The Chemical Earth Unit

25/03/09

Rianna Bunn

Chemistry is the study of...
Homogenous

MATTER

Heterogeneous

Elements

Compounds

Mixtures

Divisions of Matter: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Element (e.g. gold, sodium, carbon) Inorganic Compounds (e.g. copper sulphate, water, salt) Polymers (plastics, etc) Aliphatic Hydrocarbons (methane, butane, octane etc) Aromatic Hydrocarbons (aspirin, steroids, contraceptives) Carbohydrates (CHO, often polymers, e.g. starch - CH OH) Fats (double bonds) Proteins (e.g. meats, hair made up of amino acids, contain elements CHON [PS]) Nucleic Acids (in DND and RNA, e.g. Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine etc)

Classification of Matter Another Chart: MATTER

Heterogeneous (mixtures)

Homogenous (uniform)

Pure Substances

Solutions (mixtures)

Elements

Compounds

Metals

Non-metals

1

4.A pure substance containing only one type of atom Compound . 2. Ar and small % of compounds e. fresh water. ground water etc Lithosphere Crust & solid upper part of the mantle Crust and hydrosphere and atmosphere Water of the earth s crust 50 150 km Biosphere ? Very thin layer Approximately 34 km Hydrosphere Properties for identification of substances:        Colour State at room temperature Malleability Lustre Conductivity Melting pt. CO Mixture of rocks. oil and natural gas Part of the earth inhabited by living things E. rough separation densities of immiscible substances Sieving: Difference in particle size Separating Funnel: liquids of different densities difficult to do gravimetrically Distillation: different boiling/condensing points Fractional Distillation: good when boiling points are very close together to separate out components (e.Two or more substances not combined in fixed ratios. SO . They cannot be separated by physical means Mixture . soils. Hardness 2 . particle size) Centrifuging: difference in density of materials Decanting: not gravimetric (accurate). mineral oils.The Chemical Earth Unit Definitions (that I should know by now ) y y y 25/03/09 Rianna Bunn Element . Magnetic separation: magnetism in metals 10. sand. Boil off water: boiling points Filtration: an insoluble solid in a liquid solubility. Froth floatation: Summary of the Spheres of the planet earth: Layer: Atmosphere What? Mixture of gases surrounding earth Thickness: 200 300 km Description: Mixture of gases N . CO . 3. H O.g. 7./Boling pt. coal. 8. NO . They can be separated by physical means Separation Techniques: (Note see attached sheet for diagrams) 1.g.A pure substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined chemically combined in a fixed ratio. 5. Evaporate.g. salt water. O . 6. separation of crude oil) 9.

ethanol etc) Density Ductility Streak test for minerals Reactivity (not a test of physical properties) Smell Transition Metals: Have variable valencies e. y Iron Oxide read y Copper Sulphate purple y Mercuric Oxide orange y Nickel Chloride green y Manganese Sulphide bright pink Outer shell electrons not moving internal shells do Video Oxidation/Reduction: Non-metal oxides are acidic when dissolved in water Metal oxides are basic 1) 4P + 5O = 2P O (Red Phosphorus + Oxygen = Phosphorus Pentoxide) When added to water forms Phosporic Acid 2) Su + O = SuO (Sulphur +Oxygen = Sulphur dioxide) When added to water forms sulphuric acid 3) Na + O = Na O (Sodium +Oxygen = Sodium oxide) With water makes alkaline solution of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) 4) 2Mg + O = 2MgO (magnesium + Oxygen = Magnesium Oxide) With water makes Mg (OH) (Magnesium Hydroxide) which is alkaline Four Useful Metals: 1. y Copper (+1 or +2) y Iron (+2 or +3) y Tin (+2 or +4) y Lead (+2 or +4) Form colourful compounds. and in the construction of airplane and car bodies. e.doesn t oxidise much. or react with other substances people may handle d) Soft easily shaped into jewellery e) Malleable easily shaped 2. electrical wiring 3 .The Chemical Earth Unit       25/03/09 Rianna Bunn Solubility (in water. Gold a) b) c) Used for making jewellery Attractive colour Shiny lustre Very un-reactive .g.g. Aluminium Used for wrapping food.

aroma nor taste substances through (food) f) Non-toxic (food) g) Resistant to corrosion even layer of aluminium oxide 3. Iodine for use in antiseptic ointments. purifying drinking water a) Poisonous. cookware. Chlorine for pools. etc. radiators a) Malleability/Ductillity can be drawn into a wire thinner than a human hair b) Second only to silver in electrical conductivity and much cheaper (wires) c) Excellent conductor of heat good for cookware. refrigerators. kills off bacteria(water. for health a) Dissolves in alcohol to give Tincture of Iodine (for cleaning cuts etc) b) Helps the body make thyroxin and other bio-chemicals important in metabolism Formation of Ions: (see sheets for diagrams) y Metals lose an electron/electrons from their outer shells to become positive cations 4 . airplane parts a) Non-toxic (in the body) b) Not corrosive c) Light (low density) so ideal for aviation d) Strong doesn t bend easily (good for medical use and airplanes) Four Useful Non-metals: 1. use with heat etc 4. Helium For party balloons and blimps in WW1 a) Very low density less than air b) Not reactive like Hydrogen (it s a noble gas) so not as dangerous c) Not harmful if inhaled 2. Neon for bright coloured city lights and to produce a red glow in lamps/lasers a) Natural red colour b) Can be turned into a wide range of effective decorative lighting colours by mixing it with other gases 4. pools) b) Powerful oxidising effects c) Soluble in water d) Bleaching effect when in a solid or liquid form 3. plates. Copper used for electrical wires. Titanium used for replacement joints.The Chemical Earth Unit 25/03/09 Rianna Bunn a) Malleable can be stretched into sheets (foil) b) Ductile can be draw into wires c) Low density reduces energy consumption while increasing load capacity (airplanes/cars etc) d) Electrical conductivity (wires) e) Impermeable and Odourless lets neither light. radiator etc d) Resistant to corrosion (first becomes red-brown and eventually is covered with a green film called a patina that stop further corrosion: similar to aluminium) e) Very high melting/boiling point good for wires. bleaching paper.

o O (O=O) o N (N three bonds N) o Carbon Dioxide (O=C=O) o Ethyne (H C three bonds C H) Intramolecular Forces are those within the molecule and are strong covalent bonds Intermolecular Forces are between individual molecules and they are weak forces Small molecular structures are easy to melt (low MPs) There is no need to break the covalent bonds. only to separate the molecules.The Chemical Earth Unit 25/03/09 Rianna Bunn y Nonmetals add electrons to their outer shells to build it up to the maximum capacity (or 8).g. Molecules can include 1) Monatomic Molecules (Inert/noble gases) a. covalent bonds are formed by sharing of electrons between non-metals. a. Helium atoms He b. o Hydrogen Chloride o Ammonia o Water o Carbon tetrachloride MULTIPLE bonds (more than one pair of electrons) e. Hydrogen iodide HI d. In simple covalent molecules.g. Ammonia NH In the Molecular covalent molecules above. White phosphorus P b.g.g. a. Nitrogen N c. Carbon monoxide CO 3) Triatomic molecules e. Ozone O b.g. 5 . Carbon dioxide CO 4) Tetra-Atomic Molecules e. Sulphur dioxide SO d. Ionic (electrostatic bonds are much harder to break than molecular bonds therefore the MPs of ionic solids are very high. a. there can either be: y y - SINGLE bonds (one pair of electrons) e. Water H 0 c. This forms negative anions Molecular/Covalent Bonding: A molecule is the smallest part of a pure substance that can exist separately. Argon atoms Ar etc 2) Diatomic Molecules e. Oxygen 0 b.

Hex 6 g. Oct 8 i. Tri 3 d.g. Hept 7 h. Roman numeral is used e.The Chemical Earth Unit Simple Ions to Memorise: Silver Ag Zinc Zn 2 Copper Cu or Cu 2 Iron Fe 2 or Fe 3 Tin Sn 2 or Sn Lead Pb 2 or Pb 25/03/09 Rianna Bunn Polyatomic Ions to memorise: Ammonium NH Hydroxide OH Nitrate NO Sulphate SO 2 Carbonate CO 2 Hydrogencarbonate HCO Nomenclature (naming) of Ionic Compounds: 1) 2) 3) 4) Cation is named first Anion is named second If the metal has multiple valencies. Mono 1 b. NaCl . CaCl .g. Di 2 c.sodium chloride. Non 9 6 . iron (II) The ide suffix for the non-metal is used in simple binary compounds e. Tetra 4 e.Calcuim chloride Naming Molecular Compounds: 1) The Non-metal with the lower group number (valency) is named first (exception Cl O) 2) Use Greek prefixes to specify the number of atoms: a. Pent 5 f.

The Chemical Earth Unit 25/03/09 Rianna Bunn j. synthesis. (Exo: A + B = C + D + energy) For an Ionic Solid to dissolve the following must take place: y Electrostatic forces of attraction between the positive and negative ions must be overcome 7 . SO . like the melting of NaCl.. boiling melting.g. There are exceptions. physical changes involve significantly less energy than chemical changes. respiration. Exothermic physical changes include condensing and solidifying. etc) Dissolving a soluble chemical Chemical Changes are those in which new substances are formed: combustion of petrol/methane Thermal decomposition Electrolysis of water Photosynthesis and respiration Precipitation reactions Light with certain compounds (silver halides)... Examples include decomposition and photosynthesis. because chemical changes involve the breaking of strong bonds and chemical changes do not. In General.. (Endo: A + B + energy = C + D) Energy Content Energy absorbed by chemicals during reaction Time Exothermic reactions (Exo = to go out ) produce and release energy. Examples are combustion. Endothermic vs. Physical changes that are endothermic include boiling water. N O . Dec 10 3) Use the suffix ide with the 2nd element e..Sulphur trioxide Physical and Chemical Changes: (for more see sheets) Physical Changes are changes in physical properties: A change in volume A change in density A change in state (freezing..Dinitrogen Tetroxide. the burning of magnesium. Exothermic: Endothermic reactions (Endo = to go in ) absorb energy that is supplied this energy makes the reaction happen.

Properties of a Covalent Network: 1) High melting/boiling pt. Covalent Network Elements: Carbon C (diamond and graphite) Silicon Si Compounds: Silicon Dioxide SiO Silicon Carbide SiC 8 . covalent substances will NOT dissolve in water but they will dissolve in non-polar organic liquids such as hexane.e. Therefore like substances will dissolve like substances. like carbon and silicon and some compounds. 2) Not conductors of electricity (exceptions of graphite because of layering and silicon which is a semi-conductor) 3) Hard and Brittle 4) Quite chemical inert (unreactive) 5) Insoluble in water and most other solvents (not polar so no attraction to water) Chemical Bonds and Bond Energy: Covalent Bonding: Energy needed to separate the atoms in a covalent bond is called the bond energy (Range of 150-1100 kJ/mole) o Double/triple bonds are harder to break (higher bond energy) o Intermolecular/Dispersion bonds are the weak attractions between molecules of a substance Ionic Bonding: Energy needed to separate the cations and anions is called the ionic lattice energy (Range of 400-4000 kJ/mole) - METALS: A Model (For more notes on Metals see attached sheets) - Delocalised Electrons not associated with one specific cation Free electrons form slip planes If connected to a battery the electrons will head towards the positive electrode (anode) Mobile electrons accounts for electrical conductivity Colvalent Network Substances (covalent lattices) Some elements. like silicon dioxide and silicon carbide exist as covalent network structures.The Chemical Earth Unit 25/03/09 Rianna Bunn y y Intermolecular forces between some polar water molecules must be overcome to make space for positive and negative ions Attractive forces from between the positive and negative ions and surrounding water molecules (H O is polar) Note: substances that are not polar (i.

(see written notes if confused) THE END WOOOOOOHOOOOOOOO! 9 .The Chemical Earth Unit Naming Carbon Compounds: Stem: C1 methC2 ethC3 propC4 butC5 pentC6 hexC7 heptC8 octC9 nonC10 dec- 25/03/09 Rianna Bunn Endings: Single bonds alkane -ane At least one double bond alkene -ene At least one triple bond alkyne -yne You number the carbon chain so that the attached group has the smallest possible number.

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