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J Aerospace Engineering

A new characteristic analysis method 0(0) 1–14

! IMechE 2017

sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav

DOI: 10.1177/0954410017706990

journals.sagepub.com/home/pig

Abstract

Aero-engine fault diagnosis is often studied according to casing signal owing to the inconvenience of assembly and

structural limitations. Satisfactory result by cyclic statistics alone is difficult to obtain because casing signal is weak

and complex. Based on this, a cyclostationary theory combined with autocorrelation function and Hilbert transform

is applied to extract the characteristics of aero-engine rotor–stator rubbing fault according to the aero-engine

structure and rotating features with regard to of single-point rubbing and local rubbing. Signal autocorrelation

function is analyzed by cyclic autocorrelation function and Hilbert transform, in order to extract rubbing charac-

teristics based on casing signal of aero-engine and reduce inconsistent frequency in the frequency spectrum between

time-delay signal of cyclic frequency slice position and original signal. Meanwhile, consideration is given to the

influence of rubbing position and sensor installation position in the extraction of rubbing characteristics. Finally,

the Hilbert envelope spectrum is compared and analyzed between normal running and occurrence of the rubbing

faults of aero-engines. The result indicates that the different cyclic frequency positions slice signal’s Hilbert envelop

spectrum of signal autocorrelation function, but not original acceleration signal which has outstanding characteristic

frequency for rubbing frequency (product between blade numbers and rotating frequency) and its twice frequency

when rubbing fault occurs not only in single rubbing but also in local partial rubbing. Meanwhile, when compared

with the original vibration signal slice, inconsistent frequency of the autocorrelation function slice in the Hilbert

envelope spectrum is decreased considerably.

Keywords

Aero-engine, autocorrelation, cyclic autocorrelation function, casing, Hilbert transform, rubbing

Introduction

fault diagnosis. Some noteworthy conclusions have

Rubbing is a kind of common and serious nonlinear been obtained with the vibration signal of the rolling

fault of aero-engine, which not only aﬀects the service element bearing and gears, and Antoni’s3 study is the

life of the equipments but also is likely to cause most representative. In 2001, Randall et al.3 applied

tremendous economic loss and casualties.1 It is cyclostationary theory and envelope analysis to the

important to determine the causes for the rubbing ball bearing fault diagnosis, considering the relation-

fault characteristics early, and it is of great economic ship between spectral and envelope analysis for the

and important theoretical value to ﬁnd the reason for cyclostationary signal. Meanwhile, Antoni et al.4

the fault, improve design, avoid accidents and dedicated to modeling rotating machine signals as

improve the work-safety of aero-engines. The rubbing cyclostationary processes,a comprehensive methodol-

fault characteristics of real aero-engines are particu- ogy is proposed in order to process actual cyclosta-

larly diﬃcult to be extracted due to the limited tionary signals, and three typical ones apply to

number of stops, inconvenience of disassembly,

occasionality, and diﬃculty to emerge.2 Due to the 1

School of Automation, Shenyang Aerospace University, China

close symmetric physical structure and rotation 2

Guizhou Aero-engine Design Institute, Aviation Industry Corporation

mode, aero-engine casing vibration signal has a of China, China

cyclostationary feature and the rubbing fault charac-

Corresponding author:

teristics can be studied in the cyclostationary theory

Mingyue Yu, School of Automation, Shenyang Aerospace University,

frame. In the last two decades, cyclostationary theory Daoyi South Street, Shenbei New District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province,

was applied to the signal and information processing, China.

and has also been studied in the rotating machine Email: yumingyue211@outlook.com

2 Proc IMechE Part G: J Aerospace Engineering 0(0)

dealing with vibration signals of IC engine, rolling Cyclic autocorrelation function and

element bearing and a gearbox was analyzed by dif- Hilbert transform

ferent types of cyclostationarity in 2004. . . . Antoni

et al.5 combined the cyclostationary theory with

Cyclic autocorrelation function

blind separation algorithm and studied the convolu- Suppose xðtÞ is a continuous signal, then autocorrel-

tion mix blind separation algorithm based on the ation function of xðtÞ is

cyclostationary theory. Higher order cyclic statistics n

theory was applied to the rotating machine fault diag- o

Rx ðt, Þ ¼ E x t x tþ ð1Þ

nosis by Chen et al.6 Bouillaut and Sidahmed7 com- 2 2

bined the cyclostationary theory with bilinear

approach to helicopter gearbox early diagnosis and Efg is the statistical average value, is the delay

classiﬁcation method based on higher order cyclosta- factor, and * represents the conjugate. If Rx ðt, Þ is a

tionarity. Borghesani et al.8 introduced the original cyclic function of time t, then xðtÞ has second-order

analytical derivation of the statistical tests for cyclos- cyclostationary characteristics. Because Rx ðt, Þ is a

tationary in the squared envelope spectrum, and the periodic function, it can be obtained through

proposed method was veriﬁed by using the experimen- Fourier series expansion

tal vibration data of the rolling element bearings. X

Lamraoui et al.9 used the cyclostationary method to Rx ðt, Þ ¼ Rx ð, Þej2t ð2Þ

2A

investigate chatter and tool wear vibrations signals

acquired from high-speed milling. Boungou et al.10 m

where ¼ ðm 2 ZÞ represents the cyclic frequency,

T0

proposed the fatigue damage detection method and T0 is the period of autocorrelation function. Then

according to the cyclostationary theory. Fourier transform coeﬃcient is given as

The application study of the cyclostationary the-

Z

T

ory on rotating machine fault diagnosis is widely pro- 1 2

moted by research scholars both home and abroad. Rx ð, Þ ¼ lim x t x t þ ej2t dt

T!1 T T2 2 2

The research is mainly concentrated on small-sized

rotator experiment table and noncasing signal. ð3Þ

Meanwhile, the study does not give full consideration

to the aero-engine rotor-disc-blade structure, and its where Rx ð, Þ represents the cyclic autocorrelation

fault diagnosis is often studied according to the casing function of the cyclic frequency equal to .

signal because of the assembly and structural Suppose x (t) is an amplitude modulated signal,

limitations. The study meets certain limitations then

owing to the complexity of rubbing fault, and so it

is diﬃcult to be applied to practical aero-engines. xðtÞ ¼ A½1 þ B cosð2fn tÞ cosð2fz tÞ ð4Þ

Aero-engines work under adverse circumstances,

and the casing signal is the comprehensive reﬂection fz represents the carrier frequency, and fn repre-

of many parts. The signal distortion, energy attenu- sents the modulation frequency. A and B is respec-

ation, and noise eﬀect leads to obtaining the weak and tively amplitude of carrier signal and modulation

complex casing vibration signals.2 Satisfactory results signal. It is also seen that

probably by cyclic statistics alone are diﬃcult to

Z T=2

obtain. Meanwhile, the cyclic frequency is a kind of 1

frequency shift from the original signal frequency, i.e. lim expði!1 tÞ expði!2 tÞdt ¼ 0 !1 6¼ !2 ð5Þ

T!1 T T=2

it is a mapping of the original signal frequency, which

leads to the existence of some frequency in the cyclic According to equations (3) to (5), it is inferred that

frequency domain while it does not exist in the ori-

ginal signal frequency spectrum. These reasons Rfx ðÞ

8 2 h i

increased the diﬃculty of applying the cyclostationary > A B2

>

> 2 cosð2fz Þ 1 þ 2 cosð2fn Þ f¼0

theory to the aero-engine fault diagnosis. >

>

>

> 2

Signal’s autocorrelation function can reserve the > A2B cosð2fz Þ½1 þexpði2fn Þ

> f ¼ fn

>

>

periodic component and eliminate noise at the same >

< A2 B2 cosð2fz Þ½expði2fn Þ f ¼ 2fn

time, and meanwhile can change the frequency modu- ¼ 28 h i

>

> A

½ expði2f Þ 1 þ B2

cosð2f Þ f ¼ 2fz

lation to amplitude modulation. Hilbert transform >

> 4 n 2 n

>

>

>

> A2 B ½expði2f Þþ exp½2ðf f Þi

can obtain the complex envelope of signal, which >

> z n z f ¼ ðfn 2fz Þ

>

> 8

removes the regular vibration component. Based on : A 2 B2

16 exp ½ 2ðf n fz Þi f ¼ ð2fn 2fz Þ

the above analysis, this paper proposes a new method

combining the autocorrelation function, Hilbert ð6Þ

transform, and cyclostationary theory to extract the

rubbing fault characteristics in the state of single- It is obvious that cyclic autocorrelation function is

point and local partial rubbing of aero-engines. not equal to zero if and only if cyclic frequency f ¼ 0,

Yu et al. 3

Figure 1. (a) Research method combining cyclic autocorrelation function and Hilbert transform; (b) new method proposed in

this paper.

f ¼ fn , f ¼ 2fn , f ¼ 2fz , f ¼ ð fn 2fz Þ and frequency and its frequency doubling and rubbing

f ¼ ð2fn 2fz Þ, while f ¼ 0 represents stationary frequency and its frequency double to analyze the

signal. If one f value is taken, and the split signal of cyclic autocorrelation function. Considering signal’s

the cyclic autocorrelation function is analyzed in this f autocorrelation function can reserve the periodic

value, then fault characteristics can be extracted by component and eliminate noise at the same time,

obtaining modulation spectrum of the split signal. and Hilbert transform can remove the regular vibra-

tion component and only contain signal modulated

information without the load frequency composition.

Hilbert transform Autocorrelation function and Hilbert envelop spec-

Suppose original signal is yðtÞ, then the Hilbert trans- trum is respectively used to reduce noise and demodu-

form of yðtÞ is late rubbing signal when single-point rubbing and

local partial rubbing occurs.

Z þ1

1 yi ðÞ Based on the above analysis, this paper proposes a

H½ yi ðtÞ ¼ d ð7Þ

1 t new method combined with the autocorrelation func-

tion, Hilbert transform, and cyclostationary theory to

Structuring yðtÞ analysis function zi ðtÞ extract rubbing fault characteristics of aero-engines.

The common research method used to extract the

zi ðtÞ ¼ yi ðtÞ þ jH½ yi ðtÞ ¼ Ai ðtÞej’i ðtÞ ð8Þ rubbing characteristics is the combined cyclic autocor-

relation function and Hilbert transform as shown in

Then the amplitude function Ai ðtÞ of yðtÞ is Figure 1(a). The new method proposed in this paper is

obtained, namely the Hilbert envelope spectrum shown in Figure 1(b).

The diﬀerence is obvious when comparing

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Figure 1(a) and (b), and they are shown as follows:

Ai ðtÞ ¼ y2i ðtÞ þ H2 ½ yi ðtÞ ð9Þ

1. The casing vibration signal is analyzed in the new

method;

A new characteristic analysis method 2. The autocorrelation function is used to reduce

noise in the new method;

for aero-engine rotor–stator rubbing

3. Considering the aero-engine rotor-disc-blade

In consideration of the aero-engine rotor-disc-blade structure, rubbing frequency and its doubling fre-

structure, every blade will impact the rubbing point quency is used to analyze the modulation

in turn, and this behavior will repeat with rotator frequency.

cycle rotation. Therefore, the vibration caused by rub-

bing is similar to gear; the rubbing frequency corres- The concrete steps of new method are as follows:

ponds to the meshing frequency of gear. The vibration

amplitude is modulated by the rotating speed. 1. The casing vibration signal is collected including

Therefore, there are modulated boundary frequencies normal running, single-point rubbing, and local

by rotating frequency in rubbing frequency and its partial rubbing fault occurs of aero-engine rotor

frequency doubling. The rubbing frequency is equal experiment rig.

to the product of blade numbers and the rotational 2. The autocorrelation function is obtained through

speed. That is, fn is respectively the rotating frequency original casing vibration signal.

and rubbing frequency in equation (6). Therefore, we 3. Slice signal of autocorrelation function in time-

can respectively consider f being equal to the rotating delay domain and cyclic frequency domain is

4 Proc IMechE Part G: J Aerospace Engineering 0(0)

analyzed by cyclic autocorrelation function. The rubbing experiments and local partial rubbing experi-

split position includes not only the rotating fre- ments could respectively be embodied by adjusting the

quency and its doubling frequency but also rub- rubbing screw against rubbing ring and adjust the

bing frequency as well as doubling frequency. compressor partial rubbing adjusting mechanism.

4. Finally, Hilbert envelop spectrum is used to The installation position of acceleration sensors

extract characteristics of slice signal, and rubbing always includes vertical upper, vertical lower, hori-

characteristics and rules are extracted according to zontal left, and horizontal right of turbine casing.

the Hilbert envelope spectrum. All the rubbing experiments involved in the paper

are based on the acceleration signal collected by the

acceleration sensors Model 4508, which is provided by

Demark Brüel&Kjær, and the rotating speed

Rubbing experiment

measured by SE series eddy current displacement sen-

In this paper, all experiment data come from the aero- sors, which is provided by instrument factory

engine rotor experiment rig, which is designed by the Southeast University. Data collector model is

Shenyang Aero-engine Design Institute. The experi- USB9234 provided by National Instruments. The

ment rig core-engine is simpliﬁed to be 0-2-0 support experiment is conducted under room temperature.

structure, and the compressor is simpliﬁed to be a Diagrams of installation position of sensors are

single disk structure. The diagram of aero-engine shown in Figure 3(c).

rotor experiment rig is shown in Figure 2.

In aero-engine, rubbing is mainly caused by rotor Aero-engine rotor–stator rubbing

imbalance, casing deformation, support diﬀerent con-

characteristic extract

centric, etc. Rotor is diﬃcult to rebound by rubbing

force as rotor is heavy while casing usually is light due Due to the limited space, single-point rubbing experi-

to the use of thin case structure, which leads to the mental data are randomly selected from 17 May 2014,

rubbing types of aero-engine shown in partial rub- and the rotational speed is about 1500 r/min; local

bing, while partial rubbing position has some diﬀer- partial rubbing experimental data are randomly

ences due to casing deformation diﬀerence, direction selected from 28 April 2013, where the rubbing

diﬀerence of support diﬀerent concentric. Considering extent is light, and the rotational speed is about

that rubbing position is distributed on casing whole 1200 r/min. 1T–5T respectively represent 1–5 integer

circumference, the paper respectively sets four uni- multiple rubbing frequencies involved in the paper.

form distribution rubbing points on single-point rub-

bing state and two rubbing positions on partial Aero-engine rotor–stator rubbing characteristics

rubbing state. The speciﬁc rubbing positions are as extraction based on autocorrelation function of

follows: (1) single-point rubbing: vertical upper, ver-

tical lower, horizontal left, and horizontal right on

casing acceleration signal

turbine casing. (2) Local rub: (a) the turbine casing Cyclic autocorrelation function is used to analyze the

local left or right, (b) the compressor casing local left rubbing fault on casing vibration acceleration signal.

or right. The diagrams of the rubbing experiment in We ﬁrstly take single-point rubbing as an example for

diﬀerent rubbing states are shown in Figure 3. Figure analysis. The rubbing position and sensor installation

3(a) shows the single-point rubbing experimental dia- position is selected on the vertical direction (select

gram. Figure 3(b) depicts the partial rubbing experi- vertical upper randomly) and horizontal direction

mental diagram. Diﬀerent extents of single-point (select horizontal right randomly) of turbine casing.

Yu et al. 5

Figure 3. Rubbing experiment and sensors installed position diagram: (a) turbine casing single-point rubbing experiment; (b) local

partial rubbing experiment; (c) sensors installed position diagram of turbine casing.

Figure 4. (a) Time-domain signal and (b) frequency spectrum of the vibration signal.

Firstly, rubbing experiment with rubbing position on function alone to analyze the casing signal, due to

vertical upper and sensor installed on vertical upper of obtaining weak and complex casing vibration signal.

turbine casing is studied. The experimental rotating In order to obtain more satisfactory results, autocor-

speed is 1511.7 r/min, the rotating frequency is 25.2 relation function is used to reduce noise and enhance

Hz, and the rubbing frequency (product between the single-point rubbing characteristics. Firstly, the

blade numbers and rotating frequency, and the autocorrelation function is obtained according to

blade numbers is 32 of aero-engine experimental rig) the original casing vibration signal. Then autocorrel-

is 806.2 Hz. The result is shown in Figure 4 where ation function’s slice signal in time-delay domain and

Figure 4(a) and (b) respectively represent time- cyclic frequency domain is analyzed according to the

domain signal and its slice signal frequency spectrum cyclic autocorrelation function, and the split position

graph on time-delay equal to zero of the original includes not only the rotating frequency and double

signal. rotating frequency, but also rubbing frequency and

By observing Figure 4(b), we cannot ﬁnd signiﬁ- double rubbing frequency. Finally, the Hilbert enve-

cant rubbing characteristics by cyclic autocorrelation lope spectrum is used to extract characteristics of slice

6 Proc IMechE Part G: J Aerospace Engineering 0(0)

Figure 5. Cyclostationary autocorrelation function zero-time-delay slice for: (a) autocorrelation function slice and (b) autocorrel-

ation function slice local amplification.

Figure 6. Cyclostationary autocorrelation function slice graph of the cyclostationary frequency from10 Hz to 90 Hz for: (a) original

signal slice and (b) autocorrelation function slice.

signal, and rubbing characteristics and rules are signal, selected data are consistent with Figure 4.

abstracted according to the Hilbert envelope Figure 5(a) and (b) respectively represents slice

spectrum. graph and its local ampliﬁcation on time-delay equal

For comparison with the cyclic autocorrelation to zero of the original signal autocorrelation function.

function that was used alone to extract rubbing char- Comparing Figure 5 with Figure 4, it is seen that

acteristics through original vibration acceleration cyclic autocorrelation function slice on cyclic

Yu et al. 7

Figure 7. Cyclostationary autocorrelation function slice of cyclostationary frequency from 600 Hz to1000 Hz for: (a) original signal

slice and (b) autocorrelation function slice.

Figure 8. Cyclostationary autocorrelation function slice of the cyclostationary frequency from 1400 Hz to1800 Hz for: (a) original

signal slice and (b) autocorrelation function slice.

8 Proc IMechE Part G: J Aerospace Engineering 0(0)

frequency domain when time-delay is equal to zero of To research the rubbing characteristics further,

signal autocorrelation function has outstanding cyclic autocorrelation function’s slice signal on diﬀer-

characteristic frequency on rubbing frequency and ent cyclic frequency positions was analyzed between

double frequency positions, while original vibration the original vibration acceleration signal and its

acceleration signal analyzed by cyclic autocorrelation autocorrelation function. Figures 6 to 8 respectively

function does not have obvious characteristic represents slice graph of the cyclic frequency from 10

frequency in Figure 4. Hz to 90 Hz, from 600 Hz to 1000 Hz, and from

1400 Hz to 1800 Hz. Figures 6(a) to Figure 8(a) rep-

resents diﬀerent cyclic frequency slice of the original

vibration acceleration signal, and Figures 6(b) to 8(b)

represent autocorrelation function on diﬀerent cyclic

frequency slices of the original vibration acceleration

signal.

Some conclusions can be drawn by comparison

and analysis of Figures 6 to 8:

There are signiﬁcant characteristic values only in

cyclic frequency equal to the rotating frequency in

the original vibration acceleration signal cyclic auto-

correlation function slice signal, while cyclic autocor-

relation slice has more signiﬁcant characteristic values

in rotating frequency, double rotating frequency, rub-

bing frequency, double rubbing frequency position of

original vibration acceleration signal autocorrelation

function. We can see rubbing fault characteristics

become more outstanding if the original acceleration

Figure 9. Frequency spectrum of the original casing vibration signal is analyzed ﬁrstly by autocorrelation function

signal. and then by cyclic autocorrelation function.

Figure 10. Different cyclostationary frequency slice signal’s frequency spectrum of the autocorrelation function for (a), (b), (c) and

(d) cyclostationary frequency () is respectively equal to rotating frequency, double rotating frequency, rubbing frequency. and double

rubbing frequency.

Yu et al. 9

Figure 11. Different cyclostationary frequency slice signal’s Hilbert envelope spectrum of autocorrelation function for (a), (b), (c)

and (d) represents respectively cyclostationary frequency () equal to rotating frequency, double rotating frequency, rubbing fre-

quency, and double rubbing frequency.

For exploring the rubbing characteristics in future, is also some frequency which does not exist in the

frequency spectrum of the original casing vibration original vibration signal frequency spectrum

acceleration signal and the time-delay slice signal of (Figure 9). It is because the cyclic frequency is a

autocorrelation function were analyzed and com- kind of mapping from the original signal frequency,

pared. The slice position of cyclic frequency includes and it represents a kind of correlation among fre-

rotating frequency and double rotating frequency, quency on certain cyclic frequency position when

rubbing frequency and double rubbing frequency. original vibration acceleration signal frequency is

Figure 9 depicts the frequency spectrum of the ori- shifted. These inconsistent frequencies with original

ginal casing vibration acceleration signal. signal frequency spectrum add to the diﬃculty of

Figure 10(a) to (d) respectively represents time-delay rubbing fault diagnosis.

signal’s frequency spectrum on cyclic frequency equal

to rotating frequency and double rotating frequency, Aero-engine rubbing characteristic extract based on

rubbing frequency and double rubbing frequency of autocorrelation function, cyclic autocorrelation

the cyclic autocorrelation function.

function, and Hilbert envelope spectrum

From Figure 9 we can ﬁnd that the frequency spec-

trum of casing vibration signal has signiﬁcant impact In order to reduce the inconsistent frequency between

characteristic frequency in rubbing frequency 3–5 cyclic autocorrelation function slice signal and original

integer multiple positions, and also sees large noise vibration acceleration signal, the Hilbert envelope spec-

signal at the same time. trum is introduced to analyze the time-delay slice signal.

From Figure 10, in the precise analysis on time- Figure 11(a) and (b) respectively represents autocorrel-

delay signal’s frequency spectrum of casing vibra- ation function time-delay signal’s Hilbert envelop spec-

tion signal autocorrelation function, we can ﬁnd trum of the cyclic frequency equal to rotating frequency

that rubbing frequency and its multiples frequency and its double, Figure 11(c) and (d) respectively repre-

is outstanding in the cyclic frequency equal to rotat- sents autocorrelation function time-delay signal’s

ing frequency, double rotating frequency, rubbing Hilbert envelop spectrum of the cyclic frequency equal

frequency and double rubbing frequency, but there to rubbing frequency and its double.

10 Proc IMechE Part G: J Aerospace Engineering 0(0)

Figure 12. Sensor installed position effect on rubbing characteristics extraction-sensor installed on horizontal direction while

rubbing position on vertical direction for (a) time-domain signal, (b) original vibration signal frequency spectrum, (c), (d), (e) and (f)

represents respectively cyclostationary frequency () equal to rotating frequency, double rotating frequency, rubbing frequency, and

double rubbing frequency.

Hilbert envelope spectrum of autocorrelation func- Different factors effect on rubbing

tion, it can be seen that outstanding rubbing charac- characteristics extraction based on

teristics exist, irrespective of the cyclic frequency equal proposed new method

to rotating frequency and its double or rubbing fre-

quency and double rubbing frequency. Compared

Sensor installed position effect

with the frequency spectrum of casing original signal To compare the inﬂuence of the installation position

(Figure 9) and slice signal of autocorrelation function of sensor on rubbing characteristics extraction, we

(Figure 10), the noise and inconsistent frequency is selected the experimental data collected in the same

reduced considerably, and rubbing frequency and time in section ‘‘Aero-engine rotor-stator rubbing

twice rubbing frequency was better reserved at the characteristics extraction based on autocorrelation

same time, which proved that the proposed new function of casing acceleration signal’’ to analyze,

method can eﬀectively and correctly extract rubbing and conducted rubbing characteristic analysis on the

features in single-point rubbing occurrence. signal collected by the acceleration sensors installed

Yu et al. 11

Figure 13. Rubbing type effect on rubbing characteristics extraction—local partial rubbing for: (a) time-domain signal, (b) and (c)

represents respectively cyclostationary frequency () equal to rubbing frequency and double rubbing frequency.

on turbine casing horizontal right. Figure 12(a) and Rubbing type effect on rubbing characteristics

(b) respectively represents the time-domain signal and

extraction

its frequency spectrum. Figure 12(c) to (f) respectively

represents time-delay slice signal’s Hilbert envelope Taking into account the inﬂuence of the rubbing type

spectrum on cyclic frequency equal to rotating fre- on the rubbing characteristics extraction, the experi-

quency, double rotating frequency, rubbing fre- mental data is collected and analyzed from 28 April

quency, and double rubbing frequency. 2013 in local partial rubbing of turbine casing where

From Figure 12, we can draw the following the extent of rubbing is light. The acceleration sensors

conclusions: are installed on the turbine casing horizontal right and

From Figures 12(c) and 15(d), we can ﬁnd that the experiment rotating speed is 1214.7 r/min, and the

there is no rubbing frequency and its integer multiple rotating frequency is 20.2 Hz, and the rubbing fre-

frequency on cyclic frequency is equal to rotating fre- quency is 646.4 Hz. Figure 13(a) to (c) respectively

quency and its double rotating frequency if rubbing represents time-domain signal and time-delay slice sig-

position on vertical direction while sensor installed nal’s Hilbert envelope spectrum on cyclic frequency

horizontal direction, it is inconsistent with Figure equal to rubbing frequency and double rubbing

11(a) and (b). On analysis of Figure 12(e) and (f) frequency.

there is outstanding rubbing frequency and its integer From Figure 13(b) and (c), we can ﬁnd that there is

multiple frequency on cyclic frequency equal to rub- outstanding but not unique rubbing frequency and its

bing frequency and its double rubbing frequency if integer multiple frequency on cyclic frequency is equal

rubbing position on vertical direction, while sensor to rubbing frequency and double rubbing frequency,

installed horizontal direction, it is consistent with and is consistent with Figure 11(c), Figure 11(d) and

Figure 11(c) and (d). That is, if the cyclic frequency Figure 12(e), Figure 12(f). That is, if the cyclic fre-

is equal to the rubbing frequency and double rubbing quency equals rubbing frequency and double rubbing

frequency, the time-delay slice signal’s Hilbert envelop frequency, the time-delay slice signal’s Hilbert enve-

spectrum of autocorrelation function has not been lope spectrum of autocorrelation function has been

aﬀected by sensor installation position. Signiﬁcant aﬀected slightly by rubbing type. Signiﬁcant charac-

characteristic frequency appears on the rubbing fre- teristic frequency appears on rubbing frequency or its

quency or its integer multiple frequency positions irre- integer multiple frequencies positions but is not

spective of the sensor installed on the vertical or unique, which may be caused by nonsingle blade in

horizontal direction. contact with the rubbing ring.

12 Proc IMechE Part G: J Aerospace Engineering 0(0)

Figure 14. Rubbing position effect on rubbing characteristics extraction-sensor installed on vertical direction and rubbing position

on horizontal direction for (a) time-domain signal, (b) original vibration signal frequency spectrum, (c) cyclostationary frequency,

¼ rubbing frequency slice signal’s Hilbert envelop spectrum and (d) cyclostationary frequency ¼ double rubbing frequency slice

signal’s Hilbert envelope spectrum.

Rubbing position effect on rubbing characteristics On analysis of Figure 11(c), Figure 11(d), Figure

12(e), Figure 12(f), Figure 13(c), Figure 13(d), Figure

extraction 14(c) and Figure 14(d), we can ﬁnd that the rubbing

In order to compare the inﬂuence of rubbing position position and sensor installation position has no eﬀect

on rubbing characteristic extraction, the experimental by using the Hilbert envelope spectrum of autocorrel-

data from 17 May 2014 were taken and rubbing pos- ation function extract rubbing characteristic, if the

ition on horizontal right of turbine casing as an exam- cyclic frequency is equal to rubbing frequency and

ple was analyzed. The rubbing state is a single-point double rubbing frequency. The rubbing type has

rubbing, and the acceleration sensors are also selected small eﬀect on rubbing characteristics extraction,

in the vertical direction (also select vertical upper). but it also has obvious rubbing frequency and its inte-

The rotating speed is 1503.5 r/min, and its rotating ger multiply, with the frequency component being

frequency is 25.1 Hz, rubbing frequency is equal to more complex. That is, combining the Hilbert enve-

801.9 Hz. Figure 14(a) and (b) respectively shows lope spectrum with autocorrelation function and

time-domain signal and its frequency spectrum. cyclic autocorrelation function can eﬀectively extract

Figure 14(c) and (d) respectively represents time-delay rubbing characteristics based on casing vibration

slice signal’s Hilbert envelope spectrum of autocorrel- signal in the state of single-point rubbing and local-

ation function on cyclic frequency equal to rubbing light partial rubbing.

frequency and double rubbing frequency.

By analyzing Figure 14 and comparing with Hilbert envelope spectrum analysis on the

Figure 11(c) to (f), we can ﬁnd that there is out-

aero-engine normal running station

standing rubbing frequency and its integer multiple

frequency on cyclic frequency equal to rubbing fre- For comparing the diﬀerence of the cyclic autocor-

quency and double rubbing frequency if rubbing relation slice signal’s Hilbert envelope spectrum

position is in the horizontal direction while if between aero-engine normal running state and rub-

sensor is installed in the vertical direction, it is con- bing fault occurrence, we also take the experimental

sistent with rubbing position on vertical direction in data of 17 May 2014 as an example for analysis,

Figure 11(c) to (f). with aero-engine rotor experiment rig running

Yu et al. 13

Figure 15. Hilbert envelope spectrum analysis in aero-engine running in normal station for (a) time-domain signal, (b) original

vibration signal frequency spectrum, (c) cyclostationary frequency, ¼ rubbing frequency slice signal’s Hilbert envelope spectrum of

autocorrelation function and (d) cyclostationary frequency ¼ double rubbing frequency slice signal’s Hilbert envelop spectrum of

autocorrelation function.

on normal state. Figure 15(a) and (b) are respectively casing vibration signal. The method also has the fol-

the time domain signal and its frequency spectrum. lowing characteristics:

Figure 15(c) and (d) respectively shows time-delay

signal’s Hilbert envelope spectrum of autocorrelation 1. Analysis of comparison is carried out between ori-

function when cyclic frequency is the rubbing fre- ginal vibration signal and its autocorrelation func-

quency and double rubbing frequency. tion based on the cyclic autocorrelation function

From Figure 15(c) and (d), we can see that and Hilbert transform. The result shows that the

the time-delay slice signal’s Hilbert envelope spec- cyclic autocorrelation function slice signal Hilbert

trum of autocorrelation function does not have sig- envelope spectrum of the autocorrelation function

niﬁcant characteristic frequency on cyclic frequency has outstanding characteristic frequency on the

equal to rubbing frequency and double rubbing fre- cyclic frequency, which is equal to the rubbing fre-

quency, and the diﬀerence is obvious with aero- quency and twice rubbing frequency. While ori-

engine rubbing fault occurrence. It is therefore ginal vibration signal does not have obvious

advantageous to identify the rubbing fault of aero- characteristics, it is analyzed in the same method.

engines. 2. The sensor installation position and rubbing pos-

ition eﬀect on rubbing characteristic extraction is

considered at the same time. By analysis it was

Conclusions and discussion found that the extracted rubbing characteristic

Considering that the casing signal of aero-engines is according to Hilbert envelope spectrum has not

weak and complex, this study combines autocorrel- been aﬀected by rubbing position and sensors

ation function, cyclostationary theory, and Hilbert installation position on cyclic frequency equal to

transform to extract the aero-engine rotor–stator rub- rubbing frequency and double rubbing frequency.

bing characteristics according to the aero-engine 3. The eﬀect of rubbing type on rubbing characteris-

structure and rotating features in the state of single- tic extraction is considered. By analysis it was

point rubbing and local-light partial rubbing based on found that the extracted rubbing characteristic

14 Proc IMechE Part G: J Aerospace Engineering 0(0)

according to Hilbert envelope spectrum has been of this article: This work was supported by the National

eﬀected slightly, but there also exists obvious rub- Natural Science Fund (grant no. 51605309), Provincial

bing frequency and its integer multiply on cyclic Education Department of Liaoning Province (grant no.

frequency equal to rubbing frequency, double rub- L201628), and Aviation Science Function (grant no.

20163354004).

bing frequency, where the frequency component is

more complex, which may be caused by nonsingle

References

blade contacting with the rubbing ring.

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against the stator. Therm Eng 2012; 59: 87–95.

quency on cyclic frequency equal to rubbing

2. Yu MY and Tian F. Characteristic analysis on the rub-

frequency and twice rubbing frequency if aero- bing of rotor blade-casing of aero-engine based on

engine runs on normal state, and the diﬀerence is Hilbert transform. J Vibroeng 2005; 17: 733–742.

obvious with the occurrence of aero-engine rub- 3. Randall RB, Antoni J and Chobsaard S. The relation-

bing fault, which is obviously advantageous in ship between spectral correlation and envelope analysis

identifying the rubbing fault of aero-engines. for cyclostationary machine signals, application to ball

5. The proposed research method in this paper bearing diagnostics. Mech Syst Syst Process 2001; 15:

should be inspected in the actual project. The pro- 945–962.

posed method was inspected just by simulated 4. Antoni J, Bonnardot F, Raad A, et al. Cyclostationary

data of the aero-engine rotor experiment rig. As modeling of rotating machine vibration signals. Mech

the real aero-engine structure is far more complex Syst Signal Process 2004; 18: 1285–1314.

5. Antoni J, Guillet F, El Badaoui M, et al. Blind separ-

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ﬂight, actual project inspection is required to 6. Jin C and Ming J. The state-of-art of the application of

determine the eﬃciency of extracting casing char- the higher-order cyclostationary statistics in mechanical

acteristics. Meanwhile, the rubbing extent eﬀect fault diagnosis. J Vib Eng 2001; 14: 125–134.

on rubbing characteristics extract should be con- 7. Bouillaut L and Sidahmed M. Cyclostationary

sidered, and owing to the limitation of space and approach and bilinear approach: comparison, applica-

experimental condition, in this paper just studies tions to early diagnosis for helicopter gearbox and clas-

on the middle-single-point rubbing and light-local sification method based on HOCS. Mech Syst Signal

partial rubbing was carried out. Process 2001; 15: 923–943.

8. Borghesani P, Pennacchi P, Ricci R, et al. Testing

second order cyclostationarity in the squared envelope

Declaration of Conflicting Interests spectrum of non-white vibration signals. Mech Syst

The author(s) declared no potential conﬂicts of interest with Signal Process 2013; 40: 38–55.

respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of 9. Lamraoui M, Thomas M and El Badaoui M.

this article. Cyclostationarity approach for monitoring chatter and

tool wear in high speed milling. Mech Syst Signal

Process 2014; 44: 177–198.

Funding 10. Boungou D, Guillet F and El Badaoui M. Fatigue

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