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1. Verb form; Diction

The subject of the sentence, two Swiss psychologists, needs a main verb. The ‐ing verb form
declaring cannot, on its own, be the main verb of a correct English sentence. Furthermore,
the clause that addresses the reason for not taking the studies also seriously needs a subject (most
of the studies) and a verb (had failed). A The sentence needs a verb form that agrees
in person and number with the subject two Swiss psychologists and that is in the
appropriate tense.

B In addition to the problem with declaring, explained above, in this version of the sentence the
phrase failed in not controlling for is awkward and does not mean the same thing as failed to
control for. Also, the expression such X like Y is incorrect in English; the correct usage is such X
as Y.

C The correct form for the sentence’s main verb declared is used here, but having failed is a
participial form and as such cannot be the main verb in the clause.

D English has a rule of sequence of tenses: once a verb form is marked for past tense,
the following verb forms that describe the same object or event have to be in the
past tense as well. Tus, fail is the wrong verb form. The expression such X like Y is
incorrect in English; the correct usage is such X as Y.

E Correct. The subject two Swiss psychologists is followed by a verb in the past tense (declared);
the dependent clause since … family size also has the correct verb form
(had failed).

The correct answer is E.

2. Parallelism; Idiom

This sentence is constructed around not as X, but as Y, which must start with the word not in
accordance with this idiomatic pattern, and express both parts in a parallel way.

A This sentence improperly places as before not.

B This sentence improperly places as before not

C This version lacks the required words as and but.

D Correct. The idiom has all of its parts and expresses the two opposed concepts in parallel terms.

E Although in terms of is an acceptable substitute for as, the construction is no longer parallel due
to the lack of a second in terms of (or as) after but

The correct answer is D.

3. Agreement; Rhetorical construction

The main problem is one of agreement: in the subordinate clause starting with that, the subject is
the plural emotions, which demands the verb are, not is. Also, the phrase starting with including
is a parenthetical expression that needs to be set off from the rest of the clause, with some
punctuation to indicate a pause at its end (after private).
A The verb form is incorrect, and should instead be are; the parenthetical expression is not
separated at its end from the rest of the clause.

B Correct. Are is the correct agreeing verb form, and the comma after private correctly
sets off the parenthetical expression. C Are is correct, but nothing after private sets off the
parenthetical expression from the subsequent material. In addition, not those separable is
awkwardly phrased; it would be better as not separable or inseparable as in the correct answer
choice B.
D T e dash would be correct to set off the parenthetical expression only if including had been
immediately preceded by a dash; otherwise a comma is needed. The phrase not separable is
awkward; it would be better as are not separable or are inseparable.

E The phrase also as private emotions is wordy and unidiomatic. The phrase social phenomena
not inseparable not only does not express the intended meaning, but is also awkward without a
verb and a relative pronoun such as that: a better phrasing is social phenomena that are not

4. Logical predication; Grammatical construction; Parallelism

There is a cause‐and‐effect connection between the watt‐hour rating and the battery life; therefore,
the phrases describing the cause and effect have to be expressed in two parallel grammatical
constructions using the two comparative forms of the modifers higher and longer.
A Because of the way this version is constructed, the pronoun they, referring to manufacturers,
illogically suggests that the manufacturers can make the batteries last longer simply by rating them
higher. The cause and effect is also unparallel.

B Rating the watt‐hour higher needs a subject; this faulty construction is known as a dangling
modifer. It is possible to construe it as referring to manufacturers, which would be confusing. See
explanation of (A) above.

C Correct. This version uses the correct logical and grammatical structure the higher X, … the
longer Y.

D This version is unparallel and ungrammatical. The correct form is the higher X, the longer Y.

E This version is unparallel and ungrammatical. The correct form is the higher X, the longer Y.
The correct answer is C.
5. Grammatical construction; Idiom; Parallelism

As worded, this sentence opens with a dependent clause (a clause that cannot stand on its own),
which requires a main clause (also known as an independent clause) to complete the sentence;
however, there is no main clause. Also, given the placement of as before both, the as before a
lyricist is incorrect. It would be acceptable to write as both a vaudeville performer and a lyricist
or to write both as a vaudeville performer and as a lyricist; it is not acceptable to mix the two
forms, as is done here.

A The dependent clause, While . . . Broadway musicals, is followed by a participial phrase rather
than a main clause and is therefore ungrammatical. Furthermore, the word as before a lyricist
violates the parallel structure required by the phrase both . . . and.
B The construction as both a performer and writing lyrics is incorrect. Also, like (A), this version
of the sentence does not supply a main clause.

C Correct. Unlike (A) and (B), this version has a main clause. Also, unlike the other version, it
correctly uses the both x and y form.

D Although this version does supply the main clause anticipated by While . . ., its use as both a
vaudeville performer as well as writing lyrics is incorrect.

E This version’s use of both x as well as y instead of both x and y is incorrect. It also introduces

an inexplicable past perfect verb, had . . . enjoyed, in the main clause.

The correct answer is C.