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JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.

1029/,

Time Dependent Radial Di usion Modeling of


Relativisti Ele trons with Realisti Loss Rates
Y. Y. Shprits and R. M. Thorne

Department of Atmospheri S ien es, University of California Los Angeles,

Los Angeles, California, USA

Y. Y. Shprits and R. M. Thorne Department of Atmospheri S ien es, University of Cal-

ifornia Los Angeles, 7984 Math S ien es Bldg. Los Angeles, CA 90095-1565 USA (ysh-

pritsatmos.u la.edu and rmtatmos.u la.edu)

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X - 2 SHPRITS AND THORNE: RADIAL DIFFUSION MODELING

Abstra t. Model simulations are ompared to the typi ally observed evo-

lution of MeV ele tron uxes during geomagneti storms to investigate whether

radial di usion alone an a ount for the observed variability and to esti-

mate the e e t of ele tron lifetimes. We demonstrate that knowledge of life-

times is ru ial for understanding the radial stru ture of the storm-time ra-

diation belts and their temporal evolution. Our model results suggest that

outer zone lifetimes at 1 MeV are on the order of few days during quite-times

and less than a day during storm-time onditions. Losses outside plasmas-

phere should be in luded in the modeling of ele tron uxes sin e e e tive

lifetimes are mu h shorter than that of plasmaspheri losses. Simulations with

variable outer boundary onditions show that the depletion of the main phase

relativisti ele tron uxes at L  4 an not be explained only by varia-

tions in uxes near geosyn hronous orbit and require lo al lifetimes as short

as 0.5 day. Radial di usion alone is unable to a ount for either gradual build

up of relativisti ele tron uxes or the maxima in phase spa e density near

L=4 5 observed during the re overy phase of many storms, whi h sug-

gests that an additional lo al a eleration sour e is also required.

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SHPRITS AND THORNE: RADIAL DIFFUSION MODELING X - 3

1. Introdu tion
The Earth's energeti ele tron radiation belts have been studied for over four de ades.

While the equilibrium stru ture of high energy ele tron uxes and formation of the slot

region have been a urately modeled under quiet onditions [Lyons and Thorne, 1973℄, the

dynami s of relativisti ele trons during geomagneti disturban es is still poorly under-

stood. Observed variability of ele trons is due to the ompeting e e ts of sour e and loss

pro esses. A quantitative treatment of all important pro esses is urrently unavailable,

but there is a general onsensus that both a eleration and loss o ur on times ales om-

parable to a day. The a eleration of ele trons is due to nonadiabati intera tions with

various plasma waves. Leading me hanisms for a eleration to relativisti energies in lude

radial di usion driven by ULF waves [e.g. Elkington et al., 2003℄ and lo al sto hasti a -

eleration by VLF waves [Horne and Thorne, 1998; Summers et al., 1998; Summers et al.,

2002℄. Observations indi ate that both of these pro esses operate in di erent regions of

the outer radiation zone [O'Brien et al., 2003℄. In the present study we sidestep the impor-

tant issue of the lo al sour e pro ess and fo us instead on how loses a e t the equatorial

energeti ele tron population inje ted from the outer boundary by stormtime enhan ed

radial di usion. The phase spa e density (PSD) f of energeti ele trons, whi h are sub-

je t to radial di usion and losses, an be modeled with the radial di usion equation [e.g.

S hulz and Lanzerotti, 1974℄


!
f  f f
= L2 L 2D (1)
t L L LL
L

where  is the ele tron lifetime, and D


L LL is the radial di usion oeÆ ient. In this

formulation the rst two adiabati invariants  and J are held onstant and variations in

the third invariant are treated through the L-shell parameter. By pres ribing PSD at the

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X - 4 SHPRITS AND THORNE: RADIAL DIFFUSION MODELING

outer f (L max ; t) and inner f (L


min ; t) = 0 boundaries and values of only two parameters
D (L; t) and  (L; t), (1) an be solved numeri aly for f (L; t).
LL L

In this study we adopt the empiri al results of Brautigam and Albert, [2000℄ for the rate

of radial di usion due to magneti u tuations, whi h tend to dominate over ele tostati

di usion rates throughout the outer radiation zone

D (Kp; L) = 10(0 506


M
LL
: Kp 9:325)
L10 ; Kp = 1 to 6: (2)

Sin e ele tron lifetimes are not as well determined as the rate of radial di usion, in the

present paper we examine the importan e of the lifetime by solving the time dependent

radial di usion equation using the lifetime as a variable parameter.

2. Equilibrium Balan e Between Losses and Radial Di usion


Under steady state onditions the equilibrium stru ture of the radiation belts is governed

by the balan e between lo al a eleration, inward di usion and losses due to pit h-angle

s attering. The upper panels of Figure 1 exhibit the e e tive times ale for radial di usion

(1=D ) under quiet (Kp = 2) and magneti ally disturbed (Kp = 6) onditions using
LL

the empiri al magneti di usion oeÆ ient (2). The rate of radial di usion is strongly

enhan ed during storm onditions and most e e tive at higher L. It is instru tive to

ompare the times ale for radial di usion with expe ted loss times (1 10 days). At the

lo ation (L ) where the two times ales be ome omparable, we an expe t radial di usion
T

to be balan ed by losses. This lo ation demar ates the transition between two physi ally

distin t regions in whi h either di usion (L > L ) or losses (L < L ) dominate. The
T T

transition moves outward with de reasing lifetime and inward with in reasing geomagneti

a tivity.

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SHPRITS AND THORNE: RADIAL DIFFUSION MODELING X - 5

The middle panels of Figure 1 show normalized equilibrium pro les of PSD omputed

for a xed rst and se ond adiabati invariant obtained from a solution of the steady

state radial di usion equation with the parameters dis ussed above. The beginning of a

signi ant drop in PSD lies approximately at the transition lo ation L . The lower panels
T

show the di erential ux (J = p2 f ) at 1.0 MeV omputed using an exponential t to the

di erential ux at L = 7 as des ribed in Se tion 3. Under quiet (Kp = 2) onditions

the ux maxima for 1.0 MeV ele trons lie near L = 5:5 and L = 4:5 for rapid ( = 1 L

day) and moderate ( = 10 days) loss respe tively. Sin e the outer zone maximum is
L

typi ally observed near L = 5 under quiet onditions [e.g., Meredith et al., 2003b℄, an

outer zone quiet-time lifetime between 1-10 days would seem to be most appropriate.

Under storm onditions (Kp = 6) the outer zone peak should di use into lower L, but

this would be partially o set by enhan ed storm time loss [O'Brien et al., 2004; Summers

and Thorne, 2003℄. Furthermore a time-dependent simulation is needed to investigate

whether equilibrium is established during the rapid stormtime variation.

3. Model Des ription


Time-dependent radial di usion odes have previously been used [e.g., Brautigam and

Albert, 2000; Selesnik and Blake, 2000℄ to model relativisti ele tron variability during

a storm, but losses outside the plasmasphere were ignored. In this study we attempt to

in lude realisti loss rates throughout the entire magnetosphere. Satellite observations

indi ate that the average outer boundary ux is not dependent on the level of geomag-

neti a tivity [N. Meredith and P. O'Brien, personal ommuni ation℄. For simpli ity we

initially assume a onstant outer boundary ondition whi h we set up at L = 7. The

di erential ux at L = 7 is modeled by an exponential t obtained from the average ux

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X - 6 SHPRITS AND THORNE: RADIAL DIFFUSION MODELING

measured on CRRES (N. Meredith, personal omuni ation): J = 8222:6  exp( 7:068K )

in m 2 st 1 keV 1
s 1
where K is kineti energy in (MeV). As an initial ondition we

adopt our steady-state results under quiet onditions (Kp = 2). To numeri ally solve the

radial di usion equation (1) we use a se ond order a ura y, un onditionally stable, semi-

impli it di usion ode. The loss rate  is treated as a variable parameter. An idealized
L

Kp variation (Figure 3) is used to represent hanges in geomagneti a tivity during a


typi al storm. The Kp index is hanged linearly from 2 to 6 over one day to represent the

storm main phase. The re overy phase of the storm is modeled by a linear variation of

Kp from 6 to 2 over 3 days. The di usion oeÆ ient is parameterized as a fun tion of Kp
and L a ording to (2). In the numeri al experiments presented below we either adopt a

onstant lifetime or one dependent on Kp. Our solution are therefore only dependent on

the variation in the Kp index and on the outer boundary ondition.

4. Temporal Evolution of the Phase Spa e Density and Fluxes


In the rst two model runs (Figure 2) we adopt a onstant lifetime of either one or ten

days. Bold lines on the radial pro le plots in Figure 2 represent steady state solutions

for Kp = 2 (solid line), whi h are used as an initial ondition for the time-dependent

simulations, and Kp = 6 (dashed line) for peak a tivity during the storm. It is lear that

equilibrium is never attained during the storm and that the dynami s of MeV ele tron

uxes during storms must be studied using a time dependent ode. In both simulations

uxes rise rapidly during the main phase of the storm, rea hing peak values near (L = 4)

very early in the storm re overy. The hoi e of the lifetime parameter has a major in uen e

on the evolution during the extended re overy. For rapid loss ( = 1) day, uxes start

to de ay early in the storm re overy (day 1.5), but for moderate losses ( = 10 days)

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SHPRITS AND THORNE: RADIAL DIFFUSION MODELING X - 7

uxes remain roughly at the same level during all 3 days of the simulated storm re overy.

Following a typi al geomagneti storm, inje ted uxes de ay over a times ale of a few

days, whi h is indi ative of a realisti quiet time lifetime in the outer zone. However,

the intensity of VLF and EMIC waves apable of ausing pit h-angle s attering in the

outer zone is known to in rease with geomagneti a tivity [Tsurutani and Smith, 1977;

Meredith et al., 2003℄. Enhan ements in su h waves have been dire tly linked to in reased

mi roburst pre ipitation loss [Lorentzen et al., 2001℄ whi h is most pronoun ed during the

main phase of a storm [O'Brien et al., 2004℄. In our third model run (Figure 3) we attempt

to simulate this enhan ed outer zone loss by hanging the lifetime from 3 days under quiet

ondition (Kp = 2) to 1 day at the maximum of the storm (Kp = 6). In this simulation

we get a better representation of the de ay in the outer zone following a storm but are

unable to reprodu e the observed slow buildup in the re overy phase whi h hara terizes

many storms [e.g. Meredith et al., 2003b℄.

To examine the e e t of hanges at the outer boundary we ondu t numeri al experi-

ments with variable uxes at (L = 7) during the most a tive period of the storm. Statisti-

al averages indi ate little hange in the outer boundary ux with variable Kp. However,

there is eviden e for substantial ux depletion at geosyn hronous orbit during the storm

main phase, with a rapid return to normal onditions during the re overy phase of the

storm [Brautigam and Albert, 2000; Green, personal ommuni ations℄. Following the ap-

proa h used by Brautigam and Albert [2000℄, a variable outer boundary is introdu ed by

multiplying average uxes at (L = 7) by a time-dependent fa tor shown in Figure 4 (lower

left). Extreme depletion of outer boundary uxes during the main phase of the storm (by

an order of magnitude at all energies), quantitatively hanges relativisti ele tron uxes

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X - 8 SHPRITS AND THORNE: RADIAL DIFFUSION MODELING

during the storm but does not hange our prin ipal on lusions on the ontrolling in uen e

of ele tron loss. Fast variations in the outer boundary produ e modest peaks in the phase

spa e density whi h disappear one day after the main phase of the storm. These results

are insensitive to amplitude and even sign of the hange of uxes during the main phase

of the storm. Thus variations in the outer boundary an not a ount for the observed

buildup in phase spa e density over several days during the re overy phase of the storm

[Green and Kivelson, 2003℄.

Even strong variations in the outer boundary are unable to ause the observed depletion

of relativisti ele tron uxes in the heart of the radiation belt (L  4) during the main
phase of the storm. This suggests that relativisti ele tron lifetime ould be even shorter

than a day during the storm main phase. Figure 5 shows that in simulations with main

phase lifetimes of 0.1 day the radiation belts are emptied out, while in ase of lifetimes of

1/2 day, uxes are depleated down to L = 4.

5. Dis ussion
This study has attempted to quantify the ompeting e e ts of inward radial di usion

and losses on the distribution of outer zone ele trons during storm onditions. The rate

of radial di usion has been parameterized by the Kp with the loss time as an adjustable

parameter. MeV ele tron lifetimes of 1/2 day during the storm main phase and 3 days

under quiet onditions, are onsistent with urrent estimates of the storm time loss rate

[Albert, 2003; Summers and Thorne, 2003; O'Brien et al., 2003b℄ and also provide an

a eptable representation of ele tron de ay rates following the storm time inje tion.

However, the model solutions are not able to reprodu e the slow build up (over days) of

relativisti ele tron ux often observed during the re overy phase of a storm. They also

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SHPRITS AND THORNE: RADIAL DIFFUSION MODELING X - 9

do not yield persistent peaks in phase spa e density in the region between L = 4 and 6

[Brautigam and Albert, 2000; Miyoshi et al.,[2003℄ or the build up of phase spa e density

found by Green and Kivelson, [2003℄. This suggests that an additional lo al a eleration

sour e is required throughout the storm re overy.

Re ent observational eviden e [Meredith et al, 2003b; Miyoshi et al., 2003℄ and theo-

reti al models [Summers et al., 1998; Horne et al., 2003℄ indi ate that ele trons ould be

a elerated to relativisti energies in the low density region exterior to the plasmapause

over times ales omparable to a day during resonant intera tions with enhan ed whistler-

mode horus emissions. This lo al a eleration sour e needs to be in luded in future

modeling along with the opposing e e t of rapid loss, whi h an lead to a net depletion

of relativisti ele trons during the main phase of a storm.

A knowledgments. This resear h was funded by the Geos ien es Division of NASA
under Grant NAG5-11922. Authors would also like to thank Nigel Meredith and Paul

O'Brien for providing information on the average ele tron ux used as our boundary

ondition and Danny Summers for useful dis ussions.

Referen es
Albert, J. M. Evaluation of quasi-linear di usion oeÆ ients for EMIC waves In a multi-

spe ies plasma, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 1249, 2003.

Brautigam, D. H. and Albert J. M., Radial di usion analysis of outer radiation belt

ele trons during the O tober 9, 1990 magneti storm, J. Geophys. Res., 105(A1), 291,

2000.

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X - 10 SHPRITS AND THORNE: RADIAL DIFFUSION MODELING

Elkington, S. R. , M. K. Hudson, A. A. Chan , Resonant a eleration and di usion of outer

zone ele trons in a n asymmetri geomagneti eld, J. Geophys. Res., 108(A3),1116,

doi:10.1029/2001JA009202, 2003.

Green, J.C., M.G. Kivelson, Relativisti ele trons in the outer radiation

belt:Di erentiating between a eleration me hanisms, J. Geophys. Res., in press,

doi: 2003JA010153.

Horne, R. B. and R. M. Thorne, Potential waves for relativisti ele tron s attering and

sto hasti a eleration during magneti storms, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3011, 1998.

Horne R. B., S. A. Glauert, R. M. Thorne, Resonant di usion of radiation belt ele trons

by whistler-mode horus, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(9), 1493, doi:10.1029/2003GL016963,

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the GEM storms, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2573, 2001.

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Geophys. Res., 77, 3455, 1973.

Meredith N. P., R. M. Thorne, R. B. Horne, D. Summers, B. J. Fraser, R. R.

Anderson, Statisti al analysis of relativisti ele tron energies for y lotron reso-

nan e with EMIC waves observed on CRRES, J. Geophys. Res., 108(A6), 1250,

doi:10.1029/2002JA009700, 2003a.

Meredith, N. P. , M. Cain, R. B. Horne, R. M. Thorne, D. Summers, R. R. Anderson,

Observational support for horus -driven ele tron a eleration to relativisti energies

from a survey of geomagneti ally-disturbed periods, J. Geophys. Res., 108(A6) 1248,

doi:10.1029/2002JA009764 2003b.

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Miyoshi, Y., Morioka, T. Obara, H. Misawa, T. Nagai, and Y. Kasahara, Rebuilding

pro ess of the outer radiation belt during the November 3, 1993, magneti storm -

NOAA and EXOS-D observations, J.Geophys. Res., 108(A1), 1004, 2003.

O'Brien,T. P., K. R. Lorentzen, I. R. Mann, N. P. Meredith, J. B. Blake, J. F. Fennell,

M. D. Looper, D. K. Milling, and R. R. Anderson Energization of Relativisti Ele trons

in the Presen e of ULF Power and MeV Mi robursts: Eviden e for Dual ULF and VLF

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Tsurutani, B. T., and E. J. Smith, Two types of magnetospheri ELF horus and their

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SHPRITS AND THORNE: RADIAL DIFFUSION MODELING X - 13

Figure 1. Top panels : The times ale D 1


LL
asso iated with radial di usion under quiet (solid)

and stormtime (doted) onditions ompared to typi al ele tron lifetimes (dot dash). Equilibrium

pro les of PSD (middle) and ele tron uxes at 1 MeV (bottom) for di erent rates of loss and

geomagneti a tivity.

Figure 2. Pro les and ontour plots of 1.0 MeV ele tron uxes for rapid ( = 1 day) and
L

moderate ( = 10 days) losses. Solid and dotted bold lines represent steady state pro les
L

orresponding to Kp = 2 and Kp = 6 respe tively. Thin lines represent pro les resulting from

the solution of the time dependent ode 1 day (dash-dotted line), 2 days (solid line), and 3 days

(dotted line) into the simulation.

Figure 3. Pro les and ontour plots of 1.0 MeV ele tron uxes (top) and phase spa e density
( enter panels) for the depi ted time dependent variations of the Kp index and lifetimes (bottom).

Figure 4. Pro les and ontour plots of 1.0 MeV ele tron uxes (top panels) and phase spa e
densities (middle panels) for the depi ted time dependent outer boundary ondition and lifetimes

(bottom).

Figure 5. Ele tron uxes at 1.0 MeV using the same parameters as Figure 4 but for minimum
main phase lifetimes of 0.1 and 0.5 days.

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