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Original Article

Proc IMechE Part G:


J Aerospace Engineering
A new characteristic analysis method 0(0) 1–14
! IMechE 2017

for aero-engine rotor–stator rubbing Reprints and permissions:


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DOI: 10.1177/0954410017706990
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Mingyue Yu1, Zhigang Feng1, Jiajing Huang2 and Linlin Zhu1

Abstract
Aero-engine fault diagnosis is often studied according to casing signal owing to the inconvenience of assembly and
structural limitations. Satisfactory result by cyclic statistics alone is difficult to obtain because casing signal is weak
and complex. Based on this, a cyclostationary theory combined with autocorrelation function and Hilbert transform
is applied to extract the characteristics of aero-engine rotor–stator rubbing fault according to the aero-engine
structure and rotating features with regard to of single-point rubbing and local rubbing. Signal autocorrelation
function is analyzed by cyclic autocorrelation function and Hilbert transform, in order to extract rubbing charac-
teristics based on casing signal of aero-engine and reduce inconsistent frequency in the frequency spectrum between
time-delay signal of cyclic frequency slice position and original signal. Meanwhile, consideration is given to the
influence of rubbing position and sensor installation position in the extraction of rubbing characteristics. Finally,
the Hilbert envelope spectrum is compared and analyzed between normal running and occurrence of the rubbing
faults of aero-engines. The result indicates that the different cyclic frequency positions slice signal’s Hilbert envelop
spectrum of signal autocorrelation function, but not original acceleration signal which has outstanding characteristic
frequency for rubbing frequency (product between blade numbers and rotating frequency) and its twice frequency
when rubbing fault occurs not only in single rubbing but also in local partial rubbing. Meanwhile, when compared
with the original vibration signal slice, inconsistent frequency of the autocorrelation function slice in the Hilbert
envelope spectrum is decreased considerably.

Keywords
Aero-engine, autocorrelation, cyclic autocorrelation function, casing, Hilbert transform, rubbing

Date received: 26 April 2016; accepted: 4 April 2017

Introduction
fault diagnosis. Some noteworthy conclusions have
Rubbing is a kind of common and serious nonlinear been obtained with the vibration signal of the rolling
fault of aero-engine, which not only affects the service element bearing and gears, and Antoni’s3 study is the
life of the equipments but also is likely to cause most representative. In 2001, Randall et al.3 applied
tremendous economic loss and casualties.1 It is cyclostationary theory and envelope analysis to the
important to determine the causes for the rubbing ball bearing fault diagnosis, considering the relation-
fault characteristics early, and it is of great economic ship between spectral and envelope analysis for the
and important theoretical value to find the reason for cyclostationary signal. Meanwhile, Antoni et al.4
the fault, improve design, avoid accidents and dedicated to modeling rotating machine signals as
improve the work-safety of aero-engines. The rubbing cyclostationary processes,a comprehensive methodol-
fault characteristics of real aero-engines are particu- ogy is proposed in order to process actual cyclosta-
larly difficult to be extracted due to the limited tionary signals, and three typical ones apply to
number of stops, inconvenience of disassembly,
occasionality, and difficulty to emerge.2 Due to the 1
School of Automation, Shenyang Aerospace University, China
close symmetric physical structure and rotation 2
Guizhou Aero-engine Design Institute, Aviation Industry Corporation
mode, aero-engine casing vibration signal has a of China, China
cyclostationary feature and the rubbing fault charac-
Corresponding author:
teristics can be studied in the cyclostationary theory
Mingyue Yu, School of Automation, Shenyang Aerospace University,
frame. In the last two decades, cyclostationary theory Daoyi South Street, Shenbei New District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province,
was applied to the signal and information processing, China.
and has also been studied in the rotating machine Email: yumingyue211@outlook.com
2 Proc IMechE Part G: J Aerospace Engineering 0(0)

dealing with vibration signals of IC engine, rolling Cyclic autocorrelation function and
element bearing and a gearbox was analyzed by dif- Hilbert transform
ferent types of cyclostationarity in 2004. . . . Antoni
et al.5 combined the cyclostationary theory with
Cyclic autocorrelation function
blind separation algorithm and studied the convolu- Suppose xðtÞ is a continuous signal, then autocorrel-
tion mix blind separation algorithm based on the ation function of xðtÞ is
cyclostationary theory. Higher order cyclic statistics n 
theory was applied to the rotating machine fault diag-     o
Rx ðt, Þ ¼ E x t  x tþ ð1Þ
nosis by Chen et al.6 Bouillaut and Sidahmed7 com- 2 2
bined the cyclostationary theory with bilinear
approach to helicopter gearbox early diagnosis and Efg is the statistical average value,  is the delay
classification method based on higher order cyclosta- factor, and * represents the conjugate. If Rx ðt, Þ is a
tionarity. Borghesani et al.8 introduced the original cyclic function of time t, then xðtÞ has second-order
analytical derivation of the statistical tests for cyclos- cyclostationary characteristics. Because Rx ðt, Þ is a
tationary in the squared envelope spectrum, and the periodic function, it can be obtained through
proposed method was verified by using the experimen- Fourier series expansion
tal vibration data of the rolling element bearings. X
Lamraoui et al.9 used the cyclostationary method to Rx ðt, Þ ¼ Rx ð, Þej2t ð2Þ
2A
investigate chatter and tool wear vibrations signals
acquired from high-speed milling. Boungou et al.10 m
where  ¼ ðm 2 ZÞ represents the cyclic frequency,
T0
proposed the fatigue damage detection method and T0 is the period of autocorrelation function. Then
according to the cyclostationary theory. Fourier transform coefficient is given as
The application study of the cyclostationary the-
Z     
T
ory on rotating machine fault diagnosis is widely pro- 1 2

moted by research scholars both home and abroad. Rx ð, Þ ¼ lim x t x t þ ej2t dt
T!1 T T2 2 2
The research is mainly concentrated on small-sized
rotator experiment table and noncasing signal. ð3Þ
Meanwhile, the study does not give full consideration
to the aero-engine rotor-disc-blade structure, and its where Rx ð, Þ represents the cyclic autocorrelation
fault diagnosis is often studied according to the casing function of the cyclic frequency equal to .
signal because of the assembly and structural Suppose x (t) is an amplitude modulated signal,
limitations. The study meets certain limitations then
owing to the complexity of rubbing fault, and so it
is difficult to be applied to practical aero-engines. xðtÞ ¼ A½1 þ B cosð2fn tÞ cosð2fz tÞ ð4Þ
Aero-engines work under adverse circumstances,
and the casing signal is the comprehensive reflection fz represents the carrier frequency, and fn repre-
of many parts. The signal distortion, energy attenu- sents the modulation frequency. A and B is respec-
ation, and noise effect leads to obtaining the weak and tively amplitude of carrier signal and modulation
complex casing vibration signals.2 Satisfactory results signal. It is also seen that
probably by cyclic statistics alone are difficult to
Z T=2
obtain. Meanwhile, the cyclic frequency is a kind of 1
frequency shift from the original signal frequency, i.e. lim expði!1 tÞ expði!2 tÞdt ¼ 0 !1 6¼ !2 ð5Þ
T!1 T T=2
it is a mapping of the original signal frequency, which
leads to the existence of some frequency in the cyclic According to equations (3) to (5), it is inferred that
frequency domain while it does not exist in the ori-
ginal signal frequency spectrum. These reasons Rfx ðÞ
8 2 h i
increased the difficulty of applying the cyclostationary > A B2
>
> 2 cosð2fz Þ 1 þ 2 cosð2fn Þ f¼0
theory to the aero-engine fault diagnosis. >
>
>
> 2
Signal’s autocorrelation function can reserve the > A2B cosð2fz Þ½1 þexpði2fn Þ
> f ¼ fn
>
>
periodic component and eliminate noise at the same >
< A2 B2 cosð2fz Þ½expði2fn Þ f ¼ 2fn
time, and meanwhile can change the frequency modu- ¼ 28 h i
>
> A
½ expði2f Þ  1 þ B2
cosð2f Þ f ¼ 2fz
lation to amplitude modulation. Hilbert transform >
> 4 n 2 n
>
>
>
> A2 B ½expði2f Þþ exp½2ðf f Þi
can obtain the complex envelope of signal, which >
> z n z f ¼ ðfn 2fz Þ
>
> 8
removes the regular vibration component. Based on : A 2 B2
16 exp ½ 2ðf n  fz Þi  f ¼ ð2fn  2fz Þ
the above analysis, this paper proposes a new method
combining the autocorrelation function, Hilbert ð6Þ
transform, and cyclostationary theory to extract the
rubbing fault characteristics in the state of single- It is obvious that cyclic autocorrelation function is
point and local partial rubbing of aero-engines. not equal to zero if and only if cyclic frequency f ¼ 0,
Yu et al. 3

Figure 1. (a) Research method combining cyclic autocorrelation function and Hilbert transform; (b) new method proposed in
this paper.

f ¼ fn , f ¼ 2fn , f ¼ 2fz , f ¼ ð fn  2fz Þ and frequency and its frequency doubling and rubbing
f ¼ ð2fn  2fz Þ, while f ¼ 0 represents stationary frequency and its frequency double to analyze the
signal. If one f value is taken, and the split signal of cyclic autocorrelation function. Considering signal’s
the cyclic autocorrelation function is analyzed in this f autocorrelation function can reserve the periodic
value, then fault characteristics can be extracted by component and eliminate noise at the same time,
obtaining modulation spectrum of the split signal. and Hilbert transform can remove the regular vibra-
tion component and only contain signal modulated
information without the load frequency composition.
Hilbert transform Autocorrelation function and Hilbert envelop spec-
Suppose original signal is yðtÞ, then the Hilbert trans- trum is respectively used to reduce noise and demodu-
form of yðtÞ is late rubbing signal when single-point rubbing and
local partial rubbing occurs.
Z þ1
1 yi ðÞ Based on the above analysis, this paper proposes a
H½ yi ðtÞ ¼ d ð7Þ
 1 t new method combined with the autocorrelation func-
tion, Hilbert transform, and cyclostationary theory to
Structuring yðtÞ analysis function zi ðtÞ extract rubbing fault characteristics of aero-engines.
The common research method used to extract the
zi ðtÞ ¼ yi ðtÞ þ jH½ yi ðtÞ ¼ Ai ðtÞej’i ðtÞ ð8Þ rubbing characteristics is the combined cyclic autocor-
relation function and Hilbert transform as shown in
Then the amplitude function Ai ðtÞ of yðtÞ is Figure 1(a). The new method proposed in this paper is
obtained, namely the Hilbert envelope spectrum shown in Figure 1(b).
The difference is obvious when comparing
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Figure 1(a) and (b), and they are shown as follows:
Ai ðtÞ ¼ y2i ðtÞ þ H2 ½ yi ðtÞ ð9Þ
1. The casing vibration signal is analyzed in the new
method;
A new characteristic analysis method 2. The autocorrelation function is used to reduce
noise in the new method;
for aero-engine rotor–stator rubbing
3. Considering the aero-engine rotor-disc-blade
In consideration of the aero-engine rotor-disc-blade structure, rubbing frequency and its doubling fre-
structure, every blade will impact the rubbing point quency is used to analyze the modulation
in turn, and this behavior will repeat with rotator frequency.
cycle rotation. Therefore, the vibration caused by rub-
bing is similar to gear; the rubbing frequency corres- The concrete steps of new method are as follows:
ponds to the meshing frequency of gear. The vibration
amplitude is modulated by the rotating speed. 1. The casing vibration signal is collected including
Therefore, there are modulated boundary frequencies normal running, single-point rubbing, and local
by rotating frequency in rubbing frequency and its partial rubbing fault occurs of aero-engine rotor
frequency doubling. The rubbing frequency is equal experiment rig.
to the product of blade numbers and the rotational 2. The autocorrelation function is obtained through
speed. That is, fn is respectively the rotating frequency original casing vibration signal.
and rubbing frequency in equation (6). Therefore, we 3. Slice signal of autocorrelation function in time-
can respectively consider f being equal to the rotating delay domain and cyclic frequency domain is
4 Proc IMechE Part G: J Aerospace Engineering 0(0)

Figure 2. Aero-engine rotor experiment rig.

analyzed by cyclic autocorrelation function. The rubbing experiments and local partial rubbing experi-
split position includes not only the rotating fre- ments could respectively be embodied by adjusting the
quency and its doubling frequency but also rub- rubbing screw against rubbing ring and adjust the
bing frequency as well as doubling frequency. compressor partial rubbing adjusting mechanism.
4. Finally, Hilbert envelop spectrum is used to The installation position of acceleration sensors
extract characteristics of slice signal, and rubbing always includes vertical upper, vertical lower, hori-
characteristics and rules are extracted according to zontal left, and horizontal right of turbine casing.
the Hilbert envelope spectrum. All the rubbing experiments involved in the paper
are based on the acceleration signal collected by the
acceleration sensors Model 4508, which is provided by
Demark Brüel&Kjær, and the rotating speed
Rubbing experiment
measured by SE series eddy current displacement sen-
In this paper, all experiment data come from the aero- sors, which is provided by instrument factory
engine rotor experiment rig, which is designed by the Southeast University. Data collector model is
Shenyang Aero-engine Design Institute. The experi- USB9234 provided by National Instruments. The
ment rig core-engine is simplified to be 0-2-0 support experiment is conducted under room temperature.
structure, and the compressor is simplified to be a Diagrams of installation position of sensors are
single disk structure. The diagram of aero-engine shown in Figure 3(c).
rotor experiment rig is shown in Figure 2.
In aero-engine, rubbing is mainly caused by rotor Aero-engine rotor–stator rubbing
imbalance, casing deformation, support different con-
characteristic extract
centric, etc. Rotor is difficult to rebound by rubbing
force as rotor is heavy while casing usually is light due Due to the limited space, single-point rubbing experi-
to the use of thin case structure, which leads to the mental data are randomly selected from 17 May 2014,
rubbing types of aero-engine shown in partial rub- and the rotational speed is about 1500 r/min; local
bing, while partial rubbing position has some differ- partial rubbing experimental data are randomly
ences due to casing deformation difference, direction selected from 28 April 2013, where the rubbing
difference of support different concentric. Considering extent is light, and the rotational speed is about
that rubbing position is distributed on casing whole 1200 r/min. 1T–5T respectively represent 1–5 integer
circumference, the paper respectively sets four uni- multiple rubbing frequencies involved in the paper.
form distribution rubbing points on single-point rub-
bing state and two rubbing positions on partial Aero-engine rotor–stator rubbing characteristics
rubbing state. The specific rubbing positions are as extraction based on autocorrelation function of
follows: (1) single-point rubbing: vertical upper, ver-
tical lower, horizontal left, and horizontal right on
casing acceleration signal
turbine casing. (2) Local rub: (a) the turbine casing Cyclic autocorrelation function is used to analyze the
local left or right, (b) the compressor casing local left rubbing fault on casing vibration acceleration signal.
or right. The diagrams of the rubbing experiment in We firstly take single-point rubbing as an example for
different rubbing states are shown in Figure 3. Figure analysis. The rubbing position and sensor installation
3(a) shows the single-point rubbing experimental dia- position is selected on the vertical direction (select
gram. Figure 3(b) depicts the partial rubbing experi- vertical upper randomly) and horizontal direction
mental diagram. Different extents of single-point (select horizontal right randomly) of turbine casing.
Yu et al. 5

Figure 3. Rubbing experiment and sensors installed position diagram: (a) turbine casing single-point rubbing experiment; (b) local
partial rubbing experiment; (c) sensors installed position diagram of turbine casing.

Figure 4. (a) Time-domain signal and (b) frequency spectrum of the vibration signal.

Firstly, rubbing experiment with rubbing position on function alone to analyze the casing signal, due to
vertical upper and sensor installed on vertical upper of obtaining weak and complex casing vibration signal.
turbine casing is studied. The experimental rotating In order to obtain more satisfactory results, autocor-
speed is 1511.7 r/min, the rotating frequency is 25.2 relation function is used to reduce noise and enhance
Hz, and the rubbing frequency (product between the single-point rubbing characteristics. Firstly, the
blade numbers and rotating frequency, and the autocorrelation function is obtained according to
blade numbers is 32 of aero-engine experimental rig) the original casing vibration signal. Then autocorrel-
is 806.2 Hz. The result is shown in Figure 4 where ation function’s slice signal in time-delay domain and
Figure 4(a) and (b) respectively represent time- cyclic frequency domain is analyzed according to the
domain signal and its slice signal frequency spectrum cyclic autocorrelation function, and the split position
graph on time-delay equal to zero of the original includes not only the rotating frequency and double
signal. rotating frequency, but also rubbing frequency and
By observing Figure 4(b), we cannot find signifi- double rubbing frequency. Finally, the Hilbert enve-
cant rubbing characteristics by cyclic autocorrelation lope spectrum is used to extract characteristics of slice
6 Proc IMechE Part G: J Aerospace Engineering 0(0)

Figure 5. Cyclostationary autocorrelation function zero-time-delay slice for: (a) autocorrelation function slice and (b) autocorrel-
ation function slice local amplification.

Figure 6. Cyclostationary autocorrelation function slice graph of the cyclostationary frequency from10 Hz to 90 Hz for: (a) original
signal slice and (b) autocorrelation function slice.

signal, and rubbing characteristics and rules are signal, selected data are consistent with Figure 4.
abstracted according to the Hilbert envelope Figure 5(a) and (b) respectively represents slice
spectrum. graph and its local amplification on time-delay equal
For comparison with the cyclic autocorrelation to zero of the original signal autocorrelation function.
function that was used alone to extract rubbing char- Comparing Figure 5 with Figure 4, it is seen that
acteristics through original vibration acceleration cyclic autocorrelation function slice on cyclic
Yu et al. 7

Figure 7. Cyclostationary autocorrelation function slice of cyclostationary frequency from 600 Hz to1000 Hz for: (a) original signal
slice and (b) autocorrelation function slice.

Figure 8. Cyclostationary autocorrelation function slice of the cyclostationary frequency from 1400 Hz to1800 Hz for: (a) original
signal slice and (b) autocorrelation function slice.
8 Proc IMechE Part G: J Aerospace Engineering 0(0)

frequency domain when time-delay is equal to zero of To research the rubbing characteristics further,
signal autocorrelation function has outstanding cyclic autocorrelation function’s slice signal on differ-
characteristic frequency on rubbing frequency and ent cyclic frequency positions was analyzed between
double frequency positions, while original vibration the original vibration acceleration signal and its
acceleration signal analyzed by cyclic autocorrelation autocorrelation function. Figures 6 to 8 respectively
function does not have obvious characteristic represents slice graph of the cyclic frequency from 10
frequency in Figure 4. Hz to 90 Hz, from 600 Hz to 1000 Hz, and from
1400 Hz to 1800 Hz. Figures 6(a) to Figure 8(a) rep-
resents different cyclic frequency slice of the original
vibration acceleration signal, and Figures 6(b) to 8(b)
represent autocorrelation function on different cyclic
frequency slices of the original vibration acceleration
signal.
Some conclusions can be drawn by comparison
and analysis of Figures 6 to 8:
There are significant characteristic values only in
cyclic frequency equal to the rotating frequency in
the original vibration acceleration signal cyclic auto-
correlation function slice signal, while cyclic autocor-
relation slice has more significant characteristic values
in rotating frequency, double rotating frequency, rub-
bing frequency, double rubbing frequency position of
original vibration acceleration signal autocorrelation
function. We can see rubbing fault characteristics
become more outstanding if the original acceleration
Figure 9. Frequency spectrum of the original casing vibration signal is analyzed firstly by autocorrelation function
signal. and then by cyclic autocorrelation function.

Figure 10. Different cyclostationary frequency slice signal’s frequency spectrum of the autocorrelation function for (a), (b), (c) and
(d) cyclostationary frequency () is respectively equal to rotating frequency, double rotating frequency, rubbing frequency. and double
rubbing frequency.
Yu et al. 9

Figure 11. Different cyclostationary frequency slice signal’s Hilbert envelope spectrum of autocorrelation function for (a), (b), (c)
and (d) represents respectively cyclostationary frequency () equal to rotating frequency, double rotating frequency, rubbing fre-
quency, and double rubbing frequency.

For exploring the rubbing characteristics in future, is also some frequency which does not exist in the
frequency spectrum of the original casing vibration original vibration signal frequency spectrum
acceleration signal and the time-delay slice signal of (Figure 9). It is because the cyclic frequency is a
autocorrelation function were analyzed and com- kind of mapping from the original signal frequency,
pared. The slice position of cyclic frequency includes and it represents a kind of correlation among fre-
rotating frequency and double rotating frequency, quency on certain cyclic frequency position when
rubbing frequency and double rubbing frequency. original vibration acceleration signal frequency is
Figure 9 depicts the frequency spectrum of the ori- shifted. These inconsistent frequencies with original
ginal casing vibration acceleration signal. signal frequency spectrum add to the difficulty of
Figure 10(a) to (d) respectively represents time-delay rubbing fault diagnosis.
signal’s frequency spectrum on cyclic frequency equal
to rotating frequency and double rotating frequency, Aero-engine rubbing characteristic extract based on
rubbing frequency and double rubbing frequency of autocorrelation function, cyclic autocorrelation
the cyclic autocorrelation function.
function, and Hilbert envelope spectrum
From Figure 9 we can find that the frequency spec-
trum of casing vibration signal has significant impact In order to reduce the inconsistent frequency between
characteristic frequency in rubbing frequency 3–5 cyclic autocorrelation function slice signal and original
integer multiple positions, and also sees large noise vibration acceleration signal, the Hilbert envelope spec-
signal at the same time. trum is introduced to analyze the time-delay slice signal.
From Figure 10, in the precise analysis on time- Figure 11(a) and (b) respectively represents autocorrel-
delay signal’s frequency spectrum of casing vibra- ation function time-delay signal’s Hilbert envelop spec-
tion signal autocorrelation function, we can find trum of the cyclic frequency equal to rotating frequency
that rubbing frequency and its multiples frequency and its double, Figure 11(c) and (d) respectively repre-
is outstanding in the cyclic frequency equal to rotat- sents autocorrelation function time-delay signal’s
ing frequency, double rotating frequency, rubbing Hilbert envelop spectrum of the cyclic frequency equal
frequency and double rubbing frequency, but there to rubbing frequency and its double.
10 Proc IMechE Part G: J Aerospace Engineering 0(0)

Figure 12. Sensor installed position effect on rubbing characteristics extraction-sensor installed on horizontal direction while
rubbing position on vertical direction for (a) time-domain signal, (b) original vibration signal frequency spectrum, (c), (d), (e) and (f)
represents respectively cyclostationary frequency () equal to rotating frequency, double rotating frequency, rubbing frequency, and
double rubbing frequency.

In the precise analysis on time-delay signal’s


Hilbert envelope spectrum of autocorrelation func- Different factors effect on rubbing
tion, it can be seen that outstanding rubbing charac- characteristics extraction based on
teristics exist, irrespective of the cyclic frequency equal proposed new method
to rotating frequency and its double or rubbing fre-
quency and double rubbing frequency. Compared
Sensor installed position effect
with the frequency spectrum of casing original signal To compare the influence of the installation position
(Figure 9) and slice signal of autocorrelation function of sensor on rubbing characteristics extraction, we
(Figure 10), the noise and inconsistent frequency is selected the experimental data collected in the same
reduced considerably, and rubbing frequency and time in section ‘‘Aero-engine rotor-stator rubbing
twice rubbing frequency was better reserved at the characteristics extraction based on autocorrelation
same time, which proved that the proposed new function of casing acceleration signal’’ to analyze,
method can effectively and correctly extract rubbing and conducted rubbing characteristic analysis on the
features in single-point rubbing occurrence. signal collected by the acceleration sensors installed
Yu et al. 11

Figure 13. Rubbing type effect on rubbing characteristics extraction—local partial rubbing for: (a) time-domain signal, (b) and (c)
represents respectively cyclostationary frequency () equal to rubbing frequency and double rubbing frequency.

on turbine casing horizontal right. Figure 12(a) and Rubbing type effect on rubbing characteristics
(b) respectively represents the time-domain signal and
extraction
its frequency spectrum. Figure 12(c) to (f) respectively
represents time-delay slice signal’s Hilbert envelope Taking into account the influence of the rubbing type
spectrum on cyclic frequency equal to rotating fre- on the rubbing characteristics extraction, the experi-
quency, double rotating frequency, rubbing fre- mental data is collected and analyzed from 28 April
quency, and double rubbing frequency. 2013 in local partial rubbing of turbine casing where
From Figure 12, we can draw the following the extent of rubbing is light. The acceleration sensors
conclusions: are installed on the turbine casing horizontal right and
From Figures 12(c) and 15(d), we can find that the experiment rotating speed is 1214.7 r/min, and the
there is no rubbing frequency and its integer multiple rotating frequency is 20.2 Hz, and the rubbing fre-
frequency on cyclic frequency is equal to rotating fre- quency is 646.4 Hz. Figure 13(a) to (c) respectively
quency and its double rotating frequency if rubbing represents time-domain signal and time-delay slice sig-
position on vertical direction while sensor installed nal’s Hilbert envelope spectrum on cyclic frequency
horizontal direction, it is inconsistent with Figure equal to rubbing frequency and double rubbing
11(a) and (b). On analysis of Figure 12(e) and (f) frequency.
there is outstanding rubbing frequency and its integer From Figure 13(b) and (c), we can find that there is
multiple frequency on cyclic frequency equal to rub- outstanding but not unique rubbing frequency and its
bing frequency and its double rubbing frequency if integer multiple frequency on cyclic frequency is equal
rubbing position on vertical direction, while sensor to rubbing frequency and double rubbing frequency,
installed horizontal direction, it is consistent with and is consistent with Figure 11(c), Figure 11(d) and
Figure 11(c) and (d). That is, if the cyclic frequency Figure 12(e), Figure 12(f). That is, if the cyclic fre-
is equal to the rubbing frequency and double rubbing quency equals rubbing frequency and double rubbing
frequency, the time-delay slice signal’s Hilbert envelop frequency, the time-delay slice signal’s Hilbert enve-
spectrum of autocorrelation function has not been lope spectrum of autocorrelation function has been
affected by sensor installation position. Significant affected slightly by rubbing type. Significant charac-
characteristic frequency appears on the rubbing fre- teristic frequency appears on rubbing frequency or its
quency or its integer multiple frequency positions irre- integer multiple frequencies positions but is not
spective of the sensor installed on the vertical or unique, which may be caused by nonsingle blade in
horizontal direction. contact with the rubbing ring.
12 Proc IMechE Part G: J Aerospace Engineering 0(0)

Figure 14. Rubbing position effect on rubbing characteristics extraction-sensor installed on vertical direction and rubbing position
on horizontal direction for (a) time-domain signal, (b) original vibration signal frequency spectrum, (c) cyclostationary frequency,
 ¼ rubbing frequency slice signal’s Hilbert envelop spectrum and (d) cyclostationary frequency  ¼ double rubbing frequency slice
signal’s Hilbert envelope spectrum.

Rubbing position effect on rubbing characteristics On analysis of Figure 11(c), Figure 11(d), Figure
12(e), Figure 12(f), Figure 13(c), Figure 13(d), Figure
extraction 14(c) and Figure 14(d), we can find that the rubbing
In order to compare the influence of rubbing position position and sensor installation position has no effect
on rubbing characteristic extraction, the experimental by using the Hilbert envelope spectrum of autocorrel-
data from 17 May 2014 were taken and rubbing pos- ation function extract rubbing characteristic, if the
ition on horizontal right of turbine casing as an exam- cyclic frequency is equal to rubbing frequency and
ple was analyzed. The rubbing state is a single-point double rubbing frequency. The rubbing type has
rubbing, and the acceleration sensors are also selected small effect on rubbing characteristics extraction,
in the vertical direction (also select vertical upper). but it also has obvious rubbing frequency and its inte-
The rotating speed is 1503.5 r/min, and its rotating ger multiply, with the frequency component being
frequency is 25.1 Hz, rubbing frequency is equal to more complex. That is, combining the Hilbert enve-
801.9 Hz. Figure 14(a) and (b) respectively shows lope spectrum with autocorrelation function and
time-domain signal and its frequency spectrum. cyclic autocorrelation function can effectively extract
Figure 14(c) and (d) respectively represents time-delay rubbing characteristics based on casing vibration
slice signal’s Hilbert envelope spectrum of autocorrel- signal in the state of single-point rubbing and local-
ation function on cyclic frequency equal to rubbing light partial rubbing.
frequency and double rubbing frequency.
By analyzing Figure 14 and comparing with Hilbert envelope spectrum analysis on the
Figure 11(c) to (f), we can find that there is out-
aero-engine normal running station
standing rubbing frequency and its integer multiple
frequency on cyclic frequency equal to rubbing fre- For comparing the difference of the cyclic autocor-
quency and double rubbing frequency if rubbing relation slice signal’s Hilbert envelope spectrum
position is in the horizontal direction while if between aero-engine normal running state and rub-
sensor is installed in the vertical direction, it is con- bing fault occurrence, we also take the experimental
sistent with rubbing position on vertical direction in data of 17 May 2014 as an example for analysis,
Figure 11(c) to (f). with aero-engine rotor experiment rig running
Yu et al. 13

Figure 15. Hilbert envelope spectrum analysis in aero-engine running in normal station for (a) time-domain signal, (b) original
vibration signal frequency spectrum, (c) cyclostationary frequency,  ¼ rubbing frequency slice signal’s Hilbert envelope spectrum of
autocorrelation function and (d) cyclostationary frequency  ¼ double rubbing frequency slice signal’s Hilbert envelop spectrum of
autocorrelation function.

on normal state. Figure 15(a) and (b) are respectively casing vibration signal. The method also has the fol-
the time domain signal and its frequency spectrum. lowing characteristics:
Figure 15(c) and (d) respectively shows time-delay
signal’s Hilbert envelope spectrum of autocorrelation 1. Analysis of comparison is carried out between ori-
function when cyclic frequency is the rubbing fre- ginal vibration signal and its autocorrelation func-
quency and double rubbing frequency. tion based on the cyclic autocorrelation function
From Figure 15(c) and (d), we can see that and Hilbert transform. The result shows that the
the time-delay slice signal’s Hilbert envelope spec- cyclic autocorrelation function slice signal Hilbert
trum of autocorrelation function does not have sig- envelope spectrum of the autocorrelation function
nificant characteristic frequency on cyclic frequency has outstanding characteristic frequency on the
equal to rubbing frequency and double rubbing fre- cyclic frequency, which is equal to the rubbing fre-
quency, and the difference is obvious with aero- quency and twice rubbing frequency. While ori-
engine rubbing fault occurrence. It is therefore ginal vibration signal does not have obvious
advantageous to identify the rubbing fault of aero- characteristics, it is analyzed in the same method.
engines. 2. The sensor installation position and rubbing pos-
ition effect on rubbing characteristic extraction is
considered at the same time. By analysis it was
Conclusions and discussion found that the extracted rubbing characteristic
Considering that the casing signal of aero-engines is according to Hilbert envelope spectrum has not
weak and complex, this study combines autocorrel- been affected by rubbing position and sensors
ation function, cyclostationary theory, and Hilbert installation position on cyclic frequency equal to
transform to extract the aero-engine rotor–stator rub- rubbing frequency and double rubbing frequency.
bing characteristics according to the aero-engine 3. The effect of rubbing type on rubbing characteris-
structure and rotating features in the state of single- tic extraction is considered. By analysis it was
point rubbing and local-light partial rubbing based on found that the extracted rubbing characteristic
14 Proc IMechE Part G: J Aerospace Engineering 0(0)

according to Hilbert envelope spectrum has been of this article: This work was supported by the National
effected slightly, but there also exists obvious rub- Natural Science Fund (grant no. 51605309), Provincial
bing frequency and its integer multiply on cyclic Education Department of Liaoning Province (grant no.
frequency equal to rubbing frequency, double rub- L201628), and Aviation Science Function (grant no.
20163354004).
bing frequency, where the frequency component is
more complex, which may be caused by nonsingle
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The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with Signal Process 2013; 40: 38–55.
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