is a

2

0.0 Denitions

"Dynamic" angle and it does not bear any sense if the velocity is zero. A

picture of an aircraft does NOT allow to know it.

18. Conventional Angle of Attack: the angle among the Xb body axis

and the Xw wind axis. Normally represented by the greek letter α. It is

an "Aerodynamic" angle and it does not bear any sense if the velocity is

zero. A picture of an aircraft does NOT allow to know it.

v

19. Sideslip Angle: β ≈ (v is the velocity according to the Yb axis).

V0

20. Thrust Angle: the angle (ε) among the thrust vector (T ) and the ve-

locity vector (V ). (Dierent denitions are possible).

21. Wetted area: external surface of an aircraft that is in contact with the

airstream.

22. Energy Climb Method: study of the ascending ight (climb stage) of

an aircraft using the specic energy as the integration variable. It is an

approximate mathematical procedure that simplies some calculations.

Initiated by german engineers in 1944, when studying the behavior of the

rst operating jet aircraft.

static equation, the perfect gas law, a given temperature distribution

with the altitude and some Standard conditions at sea level. There are

dierent simplications of the complete model that we will use often.

ized by:

(a) Specic Fuel Consumption independent from the speed and the thrust

lever position.

26. Landing Run: part of the landing in which the aircraft goes from the

VT D ("Touch Down") speed to a null velocity.

27. Take-o Run: part of the take-o during which the aircraft accelerates

from a null velocity to the VLO ("Lift-O") speed. During the take-o

run, the whole landing gear is in touch with the runway.

3

Chapter 0. Procedures

namic airfoil, wing or aircraft, with respect to which the pitching moment

is independent from the angle of attack. It may be assumed that the total

lift generated by the aircraft due to the angle of attack is applied in this

point.

29. Airfoil Center of Pressure (2D): the intersection of the action line of

the aerodynamic force and the airfoil chord.

30. Center of Pressure: point where the resultant lift aerodynamic force

cuts a reference line of the aircraft. For an aerodynamic airfoil, the ref-

erence line is the chord.

associated to a Parabolic Drag Polar when CL = 0.

32. Wave drag coefcient: the wave drag is the part of the drag caused

by the appearance of shockwaves over a wing. The shockwaves cause

the separation of the boundary layer and a substantial increase of the

aerodynamic drag.

33. Friction drag coefcient: it is the part of the aerodynamic drag co-

ecient generated by friction over the aircraft surface. It is also called

parasitic drag coecient.

2

to CL. Its usual expression is K(M ) CL . It is the aerodynamic drag

component generated by the ow due to the eddies that are detached

from the wingtip when the wing produces lift.

35. Running-in drag coefcient: ratio among the friction force and the

reaction force, assumed constant. It is dicult to quantify it.

36. Ideal lift coefcient: lift coecient of a wing that leads to the minimum

drag (it is dimensionless).

the "volume" of the horizontal empennage and the wing "volume". It

is a traditional dimensionless parameter, used often when studying the

St lt

aircraft trimming. Vt =

Sw cw

38. Trim conditions: in quasy-stead ight, it implies to establish the angle

of attack (αtrim ) and the angle of the stabilizer control surface (δE,trim )

4

0.0 Denitions

required to maintain a given ight condition. Usually, it also calls for the

value of δP,trim .

39. Time constant: the response of a rst order linear system is charac-

terized by a single parameter: the time constant λ. It intervenes in the

−λ t

shape of e .

40. Specic Fuel Consumption: ratio among the fuel mass ow rate and

the thrust. The mass ow rate may also be expressed in terms of weight.

(NOTE: the coherence of the units must be given attention to).

tion sometimes used to represent specic data of fuel consumption.

42. Flight qualities: a term that is related, among many other things, to

the force characteristics that need to be applied to the control lever of an

aircraft.

43. Wingtip chord: the chord in the tip of the wing (ct = ctip ).

44. Wing root chord: chord of the wing in the central reference line of the

fuselage (cr = croot ).

45. Mean Aerodynamic Chord: the chord of an Equivalent Rectangular

Wing. Parameter used to non-dimensionalize the Pitching Moment of a

wing. It is calculated as follows:

b/2

1

Z

mac = cw = c2 (y) dy

Sw −b/2

.

Measured in kg/m3 (S.I.).

linearized over the reference trajectory. This procedure requires deriva-

tives evaluated over the reference trajectory. These stability derivatives

are expressed in terms of coecients of forces and moments. These co-

ecients are purely numeric and there is no universally accepted criteria

to dene them. They must not be used if the way they have been dened

is unknown.

written in their simplest shape, the coecients of the small disturbances

5

Chapter 0. Procedures

used, it is usually not necessary to use dimensionless parameters).

already on the ground, during landing, with the landing gear completely

in touch with the oor.

touch with the ground during take-o, with the landing gear completely

in touch with the oor.

craft from h = 50 ft to h = 0, during landing, before touching the ground.

52. Take-o transition distance: horizontal distance travelled in the tran-

sition from h=0 until reaching h = 35 ft, already without contact with

the ground.

54. Characteristic Equation: from the linear equations the system matrix

may be established. The determinant of that matrix equated to zero is

the characteristic equation of the system of linear equations. It is often

used in the stability analyses.

55. Weight Equation: it relates the aircraft weight variation to the engine

operating conditions (Thrust T and Specic Consumption Ce ). For a jet

aircraft:

dm

≈ −Ce T

dt

56. Kinematic Equations: equations that are deduced from the denition

of the linear velocity. They relate the position of the CoG to the compo-

nents of its velocity. They are three equations that relate the three linear

velocity components {u, v , w} to the temporal derivatives of the three

dx dy dz

spatial coordinates , , .

dt dt dt

57. Euler Equations: Three equations that relate the three components of

the aircraft angular velocity {p, q, r} to the temporal derivatives of the

dψ dθ dφ

Euler angles that dene the aircraft attitude in the space , , .

dt dt dt

6

0.0 Denitions

tions.

59. Dynamic Equations: the equations that appear from the denition of

inertial acceleration and the application of the Newton's second law. They

relate the aircraft linear and angular velocity to the forces and moments

acting on the aircraft. They are three equations for the forces, related to

the linear accelerations; and three equations for the moments, related to

the angular accelerations.

remains in the proximities of the undisturbed trajectory (small distur-

bances) and the equations of motion are developed as Taylor series with

the reference trajectory as a basis. Only the mathematical terms of rst

order are retained, so that the equations remain linear. Even though this

process is far from reality, these equations provide very useful information

for a wide range of aircraft maneuvers.

61. Ground Effect: when an aircraft is ying close to the ground (for in-

stance, when taking-o or landing), the airow cannot be deviated down-

wards by the wing as much as if the aircraft was far from the ground.

The practical result is that the lift increases and the induced drag is re-

duced while this proximity is kept. It is equivalent to an increase in the

wingspan. Its general mathematical modelling is complex.

zero-lift angle of attack and the control deection angle in the linear

equation of the lift coecient.

an aerodynamic airfoil on the wing.

CL

64. Aerodynamic Efciency: E = .

CD

65. Stability Body Axes: the Stability Axes are used for dynamic stability

and control studies. In a given moment the aircraft is disturbed, usually

from a steady ight situation. The Stability Axes are Wing Axes aligned

with the Wind Axes in that precise initial moment.

the aerodynamic drag induced by the real wing compared to the one in-

duced by a wing with an elliptical distribution. Its general mathematical

7

Chapter 0. Procedures

may be approximated by expressions obtained by statistical analysis.

CL2

CDinduced =

π ARw eOswald

67. Dimensionless thrust (τ ): ratio among the aircraft thrust (T ) and the

∗

T EA

minimum thrust necessary for a given weight: τ=

W

68. Corrected thrust: a dimensionless thrust used sometimes to represent

the thrust data.

69. Thrust: is the concentrated force (T ) that acts on the aircraft due to

the pressure and velocity distribution at the engine inlet and the engine

outlet. In a propeller aircraft, the equivalent useful eect is also called

Thrust.

70. Specic Energy: addition of the gravitational potential energy and the

2

V

kinetic energy of an aircraft, divided by its weight: Es = +gh

2

71. Wingspan: distance from one wingtip to the other one (bw ).

72. Flight Envelope (or Flight Domain): the region of the (speed-altitude)

or the (Mach-altitude) plane in which the aircraft may steadily maintain

the horizontal balanced ight, taking into account all the aerodynamic

and propulsive limitations, for a given conguration.

divided by the maximum equivalent diameter.

74. Thickness: relation among the maximum thickness of an airfoil and the

chord at that point of the span (it is a dimensionless parameter).

event of any disturbance, forces and moments that tend to damp the

disturbance are automatically produced (without acting on the controls),

bringing the aircraft to the dynamic state previous to the disturbance.

the event of a disturbance, it automatically produces forces and moments

that tend to amplify the disturbance.

8

0.0 Denitions

event of a disturbance, it does not produce any force or moment that

alters the disturbance.

78. Taper ratio: the dimensionless ratio among the chord at the wingtip

ctip

and the chord at the wing root. λ=

croot

79. Take-o transition stage: part of the take-o in which the aircraft

goes from h=0 to h = 35 ft.

80. Landing transition stage: part of the landing in which the aircraft

goes from h = 50 ft to the ground (h = 0).

81. Specic Power Excess: it is dened as the dierence among Thrust

Power (T ·V) and the Drag Power (D ·V) divided by the weight.

(T − D) V

SP E =

W

L

82. Load factor: ratio among the lift and the aircraft weight. n=

W

83. Distance factor: instantaneous increase in the distance travelled by unit

dx

of diminished weight. FD = −

dW

84. Induced drag factor: it is the term K of the Parabolic Drag Polar.

Below the critical Mach, it will be considered as independent from the

2

Mach number. CD = CD 0 + K CL

85. Time factor: instantaneous increase in the ight time by unit of dimin-

dt

ished weight. FT = −

dW

86. Horizontal Empennage Efciency Factor: ratio among the dynamic

pressure ahead of the horizontal empennage and the dynamic pressure

ahead of the wing (conventional conguration).

87. Slat: it is a leading edge mechanical device that allows the ow of high

energy air from the leading edge lower surface to the upper surface. This

delays the boundary layer separation, allowing the wing to adopt higher

angles of attack without stalling than the ones it would reach without the

device. It does not increase the lift by itself.

9

Chapter 0. Procedures

88. Flap: it is a trailing edge mechanical device that allows the ow of high

energy from the trailing edge lower surface to the upper surface. This

reduces the boundary layer separation at high angles of attack and gen-

erates a substantial increase in the wing lift and drag.

89. Wing sweep (along the line that goes through a given fraction of the

wing chord): the angle among the line of a given fraction of the wing

chord with the Yb axis.

90. Wing planform: the S surface of an aircraft wing, extended from the

central line of the fuselage to the wingtips. Depending on the manufac-

turer, there are several ways of dening the part that falls within the

fuselage.

system is characterized by two constants. One of them is the natural

frequency of the oscillation. It is related to the distance of a root to the

origin of coordinates.

aircraft due to the distributions of pressure and friction forces generated

by the air over the airplane surface.

93. Running-in reaction force: the force exerted by the ground on the

aircraft during take-o and landing, through the structure of the landing

gear.

94. Running-in friction force: the force exerted by the ground on the

aircraft during take-o and landing due to the friction of the wheels when

turning around their axes, with or without brakes applied.

95. Transfer function: ratio among the output and the input in the plane

of the Laplace Transform.

96. Coordinated turn: a turn that is carried out without adverse yaw

(β = 0). It means that the aircraft does not experience an acceleration

along the OY b axis.

97. Control lever force gradient: the derivative of the force on the lever

with respect to the ight speed.

dierence among the number of Variables and the number of Equations:

DoF = V AR − EQ.

10

0.0 Denitions

99. Specic Power Plot: Plot of the altitude versus speed for given values

of Specic Energy Excess of an aircraft.

100. Adverse Yawing: the deection of the ailerons (δA ) used to generate

a rolling moment L, uses to generate a yawing moment N as well. The

sense of this moment is opposed to the one that is desired for the turn.

101. Wing incidence: geometrical angle among the plane of the wing chord

and the Xb body axis.

namic chord of the horizontal empennage and the Xb axis. It may be a

xed or a variable angle.

inversely proportional to the square of the distance to the center of the

Earth.

104. Camber line: mean line among the upper surface and the lower surface

of an aerodynamic airfoil (2D).

aircraft that has lost an engine, the distance of braking/acceleration is the

same as the take-o distance. (NOTE: It is not a xed characteristic of a

given airport runway, but a characteristic length of a particular aircraft

with a given conguration, weight, thrust, atmospheric conditions, etc.).

106. Critical Mach number: Mach number for which there appear sonic

conditions (M = 1) somewhere on the wing surface (usually on the upper

surface).

107. Static Margin: it is the distance that the CoG is ahead of the Neutral

Point. It is often non-dimensionalized with some characteristic length

(usually, the mean aerodynamic chord).

dom: the mathematical model of the aircraft that includes both the

three equations for the forces (F = m a) and the three equations for the

moments (M = I Ω) for a rigid-body aircraft.

109. Spherical Earth Model: the Earth is considered as a solid sphere whose

gravitational acceleration obeys the inverse-square law with the distance.

11

Chapter 0. Procedures

110. Flat Earth Model: the Earth is assumed at, with a uniform gravita-

tional eld normal to that plane. This model is often used in atmospheric

Flight Dynamics.

111. Long-Period Mode (also known as Phugoid Mode): the typical longi-

tudinal response of an aircraft to a disturbance consists of 2 modes: the

Phugoid mode is characterized by a low frequency and a low damping. It

is the rst oscillating Normal Mode of the aircraft that was mathemat-

ically studied. Detected by Zhukowsky in 1891, it was later studied by

Lanchester (1908), who called it "Phugoid Mode".

112. Dutch Roll Mode: the characteristic equation for the lateral-directional

motion of an aircraft usually has two real roots and two complex (conju-

gated) roots. These two complex roots lead to the Dutch Roll Mode. It

is an oscillating, stable motion, but with low damping.

113. Roll Subsidence Mode: the characteristic equation for the lateral-

directional motion of an aircraft usually has two real roots and two com-

plex (conjugated) roots. One of the real roots is the Roll Subsidence

Mode, usually stable.

does not vary, the response of the aircraft is governed by a second order

dierential equation whose solution is the Approximated Short-Period

Mode.

craft to a disturbance consists of 2 modes: the Short-Period mode is

characterized by a high frequency and a high damping.

116. Spiral Divergence Mode: the characteristic equation for the lateral-

directional motion of an aircraft usually has two real roots and two com-

plex (conjugated) roots. One of the real roots is the Spiral Divergence

Mode, usually unstable. However, its evolution is slow, since it is small

in absolute value.

attack does not vary, the response of the aircraft is governed by a second

order dierential equation whose solution is the Approximated Phugoid

Mode.

12

0.0 Denitions

ping of movements, each of the with their own characteristics. Each of

these motions is called "normal mode".

119. Pitching Moment: the component of the moment that acts on the

aircraft according to the Yb axis.

120. Hinge Moment of a control surface: moment that produces the pressure

distribution on the control surface with respect to the hinge line of the

control surface.

spect to some of its axes. The denitions are:

ZZZ

y 2 + z 2 ρ dx dy dz

Ixx =

ZZZV

x2 + z 2 ρ dx dy dz

Iyy =

ZZZV

x2 + y 2 ρ dx dy dz

Izz =

V

ZZZ

Ixy = Iyx = (x y) ρ dx dy dz

ZZZV

Ixz = Izx = (x z) ρ dx dy dz

ZZZV

Iyz = Izy = (y z) ρ dx dy dz

V

sively due to the Thrust, without including the one generated by the

aerodynamic forces.

to the production of thrust.

124. Longitudinal Motion: it takes place in the vertical plane (Xh − Zh).

As far as the Moments are concerned, it only includes the pitching one

(M ).

includes a combination of roll (φ) and yaw (ψ ).

13

Chapter 0. Procedures

126. Drag Divergence Mach Number: it is the Mach number from which

the drag starts rising quickly due to the appearance of shockwaves. There

are several conventional denitions.

127. Mach Number: relation among the aircraft speed and the speed of

V V V

sound at the ight altitude. M = = p ≈ √ (T in

a(T ) γ Rg T 20 T

Kelvin)

128. Reynolds number: relation among the viscous and the inertial forces

ρ(z) V l

of a uid. Re =

µ(z)

129. Trajectories optimization: nding the speed prole that minimizes or

maximizes a given performance index. For instance, the distance travelled

in a ight or the climbing time. It demands to express the speed as a

function of the variable of interest in each case.

130. Climb slope: inclination of the trajectory with respect to the Horizontal

Reference Line (HRL) in a point of the ascending trajectory. Usually

represented by the letter γ, positive above the HRL.

131. Lift Curve Slope (CLα ): mathematical slope of the curve that expresses

CL as a function of α. A distinction must be made among 2D and 3D.

It depends on the wing geometry and the Mach number, as well as the

Reynolds number.

airfoil. Situation generated when a wing is submitted to an angle of

attack that is too large. The stream is detached and the wing stops

providing lift. The aerodynamic drag increases.

namic airfoil (2D), without considering the camber (if it has camber).

craft.

135. Weight: concentrated force (W ) that acts on the aircraft CoG due to

the distribution of the dierent aircraft masses.

136. Maximum suction peak: point on the airfoil chord where the pressure

is minimum.

14

0.0 Denitions

137. Symmetry plane: the vast majority of aircraft has a symmetry plane

among their left and their right sides. The symmetry plane is the Xb−Zb.

138. Drag Polar: the relation among the drag coecient and the lift coe-

cient: CL = CD(CL, M, Re).

139. Trimmed Drag Polar: the drag Polar that takes into account the pitch-

ing moment equation to include the drag generated by the needed deec-

tion of the elevator to trim the aircraft.

140. Parabolic Drag Polar: it is present when it may be assumed that the

mathematical expression for the aerodynamic drag is parabolic with CL:

CD(M ) = CD0 (M ) + K(M ) CL2

141. Inertial position: position of the aircraft CoG1 with respect to the

Earth-Centered Axes.

usually measure it in N/m2 .

143. Stick-free Maneuver Point: the position of the CoG for which the

force to carry out on the control lever to achieve the maneuver through

one n−g pull is zero, in a reversible control system.

144. Stick-xed Maneuver Point: the position of the CoG in which the

required deection angle of the elevator to carry out the maneuver with

a n−g pull is zero, in a control system considered irreversible.

Pitching Moment Coecient is calculated, so that it is independent from

the angle of attack. It is also called Aerodynamic Center of the aircraft.

When the CoG is precisely placed in this point, the aircraft is Statically

Neutral. Usually, for a stable aircraft, the CoG will be placed ahead of

the NP. (The mathematical existence of the Neutral Point is conditioned

by the acceptance of linearity in the expressions of forces and moments

with respect to α).

146. Stick-Fixed Neutral Point: another name for the Neutral Point.

given speed and the pilot releases the stick, the Neutral Point is displaced

(usually towards the front) to a new position: the SFNP. (NOTE: this

1 In the Flight Mechanics that we will study, it may always be considered that the Center of

Masses coincides with the Center of Gravity (constant g)

15

Chapter 0. Procedures

only happens if the controls are reversible. The hydraulic servo actuators

are not reversible).

force parallel to the velocity vector in the far eld.

150. Heading: φ is the angle of the velocity vector with the Xh axis.

151. Glide Slope: during the approximation for landing, the aircraft ap-

proaches the runway according to a trajectory whose inclination is ap-

◦ ◦

proximately γ ≈ −3 or γ ≈ −2 . This is the Glide Slope angle.

152. Glide Slope (ILS Device): an electronic device emits a signal that

must be followed by the aircraft during an instrumental landing. This

signal depicts a straight line whose slope in relation to the aircraft denes

the Glide Slope.

153. Body Axes System (O, Xb, Y b, Zb): a system of coordinates whose

origin is xed at the aircraft center of gravity (CoG) and whose axes

remain xed with respect to the aircraft, moving and turning with it.

154. Local Horizon Axes System (O, XL, Y L, ZL): a system of coordi-

nates whose origin is xed at the aircraft center of gravity (CoG) and

whose axes remain parallel to the Earth-Centered Axes while the aircraft

moves.

tem xed to the Earth surface, at mean sea level (Zh(0) = 0). The

Xh − Zh plane is the one we choose to study the movement in a vertical

plane. For the usual movements of the aircraft, we will considered this

reference system to be inertial.

156. Wind Axes System (O, Xw, Y w, Zw): a coordinate system whose ori-

gin is xed at the aircraft center of gravity (CoG) and whose Xw axis

coincides with the direction of the velocity vector.

the far eld velocity vector.

158. Ceiling: the maximum altitude at which the aircraft can maintain the

steady levelled ight, for a given weight and with a given thrust. There

are several practical denitions for this characteristic value of an aircraft.

16

0.0 Denitions

tude. Measured in K.

160. Reference Trajectory: the trajectory that follows an aircraft during

steady ight.

161. Disturbed Trajectory: the one followed by an aircraft after being dis-

turbed from its reference trajectory.

162. Trim Tab: small ap at the trailing edge of a control surface. When it

is deected, it forces the control surface to acquire and maintain a given

angle.

not appear in the mathematical shape of "derivative with respect to the

time".

164. State Variables: in the equations of motion, the variables that are

submitted to the mathematical procedure of dierentiating.

Equivalent Speed: Ve =

p

165. σ(z) Vaero .

166. Aerodynamic Speed (Vaero ): it is the speed of the aircraft with respect

to the atmosphere. If the atmosphere is at rest with respect to the ground,

it is also equal to the speed with respect to the Earth-Centered Axes.

167. Non-dimensional Speed (u): ratio among the aircraft speed (V ) and

∗

a characteristic speed -the minimum drag speed (V )- for a given altitude

and weight.

v s

u

V u2 W K

u= with V∗ =

t

V∗ ρ S CD0

dψ

of the Heading:

dt

dz

169. Climb Speed: Vz = in a point of the trajectory.

dt

170. Touch Down Speed: the lower speed at which an aircraft may safely

take ground. There are several ways of dening it. We usually use the

following one: V T D = 1.2Vstall .

17

Chapter 0. Procedures

171. Decision Speed: it is the maximum speed, during the take-o run, at

which it is possible to brake the aircraft, spending the available runway.

172. Lift-o Speed: speed at which the aircraft leaves the ground during

take-o (VLO ).

173. Corner Speed: speed at which the maximum lift coecient curve cuts

the maximum load factor curve. It appears when studying the aircraft

Turns.

engine, used to represent data of engine speed.

175. Stall Speed: the lower speed at which an aircraft may maintain levelled

and steady horizontal ight.

safe for the pilot to proceed to rotate the aircraft so that it adopts the

adequate angle of attack. There are several denitions.

177. Satellite Speed: speed of a satellite with respect to the Earth surface.

and position errors.

179. Inertial Speed: CoG speed with respect to the Earth-Centered Axes.

180. True Airspeed (or Aerodynamic Speed): aircraft speed with respect

to the atmosphere.

ture. Sutherland equation:

µ(z) = (kg/ms), T in K

110.4 + T (z)

simplifying hypotheses:

dV dγ

(a) Negligible accelerations: ≈ 0, ≈0

dt dt

(b) Small angle of trajectory slope.

18

0.0 Denitions

0.

19

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