TV and Monitor CRT (Picture Tube) Information

Version 2.02 (24-Sep-08)
Copyright © 1994-2008 Samuel M. Goldwasser --- All Rights Reserved --For contact info, please see the Sci.Electronics.Repair FAQ Email Links Page. Reproduction of this document in whole or in part is permitted if both of the following conditions are satisfied: This notice is included in its entirety at the beginning. There is no charge except to cover the costs of copying.

Table of Contents

Preface Author and Copyright DISCLAIMER Acknowledgements Introduction o Scope of This Document o Related Documents o Additional Information on CRTs CRT Safety Issues o Electrical Safety o Safe Discharging of Capacitors in TVs and Video Monitors o Additional Information on Discharging CRTs o About Charge Reappearing on Discharged CRT o Warning about disconnecting CRT neck board o CRT Implosion Risk? o Picture Tube Implosion IS Possible - But You Really Need Work at It! o Risks from CRT Scratches?
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Disposing of Dead TVs or Monitors (CRTs and Charged HV Capacitors CRT Construction and Characteristics o Why is the CRT Still Dominant? o Comparison of CRT Types o Color CRT Construction o Assembly of Color CRTs o CRT Fine Tuning o Northern/Southern Hemisphere Corrections and Adjustments o Tubes for All Nations o So What Does It Mean to Have a Trinitron CRT? o Why are There Fine Lines Across My Trinitron Monitor or TV o Differences between Trinitron and Diamondtron CRTs o Some History of In-Line Gun CRTs o How Far is the Shadow Mask from the Phosphor Screen o How is the Shadow Mask Mounted Inside the CRT? o Why is the Shadow Mask or Aperture Grill Made of a Magnetic Material? o Why do CRTs Use Red, Green, and Blue rather than Red, Yellow, Blue? o Purpose of a Separate CRT Faceplate o Leaded Glass and CRT Coatings o Flat Versus Non-Flat CRTs Resolution, Dot Pitch, and Other CRT Specifications o Color CRT Resolution - Focus and Dot/Slot/Line Pitch o A Discussion of Issues Relating to Monitor and CRT Resolution o About the Quality of Monitor Focus o How to Compute Effective Dot Pitch o Dot Pitch of TV CRTs o CRT Aspect Ratio o CRT Deflection Angle o CRT Contrast Ratio Effects of External Magnetic Fields on CRTs o Magnetic Interference and Shielding o Comments on Speaker Shielding o Why Magnetic Fields May Cause the Picture to Rotate o Best Direction to Face a Monitor? o Ways Around North/South or Other Sensitivity to Magnetic Fields o Additional Comments/Summary on Northern/Southern Hemisphere Issues o Orientation Considerations for Projection TVs Picture Quality and Appearance Issues o Why Does the Intensity Appear So Non-Uniform in Bright Areas? o Comments On Color Purity, Set Orientation, and Doming o Difference in Color Rendition Between CRTs o Contour Lines on High Resolution Monitors - Moire o Moire and Shadow Mask Dot Pitch o Isolated Spots on Display o Purple Blob - or Worse

Magnet Fix for Purity Problems - If Duct Tape Works, Use It! How Much Tilt is Acceptable? What is Doming? Afterglow - Phantom Patterns on CRT After Shutoff Discussion on the causes of color flare Magnetic Fields and Degaussing o Degaussing (Demagnetizing) a CRT o How Often to Degauss o Ultra Cheap Degaussing Coil o Bob Myers' Notes on Degaussing o Degaussing after lightning strike o Degaussing Humor - If it Works, Use It! o Can a Really Strong Magnet Permanently Damage the CRT? o WARNING about degaussing late model Sony Trinitron CRTs CRT Related Adjustments o Principles of Purity and Convergence Adjustment o Detailed Purity and Static Convergence Adjustment Procedure o Tony's Notes on Setting Convergence on Older Delta Gun CRTs o Jerry's Comments on Convergence and Other Advanced Adjustments o CRTs with No Purity or Static Convergence Rings o Projection Set Convergence Adjustment Principles o Monitor Tune-Up? o A Discussion on Correction Magnets CRT and CRT Related Maintenance and Repair o Preventive Maintenance - Care and Cleaning CRT? o Shorts in a CRT o Providing Isolation for a CRT H-K Short o Rescuing a Shorted CRT o Determining if Your CRT is up to Air o Scratches or Other Damage to the CRT Face CRT Degradation o CRT Aging - Effects on Electrical Characteristics and Performance o CRT Age Resulting in Dark Picture o Brightening an Old CRT o Checking the Age of the CRT CRT Rejuvenation o What is CRT Rejuvenation? o CRT Degradation and Rejuvenation? o More Comments on CRT Rejuvenation o Home-Made CRT Rejuvenator 1 o Home-Made CRT Rejuvenator 2 Items of Interest o Lifespans of Monitors o Monitor Life, Energy Conservation, and Laziness o Thernal Cycling and Component Life
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This notice is included in its entirety at the beginning. 2. county wide power outages. please see the Sci. planetary disruptions.• Why are Prices of Video Monitors So High Compared to TVs? Expected Life of TV CRTs Problems with Designing a Combination TV and Computer Monitor Picture Tube Disassembly for Demonstration Turning a Large CRT Faceplate into the Side of a Fish Tank Why do TVs Overscan? What is Aquadag? Why are Indirectly Heated Cathodes Used in CRTs Frequency Response of CRTs CRT Service Information o How to Read CRT Part Numbers o Typical Color CRT Pinout o CRT Substitution o CRT Replacement Worth It? o Rebuilt CRTs o What Does It Take to be a Picture Tube Rebuilder. DISCLAIMER We will not be responsible for damage to equipment. or personal injury that may result from the use of this material. Really? o Shipping Damage: Why Monitors are Like Basketballs o o o o o o o o o  Back to CRT FAQ Table of Contents. your ego.Electronics. Acknowledgements . spontaneously generated mini (or larger) black holes.Repair FAQ Email Links Page. blown parts. Preface Author and Copyright Author: Samuel M. Goldwasser For contact info. Copyright © 1994-2008 All Rights Reserved Reproduction of this document in whole or in part is permitted if both of the following conditions are satisfied: 1.There is no charge except to cover the costs of copying.

hp. This site is well worth visiting to get an idea of the construction. (From: David Moisan (dmoisan@shore.) I've seen a few such pictures and I was fortunate enough to find a book on color CRTs that explained quite a few things: Color Television Picture Tubes Morell.pc. Additional Information on CRTs The PC Technology Guide has some information with nice diagrams on both CRT and flat panel displays.Special thanks to Bob Myers (myers@fc. Notes on Approaches to using Fixed Frequency Monitors on PCs. comp. Introduction Scope of This Document This document contains a collection of information relating to CRT (picture tube) construction. This was originally from the TV and monitor repair guides of the and Jeroen Stessen (Jeroen. Law. Harold ISBN 0-12-022151-0.sys. Notes on Video Conversion.electronics.  Back to CRT FAQ Table of Contents. Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of Computer and Video Monitors. Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of Television Sets. or other USENET newsgroups will be included here rather than in those other documents.Electronics. characteristics. troubleshooting. Most new CRT related information originating on the sci. Related Documents The following may be of interest and cover many relavent topics related to CRT based equipment: • • • • • • Safety Guidelines for High Voltage and/or Line Powered Equipment. FAQ but has been moved here due to its being of general for their contributions to this document through their newsgroup postings and private email. Performance Testing of Computer and Video Monitors. and and problems for a variety of display technologies. . maintenance.

that's the only way it could be done without glass everywhere!) (Of course. CRT Safety Issues Electrical Safety TVs and computer or video monitors are among the more dangerous of consumer electronic equipment when it comes to servicing.there is no power transformer to provide the essential barrier for safety and to minimize the risk of equipment damage. your test equipment. and parts of the startup circuit and standby power supply. These are particularly nasty. there's an episode on the secret life of the TV. Some TVs do not have any isolation barrier whatsoever . has a weird sense of humor but he's very well informed and quite gifted in the way he demonstrates difficult-to-explain concepts. low voltage (B+) regulator (if any).to protect you. it is present in a very limited area of the TV or monitor . from serious damage.the entire chassis is live. (Microwave ovens are probably the most hazardous due to high voltage at flesh frying and cardiac arresting high power. he showed off a TV that he sawed in half.manufacturers no doubt maintain props of this sort!)  Back to CRT FAQ Table of Contents. showing the CRT construction very clearly. and the TV. bridge rectifier and main filter capacitor(s). is not nearly as dangerous for several reasons.from the output of the flyback to the CRT anode via the fat red wire and suction . degauss circuit. Major parts of nearly all modern TVs and many computer monitors are directly connected to the AC line .) If you are lucky enough to see "The Secret Life of Machines" on The Learning Channel (or was. It's excellent! The creator and presenter. First. In the opening scene. Since a bridge rectifier is generally used in the power supply.I'm not sure if its still in print but you might check out your local university library. last time I saw it). both directions of the polarized plug result in dangerous conditions and an isolation transformer really should be used . The high voltage to the CRT.) There are two areas which have particularly nasty electrical dangers: the non-isolated line power supply and the CRT high voltage. he may not *actually* have cut a TV in half . then used a diamond saw to cut it. Tim Hunkin. The flyback generates most of the other voltages used in the unit and provides an isolation barrier so that the signal circuits are not line connected and safer. In the majority of designs. the live parts of the TV or monitor are limited to the AC input and line filter. (He must have let the air into the tube. while 200 times greater than the line input. horizontal output transistor and primary side of the flyback (LOPT) transformer.

5 seconds. Then check with a voltmeter to be double sure. This doesn't mean that every one of the 250 capacitors in your TV need to be discharged every time you power off and want to make a measurement. This provides a visible indication of remaining charge and polarity. make sure that you are well insulated! • • For the main capacitors in a switching power supply which might be 100 uF at 350 V this would mean a 5K 10W resistor.that large or high voltage capacitors be fully discharged before measurements are made.for your safety and to prevent damage to the device under test as well as your test equipment . Furthermore. Some of the large filter capacitors commonly found in line operated equipment store a potentially lethal charge. the large main filter capacitors and other capacitors in the power supplies should be checked and discharged if any significant voltage is found after powering off (or before any testing some capacitors (like the high voltage of the CRT in a TV or video monitor) will retain a dangerous or at least painful charge for days or longer!) The technique I recommend is to use a high wattage resistor of about 100 ohms/V of the working voltage of the capacitor. or the circuitry is touched in any way. you can build the capacitor discharge circuit outlined in the companion document: Capacitor Testing.discharge is nearly instantaneous even with multi-M ohm resistor). If you don't need to remove the mainboard or replace the flyback or CRT. and Other Related Information. soldering is attempted. A lower wattage resistor can be used since the total energy in not that great. Safe Discharging of Capacitors in TVs and Video Monitors It is essential .cup connector. If you want to be more high tech. This will prevent the arc-welding associated with screwdriver discharge but will have a short enough time constant so that the capacitor will drop to a low voltage in at most a few seconds (dependent of course on the RC time constant and its original voltage). RC=. then leave it alone and it should not bite. it is not nearly as likely to be lethal since the current available from the line connected power supply is much greater. However. while the shock from the HV can be quite painful due to the capacitance of the CRT envelope. (Using a shorting clip lead may not be a bad idea as well while working on the equipment . 5RC=2.5 second. monitor while discharging (not needed for the CRT . However. Better yet. For the CRT. The time constant is very short . use a high wattage (not for power but to hold off the high voltage which could jump across a tiny 1/4 watt job) resistor of a few M ohms discharged to the chassis ground connected to the outside of the CRT . Obviously. Safe Discharging.NOT SIGNAL GROUND ON THE MAIN BOARD as you may damage sensitive circuitry. repeat a few times to be sure.there have been too many stories of painful experiences from charge .a ms or so.

you may want to discharge the HV even if you are not disconnecting the fat red wire . don't wash your CRTs even if the Maid complains about the filth until you have confirmed that your 'Dag isn't water soluble (maybe that's why it has 'aqua' in the name!). I would just stay away from the fat red wire and what it is connected to including the focus and screen wires.pubnix. Additional Information on Discharging CRTs You may hear that it is only safe to discharge from the Ultor to the Dag. Also see the section: Additional Information on Discharging CRTs. always double check with a reliable voltmeter!T Reasons to use a resistor and not a screwdriver to discharge capacitors: 1.000 volts applied.) Note that if you are touching the little board on the neck of the CRT.ross@juxta.ten). (From: Asimov (mike. More below.even 5 W jobs .) 'Dag' is short for Aquadag. 2. Again. This capacitor is between .005uF and .the focus and screen (G2) voltages on that board are derived from the CRT HV.developing for whatever reasons ready to bite when the HV lead is reconnected. 3. or going near the components on the little board on the neck of the CRT. This seems like very little capacity but it can store a substantial charge with 25. note that the discharge time constant with these may be a few seconds. . BTW. It will reduce your spouse's stress level in not having to hear those scary snaps and crackles. Repeatedly shoving a screwdriver under the anode cap risks scratching the CRT envelope which is something you really do not want to do.01uF in value. Alternatives to a long string of regular resistors are a high voltage probe or a known good focus/screen divider network. replacing the flyback. WARNING: Most common resistors .are rated for only a few hundred volts and are not suitable for the 25kV or more found in modern TVs and monitors. It will not destroy screwdrivers and capacitor terminals. It will not damage the capacitor (due to the current pulse).mnet. It is painted onto the inside and outside of picture tubes to form the 2 plates of a high voltage filter capacitor using the glass in between as dielectric. It is a type of paint made of a graphite pigment which is conductive. what the @#$% are they talking about? :-). If you are not going to be removing the CRT anode connection. So. However. It may all come off! Wipe off the dirt and dust with a cloth (and stay away from the HV connector or make sure it is discharged first!).

where a thin layer of Teflon stores the HV charge needed to make the microphone work.) The issue with CRTs is that the glass dielectric. Big capacitors can do this as well. especially the big oil-paper capacitors used in HV power supplies. This probably applies mostly to large direct-view TVs since they use high deflection angle CRTs but it won't hurt to take appropriate precautions with video and computer monitors as well. and see the voltage magically spring back. the potential does exist for arcing through the glass to the yoke to occur. This is probably not a problem on small CRTs but for large ones with high high voltages and high deflection angles where the glass of the neck is very thin to allow for maximum deflection sensitivity.The outside "dag" is always connected to the circuit chassis ground via a series of springs. The high voltage or "Ultor" terminal must be discharged to chassis ground before working on the circuit especially with older TV's which didn't use a voltage divider to derive the focus potential or newer TV's with a defective open divider. and eventually they add up to enough to cause a major disaster at least on some CRTs. a few drain the charge resulting from the current flow due to residual gas ions inside the CRT. and wires around the picture tube. .anything . So leave it shorted. without something . remove the short. About Charge Reappearing on Discharged CRT (From: Joseph Gwinn (JoeGwinn@comcast. and this charge cannot be eliminated quickly. Warning about disconnecting CRT neck board Some manufacturers warn against powering a TV or monitor CRT without the CRT neck board connected. There aren't many ions in a modern CRT but I suppose a few here. Apparently. There is really no way to know which models will self destruct but it should be possible to avoid such a disaster by providing a temporary return path to the DAG ground of the CRT (NOT SIGNAL GROUND!!) via the focus or G2 pins preferably through a high value high voltage rated resistor just in case one of these is shorted. will store charge deep in the glass. the shortest path may be through the glass neck of the tube to the yoke or from the pins outside the CRT to whatever is nearby. This same phenomena is used in Electret microphones. The phenomena is called "dielectric adsorption" or "soakage". One can short such a CRT for a week. destroying the CRT. having been kept at many tens of kilovolts for years. These can store a lethal jolt.

the CRT probably still has a vacuum. to withstand the air pressure.CRT Implosion Risk? Also see the section: Disposing of Dead TVs or Monitors (CRTs and Charged HV Capacitors). Does this comfort you? Get out the shotgun and have a go at it! Or..) Our 6 month old 20" SGI color monitor (model GDM-20D11) lost a fight with a fork lift. Every tube type has to pass tests in which it is deliberately imploded and it is checked whether any large shrapnel flies too far out. the rimband (the tensioned steel band around the rim of all modern CRTs of any size) prevents the glass from flying outward too far.Stessen@philips. It has to be. What *is* very dangerous is a CRT with its rimband missing. with little or no You won't break it by throwing a slipper at it. (From: Jeroen Stessen (Jeroen. NEVER ever attempt to remove the rimband for and reason! I just saw a picture tube that was broken due to dropping the (entire) TV on one corner. Someone wrote: .ucar. if the tube should implode. I remember reading about Americans (who else?) who tried to shoot CRT's with smaller rifles. usually without causing injuries to anyone. Such a tube should not be handled at all. The neck is in fact very easy to break.. Nevertheless all the glass is still in its original place and it looks as if no glass has flown outward. the following: (From: Ren Tescher (ren@rap. The faceplate is still intact. Usual disclaimer applies . The case is intact. or a CRT which never had a decent rimband in the first place (like some dubious Russian-made samples we once saw). In the cone (the backside) there are open cracks of some 3 feet length in total. because the curvature radius is so much larger. So in this case nobody would have got hurt.) I have checked with our CRT expert and he thinks that any 'normal' type of scratch does not pose any danger. Picture Tube Implosion IS Possible . (what is 'normal'?) The front of the tube is much thicker and stronger than the rear. picture tube implosion is a hazard but under normal conditions.But You Really Need To Work at It! As noted elsewhere in this document. but the outer layer of glass on the screen is shattered. perhaps. quite unlikely.

often around the flyback transformer (the most heavy weight part on the board) . it isn't quite as simple as that. Put the tube on the ground by a brick wall. about 14 inches or so. modern sets no longer have this. :-) (From: Dan Evens (dan. It bounced off the tube. This was from the tube of a small black-and-white TV. I've got several TVs and computer monitors in for repair that had been dropped.. First he pulled the hammer back about 20 feet and just let it go. (Due to poor design?) In order to prevent flying glass. Neck of tube broken of (usually when the set hit the floor back end first) obviously junk. I insist on competent trained professionals for service. The damage encountered ranged from: • • • Broken circuit boards.this renders the tube (and thus usually the set) a dumpster candidate. Did it on the driveway so that the glass would be easier to pick up. the sets had a plastic sheet in front of the screen.This is quite easily repairable. How safe are modern CRT screens in terms of impact damage etc?" Well.on. He saved out an old black-and-white tube for each class and set up a place to break it.."I heard somewhere that in the early days of TV. If I was handling these things in such a way as to have the possibility of dropping one. None of them had an imploded CRT. the tubes had a tendency to implode at the drop of a hat. our electronics teacher did a demo for each class. even if CRT implosion is one of those highly unlikely events. OK. However.. Obviously.evens@hydro. And if it involves a picture the guy could probably have found a safer way to do this. .) They ARE quite safe. So. Kind of looked like a porthole on a submarine. This was to show that such tubes are pretty tough. well maybe just 10 sticks of dynamite..) In high school. The noise was quite impressive. the consequences can be disastrous. The thickness of the image plate of the tube was also quite impressive. The tube was placed image-side down. Then he pulled the hammer back and gave it a pretty good shove. (From: Matthias Meerwein (Matthias. the downside is that should it occur in just the wrong way. Shadow mask inside the tube knocked out of position (mostly in trinitron tubes due to their heavy aperture grille construction) . turning his back to the tube and moving quickly away from it. I'd insist on body armor and face protection. with a hammer suspended on a wire from the top of the wall. (Let's face it. I wouldn't depend on the experiences below to guide you! Treat a CRT about the same way you would an armed nuclear bomb. One of the larger colour models might be a LOT more violent.) Palm sized chunks of glass flew 50

org). All glass shards (most of them rather large) were lying inside the set's cabinet . In both of these cases. With pre-1960 tubes it was a big one. the steel band in conjunction with the basic tube envelope is used to maintain the integrity of the overall CRT. or 12 gauge shotgun. With older tubes it was a hazard.) Risks from CRT Scratches? A really deep long scratch or gouge on the CRT face should be considered a serious safety hazard as it may reduce the structural integrity and increase the risk of implosion.Furthermore. Therefore. It is very unlikely that such scratches could come from any reasonable normal use. (agent150@spambusters. I did some experimentation with junk sets: • • 26 inch color TV with back panel removed placed face-down under a bridge. when he had to "pop" a picture tube in the dumpster he never ever ever did it without safety glasses. hitting a tree or driving down the cliffs: an urban legend. In the case of modern CRTs. Conclusion: According to my experience. . deliberate use of a glass cutter. having them fall to the sidewalk and literally blow a hole in the sidewalk. In addition should implosion occur as a result of catastrophic damage.that steel rimband around the outside near the front. spectacular picture tube implosions are something like cars in movies that explode upon roll-over. (I stopped working there around 1973. hitting the ground faceplate-first. (From: Clifton T. I can tell you factually and first-person that although he took few precautions with other things. Dropped a ~10 pound brick from top of the bride (about 10 ft high) into the glass funnel of the tube. told me stories of setting a picture tube near a second-floor window. Result: Funnel of tube shattered. faceplate intact. However. might perhaps be sufficient. any damage to it does not significantly compromise the tube. but all debris was located on one heap .none of them traveled farther than about three feet. that's more or less true (although walking through a picture tube plant can be instructive as you hear the exploding tubes). a shield and a six-foot piece of heavy pipe.that laminated glass plate in front of your grandmom's TV or (2) a second contoured glass panel bonded to the actual tube face.) With today's tubes. the second panel is protective and cosmetic but is not part of the structure of the flying glass. Result: tube shattered into thousands of small glass particles (the largest ones were about one inch in size).ml. My old boss in the TV service. Sharp Jr. the rimband will reduce the range and velocity of flying debris. This is more of a concern for modern CRTs that usually have 'integral implosion protection' . you would likely need a hammer and chissel or diamond tipped tool to make scratches that deep. who I trusted not to exaggerate about such things. the use of a really really BIG hammer. Older CRTs used either (1) a separate safety shield . 14 inch B/W computer monitor tube dropped from the second story onto concrete floor. Dropping it from a cliff.

it would need to be an inch deep gouge) would have caused the tube to implode. But take care of the electrical discharge of the aquadag capacitance first!!! The other method is to break the stem in the centre of the socket pins. Disposing of Dead TVs or Monitors (CRTs and Charged HV Capacitors) I don't know what the law says. It breaks off easily (after you have removed the plastic part around the pins).that CRT capacitance can hold a charge for quite a while. Handle the CRT by the front . In addition. Wear eye protection whenever dealing with the CRT. but for safety. The vacuum must be broken to avoid future implosion. Once the vacuum is gone. A large CRT will have over 10 tons of air pressure attempting to crush it. BTW. Since it is being scrapped.Stessen@philips.the implosion hazard should not be minimized. This is the stem through which the tube was pumped empty during manufacturing. wishful thinking as I have yet to see a decent monitor on the curb) are just tossed intact which is fortunate for scavengers like me who would not be happy at all with pre-safed equipment of this type! (From: Jeroen Stessen (Jeroen. Don't just toss it in the garbage . like when it will be crushed by the dumpster truck press. a screwdriver under the suction cap HV connector should suffice. here is my recommendation: Treat the CRT with respect .com). . scratches in the CRT have absolutely no effect on X-ray emission. Of course around here. there could be a nice surprise awaiting anyone disconnecting the high voltage wire . The main power supply filter caps should have discharged on their own after any reasonable length of time (measured in terms of minutes.not the neck or thin funnel shaped envelope. the glass and shadow mask will have many sharp edges if it is broken. The vacuum can be safely released (Let out? Sucked in? What does one do with an unwanted vacuum?) without spectacular effects by breaking the glass seal in the center of the CRT socket (may be hidden by the indexing plastic of the socket).it is a significant hazard. it is just a big glass bottle though there may be some moderately hazardous materials in the phosphor coatings and of course. Cover the entire CRT with a heavy blanket when doing this for additional protection.) We have a procedure for disposing of used CRT's. which is made of a soft metal.Also see the section: CRT Implosion Risk?. TVs and monitors (well. That's NOT funny! One method is to punch or drill a small hole in the anode contact. Any scratch deep enough to have any detectable effect on X-ray emission (actually. X-rays are blocked long before they come anywhere near the surface and glass has very little effect on their direction. not days or years).

You want to avoid making too large holes. plasma discharge. Digital Micromirror Device (DMD). most TVs and computer monitors are still based on the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) as the display device. may be able to take advantage of a novel development in integrated micromachining . Projection . At least one company is about to introduce a 42 inch diagonal HDTV format flat plasma panel multisystem color TV/monitor which will accept input from almost any video or computer source.the Texas Instruments Inc.TVs and monitors. A variety of technologies are currently competing for use in the flat panel displays of the future. First. and brightness is generally inferior to a decent analog monitor. For reasonable cost. It is really hard to beat the simplicity of the shadow mask CRT. These are a lot less bulky than CRTs. such sets will find their way into business conference rooms and mansions rather than your home theater but prices will drop over time. and the screens inside video projectors now use flat panel technology.000! :-) Thus. on the other hand. mostly Liquid Crystal Displays . However.large screen . at first. This is basically an integrated circuit with a tiltable micromirror for each pixel fabricated on top of a static memory . the cost is still much much higher due both to the increased complexity of flat panel technology and lower production volumes (though this is certainly increasing dramatically).RAM . color. many hand-held TVs. Only time will tell which.  Back to CRT FAQ Table of Contents.but suffer from certain flaws. Among these are advanced LCD. More of these panels go into the dumpster than make it to product do to manufacturing imperfections. They are generally not as responsive as CRTs when it comes to realtime video which is becoming increasingly important with multimedia computers. And last but not least. use less power. and field emission displays. a decent quality active matrix color LCD panel may add $1000 to the cost of a notebook computer compared to $200 for a VGA monitor. . This technology would permit nearly any size projection display to be produced and would therefore be applicable to high resolution computer monitors as well as HDTV. Brightness is generally not as good as a decent CRT display. portable equipment. General CRT Construction and Characteristics Why is the CRT Still Dominant? Currently. Its price at introduction will be more than that of a typical new automobile . and have better geometry .LCDs. laptop computers. The number of distinct shades of gray or distinct colors is a lot more limited. if any survives to become **the** picture-on-the-wall or notepad display . like for example from chopping off the entire neck in one blow with a hammer.about $15.cell. the picture quality in terms of gray scale.

See the section: What is Doming?. As a result horizontal convergence must be helped by an auxiliary dynamic convergence waveform (on an extra convergence coil?). Because the wires are under a lot of tension. The problem with regular shadow masks is 'doming'. it heats up several hundred degrees. The large diameter lens has the advantage of less spherical aberration (and thus a sharper spot) but the disadvantage of large physical length which means a deeper cabinet. . The aperture grille (which performs the function of a shadow mask in Trinitron and clone CRTs) consists of vertical wires under tension. Where static bright objects are displayed. In the deflection coil design another compromise is found between spot quality. the light source can be as bright as needed. The best non-Trinitron (or clone) CRTs use a conventional shadow mask made of Invar originally Matsushita technology. Commercial products based on the DMD are beginning to appear. as usual. Because the glass surface is cylindrical instead of spherical. with local warping of the mask.Stessen@philips. This adds to cost and can occasionally give an interesting failure of the horizontal convergence. particularly funny mirror reflections of yourself. The holes in the mask move to a different place and the projections of the electron beams will land on the wrong colours: purity errors. which causes some strange effects.) There are still 3 cathodes and 3 G1s.) Trinitron is Sony technology. Philips uses it too. Heavier always equates to more expensive! The electron gun construction is also different: there are still 3 guns (not one as some may thing but the 3 guns share one main lens. thus the shape is a cylinder. in analogy to the optical principle. The use of invar allows about 3 times more beam current for the same purity the glass must be thicker and heavier too. Comparison of CRT Types "Could someone please help to elucidate the comparative advantages of each technology? I know how they work but do not know which is advantageous and why. This causes thermal expansion. purity and convergence.Since a reflective medium is used in this device. The tube surface is also cylindrical. This allows a brighter picture with less purity errors. 2/3 or more of all beam energy is dissipated in the mask." (From: Jeroen Stessen (Jeroen. to withstand atmospheric pressure. the internal tube structure must be very strong and thus relatively heavy. The mask is always straight in the vertical direction and curved in the horizontal direction. Due to the inherent principle of shadow masks. (The assembly of focusing grids is called a lens. The shadow mask is of the standard shape (spherical metal plate with holes in it) but it is made of a special alloy with a 7 times lower coefficient of thermal expansion than regular iron.

and maybe better on focus than other monitors. more expensive.. To summarize: Trinitron monitors are probably heavier. Both are affected by magnetic fields. maybe better on purity. With many TVs and some monitors. the phosphors are arranged in triangular formations called triads with each of the color dots at the apex of the triangle.. Color CRT Construction For an introductory on-line article about (mostly) CRTs. larger. this permits a somewhat higher possible brightness to be achieved and is more immune to other . replaces the perforated steel shadow mask with an array of finely tensioned vertical wires. There are excellent monitors other than Trinitron too.Combating purity errors is a necessity due to 2 trends: • • Flatter picture tubes: flatter shadow masks are more sensitive to doming Darker (glass) picture tubes: this gives more contrast but more beam current is needed for enough brightness The trinitron aperture grill is inherently insensitive to doming as long as the tension in the wires remains positive.positioned about 1/2 inch behind the surface of the phosphor screen. see: • High Tech Tubes.). Bad purity results in mottled or incorrect colors. Popular Mechanics.. The shadow mask consists of a thin steel or InVar (a ferrous alloy) with a fine array of holes . With some CRTs. and B phosphors originate from slightly different positions (individual electron guns for each) and thus arrive at slightly different angles. G. Along with other characteristics of the aperture grille approach. used exclusively in Sony Trinitrons (and now their clones as well). green. The vertical wires are connected in several places by thin horizontal wires. with or without invar shadow masks. they are arranged as vertical slots with the phosphors for the 3 colors next to one for each trio of phosphor dots . Note that purity determines that the correct video signal excites the proper color while convergence determines the geometric alignment of the 3 colors. Since the electron beams for the R.. I suppose the Coke-Pepsi comparison is true. and blue video signals to the proper phosphor dots. April 1997. only the proper phosphors are excited when the purity is properly adjusted and the necessary magnetic field free region is maintained inside the CRT. An aperture grille. Some people complain about seeing faint shadows of these wires. All the color CRTs found in TVs and computer and video monitors utilize a shadow mask or aperture grill a fraction of an inch (1/2" typical) behind the phosphor screen to direct the electron beams for the red. If the wires become too long then they become more sensitive to microphony (try tap the cabinet. Bad convergence results in color fringing at edges of characters or graphics.

Apparently. each shadow mask is unique for its faceplate. • The shadow mask for that CRT (unique) is then mounted .Stessen@philips. Visible stabilizing wires which may be objectionable or unacceptable for certain applications.) The following is a greatly simplified description of the general process of color (shadow or slot mask) CRT construction. Trinitrons should be basically similar.. they may be unacceptable (e. 2. there are some disadvantages of the aperture grille design: • • • • Weight . there are no workers responsible for punching all those holes! Since a position error of even a tiny fraction of a mm would result in purity errors.) The shadow mask is manufactured through a photo etching process. (You will note this seam if you examine the envelope of a color CRT near the front. They put 3 different colour filters between the glass and the phosphor. Stessen (Jeroen.problems like line induced moire and purity changes due to local heating causing distortion (doming) of the shadow mask. Price (proportional to weight). However. They are not interchangeable. it can easily be mounted and removed (essentially clicked in place) during tube production. At least one manufacturer adds some steps for the Superbright tubes. Some people find these wires to be objectionable and for some critical applications. medical diagnosis). Registration pins assure precise alignment. In terms of contrast that tube is a definite killer.a heavy support structure must be provided for the tensioned wires (like a piano frame). The screen and envelope glass pieces are molded separately and then glued (Epoxied?) together as one of the last steps of assembly prior the baking and evacuation. No. Assembly of Color CRTs (Portions from: Jeroen H. To facilitate the following steps. . or 3 stabilizing wires (depending on tube size) across the screen which can be see as very fine lines on bright images.g. there is no known way around the need to keep the fine wires from vibrating or changing position due to mechanical shock in high resolution tubes and thus all Trinitron monitors require 1. Always a cylindrical screen (this may be considered an advantage depending on your preference. • For each of the phosphor colours (and optional black matrix) one phosphor layer is deposited followed by one photoresist layer.clicked in

The getter material adsorbs much of any remaining gas molecules left over from the evacuation of the tube. Then. it is ready for the final baking and evacuation. At this point. This has several functions: • • • Provide the return path for the electron beam . A side benefit is that it blocks negative ions from residual air molecules from hitting the phosphors. green. Reduces backscattering or secondary emission. How else would you lay down a million individual dots in exactly the right place . and the optional (but very common) black matrix surround. in order to get good purity. . That takes several hours at the vacuum pumps. and blue phosphors.• • • An intense point source of light is mounted at the location of the effective center of deflection for the electron gun associated with that phosphor. This vaporizes and deposits a highly active metal on the interior of the glass of the neck. These steps are repeated for the red. (This was a problem in the early days of CRT production but apparently not with present high vacuums and getters to clean up whatever is then 'activated' via induction heating from a coil external to the next of the CRT. Using the shadow mask repeatedly in this manner guarantees close registration. The getter .connected to the EHT 2nd anode.paint by numbers? :-).part of the electron gun assembly .) The shadow mask is then mounted for a final time and the faceplate. The shadow mask is removed and the excess resist (not exposed to light) and phosphor is washed away. The getter material is normally silvery . The stem is then sealed by heating and melting. an aluminum overcoat is deposited over the phosphor/black matrix. The photoresist is exposed to light. These might result in an unsightly blemish in the center of the screen since they are much heavier (many thousands of times the mass) than electrons and are not deflected very much. The tube is evacuated through the thin stem that is located in the middle of the socket. the tube is probably gassy or up to air. envelope (with its electron gun assembly already fused to it) are mated. When the tube is ready it is matched with a deflection coil that provides optimum purity. Electrons that bounce back from either the shadow mask or the screen may hit a phosphor elsewhere and thus cause unwanted white light.if it changes to red or milky white. That reduces contrast and colour purity. It takes some ingenuity to get a good match between using a light for exposure which matches the behaviour of the future electron optical system.

) Northern/Southern Hemisphere Corrections and Adjustments The vertical component of the earth's magnetic field varies in intensity and polarity (N/S) as one moves from the North pole over the equator and to the South pole... etc. for high resolution color monitors and even some color TVs.after all it is less than the total magnitude of the earth's magnetic field of about 0.5 Gauss (0. And even then many tubes need active correction for convergence and/or geometry. If your's has this. However. this will result only in a slight shift in position or rotation of the picture depending on the orientation of the CRT with respect to the earth's magnetic field. the result of transporting the unit from the hemisphere from which it was manufactured or set up to a location in the opposite hemisphere may be uncorrectable purity problems or excessive sensitivity to local magnetic fields.) They still need to match the finished tube with a deflection coil that will give adequate purity performance and then they need to fiddle with magnets (multipole rings around the neck and sometimes other magnets all over the cone) to improve it further. Stessen (Jeroen. geometry and convergence to almost zero. Apparently. the job is not yet done! (From: Jeroen H. good thing that glass recycles well. (But you should see their scrap yard. Computer Aided Design (CAD) has had a major impact on the design of the electron optics.Stessen@philips. there is no harm in seeing what effect it has. It is maximum at the poles and decreases to zero at the equator. However.00005 Tesla). For monochrome monitors and B/W TVs. it is enough to affect the trajectory of the electron beam(s) slightly. This has reduced the number of active correction circuits for focus. CRT Fine Tuning Once the CRT is sealed.Amazingly. some high-end TVs and monitors have a user adjustment called something along the lines of "Geomagnetic Correction".com). Only after all that correction can you call the yield high. baked. The total strength is not large . this basic process has not changed in any fundamental way since the invention of the shadow mask CRT! However. For the most part such effects will not be significant enough to be objectionable. evacuated.. . The working of the electron gun and deflection system is now much more predictable thanks to advanced computer simulation.

hp. With a tube built for the wrong hemisphere it is possible that the effect of the vertical component of the earth magnetic field will give a residual landing error. Re-alignment might become a very costly job. fine phosphor pitch. In the factory inside the neck of every (Philips) tube a metal ring is permanently magnetized to create a multipole correction field. This matching is done under specific ambient magnetic field conditions.) All other monitors will degrade picture quality when the degaussing is not able to completely compensate for the earth magnetic field. (From: Bob Myers (myers@fc. This gives a place-dependent modulation of the 3 beam currents. There may be further adjustments possible for the uniformity of the colour point and it does nothing to improve the landing. Depending on the sophistication of the circuitry in the (television or monitor) set.Stessen@philips.especially the larger sizes. In the 'digital monitors' there are flexible waveform generators to adjust the corrections.) There are two types of adjustments: • • The passive ones that are done in the picture tube factory and The active ones that are done by the setmaker a/o the customer. very critical on landing) may have active magnetic field compensation in all 3 directions with electronic magnetic field sensors for automatic adjustment.there is a subtle difference in the CRT itself which may mean that a unit with the wrong tube could NOT be adjusted to be within specifications when used in the 'wrong' hemisphere. digital or not. (From: Jeroen Stessen (Jeroen. The extent to which your particular monitor or TV is affected depends on many factors many of which you have no control over. The most expensive monitors (large screen. the setmaker can adjust geometry and sometimes convergence (if there is a set of convergence coils present).com). This can not be corrected by turning any of the available adjustments. If there is a rotation coil present then this may also improve the landing a bit. On oriental tubes you will often see little permanent magnets added to achieve further fine correction of landing and/or convergence. When the tube is within landing specification it is shipped to the setmaker. which tend to turn relative to the earth. . such as 21" . It is possible that a couple of yokes must be tried in succession.) For many monitors .Note that is it quite possible that you will never encounter any of these problems. These monitors should be mostly insensitive to the earth magnetic field. (This technology was originally invented for the use of CRT displays on board of jet fighter planes. Then each tube is matched with a deflection yoke to achieve optimum colour purity.

As a consequence they needed a southern-hemisphere tube for the northern hemisphere! So here is a hint for a solution to you all. so they don't need safety clearance for the EHT on top. and the customer can only adjust red and blue shift. If you choose to use it in different conditions then the landing reserve will be diminished and you will suffer sooner from colour purity errors. and sometimes a 3rd neutral type. south and equator ("neutral"). Using a Helmholtz cage you can test or optimize for a particular place on earth. How critical it all is depends on tube size (bigger is worse) and on dot pitch (smaller is worse). Workstation monitors are most critical. There may be different tube specifications for north. not rotation.. (Note that the term 'tube' here includes much of the convergence hardware as well . The most expensive monitors come with their own built-in Helmholtz cage and magnetic sensors to always create a field-free space. the beam landing is optimized for the field condition in which it will be used They all had to be opened on arrival to re-adjust the rotation settings on the convergence panel. During production and adjustment of the tube. which is bad because it also depends on which direction you orient the display. Projection TV's don't have degaussing (there is nothing to degauss). (From the editor). 2 meter long sides) with copper coils around each of the 6 surfaces. Another interesting bit of trivia: B&O (Bang & Olufsen of Danmark) use Philips picture tubes in their beautifully designed cabinets. With this they can simulate the earth magnetic field for every place on earth (as indicated on a map on the wall). I'm not so sure if the convergence would be a primary problem. In light of the above discussion.not just what is inside the glass.Tubes for All Nations (From: Jeroen Stessen (Jeroen. also the horizontal component of the field matters. With a dotted shadow mask. the following makes perfect sense: . This too will eat away from your landing reserve. maybe yes. This is a wooden cube (approx. Our CRT application group has a "magnetic cage".. due to the different magnetic field in Australia. These are so-to-say precorrected for the uncompensated field. In order to facilitate a more narrow styling they decided to mount the tube upside-down.Stessen@philips.) CRT Manufacturers actually make different versions of their tubes for TV's for the northern and southern hemisphere.) I remember when we exported projection televisions from Belgium to Australia. a couple of years ago.

For a CRT to set up correctly the gun is offset 1 to 1. The CRT uses a set of fine vertical wires called an aperture grill instead of a steel shadow mask to separate the R. The Trinitron equivalent is called an aperture grill and is made of around a thousand vertical wires under tension a fraction of an inch behind the glass faceplate with its phosphor stripes. I never could decide whether this was genuine or BS! (From: Terry DeWick ( they are apparently needed. These may be seen by looking closely 1/3 and/or 2/3 of the way down the tube. G. The patent has recently expired and therefore other manufacturers are free to offer similar CRTs.(From: Nigel Morgan (nigel@wycombe.) The magnetic field for South America is about 0 to -100 mG while the U. I was told that the tubes used in the PYE sets were 'Southern Hemisphere tubes. since there is no imposed structure in the vertical direction. The shadow mask in all other kinds of common CRTs are made up of either dots (nearly all good non-Trinitron computer monitors) or slots (many television sets). and blue rather than dots or . but these PYE sets had the blue gun at the bottom. and B electron beams and force them to strike only the appropriate colored phosphors. You can be sure that Sony would have eliminated them if it were possible. A North American CRT can be set up in South America but there is a chance that it will not set up well with excessive purity correction and or wedging set to the extremes. Many have complained about these or asked if they are defects . I was introduced to a model with a PYE badge on which differed in one significant detail: on all TV sets I'd seen to that date the tube had the blue gun uppermost and the EHT connector at the top of the tube. In addition.5 mm left of center for the 500mG field and 1 mm to the right for 0 mG this way the purity will be centered and the yoke tilt will be centered making setup easy during production. Thorn TV sets mounted the tube upside-down for some reason so that the EHT connector was at the bottom along with the blue gun. So What Does It Mean to Have a Trinitron CRT? Trinitron is a CRT technology developed by Sony. The larger size tubes will have 2 while those under 17 inch (I think) will only have a single wire. undesirable moire patterns caused by scan line pitch compared with the shadow mask dot pitch should be eliminated. You can recognize a Trinitron tube by the fact that the picture is made up of fine vertical stripes of red.S. Since the aperture grill wires run the full height of the tube. Other adjustments should be less critical in the vertical direction. It should be brighter because the percentage of open space of the aperture grill is higher then that of a shadow mask. green. but the EHT connector was at the top! When I asked about this. When I was in the TV trade some 20 years ago. This in conjunction with an in-line set of electron guns is supposed to provide a brighter image with simpler convergence and purity there are 1 or 2 stabilizing wires to minimize vibration and distortion of the aperture grill. runs 400 to 500 mG (milli Gauss).

the display would be very sensitive to any shock or vibration and result in visible shimmering or rippling. :-) All Trinitron (or clone) CRTs . There are many fine monitors that do not use Trinitrons as well as many not-so-great monitors which do use Trinitron tubes. In order to properly evaluate a monitor. The radius in the vertical direction is very large compared to the horizontal. this is also an attractive shape. This is both a requirement and a feature. the glass must be flat or nearly flat in the vertical direction. Therefore. .to keep from directly competing. Mitsubishi has tried to introduce Diamondtron tubes in sizes which are not available as Trinitrons . one must consider more than the tube alone . above 21" there may be 3 wires.compaq. Differences between Trinitron and Diamondtron CRTs (From: Bill Nott (BNott@Bangate. and (ostensibly) to address niches which other sizes can't address. even with these stabilizing wires. In todays market. between 15" and 21" there are usually 2 wires. Why are There Fine Lines Across My Trinitron Monitor or TV? These are not a defect .Another noticeable characteristic of Trinitrons is the nearly cylindrical faceplate. they cannot follow the curve of the glass as a normal shadow mask may. Since the aperture grill wires are under tension. Without these.require 1.the subtle differences (according to Mitsubishi) are improvements in the electron gun design for spot uniformity over the CRT face. The number of wires depends on the size of the screen. In the final analysis. Some people never get used to the fine lines but many really like the generally high quality of Trinitron based displays and eventually totally ignore them. but they don't all perform the same. Only you can decide if this deficiency is serious enough to avoid the use of a Trinitron based monitor.tubes that use an aperture grille .as many readers or 3 very fine wires across the screen to stabilize the array of vertical wires in the aperture grille.they are a 'feature'.) Mitsubishi makes the Diamondtron under license from Sony . Also. for the time being. As a selling point.) The lines you see are the shadows cast by these fine wires. (In fact. it's quite possible to find a dot mask design which performs as well as (or better in some cases) the aperture grill design IMHO every critical monitor purchase should be made by personally examining the monitor to be bought. you can usually see this shimmering if you whack a Trinitron monitor. under the intended application(s). Trinitrons are finding their way into various manufacturer's sets. the ultimate image quality on a monitor depends as much on other factors as on the CRT. 2. Below 15" there is usually a single wire.

It was a tube chassis that made use of space saving Compactron multifunction tubes. Some History of In-Line Gun CRTs (From: Thomas Maggio (staccato@gate. This is not just a setup issue. if you want the very best. I have not done any research on this. Sony uses one gun with a large common cathode to emit 3 electron beams which focus through a single large electrostatic 'lens' instead of 3 smaller ones like the GE and others used. My gut feeling is that the Dells use a Mitsubishi tube. but that only refers to the cathode structure. the color circuit used a novel method to generate the local 3.) (From: Someone who wishes to remain anonymous. (From: Andy Cuffe (baltimora@psu. Lawrence) then was demonstrated as the "Chromatron" (I think Paramount had some stake in it then). The darkness of the black changes. From what little I know. no two monitors have the same One last stroll down memory lane: Does anyone remember the forerunner of the Sony Trinitron? It began as the "Lawrence Tube" (named after its U.58 MHz color signal: it used the recovered color burst to 'ring' a series crystal to produce a continuous carrier. Sony used to talk about a "unitized gun". If I remember correctly. all color tubes use 3 guns.) . this makes a difference. I don't know how the concept became Sony's property so if anyone can corroborate or correct any of my recollections. The 21" Sony GDM-F520 is 0. to the best of my memory. you will have to pay for it.25 mm. The 22" Mitsubishi (Cornerstone P1750) is 0. I remember reading about all this in one of the late great "Radio-Electronics" Annual Color TV issues that I looked forward to each year back then as color TVs were dynamically evolving from many US companies.22 mm. I have also noticed that in a room full of Dell Trinitron monitors.) GE's first set was a 10 or 11 inch " "PortaColor" TV which. It's classical use of a misleading term to gain market awareness (looks like it works). and that the quality control is not up to Sony's. A solid state version followed some years later I believe.S. inventor Dr. It is just a feeling. including the Trinitron. the actual tubes have different colors when they are off. was introduced in the mid-60s.(BTW. Most noticeable is the grill pitch. I would enjoy hearing about it. This simplified convergence and the CRT neck components needed. For high resolution screens.) I have found other differences between the Trinitron and Diamondtron tubes. (or you get what you pay for). The GE CRT did indeed use 3 in-line guns aimed at a conventional shadow mask triad phosphor screen.

They used the 3 in-line cathodes of the GE tube with the vertical phosphor stripe screen of the chromatron. Apparently Sony actually manufactured a 17" TV with a Chromatron CRT in the early 60's.similar triangles (at least for a good approximation). heck. At the center of the screen.I read about Sony's development of the Trinitron.Electron guns (center of deflection) | | | | Gun pitch: 7 mm (Cool diagram based on efforts of Jeroem Stessen.) Be aware that both face-plate and shadow-mask are curved and that the radius of curvature is much larger than the distance to the guns.----. Apparently they were very close to licensing the shadow mask design from RCA because of the amount of money they were losing by developing their own color CRT.) This is simple geometry .--------.3 mm | | ___________________________________ Phosphor screen G B R G B R G B R G B R G B ^ \|/ 15 mm . Later Sony took ideas from the GE in-line tube and the Cromatron to invent the Trinitron. According to the book they all ended up being returned and Sony lost a lot of money on it. Dot pitch: 0.Shadow mask /|\ ^ / | \ | / | \ 350 mm / | \ | / | \ v B-gun G-gun R-gun ---------------. we have: Distance between E-guns (R-G) Slot pitch (R-G) .just a little more trouble for dot mask to convert the dot pitch). The tone of the book suggested that Sony bet the whole company on the success of the Trinitron.Stessen@philips. How Far is the Shadow Mask from the Phosphor Screen? (Portions from: Jeroen H. The screen is relatively flat. If anyone is interested I think the title of the book was "Sony Vision".----. It also had chapters on the Betamax and the development of the first solid state TV. It is easy to do the calculations based on the distance between the electron guns and the horizontal stripe pitch of the CRT (assuming slot mask or Trinitron . Oh. This too has consequences for the Stessen (Jeroen. It was only sold in Japan and used a very unreliable tube chassis.----. The common focusing lens was a way to stay as close as possible to the single electron gun design of the chromatron.----.

Stessen@philips.----------------------------------------Distance from deflection center to mask = -----------------Mask to screen For a typical 25 inch TV CRT with a . They have an important role for colour purity: they allow the mask to move forward as it expands due to self-heating.) The shadow mask is mounted in a diaphragm. In the old days these were bimetal springs. why not make the shadow mask or aperture grille from something that is non-magnetic? .com). (I know. (From: David Moisan (dmoisan@shore.. so to speak. Why is the Shadow Mask or Aperture Grill Made of a Magnetic Material? (From: Jeroen Stessen (Jeroen. if magnetization and the need for degauss is a problem. During production the mask is mounted and removed many times to allow for etching of the phosphors. Remember: it must dissipate a lot of power and there is no cool air in there.Stessen@philips. only clicked in to place just prior to having the envelope glued to the front For a distance of 350 mm between the center of deflection and The mask is carefully designed in a frame of its own.3 mm between adjacent stripes) and 7 mm between adjacent guns we have a ratio of about 23:1. The diaphragm is mounted to the inside of the tube with 4 metal springs. this gives us about 15 mm (~.9 mm slot pitch (. As no two masks are identical. you thought they were painted on one spot at a time! :-) The mask is never fastened permanently. Stessen (Jeroen. There's also a magnetic shield around the inside of the bell in some tubes. A point light source is precisely positioned at the deflection center of each gun in-turn to expose the photoresist used in laying down the phosphor dots. the best way to describe the shadow mask is that it is like a picture inside its frame: The glass face is the frame and the mask is the picture it holds. so that it won't distort under the heating it gets from the electron beams (not to mention during manufacturing). with spring clips around the edges.6 inches) between the mask and the screen. each tube is always paired with its own mask. How is the Shadow Mask Mounted Inside the CRT? (Portions from: Jeroen H.) From pictures I've seen..) The question often arises: Well.

The *sum* of the two fields must be near zero! Degaussing coils create a strong alternating magnetic field that gradually decays to zero. yellow. This will also explain why expensive computer monitors on a swivel pedestal have a manual degaussing button. cyan . The axial component of the magnetic field is harder to compensate by means of degaussing. Red. Blue? So you were taught in grade school that any color could be made up of red.additive and subtractive. yellow. yellow. but to create a magnetization that compensates for the earth's magnetic field. yellow. each of CMY removes a single color from (RGB). Non-zero field will cause colour purity errors. blue but rather magenta. Those red. The three types of cone (color) recepters in the retina of the human eye have peaks (roughly) sensitive to these primary colors. Now you will understand why a CRT must be degaussed again after it has been moved relative to the earth's magnetic field. CMY (cyan. this requires an adjustment that depends on local magnetic field. The purpose of degaussing is *not* to demagnetize the metal.anything that emits light will use these. There are two types . Basically. Green.The shadow mask *must* be made of magnetic material! This may seem to be undesirable or counterintuitive but read on: Together with the internal shielding hood it forms sort of a closed space in which it is attempted to achieve a field-free space.close but no cigar. thus they don't need any degaussing function. and blue are approximations good enough for basic painting or printing but are not capable of reproducing the widest range of colors. . yellow. This is too expensive for consumer equipment. Yellow. Better compensation may be achieved by means of a "rotation coil" (around the neck or around the screen). Why do CRTs Use Red. The effect is that the present earth magnetic field is "frozen" into the magnetic shielding and the field inside the shielding will be (almost) zero. Printing processes and color photography use these because layers of ink or dye absorb light. and blue paint. yellow) are subtractive colors. and Blue rather than Red. magenta. They use magnetic field sensors and active compensation. and blue primaries you used to create your works of art should actually not have been red. Why are these not used in CRTs? Nearly any color that we can perceive can be made from some combination of primary colors. you must press it every time after you have rotated the monitor. CRT's for moving vehicles (like military airplanes) may be equipped with 6 coils to achieve zero magnetic field in all directions. RGB are primary additive colors .

In some cases. I wasn't there. he told me about it. such a situation is virtually impossible to occur on its own since the rimband is part of the mounting bracket assembly. The phosphors used in CRTs are not necessarily optimal . (From: Joe (rimband@megsinet.a rimband . This was a 25" RCA tube he wanted to fit into a Zenith TV (don't ask me why). See below for an example.) I got my User ID from the metal band. whatever one does with a vacuum) of the CRT! Spontaneous implosion is even possible. there should be a tensioned steel band . it would contain the debrie in the unlikely event of an implosion resulting from some really catastrophic event. What happened in the next few . It would prevent damage to the CRT in the event of a blow from a thrown object like an ashtray or shoe! In Purpose of a Separate CRT Faceplate The surface of the screen you see is most often part of the CRT envelope. Part of its purpose is protective. there will be a separate faceplate. Yellow = (red+green) and is the complement of blue. Older TVs usually had either a totally separate laminated glass plate in front of the CRT or a contoured glass panel bonded (glued) to the CRT itself. This is called 'integral implosion protection' by some manufacturers. Give the impression of a Sony Trinitron by using a cylindrical (plastic) plate in front of a real-flat rear-projection screen. In the event of a catastrophic event. Warning: A CRT that is supposed to have a rimband but where it is missing or damaged is a serious hazard since the possibility of implosion is greatly increased and the effects of such an implosion will be more severe. The rimband is essential to assure the structural integrety of the CRT envelope against the emmense forces due to the air pressure attempting to crush it. Don't be tempted to remove the rimband for any reason unless the vacuum has been let out (in. Give the impression of a flatter display by using a glass plate with a larger radius of curvature than the CRT itself. However.that is why some monitors or TVs may appear to have better color rendition than others. a friend of mine decided to cut the rimband off a picture tube.around the edge of the CRT near the front.• • • Cyan = (green+blue) and is the complement of red. the separate or bonded glass plate can also be used for cosmetic purposes to: • • • • • Improve contrast in a bright light by using a tinted glass. Magenta = (red+blue) and is the complement of green. :) Anyway. Iron out the bumps by using a glass plate smoother than the CRT. In this case. Reduce reflection by using an anti-reflection coating. the rimband will also reduce the range and velocity of any debrie. However.

hp. I told him what an idiot he least the top layer of electrodes (row or column lines) has to be transparent! As conductors go.the age of see-through power lines or Star Trek's "transparent aluminum" is not upon us (and for certain theoretical reasons CAN'T be) .com). he would be wearing an eye patch or have a glass eye for the rest of his life.k. but one of the most popular materials for making a transparent conductive layer is indium-tin oxide. he came out with a cut about half an inch above his right eye that needed 6 stitches to close. embedding the neck and yoke assembly in the ceiling.) First . its velocity increased near the edges and corners.yes.a. variation in brightness from center to edges and corners. the electron beam hits the screen at an increasingly steep angle which further decreases the brightness for a fixed dot size. it's not just straight sand. most "flat" CRTs will still have a slight spherical shape. the glass is leaded (or contains other "impurities") to reduce emissions. and also told him NEVER cut the rimband off a picture tube that has vacuum. these things aren't THAT conductive .but they get the job done. a. In addition. Without compensation. this means less time on each phosphor dot and lower brightness. the pixels will be stretched significantly in these areas. Such transparent conductors are also used in LCDs and other flat-panel technologies . I just wanted to add that!:) Leaded Glass and CRT Coatings "Is it really true that they put lead in the CRT glass for X-ray shielding? What is the transparent conductive coating on the front of the CRT made of?" (From: Bob Myers (myers@fc. Structural integrity: A totally flat faceplate would have to be much thicker to withstand the force due to the atmosphere with respect to the vacuum inside. Scan . if not obvious. In short. Flat Versus Non-Flat CRTs The long and the short of it is that people would like absolutely flat tubes but there are several electronics and manufacturing problems which make the production of a totally flat (or even almost totally flat) CRT a challenge: • • • Geometry correction: As the electron beam scans across a flat faceplate. Compensation for the geometry and brightness problems becomes much more challenging and it's never perfect. Had that shard of glass been half an inch lower. "ITO". :-) There are various proprietary formulas used to make the faceplate coating. Brightness uniformity: Likewise. the picture tube imploded in his face. So. he's lucky he didn't kill himself or blind himself.seconds after he cut the rimband. Even a well adjusted CRT will often have a very detectable. which often acts both as a conductive layer to reduce low-frequency electric fields and as a glarereduction layer.

the phosphor screen consists of triads of R.) One of three approaches are used to ensure that only the proper electron beam strikes each color for triad. The thicker faceplate means a heavier CRT and monitor. and the dot/slot/line pitch (color only) of the CRT. Sharp focus is a difficult objective . Focus may be adjustmented but excellent focus everywhere on the screen is generally not possible. The electron guns are also arrange in a triangular for each triple. The CRT is primarily responsible for the latter two. To get used to this geometry may take some time as well. Slot mask . The focus or sharpness of the spot or spots that scan across the screen is a function of the design of the electron gun(s) in the CRT and the values of the various voltages which drive them. circular dots in a triangular arrangement. these are usually full vertical stripes interrupted by narrow gaps). video bandwidth.of the color phosphor elements. All perform the same function: 1. The net effect is that for a given screen size. stripes (actually. increasingly sharp focus would not be of value beyond a certain point as the ultimate resolution of a color CRT is limited by the spacing .the negatively charged electrons repel each other and provide an inherent defocusing action. The dot mask has been used since the early days of color TV and is still popular today. Note that Sony Trinitron (and clone) CRTs are nearly flat in the vertical direction and curved in the horizontal direction. Resolution. G. However.linearity and pincushion correction require most complex and carefully adjusted circuits.  Back to CRT FAQ Table of Contents. At a normal viewing distance. sharpness of the electron beam(s). cost will be greater. and B. and B. the metal between the slots vertically is as thin as possible to . and Other CRT Specifications Color CRT Resolution . 2. CRT resolution is limited primarily by the electron beam focus. Some people may find (after having gotten used to a moderately spherical CRT) that they actually like a flat one less especially if the deficiencies are easily seen.the pitch .the phosphor screen consists of triples of vertically elongated R.Focus and Dot/Slot/Line Pitch The ability to display fine detail involves many factors including the resolution of the video source. Ideally. (For monochrome displays and black-and-white TVs. Dot Pitche. the perceived advantages may be minimal. The shadow mask is a steel or InVar sheet filled with slots . The shadow mask is a steel or InVar sheet filled with holes . Dot mask . G.

with smaller screens and higher desired video source resolutions. and B. However. The electron guns are in line which makes some of the setup adjustments less critical compared to the dot mask CRT. As the pixel size approaches the phosphor triad or triple size. Most monitor vendors quote the highest resolution signal their monitor will sync to irrespective of whether or not the tube can resolve it. Obviously.hp.often bundled with a 'low ball' PC system . Aperture grille . This is useless for any resolution greater than VGA. Indeed. it isn't a simple relationship like the size of a pixel should be larger than the size of a dot triad or triple. 3.) . (From: Bob Myers (myers@fc. this parameter is relevant in both the horizontal and vertical direction. However. CRT pitch becomes increasingly important. the only truly reliable way to determine whether Moire will be a problem with your monitor is to test it at the resolutions you intend to use. The electron guns are also in line. the pitch is only relevant in the horizontal direction.maintain the structural stability of the slot mask sheet.may have a dot pitch as poor as . Focus is important.75 mm . as the pixel spacing approaches that of the CRT. a smaller pitch is generally preferred and you will likely be disappointed if the pitch is larger than a pixel. moire effects are likely to be more of a problem. A Discussion of Issues Relating to Monitor and CRT Resolution Many factors influence the effective resolution of a monitor but the CRT dot or slot mask or aperture grill is the ultimate limit (though it may still be possible to use a monitor at a resolution which exceeds that of the CRT). (From: Bob Niland (rjn@csn.39 mm. for example. For slot mask and aperture grille for each triple.until recently under patent protection and therefore only available in the Trinitron from Sony . it often cannot resolve the highest (and even second highest) claimed display resolution.22 mm are found in high resolution CRTs. Dot pitches as small as . The aperture grille . For dot mask found in both TVs and monitors. Moire becomes more likely.the phosphor screen consists of triples of vertical R.or more. Common SVGA monitors use a typical dot pitch of .com). TVs due to their lower resolution have pitches (depending on screen size) as high as . Very inexpensive 14" monitors .) Dot pitch is the major component in the actual resolution of the monitor. lines running the full height of the screen. The pitch of a color CRT refers to the spacing of phosphor triads or triples.28 mm. However. The aperture grille is a series of tensioned steel wires running vertically behind the phosphor stripes . All other factors being equal. This type of tube seems to be very popular in TVs but also shows up in some computer monitors.

Expressing pitch in millimeters is actually a relatively new practice in comparison. ('PC Inches' versus 'real inches' is a topic for another time. If you have been given only one number. To calculate useful horizontal resolution: . sometimes. but it is all we have to work with.) Well. On the other hand. For instance.) Here's how to figure it out.e. and is misleading. Expressing diagonal sizes in inches comes from long-standing tradition. Conventional (flat-square) models will.actually spec their tube diagonals in metric terms. subtract 1 inch from the advertised monitor size. things may not be quite as bad as what the numbers appear to say.866). and probably the safest conversion between diagonal and horizontal for these is to mlutiply by the cosine of 30 degrees (0.hp. (From: Bob Niland (rjn@csn. a '21 inch' monitor will usually have about a 20-inch usable diagonal picture area. (From: Bob Myers (" (From: Bob Myers (myers@fc.) See the section: How to Compute Effective Dot Pitch.33:1) for any CRT you are likely to be using.) • The monitor aspect ratio (AR).hp. I wouldn't want to accuse the tube industry of deception. how many RGB dot triplets there are across and down the screen.esp. and dot pitch in those in the Far East . You need first to know: • • The diagonal 'active picture" area (APD). The vendors don't want to make it easy for you to know what the geometry of their phosphor triads actually is. it's probably the diagonal.54") (From: Bob Niland (rjn@csn. Matsushita (Panasonic) has listed their "15 inch visual" color CRTs as "420xxxx" models. unless you know for sure the angle to horizontal at which the diagonal measurement was made. and isn't too unusual when you realize that most tube manufacturers . 420 being the overall diagonal in mm (16. :-) You need the horizontal dot pitch (HDP).net).) Trinitron (aperture grille) tubes will never have the pitch specified as a diagonal measurement.) It's no accident that monitor size is specified in inches. since they have vertical stripes of phosphor. (From: Bob Niland (rjn@csn. i. I.e. (It varies for different tube The vertical and horizontal are often different (with the vertical being a smaller number).Very This is 4:3 (or 1. If the vendor fails to specify this.

1. This is rare.• Multiply the APD by .what you need to resolve are the *differences* between adjacent pixels. nor is there are reason for them to be. I use a Hitachi AccuVue UX4921D (aka HM-4921-D/A-HT01) 21-inch monitor.5:1 or even This is the useful horizontal resolution of the monitor. 800. 1280 or 1600) resolution in use.up to 2X or so at the corners. In fact. (From: Bob Myers (myers@fc.) The true resolution capabilities of a CRT are limited primarily by the dot pitch AND the spot size. which is in effect the ratio of the actual size of a spot on the display to the size of a "logical" pixel in the image. but too low. and having a . and the image takes on a grainy appearance that most people find objectionable. • Divide the APHmm by the HDP. (Too high. What many people fail to realize is that the phosphor triads of the screen *do not* correspond to pixels in the image. It is a claimed 1600x1200 monitor. And for best perceived appearance.4. or RAR. This is the APH in mm (APHmm). This doesn't necessarily cause a problem with the image quality. And.) Here is where some words of explanation are in order. but we need to look a little further to determine whether or not a given tube will be usable for a given format (what most people mistakenly call a "resolution".) .hp. or pixel/line pairs. Notice that this number probably does not precisely match any common (640. 1024. and that it is probably *less* than what the vendor claimed. and the image is blurred.80 (4:3 tube). actually has over 1800 phosphor triads across the screen. 1152. the spot size is considerably larger than the dot pitch . however. • Multiply APH by 25. For practically all CRTs and monitors in the PC market. The phosphor dot pitch IS a limiting factor in resolution. it doesn't take a dot pitch of equal or greater size than a logical pixel to do this to most people's satisfaction.22 horizontal dot pitch. This is the Active Picture Horizontal size (APH) in inches. they are not kept in alignment with the image pixels/lines/whatever. Most large monitors usually have 1280 or fewer triads across the screen. this is generally going to be GREATER than 1:1 . oddly enough. display types sometimes talk about a 'Resolution/Addressibility Ratio'.say. since you aren't really resolving individual "pixels" in any case . if the tube is at or near its specification limits.

) The adjustment on the flyback sets the "static" focus voltage. a single fixed focus voltage will not . And you will be able to see such variations acceptably even when the size of the logical pixel is somewhat under the dot pitch size.28 mm CRT. but then the center of the screen becomes worse. If a CRT can actually illuminate less than a full phosphor triad. you don't get constant color pixels .you don't even get constant *luminance* pixels . the focus adjustment on the flyback can improve the focus at the edges. The other is blurred at the and can still result in an image that will be acceptable (and even perceived as 'sharp') to the user. even though the numbers don't appear to work out.) That's a good bit of it.not from convergence problems. About the Quality of Monitor Focus "I have 2 identical monitors. you won't really see small details based on differences in color alone. One is razor sharp from edge to edge.) While not stated above. particularly that humans have more visual acuity in luminance (B&W) than in chrominance (color).but you do perceive acceptable levels of detail to call the image 'sharp'. But what is also correct. For instance. But 1280 x 1024 on an 0. but just plain out of focus.hp. (From: Bob Myers (myers@fc. when run at the highest support addressibility or format (or. is that this is OK. The fact that we don't generally have the same spatial acuity for color . you probably won't be really happy with 1600 x 1200 on a 17" 0. (From: Bob Niland ( if somewhat counterintuitive. However.My question is : Is this a problem in the electronics and presumably a fixable flaw or is it caused by variance in the picture tube itself and not correctable ? Or is it some other issue?" (From: Bob Myers (myers@fc. You can certainly exceed the resolution capabilities of a tube and/or monitor (monitors differ from simple tubes by also having a video amp to worry about!).is a big part of this..hp.31 mm 20-21" tube can look very good. "resolution") wind up with the "pixel size" being smaller than the dot pitch. In this There will be some color fringing. When this other words. Whether or not you're going to be satisfied with a given dot pitch versus addressibility ("resolution") basically has to do with what you think "resolve" means. its luminance resolution can exceed the dot pitch.Bob is absolutely correct in stating that most displays. there has to be a difference in brightness . which is a DC voltage applied to the focus electrode in the CRT. but the eye may not notice. I would speculate that this is due to various human visual system factors. if you insist.

The calculations below follow from simple geometry: • • • The Vertical Dot Pitch (VDP) will be equal to: HexP * 1/2. Your best bet. . normally the nominal pitch (also called the Hexagonal Pitch or HexP) is defined as the distance between one phosphor dot to the next same colored one in the 'hexagonal' direction (i. but that's another story.) For a dot mask type CRT. The Same Color Horizontal Dot Pitch (SCHDP) will be: SCHDP = HexP * sqrt(3) (sqrt(3) = 1.R --. most monitors include at least some form of "dynamic" focus. would be to get the service manual for the unit in question.G --- Magnified -> (Portions from: Jac Jamar (jamar@comp. How to Compute Effective Dot Pitch We always see CRTs specififed in terms of dot pitch but what does this mean with respect to actual useful horizontal and vertical dot pitch? The usual arrangement of phoshpor dots on the screen of a dot mask type CRT is shown below: B R G B R G B R G B R G B R R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B B R G B R G B R G B R G B R R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B B R --. The controls for the dynamic focus adjustment will be located elsewhere in the monitor. leaving only the static focus adjust.732 or 2 * cos(30 degrees)) This is the distance between one phosphor dot and the next dot of the same color on the same horizontal which varies the focus voltage as the image is scanned. too. As always.snads.B -+. in the direction 30 degrees above the horizontal).R / | / | G --. DO NOT attempt any servicing of a CRT display unless you are familiar with the correct procedures for SAFELY working on high-voltage equipment. for the simple reason that the distance from the gun to the screen is different at the screen center than it is in the you the best focus across the whole CRT screen. and will probably have at LEAST three adjustments which may to some degree interact with one another. The voltages in even the smallest CRT monitor can be lethal. short of having a service tech adjust it for you.) To compensate for this.B --.e.G --. since the beam strikes the screen at an angle there. (The beam SHAPE is basically different in the corners. It is also possible that the dynamic focus circuitry has failed.

inadequate degauss.28 mm dot pitch Here are some typical values which I measured very precisely (!!) by putting a machinest's scale against the screen. However.16 mm. the dot/slot/line pitch of TV CRTs is very large compared to even mediocre computer monitors. as driven by Hollywood. or doming) may completely shift the color from what it is supposed to be to one of the other primary colors.) The physical shape of the tubes themselves came through this evolution. VDP = . 25 inch RCA . this information is not nearly as important for TVs as for high resolution multiscan computer monitors. for a 0. and the early TV designers DID realize that the use of round tubes to display this was a literal case of a . The pixels are about .14 mm.. Typical high resolution CRTs for high resolution computer monitors have a dot/stripe pitch of . external fields.22 mm in commercially available monitors).. with HDTV. you can forget about trying to use one of these CRTs for your 1280x1024 high resolution PC or workstation.hp. Therefore. So. These are all slot mask type CRTs: • • • 13 inch GE . 16:9 will probably become standard but CRTs may be obsolete by then! (From: Bob Myers (myers@fc.75 mm. SCHDP = . 19 inch Samsung .60 mm.35 mm.4 mm maximum. Of course. The dot/stripe pitch needed for 1280 pixels on a 25" tube would be about . Dot Pitch of TV CRTs Computer monitor specifications always include the dot pitch of the CRT.485 mm. this information is rarely available for TVs.• • The Horizontal Dot Pitch (HDP) is the distance between adjacent columns of same color dots. but the aspect ratio assumed for the original transmission format specs WAS 4:3. CRT Aspect Ratio Nearly all modern CRTs have a 4:3 aspect ratio (H:V).242 mm.9 mm. The distance between adjacent dots of different colors or Closest Dot Spacing (CDS) is equal to: SCHDP * 1/3. 28 mm (I have heard of numbers as low as .. Why? The quick answer is that since TVs are always used at the same scan rate (except for multisystem international TVs). and CDS = . HDP = . Where did you think the shape of the masks came from? The desired 4:3 aspect ratio standard was known right from the start. A landing error of this magnitude (due to improper manufacture.3-. adjustment. This is equal to: SCHDP * 1/2.25 to . In general.

The manufacturers. CRT Contrast Ratio (From: Don Stauffer (stauffer@htc. Years ago when I looked into it. Are the numbers simply marketing hyperbole or have I missed something interesting? . (See Peter Keller's very excellent "The Cathode Ray Tube: Technology. High deflection angles means higher deflection power for a given accelerating (2nd anode) voltage. History. A change in scene can lower contrast ratio of a bar chart that appears in a region that was a large white area. a rapid one followed by a slow one. • • • All other factors being equal. One thing to watch. though. (From: Steve Eckhardt (skeckhardt@mmm. Higher deflection angle CRTs are more difficult to converge and maintain focus. A video monitor looks a lot better in contrast. 60 degrees was considered high tech. with the first American rectangular tube to enter production in late 1949. and uniform brightness across the screen. Reducing geometric errors is more challenging. claim contrast ratios of 100:1 or The phosphor has two decay curves. This is the principle advantage of higher deflection angle CRTs. however. Visually.) Apparently CRTs have made quite an increase lately. folks are claiming well over 40:1. 110 degrees is about the practical limit for TV CRTs now. Give me a 90 degree CRT any Now. In the early days. Monitor tubes are usually 90 degrees.) This comment makes me curious about the claims made by manufacturers of video projectors. a 110 degree tube is shorter than a 90 degree tube. CRTs were not much better than about 20:1. their images have lots of resolution but mediocre contrast at large scale."square peg in a round hole".) CRT Deflection Angle What does this mean? What is the difference between a 110 degree tube and a 90 degree tube? This is the maximum angle the beam makes with respect to the gun axis to fill the screen. Rectangular CRTs for TV use had been developed as early as 1939. Yoke design is also trickier. and Applications" for all the details.

is view angle.) One big problem with LCD displays.There are several methods for arriving at the advertised numbers for contrast. So max contrast may be only over a small field angle. In order to cut off the light completely.  Back to CRT FAQ Table of Contents. Another is to measure the illuminance of a white screen compared to a black screen. Disadvantages: expensive and often ugly. Effects of External Magnetic Fields on CRTs Magnetic Interference and Shielding When color CRTs must be operated in areas where the magnetic field causes unacceptable purity errors or distortion (either static or dynamic depending on whether the source is constant (as with the magnet in an MRI scanner or MegaBase(tm) loudspeaker) or changing (as with nearby motors. games can be played with this in projection optics. or even other monitors). We really do sell projectors that achieve 100:1 contrast when measured by the ANSI standard. there are several options (besides relocating): • Passive shielding . The cost of a complete functional but not aesthetic enclosure for use of a color monitor near an MRI scanner was about . a relatively recent achievement. One is to simply advertise the number for the imager and ignore the degradation due to the rest of the system. (from Nelson and Parker. The best known of these for shielding purposes is called 'Mu-metal'. however. This is. LCD projectors are improving at a rapid rate. CRT projectors are an alternate technology that I know little about. transformers.L. The best way is to use the ANSI method and advertise ANSI contrast. an alloy of 76% nickel. which is the practice at 3M. 17% Mu-metal can be very effective if used properly but see below. 5% copper. (From: Don Stauffer (stauffer@htc. doesn't care if conditions change (within specified field strength limits). and 2% chromium. A. but they have characteristics that allow them to produce very high localized contrast. The LCD works by affecting the rotation. polarization needs to be controlled to a couple of degrees. Advantages: simple (at least in priniple). so many degrees per unit distance through the crystal.Physics). but it is hard.soft magnetic materials (those that are easily magnetized and don't retain their magnetism) can effectively block modest strength magnetic fields. But the total path through the crystal depends on view projection or otherwise. This can make displays and projectors based on CRT's look superior to anything an LCD can produce. Now.

sells Mu-metal foil by the foot but what they have listed is rather thin . It came very well packaged sandwiched between two pieces of wood so that it would not bend during shipment. Meyer (jimbob@acpub. with small holes for the I/O wires.I don't know how well it would work for CRT shielding.a set of coils is energized with exactly the correct currents to cancel the effects of the interfering fields. Disadvantages: shielding location may not be readily accessible. Complex in practice since interfering field geometry is often not well behaved.sam): "Just got my 10' sheet of mu-metal delivered today.demon. Disadvantages: must be engineered for each situation. Geometry offending device may not lend itself to a reasonable size or shape shield. Mu-metal is very expensive and not easy to work but will solder. • Active compensation . (From: Tony Williams (tonyw@ledelec. You never know your luck.000 a couple of years ago when we needed to provide this for one of our customers.) You can buy commercial Mu-metal screening cans and yes they are a complete enclosure. Change almsot anything and it will no longer be effective even if feedback is used. Once you fabricate anything out of the mu-metal. I suggest you try a dummy run first with some mild steel to get the design sorted and to test if it looks worth it. mild steel may do the job anyway and you may not want to deal with mu-metal (--. especially with acid flux. Advantages: can be built inside the monitor using small coils in some cases. Inc. • Shielding can also sometimes be introduced at the source. See the section: Comments on Speaker you have to go through a high temperature annealing process to remove the stress and restore its full magnetic" (From: James P. Advantages: will reduce interference for all monitors in the vicinity. . If you don't do that.$2. you are no better off with Mu-metal than you would be with tin-can stock.) One of the reasons it came so well packaged was the fact that the magnetic properties are degraded if the material is bent or stressed in any way. Less EMF. Check out MuShield specifically under "Monitor Enclosures" if you're curious.

put additional cans over the first. like Russian dolls. they have high permeability. so there would be minimal flux . Some decades ago. Where this is not possible.are near TVs or monitors. they make it bypass the protected items.even those little speakers that came with your PC . Shielding of conventional speakers may also be possible: (From: Lionel Wagner (ck508@freenet. and they guide the magnetism around what they are shielding. I suspect that a second internal magnet was placed between the rear of the main magnet and the rear (bottom) of the can. If more shielding is desired. This will reduce the external field by about 50%.the term 'Tin' is historical. consider the special speakers designed to be used in closer proximity to CRTs. in layers.sam) (From: Nicholas Bodley (nbodley@tiac. something rarely done in a home shop (maybe one or two in the USA). vastly more than air. tradenames are Netic and Co-Netic. I have been around some shielded speakers recently. and seemed to have a larger front polepiece than usual. (Note: a Tin can is actually made nearly entirely of steel . These have (or should have) specially shielded magnet structures or an additional magnet with its field set up to cancel the main magnet's fringe field which will minimize these effects.) While both electrostatic and electromagnetic (E/M) fields can affect the paths of the electron beams in a CRT. The best solution where display problems have been traced to the loudspeakers is to move them further away from the TV or monitor (and then degauss the CRT to remove the residual magnetism). More-recent alloys are much less fussy. but never saw any disassembled. They looked conventional. must have had the "giant thick washer" (my term) magnet.) Put a Tin can over the magnet. --. convergence. or geometry. However.carleton. Restoring it to usefulness required hydrogen annealing. the large powerful loudspeakers used with high performance stereo systems will likely not have such shielding. Speakers designed to be used with PCs in close proximity to their monitor will likely include some internal shielding. a tradenamed alloy called Mu-Metal became famous. there may be problems with the fringe fields of the powerful magnets affecting color Magnetic shields have existed for about a century at least. there was a gap between the front edge of the can and the polepiece. This may even be effective. only E/M fields are likely to be strong enough to be a problem. Magnetic shields don't block lines of They had a shielding can around the magnet.Comments on Speaker Shielding When loudspeakers . but it lost its effectiveness when bent or otherwise stressed.

.not that most users seem to worry about that. The mains varying field is minimized by use of a toroidal mains transformer. And. in general. of course. This is often at the expense of gap field linearity. This is the main reason that TVs and monitors really need to be set up slightly differently depending on location (hemisphere and latitude). Why isn't this the case? Magnetic fields don't really 'pull' on charged particles.horizontal at the equator and becoming progressively angled toward the poles (with opposite polarities . the picture will mostly shift left or right.) The *good* so-called magnetically screened speakers rely on two means of controlling stray flux. Presto: The picture will rotate. the picture will mostly shift up or down. local magnetic conditions also affect this including geologic formations and other equipment and wiring which produce magnetic fields. positive for protons) and field (North or South). If the field is vertical with respect to the screen. Holding pieces of steel close to the gap between the can and the polepiece showed very little flux there. (From: Dave Roberts (dave@aasl.N or S depending on which hemisphere it is in). The actual direction of the Earth's magnetic field experienced by the CRT depends on the latitude and includes both horizontal and vertical components Modern magnets are not easy to demagnetize. which take the problem further away.demon. The magnitude of the effect also depends on the energy/speed of the particles and their the gap between the can and the front polepiece. electrons going toward the right will experience a shift in the opposite direction as those going toward the left (as the beam is deflected). If the field is in the direction of the tube leading to greater distortion . The static field from the magnet on the speaker (which would cause colour purity problems) is minimized by the design of the magnet. The rotation knob or setting ion some TVs and monitors varies the current in a coil wrapped around the CRT bell just beyond the neck which has its axis parallel to the . but the more recent mains powered speakers seem to be coming with *plug top* PSUs. For the case of a CRT: • • • If the field is horizontal with respect to the screen. Why Magnetic Fields May Cause the Picture to Rotate One might think that the result of the Earth's or stray magnetic fields would only be for the picture to shift position slightly. they result in a force at right angles to the field lines with a direction dependent on the charge (negative for electrons.

The DC offset of these fields is relatively small. this doesn't necessarily mean that optimum performance at YOUR location will be obtained with the unit facing east or west. and the orientation of the monitor within those fields. this isn't really something the average user needs to worry about. perpendicular to the center of the screen).com). etc. However. are something else is part of the conditions under which those specifications are to be checked. as local fields can vary considerably from the specified nominal field. The fields generated by the deflection coils. such as those from a nearby power line or electrical equipment. and the monitor is specified as facing east or west within those fields. and so the only advice I can give the individual user is that if you're happy with the performance. While the reasons this is not true should be obvious from other sections of this document.S. This is why. but they're AC fields.) No. Strictly speaking. *AC* fields.CRT's axis and adds a magnetic field to counteract the component of the ambient field along that direction. etc. Monitors are aligned in whatever field the manufacturer (or large OEM customer) SPECIFIES. But the *specific* conditions for a given installation can vary considerably from the nominal. In the detailed specs for any monitor. one has to establish those conditions (and so match the factory adjustment environment) in order to evaluate the monitor for compliance with these specifications. there generally ARE a set of specific ambient conditions under which certain performance specs are intended to be checked. . If you DO think that a local DC field (the Earth's field or any other) is causing a problem. For the vast majority of monitors. as this results in no field component in the CRT's Z-axis (the axis "down the throat" of the CRT.. there ARE often problems when trying to use a "Northern hemisphere" monitor in the Southern hemisphere. THEN try to move or rotate the unit to see if you can find a better orientation or location. The field identified in the specs is just that . Of course. some would still call worrying about such issues as the direction of the monitor nonsense. These usually include the ambient magnetic fields (which also tells you what magnetic environment was used at the factory for adjustment). don't worry about it. This USUALLY involves an east or west alignment. for instance. or Europe (which are very similar). (From: Bob Myers (myers@fc. the specified ambient conditions simulate average magnetic fields in the U. Best Direction to Face a Monitor? One would think that the magnetic field of the earth is inconsequential compared to what is used to drive a CRT. and the Earth's field (also DC) IS sufficient to cause a visible shift in the position of the raster and affect the beam landing. however.hp. it's not nonsense.. ARE much greater in magnitude than the Earth's field. Having said that.

Might be expensive and certainly would provide a 'different' look! Replace the picture tube with a northern hemishpere put two big multi-turn wire loops (Helmholtz coils) above and below the TV and run a DC current through them. you might have some problems with: o The mounting nuts for the tube are hard to reach and may have left thread (look carefully before turning! . Simulate a southern hemisphere location by creating a vertical magnetic field around the This is too expensive for us mortals.) They use magnetic field compensation for the professional types. This is a big job and success would not be guaranteed. after degaussing. LCDs for instance are not sensitive to the earth magnetic field. For this case. etcetera. Mount the picture tube upside-down inside the TV cabinet. Additional Comments/Summary on Northern/Southern Hemisphere Issues (From: Jeroen Stessen (Jeroen. so we get a CRT that has been optimized for one field condition only: North. You see. especially for the space between shadow mask and screen. The magnetic shielding of a CRT will. particularly between hemispheres a vertical magnetic field will influence the color purity of a CRT. plenty of ways out for aircraft. Where you have a TV or monitor that was manufactured for a different location. not provide complete compensation for the vertical field.Stessen@philips. southern and neutral.Ways Around North/South or Other Sensitivity to Magnetic Fields? (From: Jeroen Stessen (Jeroen. this is very expensive. adding more magnets. Then reverse the wires for the line (H) and field (V) deflection to put the picture correct side up again.Stessen@philips. your options (apart from tossing it) are: • • • • Re-adjust the purity. and the Space Shuttle. That too would not be affected too much by the earth magnetic field. They do this by adjusting for optimum purity in a simulated magnetic field.) • • • The vertical component of the earth magnetic field varies as a function of latitude. And not all CRTs use a shadow mask for colour selection. ships. For instance. this involves moving the deflection coil. in Tektronix colour oscilloscope they use a white CRT with a colour LCD shutter in front of it. South or Neutral. Not all displays are CRTs. adjustment magnets. That's why manufacturers produce different displays for different hemispheres: northern.

This takes care of problems due to the horizontal component of the earth agnetic field. A front projector has its tubes mounted horizontally. The rotation error will depend on the direction the set is facing. of course. Purity errors are of course no issue with 3 separate CRTs.but how would THAT happen? :-) "Any truth to the rumor that how you position a projection TV in a room (N. Orientation Considerations for Projection TVs Projection TVs do have have CRTs with shadow masks or aperture grills but nonetheless can be affected by magnetic fields. . so that takes care of any convergence errors. It makes a biiiig difference though if you manufacture PTVs in Belgium and then export them to Australia...W) can affect the image quality? Does the Earth's magnetic field truly have that much of an effect.) Rear projectors are converged in the factory. The vertical component of the earth magnetic field causes a rotation error. Front projectors are expensive and critical enough that they will be converged after installation. Normally this is not an issue because that component does not depend on the orientation of the set and it is more or less constant over the entire continent. This is easily adjusted through the convergence. it is true. so the back cover could fit tighter. So they mounted the tube upside-down. That means opening the cabinet and re-adjusting for rotation. Bang & Olufsen once made a compact style television where they wanted the anode contact to be away from the top of the cabinet.o o o The wires to the inverted picture tube panel being too short. The distance between high-voltage anode connection and the chassis (circuits) being too short (safety!) Condensation dripping into the anode contact. It makes a difference whether you talk about a front or rear projector.. it is possible that degaussing could even be needed if a strong magnet were somehow placed near the set ." (From: Jeroen Stessen (Jeroen. In a rear projector the CRTs are mounted almost vertically.S. That works.Stessen@philips. Consequently they had to order southern hemisphere tubes for a northern hemisphere TV set. they can probably be easily extended. In fact..E. the customer does only the static convergence (4 pots) after he has decided which direction the set will face.

This causes thermal expansion.hp.) It is extremely difficult for any CRT display to maintain perfect brightness and color uniformity across the entire image.Stessen@philips. fewer electrons make it to phosphor dots near the edge of the screen. Again. and Doming "The problem with my TV is that bright parts of the picture change color. Set Orientation. Typical brightness-uniformity specs are that the brightness won't drop to less than 70% or so of the center value (usually the brightest spot on the screen). (From: Bob Myers (myers@fc. it heats up several hundred degrees. and there can also be variations in the phosphor screen. white areas may shift towards yellow or blue depending on the orientation of the set. Due to the inherent principle of shadow masks. *some* variation is normal. In most cases you do not notice it. Just the geometry of the thing . the changing spot size and shape. Where static bright objects are displayed. With large deflection angle tubes. 2/3 or more of all beam energy is dissipated in the mask.the change distance from the gun to the screen as the beam is scanned.) The problem with regular shadow masks is 'doming'.com). Does this help identify the cause of the doming in my case?" (Portions from: Jeroen Stessen (Jeroen. if you think you're seeing too much. What appear to be "dark spots" on a solid gray image may actually be beam mislanding (color purity) problems. you can try degaussing the thing and seeing if that helps. with local warping of the mask.possibly as much as 2:1 from the center to the corners. which may to some degree be remedied by degaussing the monitor. If it doesn't. and that is something you'll have to discuss with the manufacturer or distributor. What are the possible causes of doming? I have noticed that the magnitude of the doming effect varies with TV orientation even after degaussing several times at the new orientation. Back to CRT FAQ Table of Contents. the lack of perfect brightness uniformity is aggravated by the lack of perfect *color* uniformity and purity. On color tubes. It is simple geometry. makes this nearly impossible. etc. the intensity variation is likely to be even worse than you might think . the thickness of the faceplate. For example. The holes in the mask move to a different .com).. Comments On Color Purity. etc. Picture Quality and Appearance Issues Why Does the Intensity Appear So Non-Uniform in Bright Areas? Actually. then the question is whether or not the product meets its published specs.

Stessen@philips. In fact. 4. large area colours will be less than perfect. Difference in Color Rendition Between CRTs (From: Jeroen H. The use of invar allows about 3 times more beam current for the same purity errors. Triple-CRT projection TVs do not have this problem.) Also see the section: What is Doming?. Even with good phosphors. 2. This shifts the colour point. Colour filters. in consumer products the composition had to be changed.) There can be several reasons why primary colours (especially red) may look different between picture tube brands: 1. a quite high percentage is scattered back into the empty space between gun and mask. particularly cadmium. Different phosphor composition. In the beginning everybody was looking for the phosphors with the highest luminous efficiency.Moire . Permanently setting the contrast lower is not a real cure because the customer might not like such a dark picture. the doming problem may be more visible. Red turns a bit towards orange. Contour Lines on High Resolution Monitors . This increases the black level and reduces saturation of the primary colours. like wrong matrix from YUV to RGB. Toshiba has developed a process where they put individual colour filters between glass and phosphor. And applying a tube designed for the wrong hemisphere may very well increase the doming complaints. A better picture tube (Invar shadow mask) *is* a good cure (in most cases) but there is the cost price and the projections of the electron beams will land on the wrong colours: purity errors. Nowadays with the trend to avoid heavy metals. You would do this using spoiler magnets put in the right places. Both local doming and magnetic fields compete for the remaining landing reserve. Due to improper degaussing. If they bounce back again from internal metal parts. This makes the black much better and also improves the colour points when unwanted spectral lines are suppressed. (This is mainly due to the fact that Invar metal is harder to etch. fantastic red! 3. Back It is possible to deliberately offset the nominal landing in order to get more doming reserve (the shift due to doming is always to the outside of the tube). The definition in the Japanese NTSC system differs from the USA NTSC system and the signal processing should take that into account. then they may find their way to the screen and activate an arbitrary phosphor element. Not all electrons that hit the shadow mask are absorbed. There can also be differences with respect to the NTSC system. Stessen (Jeroen.

You can try changing size and resolution . If they are more or less fixed on the screen and stable.) One cause of these lines is moire (interference patterns) between the raster and the dot structure of the CRT.when in many cases this is an indication of most excellent focus something many people strive for! You can always get rid of it . (However. you should see the pattern change in location and spatial frequency as slight changes are made to size. or mode.the patterns will remain fixed under the changing image.the patterns will remain essentially fixed in position on the face of the CRT for horizontal size and position adjustments . Ironically. then there may be no easy answer. contour lines.moire is a function of geometry. I think it is ironic that some people will end up returning otherwise superb monitors because of moire .hp. I have a monitor which is nicer in this respect at 1024x768 interlaced than at 800x600 non-interlaced. or light and dark bands even in areas of constant brightness. (Bob Myers). Some monitors have a 'Moire Reduction Mode' switch.the converse is not necessarily true! Moire and Shadow Mask Dot Pitch (From: myers@fc. This is unlikely to occur in all colors with a VGA display since the termination is internal to the monitor and individual resistors are used for each color (RGB). then there could be a problem with the video board. Another cause of similar problems is bad video cable termination creating reflections and ghosting which under certain conditions can be so severe as to mimic Moire effects. If they are due to the raster line structure . If it is moire.) . which do not have a vertical dot structure should be immune to interference of this sort from the raster lines (but not from the horizontal pixel structure). This may or may not be of help. it will either be a problem or not.) These may be almost as fine as the dot pitch on the CRT or 1 or 2 cm or larger and changing across the screen. For a given resolution and size. if the patterns are locked to the image. Ironically. the better the focus on the tube. You can test for moire by slowly adjusting the vertical size. (Some people may refer to this phenomenon as "focus or Newton's rings". the worse this is likely to be. control. How to eliminate it? If moire is your problem. One way to do this is . Changes to vertical position will move the patterns without altering their structure .These fall into the category of wavey lines.your focus is too good .you guessed it .but they will not remain locked to the moving image.reduce the sharpness of the beam spot and make the picture fuzzier! You might find the cure worse than the disease. then they are not likely to be outside interference or internal power supply problems.

Is there any chance that someone waved a magnet hear the tube? Remove it and/or move any items like monster speakers away from the set. there is no need to have the logical pixels in the image line up with the physical holes in the mask (nor is there any mechanism to make this happen).the effective pixel size is somewhat UNDER the dot pitch. Lower resolutions work just fine. This should activate the internal degausser. As the effective size of the pixels in the image approach the spacing of the mask holes. Actually.or Worse Have you tried demagnetizing it? Try powering it off for a half hour. You can easily distinguish between video problems and CRT problems .bad pixels in the video card's frame buffer or bad spots on a camcorder's CCD. Was your kid experimenting with nuclear explosives . for example. Repeat a couple of times. but an image will still be displayed which ON AVERAGE (over a reasonably large area) looks EMP would magnetize the CRT. If demagnetizing does not help. There is a specification for the number and size of acceptable CRT blemishes so you may have to whine a bit to convince the vendor to provide a replacement monitor under warranty.The density of the holes in the shadow mask set an upper limit on the resolution supported by that monitor. Isolated Spots on Display These could be a problem with the video source . they could be dirt or dead phosphor areas in the CRT. then on. then it is possible that something shifted on the CRT there are a variety of little magnets that are stuck on at the time of manufacture to adjust purity. Or. Purple Blob . it is unlikely that the monitor's circuitry would be generating isolated spots. the specified "top end" format ("resolution") for most monitors usually is at or slightly beyond this point . This may be a task for a service shop but you can try . Except for problems with the on-screen character generator. See the section: Degaussing (Demagnetizing) a CRT. There are also service adjustments but it is unlikely (though not impossible) that these would have shifted suddenly. and so you can think of this as the "larger pixels" of the lower-res image simply covering more than one hole or slot in the mask.missing pixels due to the video source will move on the screen as you change raster position. CRT defects will remain stationary relative to the screen and will generally be much more sharply delineated as well. individual pixels are no longer guaranteed to cover enough phosphor dots on the screen to ensure that they are constant color or constant luminance. Nearby lightning strikes may have a similar effect.

it might always have been marginal and now a discoloration is visible due to slight changes or movement of components over time.If Duct Tape Works. very significant geometric distortion of the picture will occur . Use It!. It is even possible that this is a 'feature' complements of the will be near some pretty nasty voltages! . And. Magnet Fix for Purity Problems . then the internal shadow mask of the CRT may have become distorted or popped loose and you now have a hundred pound paper weight. In any case. WARNING: Don't get carried away while positioning the magnets . the magnets may be quick and easy. they could have an effect on purity. Depending on the severity of the purity problem. some carefully placed 'refrigerator' magnets around the periphery of the tube might help. If the monitor or TV was dropped. These will be made of ferrite material (without any steel) and will be disks or will make the problems worse. The type of magnets you want are sold as 'refrigerator magnets' and the like for sticking up notes on steel surfaces.if not perfect. The addition of some moderate strength magnets carefully placed to reduce or eliminate purity problems due to a distorted or dislocated shadow mask may be enough to make the TV usable . you may need quite a few magnets! However. However. If certain components like transformers and loudspeakers are of inferior design and/or are located too close to the CRT. performing the standard purity adjustments would be the preferred solution. On the other hand. Even if you did not notice the problem when the set was new. don't get carried away and use BIG speaker or magnetron magnets . Experiment with placement using masking tape to hold them in place temporarily. Use It! The approach below will work for slight discoloration that cannot be eliminated through degaussing.If Duct Tape Works.don't attempt purity adjustments without one. where CRT has suffered internal distortion or dislocation of the shadow mask. make the 'repair' permanent using duct tape or silicone sealer or other household adhesive. Also note that unless the magnets are placed near the front of the CRT. first. adjustments may not be enough. See the section: Magnet Fix for Purity Problems . Then. Degauss periodically to evaluate the status of your efforts.which may be a cure worse than the disease.your hand at it if you get the Sams' Photofact or service manual . If the discoloration is slight. relocate those megablaster loudspeakers and that MRI scanner with the superconducting magnets.

28 mm dot pitch (See the section: How to Compute Effective Dot Pitch. but unless there is a user tilt adjustment. the more susceptible it will be to thermal expansion effects: With individual phosphor dots spaced as as little as .) 13 mm apart (for a . This causes a shift in position of the finely spaced holes or slots in the mask. Probably you would notice it you turned the TV 180 degrees on its axis that the tilt would then be going the other was. 1 degree. For a . Factory standard is to have the picture straight when the back of the TV set is facing magnetic north.) I ended up with the old 'stuck on a desert island trick': I duck taped 2 Radio Shack magnets on the case. The result will be color purity problems . Even a shielded speaker may have just enough magnetic field to cause some slight tilt. A 1 degree tilt given the effect of the earth's magnetic field is well within tolerance for a 27" TV set. you may not like it. My friend is happy as heck. Caldwell (jcaldwel@iquest.!!!! A $2 solution to a $200 problem. How Much Tilt is Acceptable? This was in reply to a concern that a 1 degree tilt on a 27" TV was a problem.) As a result. in such a way as to pull the beam back. is anything but a serious problem. they are shaped like chevrons and you stick them in the 'right' spot on the rear of the CRT. What is Doming? The shadow or slot mask inside the CRT is a thin sheet of steel or InVar positioned a half an inch or so behind the phosphor screen. The actual measured tilt we have seen is as much as 3 degrees on a 36" tv set. it doesn't take much inaccuracy in their position to result in a noticeable effect. the laws of physics prevail! (From: David Kuhajda (dkuhajda@mail.22 mm dot pitch CRT).snads. The flatter the screen. however. a change of only . Doming is a deformation of the shadow mask or its support structure caused by heating and subsequent expansion in bright (high beam current) areas of the picture. The larger the picture tube.14 mm in the position .philips. This is why the higher-end larger TV sets have an adjustment for picture tilt.discoloration and brightness variations.locl. the more the tilt effect of the earth's magnetic field is noticeable. (Portions from: Jac Jamar (jamar@comp. RCA sells magnets to correct corner convergence.(From: Mr. high resolution CRTs tend to be more susceptible to doming problems.

If discolouration complaints arise. However. shifts in the position of purity adjustments can results in increased sensitivity to slight doming. The ambient magnetic fields are shielded by means of iron components inside (or sometimes outside) the tube. 6. It is a characteristic of the CRT assembly. However. 2. but to changes in shielding against magnetic fields.of a hole or slot can totally shift the display from one of the primary colors to another. for effects having to do with expeansion of the suspension or support structure. Only when the sum of these influences exceeds the 'guardband' provided in the CRT design. 5. InVar shadow masks can sustain a significantly higher current density than steel shadow masks (by as much as 3:1) without noticeable problems. it may take up to 30 minutes to reach equilibrium. Shadow mask doming. A discolouration complaint will thus often be due to insufficient degaussing. Trinitrons are more resistant to local doming effects as long as the wires are under enough tension. The mislanding is in general caused by: • • • • Influences of ambient magnetic fields (such as the earth magnetic field). For local heating resulting from picture highlights. Reducing the brightness/contrast or setting the brightness limiter will prevent doming but may result in an unacceptably dark picture. rings on CRT neck. etc. The orientation of the TV or monitor with respect to the earth's magnetic field and even whether the CRT was set up for the Northern or Southern hemispheres may affect the resulting color shift. Shadow mask doming in itself is not something that becomes defective and has to be repaired. . expansion of the suspension components can still result in doming with an overall bright picture. 3. The onset and disappearance of color purity problems will generally lag the cause due to the thermal mass of the affected components. Less than optimal setup of the purity adjustments (yoke position. 4. this will normally not be due to changes in doming behaviour. this will be only a few seconds since the thermal mass of a small area of the mask is not that great. Purity problems resulting in discolouration and/or brightness variations are due to mislanding of the microscopic electron beams (the electron beams after the mask) on the red/green/blue phosphor stripes or dots. which have to be 'degaussed' to give good shielding. For this in a set degaussing coils and circuits are provided. However. Tolerances occurring in the production of CRTs. Thus. the picture may tend toward yellow while the monitor is facing one way and blue when rotated 180 degrees on its base (even if degaussed at each position). discolouration (or brightness variations) becomes visible.

TV sets and monitors which are kept in 'stand-by' mode for a long time may never be degaussed adequately because the degaussing circuit may only operate for a short time after the unit is switched on from cold - whether this is so with your unit depends on the design). In this case, they can pick up magnetic fields from magnets moved nearby or other equipment. The solution in this case is to switch the TV or monitor completely off or pull the plug if in doubt, let it cool down for half an hour or longer and switch it on again. If necessary this procedure can be repeated a few times (I had to do this at home once when my children had been playing with magnets). For monitors with degauss buttons, you can usually hear a hum when the degauss is activated.

Similarly, if the orientation of a unit with respect to the earth's magnetic field is changed, it requires degaussing. So if you put your TV in another corner of the room or rotate your computer monitor on its tilt-swivel base, you have to activate its degauss circuitry (by letting it cool down or in the case of a high-end monitor, using its degauss button) or degauss it manually (see the section: Degaussing (Demagnetizing) a CRT). The PTC resistor (thermistor or posistor) in the degaussing circuit can become defective. This prevents proper degaussing after switch-on.

Since lower resolution CRTs are used for most TVs compared to similar size computer monitors, doming would not be nearly as much of a problem if they were both run at similar brightness (energy density) levels. However, TVs are very often used at higher brightness levels resulting in more of a thermal load on the mask which offsets the lower resolution.

Afterglow - Phantom Patterns on CRT After Shutoff
Why is there a splotch of colored light at the center of the CRT after I kill power to my TV? Why does this not happen if the plug is pulled instead? It seems to last for hours (well maybe minutes at least). (Portions of the following from a video engineer at Philips.) A broad diffused glow (not a distinct spot in the middle of the screen) that lasts for a few seconds to minutes is called 'afterglow' and may be considered 'normal' for your model. The warm CRT cathodes continue to emit electrons due to the high voltage that is still present even though the signal circuits may have ceased to operate. For more sharply defined spots there are two phenomena: 1. Thermal emission from a cathode that has not yet cooled off (and this could take several minutes) gives a more or less circular spot near the centre. It is actually 3 spots from the 3 cathodes, we at Philips call them 'Christmas balls'.

2. Field emission from sharp whiskers on any electron gun part gives a much sharper spot, sometimes with a moon-shaped halo around it. Even with the filament off, there may be some electron emission from these sharp points on the cold cathode(s) due to the strong high voltage (HV) electric fields in the electron gun. I do not know how likely this is or why this is so. The shape of the spot is an inverted image of the shape of the emitting area(s) on the electron guns cathodes. The visibility of both effects depends in the same way on the decay time of the high voltage (HV/EHT) on the anode. When turned off with the remote or front panel button, you are not actually killing AC power but are probably switching off the deflection and signal circuits. This leaves the HV to decay over a few minutes or longer as it is drained by the current needed to feed the phantom spot or blob. When you pull the plug, however, you are killing AC input and all the voltages decay together and in particular, the video signal may be present for long enough to keep the brightness (and beam current) up and drain the HV quickly. Whether this actually happens depends on many factors - often not dealt with by the designers of the set. A proper design (who knows, yours may simply have been broken from day 1 or simply be typical of your model) would ensure that the HV is drained quickly or that the other bias voltages on the CRT are clamped to values that would blank the CRT once the set is off. If the problem developed suddenly, then this circuitry may have failed. On the other hand, if it has been gradually getting more pronounced, then the characteristics of the CRT or other circuitry may have changed with age. In most sets it is left to chance whether the picture tube capacitance will be discharged by beam current at switch-off. It may simply be due to the behaviour of the video control IC when its supply voltage drops that causes the cathodes to be driven to white and this may not be formally specified by the manufacturer of the IC. Some of of the latest sets have an explicit circuit to discharge the EHT at shutdown. As noted in the section: "Safety guidelines" the HV charge on the CRT capacitance can be present for a long time. A service technician should be very aware of that before touching HV parts! Interestingly, most sets for the Asian Pacific market have a bleeder resistor built in that will discharge the EHT without the need for a white flash at switch-off. These will in fact drive the beam to black at switch-off via a negative voltage to the CRT G1 electrode. The AP market is very sensitive to proper set behaviour, they don't like a white flash. In short, it all depends on the demands of the particular market, the chance of the picture tube producing a spot/blob, and the mood of the designer.

So, it may not be worth doing anything to 'fix' this unless the splotch is so bright (more so than normal video and for an extended time) that CRT phosphor damage could result. This is usually not a problem with direct view TVs but would definitely be a concern with high intensity projection tubes. On the other hand, your phantom blob may provide for some interesting conversation at your next party!

Discussion on the causes of color flare
On the right side of high intensity colors, some CRTs will exhibit a flare - the color will appear to be stuck at its highest level. This often occurs with older CRTs even at modest drive but can usually be forced to happen with any CRT if the drive level is turned up very high. (From: Andy Cuffe ( I think it's due to the electron gun clipping when it's overdriven. Even a new CRT will bleed if it's driven hard enough, but most TVs are designed so you can't turn up the contrast that much. Once the CRT goes into clipping, it must take a short time to start working normally again after the drive level falls below clipping. The same thing happens when certain problems develop in the video amp. All CRTs do it when they get weak enough. Samsung seem to be worse than most. In general, all CRT manufacturers have been cutting costs. A larger percentage or 8 year old or newer TVs that I see have bad CRTs than ones that are more than about 16 years old. I just picked up a heavily used 1982 Zenith from the side of the road and it has a better looking CRT than most new TVs. (From: Michael Shell ( I suspect that you may be right. I used to work a lot on older tube color televisions and I don't recall the bleeding problem. The first time I remember seeing it was on a 1978 Sampo. I have seen it EVERYWHERE since then. Has anybody seen the problem on a, say 1970, tube type set with good video drivers and correct CRT voltages (so you know it to be the CRT). (From: Andy.) My theory is that a weak CRT (or a good one with reduced G2) represents a higher impedance load to the video output transistor. The biasing of the video outputs would have to be designed for the load created by a good CRT. When the output load impedance goes high enough, the voltage can go high enough to saturate the transistor (the CRT isn't pulling enough current to keep the C-E voltage from going close to 0).

I was around before ICs. It seems that if there is a path for current feedback. (From: JURB6006 (jurb6006@aol. which could be designated as "voltage drive sets" either have such solid drive to the emitters that CRT load doesn't affect it or they just drive the base(s) of the outputs. Engineering-wise. and on a single ended stage. Consider what happens when a transistor is overdriven. and have reached the following conclusion (this completely excludes sets with AKB): It depends on how the video output transistors are driven. This delay will result in the transistor taking a longer than normal time to switch off. (From: Michael. this is only one. There are other theories. There are so many excess carriers in the device that it takes a long time for recombination to occur.) I think we may have a winner. as most are and were.tubes. A scope on the cathode should be able to confirm it. As noted above. It followed the set. I do understand circuit design.) OK. Other sets. lowering the G2 seems to mimic a weak CRT. feedback loops. not the CRT. Only in some ways it does. This is the worst in sets that drive the emitters of the outputs. I speak of this because the flaring effect was almost always noticed on some chassis. that's one of most technical questions I've heard in a while. this is not the case. back when all the CRTs were interchangeable. the set will flare. While on the surface. and others seem to have an unusual propensity to "bleed" (we call it flaring at my shop).) Hmm. or . I think it basically boils down to the output impedance of the video output stage. First of all. Some sets have an unusual resistance. (From: Michael. often bad video driver circuitry/designs can cause bleeding (flaring) too. this impedance is different for negative and positive going slopes in the waveform. being like FETs (in that they are majority carrier devices) which are used in high speed digital circuits because don't have any delay in getting out of saturation. realize that most sets do this with a lowered G2 voltage. and have had an opportunity to study the design of the video output circuit(s) of TVs without ICs. These cases could be caused by overdriven transistors (see above). I agree with what you are getting at here.

(It is only like a nanosecond from the gun to the (From: JURB6006. Actually on what I call "voltage driven" units. the voltages on the CRT grid/cathodes are such (or should be) that the red gun should be shut off. the phosphors in the bleed DO see electrons exciting them! So. it seems like the clipping is omnidirectional. or the G2 voltage is too low. On the sets that flare profusely. but my real fascination is when the CRT is the trouble maker. It's like the beam gets cutoff then saturates repeatedly very fast at a video rate. but let's say on an older Sony. Yet when this happens. a CRT is a pure majority carrier device . the purity is not extremely affected. I am interested in this as well. Also the electrostatic voltages which set the convergence get all thrown out of whack when this happens. you CAN see some type of clipping when either the CRT is weak or the G2 is low.) If the CRT cathode is weak. Instinctively. This last is why a CRT with weak emission will also show poor purity. The thing I really despise is that it seems to happen on CRTs that still have perfectly acceptable brightness. (I am not suggesting it would be worth it though). and a loss of tracking. we FEEL we know what is going on. But think about it.some type of ringing effect. is it possible that the designers stumbled on a rudimentary form of AKB? (From: Asimov (warpcastgate@dynip.) It's analogous to how speakers and amps distort when the clip. The instant the electron beam leaves the holes. Unfortunately there is no way to tell on a normal scope whether the effect is being driven to the CRT or if the effect is IN the CRT. what is happening here? Did charge somehow build up somewhere in the tube? OR has the tube changed properties in such a way to cause trouble for the video output stages in a manner which would cause problems like Jurb6006 suggested? In the later case. then I would expect the beam to cutoff even faster! Yet. . it is usually due to a low collector Supply voltage to the vid outs. just electrons flying around in there. we will see bleeding to the right of the square. When the clipping occurs in the CRT it's bandwidth falls to zero and you see then a type of ringing or smear. bad convergence. Unlike a semiconductor. yet the CRT isn't weak.) When they flare. it should be possible to design or modify the output stages to be resistant or immune to this problem. We turn up the saturation/contrast (and have a weak CRT). What bothers me is this: Say we have a test pattern consisting of a solid red square in the middle of an otherwise black screen.

which only emits at high drive levels. The front of the cathode starts to wear out.using a transistor that comes out of saturation faster. regardless of how Mr. The phosphor of old CRTs become "flaky". I had thought of an alternative . I can't remember why the video drive is applied to the cathodes rather than the grids. These delayed electrons form the flare. causes the electrons that pass through it to have a reduced velocity . So. This radiation makes other adjacent phosphors super . From the point of view of the grid.(From: Andy. Purity is not affected due to "circular symmetry". but I know there was/is a good reason. Under high drive levels. I feel we can do this. A crust forms on the cathode. If I have any luck. I think we want to use BJTs. it is a voltage controlled device. Then why haven't the OEMs? I thought up some humorous explanations for flaring during the course of this discussion. but we need total control over Ik. but the result is a corkscrew spiral path to the screen whose total linear length is on the order of a 1000 feet. barring a radical change. The G2 voltage then pulls them around. such as CRT grid drive. So. we lose detail in saturation and thus would still not like the resulting picture. 4. 2. electrons are emitted from the BACK of the cathode. Another simple solution would be to "tweak a few V's". the trapped electrons continue to leak to the surface resulting in a flare. When hit by electrons. CRT feels. Could it be possible that energy conservation mandates from the government resulted in flaring? If so.) I wonder if it would be possible to modify the video output circuit to eliminate the bleeding in a TV with a weak CRT that's not too far gone to be usable? (From: Michael. like a MOSFET. the CRT is a current controlled device like a BJT. Instinctively. 3. but as you mentioned before. A crust spot on the cathode. From the point of view of the cathode. In order to do this. This is going to result in more heat. Even when the video drive cuts off current to the cathode. I will post the results. the same thing that causes my CRTs to flare also causes my toilet and shower to lose power. Maybe somebody will get a laugh: 1. voltages are gonna have to climb to keep that transistor out of saturation. and have a fairly large Vce . Under high drive levels. ionic radiation is emitted radially a factor of a 10000. This is known as the "cathode becomes a capacitor" theory. we would drive the CRT cathode with the NPN BJT collector.which implies a bigger transistor with more heat sinking.) I plan to try this in the next month or so. electrons are trapped within the layers of this crust. Hence the delay.

and monitors and TVs that are microprocessor controlled may degauss automatically upon power-on (but may require pulling the plug to do a hard reset) regardless of the amount of off time. kid's magnet or megawatt stereo speakers). it can also cure one of "color vision" allowing the use of much more inexpensive B/W sets. However. Buying a new TV raises endorphens in the human brain. On rare occasions.g. The CRT restorer should be applied to the USER not the TV. In skillful hands. The CRT can get magnetized: • • • • if the TV or monitor is moved or even just rotated.) . first try the internal degauss circuits of the TV or monitor by power cycling a few times (on for a minute. And finally: 5. A friend of mine had a lightning strike near his house which produced all of the effects of the EMP from a nuclear bomb. then you can try manually degaussing. if there has been a lightning strike nearby. on for a minute. Note: Some monitors have a degauss button. Hence.. repeated use of these 'features' in rapid succession may result in overheating of the degauss coil or other components. As noted below.  Back to CRT FAQ Table of Contents. If some piece of electrical or electronic equipment with unshielded magnetic fields is in the vicinity of the TV or monitor. The 20 minutes off/1 minute on precedure is guaranteed to be safe.sensitive to future electron exposure. etc. we are able to see a nearly zero electron beam which results in the flare. (Some others may degauss upon power-on as long as the previous degauss was not done within some predetermined amount of time . It's all in your head. there may be geometric distortion caused by magnetic fields as well without color problems. Degaussing should be the first thing attempted whenever color purity problems are detected. If a permanent magnet was brought near the screen (e. fixing the problem for a couple years.) If this does not help or does not completely cure the problem. feature rich TVs have the problem less often.they keep track with an internal timer. Magnetic Fields and Degaussing Degaussing (Demagnetizing) a CRT Degaussing may be required if there are color purity problems with the display. off for at least 20 minutes. This also explains why more expensive.

Bulk tape erasers. They include a line cord and momentary switch. (Don't use a 20 pound speaker or magnetron magnet as you may rip the shadow mask right out of the CRT . Next. However. slowly decrease the field to zero by backing straight up across the room as you hold the coil. Then return to the original position of the coil being flat against the center of the screen. below. The kids will love the color effects. What I have in mind is something about as powerful as a refrigerator magnet. this may be enough to also degauss the broken one. This can demagnetize the relatively weak purity and convergence magnets which may turn a simple repair into a feature length extravaganza! It looks really cool to do this while the CRT is powered. You flip on the switch. if the display is unusable as is. purity. and bring the coil to within several inches of the screen face.well at least distort it beyond repair. and static converence magnets in the process! However. open frame transformers. I have even done degaussed with a permanent magnet but this is not recommended since it is more likely to make the problem worse than better. WARNING: Don't attempt to degauss inside or in the back of the set (near the CRT neck. The key word here is ** slow **. and the "butt-end" of a weller soldering gun can be used as CRT demagnetizers but it just takes a little longer. If an AC degaussing coil or substitute is unavailable. tape head degaussers. Then you slowly draw the center of the coil toward one edge of the screen and trace the perimeter of the screen face. Go too fast and you will freeze the instantaneous intensity of the 50/60 Hz AC magnetic field variation into the ferrous components of the CRT and may make the problem worse. Another alternative which has been known to work is to place another similar size monitor face-to-face with the suspect monitor (take care not to bump or scratch the screens!) and activate degauss function on the working monitor. For the Weller. so that you can see where there are still impurities. :-) .it is possible to demagnetize geometry correction. (Be careful not to scratch the screen face with anything sharp.) It is imperative to have the CRT running when using these whimpier approaches. I've never known of anything being damaged by excess manual degaussing as long as you don't attempt to degauss *inside* or the back of the TV or monitor . the tip needs to be in place to get enough magnetic field. I would recommend keeping really powerful bulk tape erasers-turneddegaussers a couple of inches from the CRT. When you are farther than 5 feet away you can release the line switch. then using a small magnet can do no harm. Never release the power switch until you're 4 or 5 feet away from the screen or you'll have to start over.Commercial CRT Degaussers are available from parts distributors like MCM Electronics and consist of a hundred or so turns of magnet wire in a 6-12 inch coil. While not ideal.) Also see the juggler's technique.

If you try the 'technique' below.. Of the devices mentioned above. Boy. It takes about 15 minutes of the power being off for each cool down cycle.'wanna see something really cool?'.my sharp 19" color TV. Dnough with this kid stuff .net).and then only when at extremely close range (direct contact with media container). etc.. I offered to buy him lunch for the favor. "Wow. steel... the paper clip boat.) I replaced the magnetron in my microwave and ripped apart the old one with my kids to 'see how it works'.Keep degaussing fields away from magnetic media. Now I'm getting worried! I used to do computer support at a television station so I called an old engineer friend there for help. These are activated each time the CRT is powered up cold by a 3 terminal thermister device or other control circuitry. When removing media from a room remember to check desk drawers and manuals for stray floppies. Having been around monitors for a long time in the computer business. degausser = alternating magnetic field. or other ferrous parts with enough residual magnetism to cause a noticeable problem. tied a .push me pull you. It isn't a matter of time.. These built-in coils with thermal control are never as effective as external coils. While this isn't likely from normal use or even after being moved or reoriented. there are some mother magnets in there! The kids and I had fun with them. Note that while the monochrome CRTs used in B/W and projection TVs and mono monitors don't have anything inside to get magnetized. too. i showed them what what a REALLY powerful magnet will do to an electron beam in a cathode ray tube . You know . maybe it will be allright by tomorrow. Well it wasn't. Hmmmm. It is unlikely that you could actually affect magnetic media but better safe than sorry. was I DAD or what? The problem was that my experience with magnets and monitors were in the monochrome days! so the price I paid for such esteem in the eyes of my children were purple faces and green legs on my sharp 19" color TV! Uh-oh! well. make sure you don't smash the TV or your spouse! (From: Mike Champion (mchampfl@gdi. This was Friday and because of my friend's diagnosis T was able to relax about the problem enough to think about it. says I.. the chassis or other cabinet parts of the equipment may still need degaussing. It is a good idea to avoid degaussing in a room with floppies or back-up tapes. only a bulk eraser or strong permanent magnet are likely to have any effect . which Easter egg has the metal and which has the wood. Alternating. dad!". He just hee-hawed! As he was drying his eyes. All color CRTs include a built-in degaussing coil wrapped around the perimeter of the CRT face. he suggested that I had probably just magnetized the mask and he'd loan me a degausser. This is why it is often suggested that color purity problems may go away "in a few days". a powerful magnet (like that from a large speaker) could leave iron. Strong magnetron magnet. it's the number of cold power ups that causes it. "psychodelic!" "it looks like all the colors are flushing down the toilet!" Boy. So I got this great idea! I took the ring magnet I used to mess it up.

and in better monitors.which is usually grossly undersized for continuous operation . Or. You need AC current to degauss. Whether this is by design or accident. some computer (and other) CRT monitors provide a degauss button or menu option. most likely as a result of overstressing components in the degauss circuitry which are designed (cheaply) for only infrequent use. There are time delay elements involved which prevent multiple degauss operations in succession. put it in series with a light bulb (60 to 100 W. One word of clarification: In order for the degauss operation to be effective. . Otherwise it is unnecessary. In particular. so just put the bulb in series with the coil and use the your local 120 VAC outlet. The circuit to accomplish this often involves a thermister to gradually decrease the current (over a matter of several seconds). usually wrapped in black tap or plastic) mounted around the front of the tube. the AC current in the coil must approach zero before the circuit cuts out. a relay to totally cut off the current after a certain delay.degauss is automatic when the TV is turned on. If one or two activations of the degauss button do not clear up the color problems. you may have just installed your megawatt stereo speakers next to the monitor! You should only need to degauss if you see color purity problems on your CRT. suspended it on the string and spun it as fast as i could. Some monitor manufacturers specifically warn about excessive use of degauss. maybe as high as 200 W but keep a finger on the temperature of the coil!). To limit the current to something reasonable. you would likely be left with a more magnetized CRT.string to it. that thermister is still hot and so little happens. maybe 4"-6". there is often a thermister that dissipates significant power for the second or two that the degauss is active. Also. To adapt it for degaussing sets. However. the large coil around the CRT is not rated for continuous operation and may overheat. The reasons it only works the first time is that the degauss timing is controlled by a termister which heats up and cuts off the current. there usually isn't much choice . save the degaussing coil (coil of cool. I put it up to the CRT and brought it away slowly! Eureka! On Monday I called my smart-alek friend and cancelled the lunch! How Often to Degauss For TVs. it does prevent the degauss coil . If the current was turned off suddenly. If you push the button twice in a row. wrap it into a smaller coil. manual degaussing using an external coil may be needed or the monitor may need internal purity/color adjustments. Ultra Cheap Degaussing Coil Pack Rat Trick #457384: Next time you scrap a computer monitor (or tv).

The coil as removed from the TV is not designed for continuous operation across the line as indicated above. a good practice for degaussing is to slowly back away from the monitor after giving the screen a good going it is conceivable. but it's very substantial.) I've been using a couple of degaussing coils from "parts" monitors. I don't know the wire size.BE VERY CAREFUL that you actually wired it in series. Works great! Bob Myers' Notes on Degaussing A couple of comments: first of all. not like some of the thin. Sorry. The combined resistance is about 27 ohms. (The field of an external degauss coil CAN cause the grille wires to move slightly. A pushbutton momentary switch rated for 2 amps at 115 volts AC would be useful so that you do not need to depend on the wall plug to turn it on and off. The poor TV from which this organ was salvaged included additional circuitry to ramp the current to 0 in a few seconds after power is turned on. (Oh. and that everything is properly insulated before you plug it in (A fuse would be a real good idea too!!) A few circles over the affected area will usually do it. although certainly unlikely. that you're running a higher risk of causing the grille wires to touch or cross and become damaged. Once you're about 5-6' away. there is a very minor case to be made for degaussing while OFF. but it really doesn't help anything for it to be Just make sure that the current is always flowing in the same direction (clockwise or counterclockwise) around the coil. it makes no difference whatsoever if the display is on while it's being degaussed. Insulate everything very thoroughly with electrical tape. 2. some people DO like to watch the psychodelic light show. You don't need to unwind all the magnet wire. In fact. at least for the Trinitron and similar tubes. Just a couple of points for emphasis: 1.) Secondly. (From: Larry Sabo (sabo@storm. but this will fade out within a minute or so. . This is to reduce the possibility of the field transient caused by switching the coil off from leaving you once again with a magnetized monitor.) Actually. Reducing the coil size by a factor of 2 or 3 will increase the intensity of the magnetic field which is important since we are limiting the current with the light bulb to a value lower than the TV used. just bend the entire assembly into a smaller coil. and they're a bit more flexible when hot . it will go up in a mass of smoke without the light bulb to limit the current. 3. flimsy stuff I see. for a current of around 4 to 5 amps. and THEN turn to coil off. Note that it will also make your screen go crazy for a little bit. connected n series. turn the coil so it's a right angles to the CRT faceplate (which minimizes the field the monitor is seeing).

fairly quickly. same thing. Degaussing Humor . What happens is I think the purity shield itself gets magnetized. (I like the kind with the pushbutton "on" switch. Turn it down quick. Ever try to explain to a desk clerk how it was that. and are not designed to be left on for extended periods of time . The colors were seriously FUBARed. You can also do this with it running.) Oh.The last point is to make sure that you DON'T leave the coil on too long. and being the "Big Deal Out of Town Expert". Mr. These things are basically just big coils of wire with a line cord attached. but you risk damaging the vertical circuit. despite it's low coercivity. sorry. approach. at least in terms of EMP induced This may be take the form rainbow patterns or purity blotches that the internal degaussing coil or even an typical external degauss won't cure. not only would your keycard NOT let you into your room. That way. something the degausser can't handle. made VERY sure to place my wallet on a shelf far away from the action. flip the switch on and turn it down from the top. You might do better to get ready.make sure your wallet is in a safe place.If it Works. one more thing . I can never go off and leave the coil energized. The coil to the variac trick did it. Unfortunately. Somehow connect a good. However you can try different levels and see if less than max is enough to do it.they can overheat. that might make things worse. that is if it is not already damaged. which turns off as soon as I release the button. At extremely high levels you risk damaging the shadow mask. but that is way longer than it takes. I almost scrapped a 36" Sony for this. It takes a bit more than the standard degausser in the set to do the trick. Use It! Note: If you are forced to use this stunt. You know all those credit cards and things with the nice magnetic stripe on them? :-) (Actually. I've got a good story about that last. but DON'T blow the fuse. near a lightning strike. (From: JURB6006 (jurb6006@aol. Big Deal Out of Town Expert was staying in a hotel which used those neat little magnetic-card gadgets instead of a "real" key.) A lightning strike produces a VERY high magnetic field. it was no longer anything that their system would even recognize as a key? :-)) Degaussing after lightning strike Sometimes a nearby lightning strike may produce effects which mimic those of a nuclear explosion. but it is the top end that gets the job done. make sure you don't end up smashing something important! :) . I was teaching a group of field service engineers how to do this once. Thing is those coils can only stand it for a second or two. like 10 amp Variac straight to the degaussing coil(s) and turn it all the way up and down.

Even manual degaussing with a similarly powerful degaussing coil will then not totally clear up color purity problems. even up against the screen. dad! psychodelic! It looks like all the colors are flushing down the toilet!" Boy.which is itself about 1 inch thick or more. tied a string to it..push me pull sharp 19" color TV. Hmmmm. he suggested that I had probably just magnetized the mask and he'd loan me a degausser. the force required would be even greater.. which easter egg has the metal and which has the wood. (From: Jeff Mangas (jeff@edldisplays. I showed them what what a REALLY powerful magnet will do to an electron beam in a cathode ray tube .. See below. Hmmmm. He just hee. So I got this great idea! I took the ring magnet I used to mess it up. So.. the CRT will be ruined.'wanna see something really cool?' Says I.tensioned fine wires in place of a shadow or slot mask. It would take a mighty powerful magnet to distort it. Now I'm getting worried! I used to do computer support at a television station so I called an old engineer friend there for help. The shadow or slot mask is a very thin perforated steel or InVar sheet about 1/2 inch behind the glass of the CRT screen . maybe it will be all right by tomorrow. suspended it on the string and spun it as fast as I could. This was Friday and because of my friend's diagnosis I was able to relax about the problem enough to think about it. The only thing in the guts of a TV or monitor (that is accessible from outside the cabinet) that can be damaged permanently is the shadow or slot mask of the CRT. "Wow. the paper clip boat. your magnet is still at least 1-1/2 inches from the shadow mask. For Trinitron (or clone) CRTs with aperture grilles . or perhaps not. Degausser = alternating magnetic field.) I replaced the magnetron in my microwave and ripped apart the old one with my kids to 'see how it works'. you know .. Having been around monitors for a long time in the computer business. was I DAD or what? The problem was that my experience with magnets and monitors were in the monochrome days! So the price I paid for such esteem in the eyes of my children were purple faces and green legs on my sharp 19" color TV! Uh-oh! Well. Well it wasn't. etc.(From: Mike Champion (mchampfl@gdi. If the magnet is strong enough to distort it. there are some mother magnets in there! me and the kids had fun with enough with this kid stuff . I called my smart-aleck friend and cancelled the lunch! :) Can a Really Strong Magnet Permanently Damage the CRT? Even a magnet that can suspend your weight may still not have much range as they usually have metal pole pieces that concentrate the flux and work well only with a matching flat steel plate. I offered to buy him lunch for the . Strong magnetron magnet. Boy.. I put it up to the CRT and brought it away slowly! Eureka! On Monday. Alternating.hawed! As he was drying his eyes.

and you could see a few shadows from broken wires that had curled up near the top of the screen. (From: Matthew Saunier. and bring the voltage up each successive pass to degauss the CRT until it is cleared up. Have any of the extra purity magnets fallen off the yoke or CRT? .) It is possible to destroy a CRT with magnets . Has the yoke or yoke purity rings been moved? Have the TV or monitor been dropped? Are all the connections good on the degauss thermister? If it is a three leg thermister it still may be bad as those leave a small current flowing on the older Sony coils. I didn't have a traditional CRT around that I wanted to break.000 RPM hard drive (MASSIVE flux to snap those heads from one end of the drive to the other in 8 ms). We found that this caused a weakening of the shadow mask and it would take only a small shock/vibration to break the mask loose. We are not 100% sure that it was the degaussing that caused the problem but we only used these strong wands for a short time (lost several tubes while using them) and have not had any problems before or you have other things to look at. That tube was extremely ready for the garbage heap when I was through with it.I think that my initial assault took a lot of tension off of them.) You should NEVER use a big degauss coil on ANY SONY WEGA tube. If the internal degauss is not taking care of the problem. Unfortunately I was unable to break a stabilizer wire . A BIG degauss will remove this and make the tube look very bad. (From: David Kuhajda (dkuhajda@locl. I USE a smaller degauss coil and work it on a Variac at a lowered AC voltage. WARNING about degaussing late model Sony Trinitron CRTs The following has been confirmed by others.I once had a magnet out of an old 15. but I assume that it wouldn't take as much force to pinch the shadow mask. A BIG manual degauss coil from about 3 feet away should have a low enough field to be safe. (Note: should) I NEVER use the large degauss coils on the Sony tubes after seeing the Sony video of how CRTs have been damaged. Sony deliberately put a small amount of magnetic field into the strapping and aperture grill to compensate and improve the convergence. Maybe 1/4 of the screen had black vertical stripes. and touched it to the glass of an old Trinitron monitor (21") I was going to toss. or ANY SONY 27" or larger CRT made after 1997. I could actually hear the aperture wires snapping (TINK! TINK TINK!).I work in a small monitor factory and some time ago we were using some very strong degaussing wands to remove magnetism from some of our chassis.

Note that Sony tubes do NOT have shadow masks, but they have aperture grills which are an array of incredibly fine wires under tension. A BIG degauss coil can also rip the aperture grill away from the stabilization wires.  Back to CRT FAQ Table of Contents.

CRT Related Adjustments
Principles of Purity and Convergence Adjustment
Purity involves bending all 3 of the beams so that they cross the space between shadow mask and screen at the proper angle and will land at a different place on the phosphors. Convergence involves adjusting the aim of 1 or 2 of the beams at a different angle so that they all land at the same place on the screen. Dynamic convergence circuitry is now virtually non-existent, except in high resolution monitor tubes and in Sony Trinitron tubes (they require a very basic horizontal convergence). All other tubes have the convergence correction built into the design of the tube and the coil. Sony has chosen a different trade-off between price and performance (which includes also sharpness). Most CRTs have a series - usually 3 pairs - of ring magnets mounted on the neck near the socket end. These are used for part of the purity adjustment and static convergence. (Coarse purity is set by the position of the yoke and dynamic convergence is set by the tilt of the yoke.) These rings consist of multi-pole magnets which due to their field configuration are able to affect the electron beams from the 3 guns in different ways. (Some CRTs employ internal structures that are premagnetized at the factory and cannot be adjusted in the field - though perhaps auxiliary magnet rings could be added if the original magnetization were lost for reasons we won't go into :-). This type of CRT will be obvious as there will be no adjustable rings to mess screw up!) The relative orientation of the rings in a pair affect the strength of the effect. In a nutshell, the electron guns in most modern CRTs are arranged in-line. For example: GRB. Some of the ring adjustments are designed to affect them all while others pretty much leave the center gun's beam alone and only affect the outer ones. Various options then exist depending on the magnetic field configuration. The three sets of ring magnets are shown below along with the position of the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) electron beams passing through them. Each is actually a pair of rings which may be moved relative to one-another to control the strength of the magnetic field. When the tabs are adjacent, the fields from the two rings nearly cancel and the rings then have no effect. Two typical orientations are shown (N and S are the poles of the ring magnets):

Orientation 1:
S N R G B S N R G B S 2-pole (purity) 0 Degrees 4-pole (red-blue) 0 Degrees N R G B S N S N S N N S N S


6-pole (red/blue-green) 0 Degrees S R G B N N S

Orientation 2:

N R G B S 2-pole (purity) 90 Degrees

4-pole (red-blue) 45 Degrees

6-pole (red/blue-green) 30 Degrees

(My apologies if I have the direction of deflection reversed - I can never remember the right hand rule for electrons moving in magnetic fields!)

The 2-pole purity rings move the set of RGB beams more or less together to fine tune the position of the center of deflection. The field lines go generally across (at the orientation shown) between the N and S poles. Orientation 1, the RGB beams will be raised. Orientation 2, the RGB beams will be moved to the right.

The 4-pole red-blue rings move the R and B beams relative to the G beam but leave the G beam alone. The field lines go generally between adjacent N and S poles. On opposite sides of the rings, the polarity/direction of the lines oppose and thus tend to move the R and B beams in opposite directions. The G beam in the center does not experience any deflection from the 4-pole ring magnets since all the fields tend to cancel. Orientation 1: The R beam will move up and the B beam will move down relative to G. Orientation 2: The R beam will move up and to the right and the B beam will move down and to the left relative to G.

The 6-pole red/blue-green rings move the RB beams with relative to the G beam but leave the G beam alone. The field lines go generally between adjacent N and S poles. On opposite sides of the rings, the polarity/direction of the lines are the same and thus tend to affect the R and B beams in the same direction. The G beam in the center does not experience any deflection from the 6-pole ring magnets since all the fields tend to cancel. Orientation 1: The R and B beams will move up relative to G. Orientation 2: The R and B beams will move up and to the right relative to G.

For purity to be perfect (or as good as possible), the electron beams must originate from the same effective center of deflection as used in originally laying down the phosphors. Moving the yoke forward and backward on the neck of the CRT can precisely set the deflection center along the axis of the neck. However, slight transverse errors may still exist due to imperfections in the yoke windings or positions of the electron guns. This is affected slightly by the earth's magnetic field as well. The purity magnet rings are those closest to the yoke and provide the means for moving the electron beams very slightly to compensate. The adjustment procedures generally use the red gun for the setting purity. Intuitively, one would think this should be the center (green) gun. However, since the red beam current is the highest (red phosphor is least sensitive), problems are likely to show up first with the red purity so it is used for the adjustment. In any case, it is a good idea to check all three guns for proper purity and tweak if needed before moving on to convergence. In an in-line gun, the green gun is always in the middle. The only reason for adjusting purity with the red beam is because it gives the greatest sensitivity: (From: Jeroen H. Stessen (
• • •

The red beam current usually has the largest amplitude. A landing error of the red beam gives the best visible discoloration (much better than green, better than blue). This makes the landing of the red beam the most critical.

Detailed Purity and Static Convergence Adjustment Procedure
Also see the adjustment information in the documents: Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of Computer and Video Monitors or Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of Television Sets. (From: Alan McKinnon (

with the minimum of colour shadowing. Oh. but the general idea is that one set of magnets affects two specific colours only. and how the magnets affect the picture. and moving them aart relative to each other. You will note that the magnets can be adjusted by moving both together.The rearmost pair of magnets (seem from the service position behind the set in other words furthest from you nearest the front of the tube) affects purity. Fiddle the rear purity rings to distort the screen by bringing green and blue blobs into it. More on this later. vertically: . Also. With a cross hatch pattern on screen. An (expensive) pattern generator is the preferred method. The effects can most easily be seen on a cross hatch test pattern (10 or so horizotal lines. 15 or so vertical lines). But first. moving a pair of magnets together adjusts the colours in one direction (vert or horiz) while moving the magents apart adjusts the other direction. which is the trick of getting the red green and blue beams to coincide on the screen to produce white.-----> G -------. move on to convergence. You need some means of generating an evenly red screen. I assume you need to know how to do the adjustments. so you need to look carefully and see what happens mostly . With all things in life. the colours are arbitrary. moving them apart and bringing them nearer. The best advice here is: adjust slowly and observe what happens. the edges are done elsewhere: Rotating one set of magnets together might move red and blue together till they coincide vertically: | | | R | | | G | | | | -----> | | | | | B G R | | | | -----> | | | | | B G R&B And moving them apart relative to each other might move red and blue together horizontally: R ----R -------R&B--------G ----. These initial converence adjustments apply only to the centre of the screen by the way. All of this is best shown with a picture. while leaving the third colour alone. purity: Without getting into the details of what happens inside the guns. there is some overlap. The middle and front magnets are for convergence and work on pairs of colours.-----> G --------B -------B ----- Moving the other set of magnets together might take the red and blue pair and move them to coincide with the green.the adjustments are not cut and dried. Once you have the screen evenly red. but the basic principles will. Keep checking purity after you do convergence. you can see easily how convergence works. and moves them together relative to the third colour. and they are interactive to some degree. Each tube type is different in exactly how this is done. you may well find the details do not apply to your tv. The other set of magnets takes the colours affected by the other set.

. and you don't need a service manual to do them.R&G&B (=white) Once the convergence is perfect in the centre of the screen (called static convergence) it's time to handle the edges and corners (called dynamic convergence for historical reasons). and they did it the way I just described.moving the yoke left affects the lower right corner. left and right. Some folk would have you believe no-one in their right minds adjusts these things. this type of thing. The effects don't work as you might at first suppose . you will change he convergence in the corners.a right pain as they interact to some extent. The CRT is set up in the final position . By gripping the yoke and levering it up and down. Both my delta-gun sets (a B&O 3200 chassis and a Barco CDCT2/51) have very clearly set out and labeled convergence panels.this type of tube is more sensitive to external fields than the PIL type. This is done by physically moving the entire yoke that is clamped around the tube neck with the deflection coild on it. butnot enough so that the yoke can move backwards. The diagrams by each control show the effect". Take the wedges out. Well. Easy as pie. Someone did it at the factory. patience.R. not in a line) can give **excellent** pictures. Duell)) The older delta-gun tubes (3 guns in a triangle. 2.| | | | | | | -----> | | ------> | | | | | | G R&B G R&B R&G&B (=white) And moving them apart relative to each other might move the red and blue pair and move them to coincide with green horizontally: R&B -----------> G ------R&B ------G ----------> ------. You've set those 20-or-so presets correctly . The recheck purity. provided: 1. There you have it. Tony's Notes on Setting Convergence on Older Delta Gun CRTs (From: ard12@eng. and adjust the controls on the convergence board in the numbered order to converge the picture. with very good (A. It is anchored in place by a collar on the tube neck. The instructions in the Barco manual are something like: "Apply crosshatch. It is also held in place by rubber wedges glued or taped down. and time. All you need is the right tools (pattern generator). Get the dynamic convergence right and stuff the wedges back under the yoke to hold it precisely in place and glue them back down. loosen this slightly.

but on PIL tubes. but also slope controls. They will interact with the convergence. 8. These interact to some extent. These controls may be electrical presets. It's useful to be able to switch between those 2 patterns. set the height. or a shift and a static convergence. There will be 2 controls for this.. 3. That's where you do need a service manual. Turn off the blue gun using the A1 switch. and the EHT voltage if it's adjustable. The second type is a *pain* to do. (jerryg@total. Turn on the blue gun and use the 2 blue static controls (radial and lateral) to align the blue and yellow crosshatches at the center of the screen. Don't try and converge on anything else . Apply a white crosshatch or dot pattern to the set.I normally do the top and bottom first. and where they all are .dynamic and aligning red with blue (using *only* the blue controls. The purity is set by ring magnets on almost all colour CRTs. Turn on the blue gun again. Make sure you know what you are adjusting. Getting the red and green verticals aligned near the edges is a similar process. pincushion. although the principle is the same. I guess. The convergence over the entire screen should now be good. Jerry's Comments on Convergence and Other Advanced Adjustments (From: Jerry G. linearity. You now have (hopefully) a yellow crosshatch over the entire screen. 5. of course). you'll find not only shift controls.. A word of warning here.otherwise. but I prefer to align blue with yellow. 7. even if you have the manual. The first adjustments align the red and green crosshatches near the edges . as it's not uncommon for it to affect the static convergence. 6. and check the static (center) convergence 9. 2. 4. follow the instructions in the service manual --. as it gives a check on the overall convergence of the tube. To align the blue lines with the yellow ones. Also check PSU'll go insane.Here's a very quick guide to delta gun convergence where the settings are done using various adjustments on the neck of the CRT (if you don't have a service manual but do know what each control does. Some manufacturers recommend turning off the green gun when doing this. Now to align the blue.) .. This is a lot worse. Use the shift controls to align the centers of the lines and the slope controls to get the endpoints right. either a top and a bottom. width...sam): 1. Turn off the blue gun again. etc. there are other ring magnets as well . You'll need to fiddle with the controls for a bit to work out what they do. and use the red and green static radial controls to get a yellow croshatch in the middle of the screen. or may be movable magnets on the radial convergence yoke (the Y-shaped think behind the deflection yoke). Before you start. Now the fun starts .

and must be also corrected.!!! And without the proper skills required. Everything interacts! The corners are done with various sorts of slip or edge magnets. or even the do-it-yourselfer to attempt this alignment procedure. This is necessary to align the landing points of the CRT guns. Most of the monitors that I have repaired. the tighter the convergence can be aligned by the technician. A full raster color generator is required for the purity adjustments as well. A lot of the ones in the medium price range they were about 0.! I don't recommend the amateur or hobbiest. For the A area on a good monitor.4 in the B and greater than in the C area.25 mm. This applies to a white raster. yoke.. With these specs there would not be any real visible misconvergence unless you put your nose very close to the screen. and used did not meet these specs unless they were rather expensive. The C area would be the outside areas including the corners. The error in the B area should not exceed 300 degrees kelvin. This also annoys me because I am very critical. To see the convergence errors a grating or crosshatch pattern is used. It is a question of the time involved. If one has the skills and test gear he or she can do a better job on most monitors. On a 15 inch monitor the A area would be a diameter of about 4 inches. These numbers are approximate... about 0. and scanning control circuits.. button magnets are used.5 inches. The exact center reference and purity adjustments are done with the ring magnets on the CRT neck. Then the other color vector angles are checked with cyan. Most of the monitors I see don't get better than about 300 degrees Kelvin. As for corner convergence skewing. it can be allowed up to about 0. and 'C area'. The B area would be about 7.3 mm. And for the C area. There are actually standard specs for these areas. The yoke position angle adjustments are also done for the side and top-bottom skewing as well. The color temperature stability should be the same in all aspects. 'B area'. It takes lots of experience and time.Convergence alignment is not something you can do yourself unless you have the proper calibration instruments and skills. There are published specs for most of the good monitors. The color purity will be effected as you go. . And some are even 1000 out! The purity errors are best checked with a full Red raster using 100 % saturation. Therefore the inches would vary with the CRT size.1 mm. The test gear would exceed the cost of a really good monitor anyways. and then magenta. the color change from any corner to any corner must not exceed an error of more than 200 degrees Kelvin. he or she would only make it worse anyways. and the processes continues until the convergence and purity are good at the same time. These adjustments interact on one another. the maximum error should not exceed 0.15 mm error in the A area. The higher the price (quality) of the monitor CRT. Most of the time they are as follows: There is the 'A area'.. As for purity specs. seen. They are expressed in percentage of screen viewing area.... For the B area it should not exceed more than about 0.

I don't get to see that many modern tubes so this was a bit of a surprise or maybe I just hadn't noticed before on small CRTs if they didn't have purity/convergence problems.Stessen@philips. it will see a purity error of more than about 500 degrees Kelvin if the person knows what to look for. Further responsibility for purity.. This ring is permanently magnetized in the factory by a strong outside magnetic field at a later stage of the production. Stessen (Jeroen..A color spectrometer should be used to judge this error factor.! CRTs with No Purity or Static Convergence Rings I have a late model TV with a 13 inch tube with no static purity or convergence Final purity adjustment is achieved by matching a tube with a coil and then shifting and tilting the coil there is a slight possibility of totally messing up this compensation requiring replacement of the CRT. This explains why Philips CRTs are always sold as a matched combination of tube and coil. at the end of the electron gun assembly. Most shops do not even employ people who are skilled to a proper alignment.) CRT projection displays require much convergence correction. . and the poor customer get back a monitor that is not in specs.. especially since the 3 tubes aim at the screen under different angles. Generally the green Horizontal convergence coil is not driven because that is a geometry correction which is taken care of by the horizontal deflection circuit. this alignment must be done completely.) Since eternity. What this means is that if you were to accidentally bring a strong permanent magnet near the base of the CRT or a strong degaussing coil. I do see it has wrapping of a rubber-ferrite-permalloy type material where the ring assembly would go. Projection Set Convergence Adjustment Principles (From: Jeroen H. Add to that a severe keystone correction for the Red and Blue tubes. Stessen (Jeroen. I assume that this is magnetized selectively at the factory to adjust purity/convergence? The yoke has the usual position and tilt adjustments.Stessen@philips. There is an iron ring inside the neck. Philips CRTs have not had external multipole magnet rings around the neck. or don't even own the instruments to do it right. convergence and geometry is in the design of the coil windings distribution and some metal parts. contrary to some other brands.. The 3 vertical convergence coils usually also take care of vertical geometry correction (N-S corrrection) because the vertical deflection circuit is generally a standard direct-view type. When changing the CRT. As far as the eye is concerned. This one was an RCA/GE CRT. I don't know how possible this is without really working at it! (From: Jeroen H.

de).000 to 60. x*y^4 (corner pin-cushion) Adjusting convergence is a highly iterative (read: costly) process because each potentiometer tends to influence the whole screen. a year is just about 8. That's why better waveform generators have been designed. These magnets are used to correct bad edge . the Philips design is called Convergence Spline Processor. of course. sizes and magnet strength. Consider the adjustment of horizontal convergence. Regular degaussing of the unit may be needed. These are usually done only if you're using the thing in an application where exact color/brightness matching is important. Also. without an extended-life cathode.000 hours. then typical polynomial components are: 1 (shift). is usually good for 10. x^2*y (dunno if it's used). it's digital too). would be video amplifier and/or CRT biasing adjustments to compensate for the aging of the tube. The components are then weighted and summed to form a Taylor polynomial. The only "tuneup" that a monitor should need.) When repairing and recalibrating color monitors of different brands.) Most manufacturers will quote an MTBF (Mean Time Before Failure) of somewhere in the 30. but I'm not considering that a "tuneup" or adjustment. Note that. and which are attached at different locations somewhere near the electronic beams at the neck of the tube.000 hours before it reaches half of its initial brightness.The convergence waveforms used to be generated from an analog polynomial generator. this method is not easily extendible to higher order adjustments for more accuracy. which have different forms. EXCLUSIVE OF the CRT. one experiences those "dirty little tricks" called correction magnets. A Discussion on Correction Magnets (From Ludwig (eastcomp@gmx. if you leave your monitor on all the time. x^3 (side linearity). exclusive of adjustments needed following replacement of a failed component. x*y^2 (pin-cushion).000 hour range. like digital look-up tables with D/A converters (which are quite expensive) and spline-like waveform generators (which are cheap and easy to adjust.hp. x*y (keystone). y (rotation or tilt). Monitor Tune-Up? (The following from: Bob Myers (myers@fc. x^2 (linearity).000 to y^2 (bow). The typical CRT. x (amplitude).

but what I'd like to know is this: • • Why aren't such magnets demagnetized during the power-on degaussing? Aren't such magnets demagnetized. These types of magnets often are used to correct larger deficiencies in geometry and to a lesser extent .geometry/convergence and problems with color convergence at various locations on the screen. or 10x10x0. if you'd .) By the way: Almost any monitor.2mm). other types of ferrites?). Those are my observations. (From: Ludwig.g. which is older than 1-2 years has developed deficiencies in convergence..) The answers to both (1) and (2) is that if using the internal degauss coil and/or properly positioned (front of CRT only) external coil. which have only few (or even none) of these correction magnet. weak the tube convergence. Plastisized magnets (e. geometry and sharpness. which are glued to the end of a plastic stripe. 2. They usually are intended to correct bad convergence at the corners and edges of the picture. magnetic geometry) of the tube and the deflection coils/fields there are monitors. That is why one should NEVER attempt to degauss in the rear of the TV or monitor or inside the case! I don't believe the magnets are made of anything special . are either glued to the the edges of the plastic case of the deflection coils or .e. (From: Sam. while others (some brands are "famous" for this) are really clustered with these magnets.they appear to be similar to your typical refrigerator (note holding) magnets in composition and strength. This magnets are weak and therefore have to be positioned very near to the electron beam at the neck of the tube. Depending on the quality (i. 3x10x1 mm. 4x4x1 mm. the strength of the field is (hopefully) insufficient to affect the correction magnets. silicon or plaster.if the magnet is not so strong . which have a much bigger magnetic strength. if one uses an extra demagnetizing coil for removing undesired magnetic fields at the tube? Are those demagnetizing coils harmful to the different correction magnets on/at the neck of the coil? What type of magnets are used for those correction magnets ? (barium titanate. and has to be recalibrated.. The magnets can have different forms and sizes: 1. These stripes are inserted into the small gap between the tube and the deflection coils (ferrite coil) and the fixed by glue. Most often there are used small and thin.

(From: Bob Myers (myers@fc. To be doubly sure. In really dusty situations. (For what it's worth. I successfully used household rubber/plastics gloves to do the recalibration by repositioning the above mentioned magnets while the monitor is powered on. Clean the CRT screen with a soft cloth just dampened with water and mild detergent or isopropyl alcohol.e. OCLI also sells their own brand of glass cleaner under the name "TFC". There may be alternative (er. Top-Job. There is some dispute as to what cleaners are safe for CRTs with antireflective coatings (not the etched or frosted variety).. It's not quite easy to do fine recalibration of convergence and geometry (even modern monitors allow only to correct coarse via OSD menus). and therefore should be recommended for every job to do with the monitor case open and power on (even just for monitoring electronic signals with an oscilloscope). Definitely avoid the use of anything with abrasives for any type of monitor screen. mild detergent. and isopropyl alcohol should be safe. and other popular cleaners. because during recalibration the monitor has to be at power-on state.  Back to CRT FAQ Table of Contents.hp. You could end up with a very expensive repair bill when the liquid decides to short out the main circuit board lurking just below. Then dry thoroughly. periodically vacuuming inside the case and the use of contact cleaner for the controls might be a good idea but realistically. Water. for "Thin Film Cleaner".cheaper) coatings in use which could be damaged by various commercial cleaners. you will be amazed at the amount of black grime that collects due to the static buildup from the CRT high voltage supply.just keep the case clean and free of obstructions. CRT and CRT Related Maintenance and Repair Preventive Maintenance .prefer an optimal picture (and being careful with one's eyes). test a small spot in corner of the screen. And some warn against products with ammonia (which may include Windex. OCLI's coating is pretty tough and chemical-resistant stuff. This will avoid damage to normal as well as antireflection coated glass. as this may damage/remove some types of antireflective coatings.) . Use the CRT sprays sold in computer stores if you like but high voltages are at every edge of the monitor. If you have not cleaned the screen for quite a while. Using household rubber/plastics gloves is also a valuable means to prevent beginners from electric shock.) Windex is perfectly fine for the OCLI HEA coating or equivalents. you will not do this so don't worry about it. make sure none can seep inside.Care and Cleaning Preventive maintenance for a TV or monitor is pretty simple . DO NOT use anything so wet that liquid may seep inside of the monitor around the edge of the CRT. i.

Screen (G2) and focus voltage will be the same and the controls on the flyback will interact. In this case. Shorts in a CRT Occasionally. Where the heater is biased at some other voltage. Control grid to screen (G1-G2). just about every tube manufacturer has their own brew or three of antiglare/antistatic coatings. Other locations between electron gun elements as feed wires. The cathode for the affected gun will be pulled to the heater (filament) bias voltage . Since the G1 electrodes for all the guns are connected together.most often 0 V (signal ground). Symptoms will be similar to those of a flyback with breakdown in the focus/screen divider network. none. with no ill results. besides the basic "OCLI type" quarter-wave coatings and their conductive versions developed to address E-field issues. Line fuse and/or HOT may blow. glarediffusing) treatment. But then. Focus to high voltage (F-HV). look in the user guide/owner's manual and see what your monitor's manufacturer recommends in the way of cleaning supplies. other symptoms are possible like reduced brightness and/or contrast for that color.:-) Monitor coatings are always changing.. Screen to focus (G2-F). In general.probably arcing at the focus spark gaps/other protective devices. this will affect not only the color of the guilty cathode but the others as well. I'm usually pretty sure what sort of coating I'm dealing with. it's possible for a short from one cathode to G1 to only affect that color. The one exception is where the G1 is connected directly to ground. There are also still SOME tubes that aren't really coated at all. small conductive flakes or whiskers present since the day of manufacture manage to make their way into a location where they short out adjacent elements in the CRT electron guns. Cathode to control grid (K-G1). Some possible locations are listed below: • • • • • • Heater to cathode (H-K). Then.I have cleaned monitors of various brands with both Windex and the OCLI-brand cleaner. Replacing the CRT may be required but there are a variety of 'techniques' that can often be used to salvage a TV that would otherwise end up in the dump since replacing a CRT is rarely cost effective: . Depending on circuitry can result in any degree of washed out or dark picture. The result may be a very bright overloaded *negative* picture with little. This is probably the most common location for a short to occur. High voltage will be pulled down . but instead are using mechanically or chemically etched faceplates as a cheap "anti-glare" (actually. Result will be a fuzzy white raster with retrace lines and little or very low contrast picture.. Symptoms may be intermittent or only show up when the TV or monitor is cold or warm or in-between. or messed up colors. one color will be full on with retrace lines.

even a sharp edge can result in arcing even if there is no actual short. See the sections below for additional details. Depending on the location of the short. Note that if you have a schematic and can determine where to disconnect the ground or voltage reference connection to the filament winding. There is no remedy for these types of faults. The flyback is the thing with the fat red wire coming out of it (and perhaps a couple of others going to the CRT board or it is near this component if your set has a separate tripler) and may have a couple of controls for focus and screen. If they are too dim. 3. Blowing out the short with a capacitor .) Route the wires so that there is no chance of them getting near the high voltage or any sharp metal edges etc. put another turn on the flyback to boost the voltage. It should have some exposed parts with a ferrite core about 1/2-3/4" diameter. for shorts involving the focus and high voltage elements. (Don't go overboard as you may blow the filament totally if you put too many turns on the core . Make sure you do not accidentally disconnect anything else.depending on what is causing the short. this may be successful but will require some experimentation. Wrap two turns around the core and solder to the CRT filament pins after cutting the connections to the original filament source (scribe the traces on the board to break them) then toss the TV or monitor. one side or the other might be better as well.the part that actually emits the electrons. A combination of (2) and (3) may be required for intermittent shorts which don't appear until under power. fairly thick (say #18-22). What has happened is that a part of the fine wire of the bad color's filament (assuming this is indeed your problem) has shorted to the cathode .this will usually work for H-K shorts as long as only one gun is involved. Providing Isolation for a CRT H-K Short This procedure will substitute a winding of your own for the one that is built in to the flyback to isolate the shorted filament from the ground or voltage reference. You will need some well insulated wire. Normally. Find a spot on the flyback where you can stick this around the core. The filament of the CRT is the internal heater for each gun . 2. the cathode voltage level is pulled to ground or this reference. Placing the CRT (TV or monitor) face down on a soft blanket and gently tapping the neck to dislodge the contamination. try this instead. This winding should cause the filaments to glow about the same brightness as before but now isolated from is what glows orange when the set is on. Your picture quality may be a tad lower than it was before because . Isolation . the heater circuit is grounded or tied to a reference voltage so when it shorts to the cathode. However.

you don't want to use the following approach since you may blow out the filament in the process. (From: JURB6006 (jurb6006@aol.) If it takes more than about 400 mA to clear the short the cathode is usually toast. but only for a certain time. Unplug the CRT socket! Start with a relatively small capacitor . A shorted CRT is not terribly useful. this is based on thermal mass. of course. The big cap makes it a big thing. but hey. you **will** know when the short occurs! See Sencore Blows Away CRT Failures With CR7000 by Randy Fromm for what a commerical CRT restorer can do as well as more on CRT failures in general. remove CRT board.I just helped write it . Increase the capacitance if you feel lucky but have had little success with the small capacitor.I do not have a copy . run coil around pins for about 10 seconds. tap neck of CRT (not hard enough to brake. At this point you have nothing to loose. If you do this with the charged capacitor across the suspect electrode. then as a last resort.demonstrated use of coil to the service engineer and fixed 2 bad tubes in process.few may be needed. need to catch the CRT with the socket disconnected and the short still present. but close) or hit with a Tesla coil.) I have seen this problem many Shorts in the CRT that are between directly accessible electrodes can be dealt with in a more direct way than for H-K shorts. If the short is between two directly accessible electrodes like cathode-grid.of the added stray capacitance of the filament wiring being attached to the (formerly bad) video signal. would you believe there is a service bulletin from Philips on this and focus shorts . . we use one in shop.say a few uF at a couple hundred volts. Check to see if the short is blown after each zap . you might try zapping it with a charged capacitor (see below for K-G1 short). you may be able to float the filament and live with the short (see the document: Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of Television Sets. (Local backup at Sam's Copy of Sencore Blows Away CRT Failures With CR7000 by Randy Fromm. shorted CRT red cathode.) (From: Terry DeWick (dewickt@esper. Try some gentle tapping if necessary. If this is the case. something is better than nothing. you will. Rescuing a Shorted CRT If the short is filament-cathode (H-K).com). If the fault is intermittent.

I seem to recall that g1-k shorts were actually more common. You still need to tie G1 to ground. not DAG on an NAP and if it's an NAP you must isolate it and connect it to ground.milled in the PCB material.) My B&K CRT analyser / restorer removed shorts by discharging a cap across the affected electrodes. CRT heaters are not particularly fragile. If you are discharging between h and k. DC obviously won't work . I can't even remember who it was to . Connect the G1 to ground.. 1. The location of the short was indicated by neon lamps. are also spark gaps. with copper up to the edge of the gap. the intensity of the glow giving an indication of the resistance of the path.) Floating the heater in a monitor is not usually possible because they run the heaters on a regulated DC supply instead of using AC from the flyback.Recently after I had tried everything I decided to use external power to remove a G1 short. but in most sets you can just do it. It was very effective at removing inter-electrode leakage paths. (From: Arfa Daily. touch the clip lead from the cathode to the video output 220 VDC source.. due to 'burnt out' emissive material falling off the cathode and lodging in the g1-k gap. The opposing arrows symbol is standard for this type of device. The B&K was a fine instrument in its day. Some quite spectacular fireworks used to occur in the neck. make sure that the base connector is removed from the tube !! A sharp rap or two to the neck of the CRT. and with the monitor / TV on its side or upside down (but NOT on its face) can often be effective at dislodging material that has fallen off the cathode surface into the g1-k gap. and are insulated from the cathode cylinder. 4. These can get dusty contamination across them. inside the plastic base connector. This was the most solid short I've ever seen. Completely disconnect the cathode of the offending gun. by a heat conducting coating. and it was never returned. When the zapping took place.. as the contaminating material was vapourised by the discharge across it from the cap. (From: Andy Cuffe.. I think that the CRT gun was being run by the analyser as a basic triode. As the short starts to manifest itself.often with curved opposing faces . 2. I lent mine to someone some years back. then the heater pins should be shorted together to avoid one of those 'unfortunate accidents' . It is also not at all uncommon to have a grounded wire ring running around the outside of all the pins. And of course. I used an old AT PC power supply and all I got was to make the internal "wires" to the elements RED HOT!!! The best way to remove a G1 short is (I don't do it this way all the time it is too much trouble). The 'resistor' looking devices called "SG" are the spark gaps. if not an NAP 99% of the time you don't have to do it. Any slots . Connect the cathode to a clip lead. 3. using the butt end of a screwdriver.

is that the stray capacitance of whatever isolated supply is used ends up on the affected cathode (since it's shorted to the filament). and if so. I've seen more H-K shorts than anything else. even if the short goes away. I suspect that a crack has compromised the vacuum in the tube and that's what is causing the flashing and the low voltage. This is less of an issue with TVs that operate at a much lower resolution and scan rate. start looking for a compatible replacement CRT. (From: Sam. then the heater will short to the cathode.the getter.The high voltage is very low and there's flashing inside the neck of the picture tube.) Of course. for this but may not always work. etc. one potential problem with these schemes. the heater still has damaged insulation and could short again at any time. If your monitor does use AC heaters. However. the expense is not worth it. K-G1 shorts can usually be blown out. I believe there may be a small hairline crack in the neck of the picture tube. If it is still silver. Look around the neck of the CRT for a coating . Determining if Your CRT is up to Air "I have a Compuadd monitor that's completely blank. I have seen other Sony monitor CRTs with 5 V heaters. Also. If this insulation cracks. but H-K shorts are harder to remove reliably. Is that possible. particularly when applied to a high resolution monitor. your CRT is history. Unless you find a cheap used CRT. then you need a true RMS meter to measure this voltage. the image quality for that color could be seriously degraded. A CRT with two shorted guns is probably past hope. junking it is probably the only realistic solution. the vacuum is intact and your arcing may be due to a bad flyback putting excessive voltage on the screen or focus electrode or a CRT that is bad in other ways. The problem with fixing a H-K short is that the heater is coated with insulation. If you really want to fix the monitor. adjustments may be quite involved. so it may be fine. is there anything that can be done other than junking it?" If there is a crack. If it has turned white or red. Attempting to blow out the short can blow the heater. If the cathode is not ground and has the signal on it. Almost any 19" Trinitron monitor CRT should work. Scratches or Other Damage to the CRT Face . these rarely develop on their own.with a CRT heater isolation transformer. then everything else is possible. Even then. There are supposed to be external protection spark gaps. However. Sorry. a separate isolated AC or DC supply could be added where the heater is originally DC.

If the scratch is the result of shipping damage. If the CRT has an antireflective coating or textured surface.with the final polishing being done with the rouge. It takes a lot of grinding to remove enough material to smooth out a scratch and you are more likely to mess things up than to improve matters. Jeweler's rouge is the same stuff that is used in the final polishing of lenses and mirrors so it makes for a fine finish. it will almost certainly be best to leave the scratch alone. this isn't really a viable approach for a CRT faceplate. . If it is a factory defect.ofthe. However. The way the manufacturer would repair it is to replace the CRT. However. Clean off the residual glue. For larger scratches. Carefully peel off the antistatic/antireflective plastic film from the face of the glass. Then reassemble and use.) If it is AR coated with the glue-on-film. I am currently using window film as an adhering material to cover and conceal the scratches.NET). 4. Alcohol or WD40 on a rag will probably work. then: 1.It is generally difficult to accidentally scratch the face of the screen but accidents do happen. realistically. 2. The types of fillers sold in auto parts stores for repairing auto windshields may reduce the visibility of any scratches but DO NOT restore the integrity of the glass. etc. file a claim with the shipping company. 3. This will be much more objectionable than a slight scratch. I don't quite know whether this is better or worse than the disease but it might be worth trying: (From: Cooper@Hub. as many are. Remove the picture tube from the cabinet. any kind of scratch deep enough to be felt will not yield to this approach. "I may have come across an easy fix for those who have scratched glass on the monitor face.600. get it repaired or replaced under warranty. Any type of polishing *will* remove affect the appearance in the vicinity and leave you with a big unsightly blob." (From: dkuhajda (dkuhajda@locl. . one would normally start out with a coarser abrasive like 300 grit and work toward successively finer sizes . Barely visible scratches can be removed with jeweler's rouge or similar ultra-fine abrasive unless the CRT has an antireflective or textured and the damage is to the film. This looks much better and enables me to continue usage of the monitor without the aggravating distortion. 1200.

Stessen (Jeroen.The 17" Dell Trinitron flat screen that I am using right now was 'repaired' in that manner. Also poisoning of cathode surface may occur. The cathode that wears out first (often the red one) also loses gain. If the aging is even (no pattern) then at least the efficiency is reduced. the VG2 (screen) may need periodic adjustment too.Stessen@philips. The surrounding area takes over. and this spread is quite large even on new CRTs.  Back to CRT FAQ Table of Contents.) Specifications for Philips CRTs can be found in the regular series of data books from Philips Components. Still. The other down side is that it is best to use it without much room lighting (which I don't).Effects on Electrical Characteristics and Performance (From: Jeroen H. Common drift is adjusted by the user by controlling the brightness. They also list phosphor sensitivity (Lum/Ik). Companies and universities usually have them. The central part of the cathode surface has carried the most current density and will wear out first. Cutoff voltage can be adjusted with potentiometers. CRT Degradation CRT Aging . Cathodes age due to loss of emission material. The tube is worn out. this will lead to an unsharp picture. But they almost never list anything about the aging process. Different drift leads to a coloration of the black background level. or there is automatic stabilisation. They also list the spread on cutoff voltage and cathode gain. particularly for oxide cathodes. this too has a large spread. In extreme cases vertical flyback lines will appear. particularly on static pictures. Here are some of the effects: • • • • • • Phosphor ages due to burn-in. The cutoff voltages of all cathodes will Adjusting the focus voltage will not really improve it. this is immediately obvious on visual inspection. The down-side is that there is a quicker build up of dust on the glass screen due to the extra static charge on the face. re-adjustment has only a temporary effect. The plus side is that the brightness and contrast can be turned down as the image is brighter. This can be cured temporarily by short-time overheating ("re-conditioning"). Leakage currents may disturb VG2 and focus voltage. Usually the data sheets show typical Ik/Vk characteristics. so the white point of the image will shift (to cyan). The white point can be re-adjusted with the gain potentiometers and the contrast. but peak brightness will not be as high as new. .

I hope that this helps you to distinguish between a really worn out tube and one that still has some life in it after re-adjustment. Since this is usually derived from the flyback.Stessen@philips.) Most probably the cathodes have worn out. It may be worth a try. Then the tube is really worn out. though.there could be a marginal connection or bad resistor or capacitor in the filament power supply.• • VG2 and focus potentiometers may wear out due to electromigration etc. in order to bring new emission material to the surface. A hole may form under the wiper. It will not work for long and there is the risk of burning the filament wire for good. then the others. it may not be possible to measure the (pulsed high . the CRT brightener was a common item (sold in every corner drugstore. Usually you see one colour go first. Phosphor aging (life time is defined by efficiency < 50%). audible). A too high VG2 voltage will cause a smaller cathode area to be used. Then In the old days of TVs with short lived CRTs. giving a bigger spot. it seemed!). Some types of cathode wear (according to a friend in Philips Semiconductors) can cause the Ik/Vk transfer characteristic to divert so much from an ideal gamma function that no adjustment can compensate for it. Brightening an Old CRT If performing adjustments of the internal background and/or screen controls still results in a dark picture even after a long warmup period (and the controls are having an effect they are not faulty). At the same time you will observe a loss in sharpness. Other wear mechanisms are: • • • Glass browning (generally only for projection tubes). First confirm that the filaments are running at the correct voltage . Vacuum leaks (generally cause EHT flashover. the CRT may simply be near the end of its useful life. re-adjustment is then impossible. because a larger cathode area is being used. it may also be that for some mysterious reason your VG2 voltage has dropped below spec. CRT Age Resulting in Dark Picture Where circuit problems have been ruled out: (From: Jeroen Stessen (Jeroen. leading to a sharper picture but accelerated cathode wear. Rejuvenating is done by applying a (too) high filament voltage. The emission material on the surface slowly becomes inactive.

. too high a bias voltage will result in a darker than normal picture. However. Voltage for the CRT filament is usually obtained from a couple of turns on the flyback transformer. You can just add a turn to an existing winding or make your own separate filament winding as outlined in the section: Providing Isolation for a CRT H-K short. you have nothing to lose. The approach is simple: you are going to increase the voltage to the filaments of the electron guns making them run hotter. There is no way to tell the exact number of hours. some will go down hill much faster than others. In this case. A dim red or almost dark filament is probably not getting its quota of electrons. CRT brighteners are available from parts suppliers like MCM Electronics. There are also commercial CRT rejuvenators that supposedly zap the cathodes of the electron Some of these are designed as isolation transformers as well to deal with heater-to-cathode shorts. However.perhaps rather drastically. It is not be the CRT since all three filaments are wired in parallel and for all three to be defective is very unlikely.this should be obvious once you trace the filament wires from the video driver board).frequency) voltage with a DMM but a service manual will probably have a waveform or other test. there is a separate filament supply on the mainboard . Checking the Age of the CRT So you have this great deal on a used TV or monitor. confirm that the video output levels are correct. In some monitors. though it is. Also. For cathode driven CRTs. if the monitor or TV is otherwise destined for the scrap heap.) The best way to tell is to look at the picture quality. Hopefully. Adding an extra turn will increase the voltage and thus the current making the filaments run hotter. A TV or monitor service center may be able to provide this service. How can you tell if the picture tube is about to die on you? (From: Andy Cuffe (baltimora@psu. a short term fix. Caution: this may shorten the life of the CRT possibly quite dramatically (like it will blow in a couple of seconds or minutes). the life of CRTs varies quite a bit. This will also shorten the CRT life . just hotter enough to increase the brightness without blowing them out. it still may be possible to increase this output or substitute another supply but a schematic will be required. if the monitor was headed for the dumpster anyhow. If possible. A visual examination is not a bad way to determine if the filaments are hot enough. at best. They should be a fairly bright orange to yellow color. it is worth a try. You can try a making a brightener.

Most TV sets are on about 5 to 8 hours a day if it is a family TV. Look at the colors in the corners to see if the purity is good.or much  Back to CRT FAQ Table of Contents. It may change only a little bit. If you see any bleeding or smearing to the right of bright objects don't buy it. There are no hour counters! Turn on the unit and see if there is any unusual bleeding of the image in the picture at high contrast levels. A tube can go at any time. The picture should have decent brightness with the picture at about mid range. Set the picture brightness and color to maximum. tinted. When turning the contrast up and down. (Portions from: Jerry G. if the overall picture is good the CRT is fine.• • • • • It should be sharply focused over the entire screen and all 3 colors should be equally sharp. but possibly. the color temperature should be stable within about 3 to 5 minutes. To know the manufacture date of the unit. . the color temperature should not change. (jerryg50@hotmail.) You cannot tell the hours used by just looking or even measuring a tube. A good way to know if the emission of the CRT is up to specs is to get a CRT analyzer and measure the gun emission. Apart form that. When turning on the set. If it is dim. If it is a bedroom TV the hours may be 1/2 that amount. it is sometimes possible to give them a new. temporary lease on life through rejuvenation using a special piece of CRT service equipment. to a bad shadow mask. CRT Rejuvenation What is CRT Rejuvenation? Where one or more electron guns in the CRT have deteriorated due to wear and tear. Monitors may be on 24 hours a day . CRTs usually fail very slowly. When you first turn it on the picture should look normal in well under a minute. only the brightness. or blurry for more than a minute or two the CRT is getting weak. A B/W picture should not be tinted. When turning the brightness up and down. the focus at the center should also be very stable. Some service centers own one. Even if it's starting to show it's age it probably has several years left. it us usually on the back with the model and serial number. Bad purity can be attributed to a miss-adjusted yoke assembly.

leading in a practical TV-set with high impedance focus circuit (this allows voltage drop) to a focus voltage at the CRT focus pin that is lower than it should be and this again leads to a bad focus performance. only there are fewer electrons left that can be drawn towards the screen at a certain drive voltage.Stessen@philips. If the tube is really bad with little or no cutoff threshold. Is the focusing problem caused by the high cutoff voltage accelerating the electrons too fast for the focusing assembly to work? And what would explain the shadowing problem?" Replies from: Jeroen H. CRT Degradation and Rejuvenation "As I understand it. Tom: Yes. and this accounts for the need to crank up the cutoff. Consequently. the cathode surface is losing the Barium/Strontium oxide slowly and hence the working voltage to free the electrons is rising. In itself. The focusing problem occurs at the moment that the TV-set tries to establish a certain beam current and finds out that a higher driver voltage is needed to give this current. (From: Gary Klechowitz (klechowi@execpc. If your tube is just moderately dim and blurry but still shows good cut off I would just use the auto restore mode on the beam builder rather than using the restore button. Addressing each of the effects and CRT rejuvenation: . It ejects fewer electrons. Another point is the drift of leakage current. when a CRT ages.There may be some schematics for commercial CRT rejuvenators accessible from the Sencore Service Page.) When I rejuvenate a tube I inform the customer that there is no warranty on the and another engineer at Philips who we shall call Tom. This stays the same. its filament looses material. When asked "How long will you live"? he replied: "no one knows". Rejuvenating a CRT is like when Clatuu was brought back to life by Gort in "The Day The Earth Stood Still". a larger cathode area is used to get enough electrons out of it. Jeroen: Readjustment of the focus voltage will be only a temporary solution. then the rejuvenator is needed but that has less than a 50% chance of fixing the tube and in many cases the tube gets worse to trashed in the process. Stessen (Jeroen. this will not change the cut-off voltage needed for proper operation. This larger cathode area will be imaged onto the screen and give a larger spot size. I use a Sencore Beam Builder.

the lens works OK. Impregnated cathodes are typically operated at cutoff voltages between 130 V and 200 V. They can be applied at a higher cutoff voltage and thus deliver a smaller spot without premature wear. both related to the cutoff voltage being higher than what the video output amplifier(s) can deliver. Those can influence the picture too. leading to leakage currents. The higher VG2 is the higher the cutoff voltage VK . the life time of an I-cathode should be longer than that of an oxide cathode but indeed the sensitivity to correct heater voltage is higher.VG1 must be to blank the beam.g. The cutoff voltage is proportional to the VG2 (second grid voltage). e. Tom: Impregnated cathodes contain a lot of emission material that moves more easily towards the cathode surface as time passes. however. These can cause drift of focus and screen voltages and can disturb the cutoff current measurement. It is not that the focus is bad. It is that a larger object is projected onto a larger image. Oxide cathodes have the problem that the Ba/Sr-oxide is positioned too deep to be very effective. VG1 is fixed. If the emission material in the centre is exhausted then the outer area comes in. At one time there was fear that they would deposit too much metal on the glass around the electrodes. an impregnated cathode. Why is horizontal streaking sometimes another symptom? Jeroen: Two symptoms. This is a larger surface. Impregnated cathodes are much more robust. Second. but it is also much more difficult to design a video output amplifier with sufficient bandwidth at the required large drive voltage (like 120 V peak-peak). +130V = black. They do evaporate more metal during their lifetime. Hence. being highly conductive compared to an oxide cathode which is a semi-conductor. Why is poor focus sometimes a symptom of a failing CRT? Tom: Normally only the emission from the centre of the cathode adds to the electron beam. Jeroen: This applies mainly to oxide cathodes. Hence they can provide a much sharper spot. 2. +30V = white. . because they are operated at a higher temperature to begin with. the electron lens projects this into a larger spot. can handle a much higher peak current since the cathode material is not locally heated up by this peak current. They are more sensitive to a too high heater temperature. Remember: cathode drive is negative.1. The video amplifier delivers VK. An oxide cathode can be destroyed by a too high peak beam current ! Jeroen: Oxide cathodes are typically operated at cutoff voltages between 100 and 130 V.

Class-A amps should not have this problem. Impregnated cathodes have a more sudden death mechanism and can not be regenerated in this way. so this will be a temporary solution at best. Cathodes that have been operated too long on a too low heater voltage get poisoned. I have heard of cut. drift due to distance drift between G1 and G2 for which it is very sensitive. Either way. Some classB video amps will also show a bad recovery time from clipping to black. And finally. Tom: Well. only oxide cathodes can be rejuvenated this way. what is the real story on CRT restorers/rejuvenators? Jeroen: Some of the possible 'remedies' include: • Excess heater temperature may bring some new emission material to the surface of the cathode. This is done by putting 9-10 V (?) on a 6. The fewer electrons still need the same voltage to prevent them from reaching the accellerating lens. Indeed. the cathode voltages rise and clipping may occur with retrace lines as a result. this is not something that gets worse over time. Tom: This also helps for poisoned cathodes. meaning that the Ba/Sr-oxide gets chemically binded.If the video amplifier clips before cutoff is reached then the beam will not be blanked completely and you will see a lighted background with slanted retrace lines. usually leading to red or yellow streaks. However. • • Some type of electrode shorts may be removed by high currents. in principle the cut-off doesn't change due to cathode wear-out.3 V heater. I don't think it is needed or recommended with I-cathodes (impregnated). (In my experience this is more common with clipping to white. Some televisions automatically lower the brightness of each channel because they have automatic cutoff control. (This probably only applies and then only in a limited . leading to a higher working voltage. this may lead to black streaks after black images.) If the cutoff voltage rises (due to some unexplained wear) or because VG2 rises (due to drift or due to owner intervention: turning the Screen potmeter) then the user may compensate for the increased (background) brightness by lowering the brightness control of the set. as said earlier. There is not emission material much left. There is also the risk of burning out a heater filament for good. The vacuum may be improved by activating the getter electrode using an induction heater or RF source to heat the ring shaped getter electrode to red/orange temperature.

95% or better luck .) I use a hand held Tesla coil to all pins for about 5 seconds. (From: Terry DeWick (dewickt@esper. But these definitions have always been blurred by advertising hype.saved a lot of out of warranty Zeniths from big repair bills or junk pile. A similar procedure is performed on new picture tubes in the factory.way if the getter spot has faded . had the operator watch the grid current on a meter(s) to determine when emission was sufficient. Also see the sections starting with: "Brightening an old CRT". Home-Made CRT Rejuvenator 1 . a 'crust' may have formed on the thoriated emitter material that can be 'boiled off' to expose more electrons.turned red or milky from its normal silvery appearance --. Tesla coil is type the neon sign people use for testing. The early restorers.) Tom: • Further: burning metal whiskers off the electrodes can help reducing a leakage current Jeroen: This is done by running high (flash) currents between electrodes. More Comments on CRT Rejuvenation (From: Ren Tescher (ren@rap. A rejuvenator or restorer generally hits the cathode/filament with a higher than normal current to accomplish this. follow up with rejuvenator for a quick check and cleanup if needed. while a rejuvenator gives the cathode/filament a 'blast' of But. Or. I suppose newer units have a PIC chip or some other logic to do the job. a restorer can slowly increase the temperature while monitoring beam current on one of the grids. such as my REM. So generally a rejuvenator was a 'do or die' unit and a restorer could give only what was needed to accomplish increased emission.ucar.) Reduced emission (dim picture) can occur when the cathode/filament has used up most of the electrons it can emit to the screen. Then.

and a 15W light bulb in series for this PSU. and then check the emission using. As the cathode cools down.3 or 12 Vac To Filament I | )||( Secondary CRT Tube N | )||( (no Polarity) S | )||( | )||( o---|-----+--+ +-------------------------------> | | | ----------------------------------------> CRT Cathode | | +-----+ _|_ -------------------| LP1 |-----o o------------> CRT 1st Grid .(From: Tony Duell (ard@p850ug1. it is claimed that this can completely ruin the cathode. say).demon. One old article suggested that if you get no or even cause short-circuits to occur in the CRT. Don't blame me if it burns out .) I've read some articles in 'Television' which describe home-brew CRT rejuvenators. and you watch the emission current rising (or the bulb getting It appears that you overrun the heater by up to 50% (for a 6V heater.).it). With others you apply it for a few seconds.distefano@siemens. a single diode as a half-wave rectifier. I've not tried any of the circuits yet. try 7. Some designs apply that voltage continuously. Home-Made CRT Rejuvenator 2 I have no comments one way or another with respect to this device.5V and 9V. I don't like unisolated equipment. you get quite violent stripping of the cathode .-) You then apply about 300V. current limited to say 50 or 60mA between cathode and 1st grid..g..) Here is the 'gadget' I use to rejuvenate 'tired' CRT's: T1 o---+--------+ +-------------------------------> | )||( M | )||( A | )||( 6. Please contact the author for further information.observable as sparks from the electron gun area of the CRT. switch off the heater supply with the 300V still connected.. e.. One of the older designs used the UK 240V mains. so I'm not going to try it. a 12V supply and a microammeter between cathode and grid. (From: Mario Di Stefano (mario. On the other hand.

These isolated clips ARE IMPORTANT. 'strange' brightness. also strange colours. P1 Hand Pushbutton. LP1 is a standard FILAMENT LAMP (60 . It is not a dangerous voltage. These contacts usually are put aside each other) have to be connected to the transformer secondary of the circuit above. How to use it: First we have an tired CRT (BW or colour is the same). If the schematic is not available. using an ohmmeter we should find the two contacts which gives a few ohms. Keep in mind the way the CRT electron sources are built. Next we have to remove (if present) the CRT socket to its circuitry (beware to disconnect mains voltage FIRST!!!!!).1st Grid Filament + | | + |**| <-Spark (read text below) O------+ | | | | | | Cathode O---------+ | Connection | . The Cathode and 1st grids can be found looking very closely into the tube glass (use lens and good light if necessary). We have poor image contrast. At this point could be useful to discharge the HV using an isolated wire FIRST connected to CRT grey body and then to the make the contact UNDER the suction gummy which carries EHT. Other things needed (not shown): • • Mains switch (best if with overload protection or with fuse) 4 ISOLATED clips like the ones used in electronics to make contacts with the pins of ICs. but could be better not to discharge it over the body! Now we have to identify the filament pins. I think this circuit works better if the mains voltage is 220 Vac.100 W) working voltage according to mains.+-----+ P1 Where: • • • T1 is a standard mains AC transformer. to the tube. These usually follows this: Cathode | (B/W CRT tube) V O------+ | | + | | <. You don't have to touch any connection during the cleaning. Usually on the schematic circuitry of the Monitor/TV it is clearly written.

. would be video amplifier and/or CRT biasing adjustments to compensate for the aging of the tube.000 hour range. . and re-apply the original socket.. I used this circuit lots of times. FIRE button P1. Note that. if you leave your monitor on all the time. Turn off the mains. is usually good for 10. a year is just about 8.000 to 60. If it is a Colour CRT. I'm not tired to say: BEWARE OF THE MAINS VOLTAGE: IT CAN KILL!! If you are not so skilled. That's all. Items of Interest Lifespans of Monitors (From: Bob Myers (myers@fc.) Most manufacturers will quote an MTBF (Mean Time Before Failure) of somewhere in the 30. A good cleaning.000 hours. of course).. remove the connections. If it is a steady bright or dim. If there is dust (due to aging) between the cathode and 1st grid.hp. The only 'tune-up that a monitor should need. means that a 'bridge' has been formed between the electrodes and there is no way to recover the tube.000 to 15. Useless to say that the procedure have to be carried out for all these electrodes. exclusive of adjustments needed following replacement of a failed component. we have 3 filaments on). EXCLUSIVE OF the CRT. Regular degaussing of the unit may be needed. you could (but not always) even see the LP1 turn on and off randomly (a good cleaning gives a lamp OFF) and some sparks inside the tube. the circuit will blow-up it. It worked almost anyway.  Back to CRT FAQ Table of Contents. but I'm not considering that a tune-up or adjustment. without an extended-life cathode. These are usually done only if you're using the thing in an application where exact color/brightness matching is important. and now are working well. I recovered lot of thrown away PC monitors.| 1st Grid O------------+ Connection (Damn'd ASCII graphics!) Try to connect and turn on the Connect the 1st grid accordingly. you have 3 Cathodes. The tube collar glass now becomes hot: it is normal.000 hours before it reaches half of its initial brightness. If this happens. Now turn off the transformer again. 3 1st grids a anyway 1 filament. The typical CRT. You can even 'force' better sparks if you 'ting' your finger against the CRT glass (not so strong. Connect the Cathode wire to the cathode pin of the CRT Tube. gives a LP1 steady OFF. Turn on the transformer. don't try to do this procedure. The Filament in the CRT should turn on in a not-so-bright red (if it is a colour tube. of course.

The brightness half-life of a CRT is usually about 10-15 K hours of on time independent of what is being displayed on the screen. These effects are particularly severe at night during the summer when the air conditioning may be off but it is still a consideration year around. 3. such an failure could be much more disastrous. the filaments can be left on to minimize the time needed for a picture to appear since this doesn't affect CRT life very much. you are reducing the life of the monitor by a factor of 2-3. 2. which has more basis in reality is that the thermal cycling resulting from turning a monitor on and off will shorten its life. CRT Life: The life of a monitor is determined by the life of the CRT.the CRT. You wouldn't leave your TV on 24 hours a day. Energy use: While modern monitors use a lot less energy than their older cousins.probably about half the cost of the electricity to run the monitor. With a properly designed monitor. The popular rationalization for what is most often just laziness is that power-on is a stressful time for any electronic device and reducing the number of power cycles will prolong the life of the monitor. Energy Conservation. It is true that such thermal stress can contribute to various kinds of failures due to bad solder connections. this is rarely an issue. With modern CRTs. Safety: While electronic equipment designed and manufactured in accordance with the National Electrical Codes is very safe. and Laziness A common misconception about the care and feeding of computer monitors is that they should be left on all the time. even with sprinklers and smoke alarms. there are many more disadvantages: 1. The CRT is by far the most expensive single part and it is usually not worth repairing a monitor in which the CRT requires replacement. Can you recall the last time a monitor blew up when it was turned on? The other argument. there is always a small risk of catastrophic failure resulting in a fire. .Monitor Life. Component life: The heat generated inside a monitor tends to dry out parts like electrolytic capacitors thus shortening their life. the aggregate energy usage is not something to be ignored. With no one around. these can be easily repaired and do not effect the monitor's heart . 4. 1/2 to 2/3 of this is wasted for every monitor that is left on. would you? Full power saving where virtually everything including the CRT filaments is turned off is really best but the delay before a picture appears may be 20 seconds or more. With video display terminals. the text always came up in the same position and eventually burned impressions into the screen phosphor. If air conditioning is on during the night. 10 K hours is only a little more than a year.10 per kWH electric rate such a monitor will cost between $48 and $160 a year for electricity. A typical monitor uses between 60 and 200 Watts. Screen savers do not make any substantial difference especially with modern displays using X-Windows or MS Windows where the screen layout is not fixed. While there are some advantages to this. then there is the additional energy usage needed to remove this heat as well . However. By not turning the monitor off at night. During the night. Thus at a $.

However. the monitor should be turned off using its power switch. When there is some brightness on the screen. The tube has to be biased slightly on all the time when working. Some of the newest ('green') monitors have energy conserving capabilities. my recommendation is that the entire unit be turned off at night since the boot process is very quick and PCs are generally not required to be accessible over a network 24 hours a day. rather than simply leaving it on. a blank screen or dark picture will reduce stress on the CRT and power supply. This gets in to duty cycle statistics on the wear of the electronics. turn it off. The standard CRT should last about 30.000 hours. the brightness output should be about 50% of the nominal. However. but it would not be the same amount as having a full screen of white. this would introduce a bit more cathode current. and tube. The best solution is if the screen is not being used for about a 2 to 3 hour period. Electronic components will run cooler and last longer. Cycling the monitor power on and off. When there is cathode current. There is more to the CRT than just the heater. can introduce a greater stress on the support components.) This can be a complicated issue.Also see the section: Thernal Cycling and Component Life. there are good reasons to leave the system unit on all the time. there is a greater amount of cathode wear in the electron-gun. If you have a small image on the screen that is moving around. For workstations. the ware is higher. At this time factor. or have the Windows power savings utility turn it off. This will extend the life of the monitor (and your investment) and is good for the environment as well. Few monitors in actual use and fewer workstations or PCs are set up to support these features. using the power saving modes of a 'green' PC with an older monitor can potentially cause damage since some of the modes disable the sync signals. A 'green' monitor which can detect a blank screen and and use this as a trigger can easily be used with a screen saver which can be set to display a blank screen on any PC or workstation. This figure is with the brightness set to . even though it is in black. Having a black screen saver will in fact save some amount of cathode wear. If you have such a monitor and computer to support it. However. it is necessary for the software to trigger these power reduction or power down modes. and the tube. Even if the monitor does not support power saving modes. by all means set up the necessary power off/power down There is a minimum cathode current when there is no brightness on the screen. For PCs. Please make it a habit to turn your monitors off at night. This can get very complicated in many cases. (From: Jerry Greenberg (jerryg50@hotmail.

it should last about 8 years.the tube is still on and the cathode is aging. The bottom line is that nothing is ever going to last forever. Cycling the power off and on will also cause the monitor to fail quicker. If the monitor is used at about 10 hours per day. many of the capacitors start to go bad in monitors and TV sets.hp. they're NOT aging when they're off. most important for those components which have clear heat-related aging. take 6 hours a day on average 365 days a year and you get 4. There are many support components that can go wrong before the tube does. Expected Life of TV CRTs (From: David (dakuhajda@aol. Thernal Cycling and Component Life (From: Bob Myers (myers@fc. In reality these monitors will last about 5 to 6 years.000 hours is at the . and trying to maximize the life of the product is an exercise in making tradeoffs between various aging/failure mechanisms. The way things are going obsolete these days. and it ages (more properly. screen-savers do NOT help here . They are no longer plating the guns but dipping them. many of the manufactures don't sell the parts for out of warranty servicing. such as overnight. This is. Esp. I got this from a Thomson engineer. for obvious reasons. in a few years. unless they are very expensive and high end models. Most monitors don't get around to turning the heater down or off until they enter the DPMS "suspend" or "off" modes.) Other factors . In the low to medium end monitors. the cathode is aging) as long as the heater is on and the tube is under bias. they are designed to not be serviced. and this is why I recommend shutting off only when you're going to be away for an extended period. and may have to be changed anyways. Clearly.5 years.) In a CRT monitor. After about 6 years of normal use. Enjoy the monitor.simply having the circuits hot and powered up in general means that they're aging.) The "unofficial" designed life is 10.normal. (And no. your monitor will be useless. and the contrast at about 50 to 70% of its maximum rage. the shortest-lived component BY FAR is the CRT itself. Given the number of hours most people watch TV these days. Also note that the 10. Since most monitors.000 hours on the guns used in most Thomson manufactured sets. but most do to some extent. vulnerable are things like electrolytic of course. Then there are many other types of components that can fail. This needs to be balanced against the thermal-cycling sort of stresses that you mention which happen during power

as you'll pay a good bit more for a non-interlaced. a auto-scan monitor needs more sophisticated deflection and power supply circuitry. Refresh rates. Resolution. Thomson does have a "better" line of picture tubes for the higher end sets. anyway. Try getting that 32" Sony Trinitron XBR to give you 1280x1024. We do the contract repair service for all the hospitals and hotels in our area. 2. Why are Prices of Video Monitors So High Compared to Similarly Size TVs? How come I can buy a 32" Sony Trinitron TV set for $800.doubling circuitry. but when it comes to buying a monitor for my PC. NTSC TV signals come at one refresh rate. clean 72Hz NI display on there. Manufacturers order TV chipsets in much larger quantities. line-doubled NTSC picture than the previous poster was complaining about. or you don't watch it at all. No nice. Economy of scale. This drives down the price. That's fair. NTSC TV signals aren't even VGA resolution. The sets bought in 1993 in one hospital are now coming in with complaint of green picture or bad focus at edges. and a few with really good looking pictures. Zenith on the other hand has a company expected life of 3 years on new sets.) Therefore.94Hz (interlaced). (NOTE: This only refers to the 99+% of TV playback equipment that contains no line. A computer monitor has a CRT with a resolution about 2 to 3 times that of a TV of similar size in both horizontal and vertical directions. Final note: we see 7 and 8 year old sets come in all the time with crappy picture tubes. Plus the hard short failures they have been having on all "L" and "M" line sets.usm.) There are several significant factors being overlooked here: You either watch broadcast NTSC at 59. All due to the picture tubes being worn out. Since most people never adjust from these expect 5 years. There are still *many* more TV sets being sold than computer monitors. period. They are actually plating the guns the way they use to. . 3. The beam is also more sharply It must run at much higher scan rates and this complicates the circuitry as well. $1400 only gets me a no-name 20" tube? Why can't a giant like Sony produce a PC monitor anywhere close in cost to an equivalently sized TV set? (Some of this from: Mike Stewart (mstewart@whale.preset way too high brightness and contrast settings that the set comes with from the factory.

Stessen (Jeroen. If you score it with a fine triangular file. and those used in computer monitors. probably copper. There is a fundamental difference between CRTs designed for TV Pull the mains plug.) Back in the TV-lab we have an unassembled picture tube for that purpose. Most convenient! • • First. make sure that the electrical capacitance of the CRT is properly discharged.hp. I would really like to cut one (or parts of one) open. it will crack off It's possible. No. Then push it under the anode cap and make a good short-circuit. It takes several minutes for the air to fill the entire tube. and won't give the best performance possible in either application. that's not harmful. Geometry. It's a brightness/resolution tradeoff . 5. Toshiba has one product and offerings from other companies are available or are on the way). Next you want to break the vacuum." (Portions from: Jeroen H. Remove the plastic part around the pins and break the little tube by hitting it with e. You don't see very many color tubes running at 100 150 fL brightness and still using an 0. . o The other way to break the vacuum is via the thin tube that was used to pump the air out of the tube. It's made of really soft metal. Adjustments are provided to eliminate pincushion. This is my preferred method: o Use a sharp object or a drill to punch a small hole in the anode contact.4. so it would be great to know what other things to worry about or what tools to use. the tip of a screwdriver (+hammer). Remove the anode cap and EHT wire. In the mean time you can have some fun putting your finger over the hole.28 mm pitch! Picture Tube Disassembly for Demonstration Purposes Here are several questions from a budding exhibit constructor: "1. That is located in the middle of the socket at the end of the neck.g. keystone.Stessen@philips. or the power line voltage fluctuates. Problems with Designing a Combination TV and Computer Monitor (The following is from: Bob Myers (myers@fc. Also. and trapizoid distortions. Stability. but sacrifice the ability to use small spot sizes and fine dot pitches to do this.TV tubes are run about 3X or so the brightness of a typical computer monitor. Connect a wire to the outer aquadag. I am interested in using a dead CRT for a display at our science center on how things work and know about the safety issues. etc. The image on a high quality computer monitor is rock solid and does not shift position or change size as components warm up. But such designs ARE compromises. and has been done (for instance. The precision of a good computer monitor is much greater then any TV. The sides will be parallel and square.

Turning a Large CRT Faceplate into the Side of a Fish Tank . containing heavy metals such as cadmium and some rare earths. it looks as if the phosphor layer has been blown away from the faceplate by the strong inrush of air. you will want to prevent the curious from being injured by sharp metal parts but nothing will fall apart (assuming your original disassembly was not overly violent). you get a very characteristic dirty spot on the front of the screen.I like this method less. Aside from the danger of flying bits of glass.. Use a glass cutting saw if one is available. Normally the two parts are glued together. I think it will require a glass cutting saw to get the tube open again. The difficult part will be to cut the connection between faceplate and funnel. You want to separate it just behind the faceplate or else there will not be enough space to grab and remove the shadow mask. Just don't touch it. • • The deflection coils (and purity/convergence magnet assembly. Modern tubes should at least have cadmium-free phosphor. Else. It's best to find an old tube where the coils have not been potted (against the noise they tend to make). I would assume the phosphors are a problem. Or maybe it was the shadow mask being blown against the faceplate. Don't just chop off the neck . That's just clicked into place. And one more question: "2..especially if you have not released the vacuum. Or that we would need to bond a cover over the exposed interior components both for safety and to keep them intact?" Obviously. for fear of breaking too much glass. so normally it would not even be exposed. which is clicked into metal parts at the face plate. The whole assembly removes easily. The internal magnetic screen is attached to the shadow mask. Then you can see them very well. Loosen the clamps and twist and slide them off of the neck. if used) are also easily removed. Nothing immediately toxic but the long-term effects are not healthy either. Any things I need to know about chemical hazards?" Old tubes had environmentally unfriendly phosphors. very easy to unclick. • You might also want to cut off the neck for easier manipulation and study of the electron gun parts. this is going to be a wonderful demonstration of a very practical application of some heavy *physics*. "3. Have fun. But the phosphor is covered with a metal layer. Very tell-tale and spoils your nice display. score totally around the neck with a fine triangular file or glass cutter and then it should snap fairly cleanly.

TV's may be good but VCR's certainly are not. US$ 2000). are usually set up for no overscan at all so that the entire image is visible. Once this is done.a masonry dealer or industrial glass company might be talked into doing this. With the proper tools. now that we are building TV's with VGA inputs (PD5029C1 in the USA.So. If you can gain access to a diamond saw to cut around the edge. We are constantly reminded of that.) TVs are always set up to generate a picture which is 10-15 percent large than the visible face of the CRT. and broadcasters are counting on the overscan . it is a 10 minute job. this was probably done to make the design easier. The phosphors may be at least somewhat toxic (to fish at least) so every trace of them need to be removed. Viewers do not like this. This mixed application has overscan in TV mode and underscan in VGA mode. Cutting the CRT apart would be a tricky for example. the resulting finish (if the glass itself is frosted) may interfere with your fish viewing pleasure. Component tolerances and power line voltage fluctuations would be masked even if they caused changes in picture size. If it is a typical color TV. Unfortunately. Computer monitors. The problem then becomes whether the inside surface is frosted or not. the front is over an inch thick so you have to slice it around the edge behind the main faceplate. Why? In the early days of TV. :-) Why do TVs Overscan? (The following includes material from: Jeroen Stessen (Jeroen. Bad form.Stessen@philips. now it has become accepted as a de facto standard. that is possible . There certainly is almost no reason today to have any more than a couple of percent overscan. you want to turn your 1950's vintage console TV into the ultimate fish tank experience. If you have too little overscan and then put the VCR in any feature mode (like picture search) then one (black) picture edge may become visible. Most modern TVs have very well regulated power supplies and component values do not really drift much. While design considerations may have been the original reason for overscan. Geometry adjustment is quite critical if you see border-onborder. I wouldn't recommend even trying a glass cutter except as a last resort. WARNING: Make sure the CRT capacitance had been discharged and the vacuum let out first! See the section: Disposing of Dead TVs or Monitors (CRTs and Charged HV Capacitors).

The cathode can be made of and/or coated with a material optimal for emitting electrons without regard to its performance as a heater. Gredag (grease). The spot on the screen is a reduced focused image of the effective shape of the emitting portion of the cathode. (From: Nicholas Bodley (nbodley@tiac. It was one of many "-dag" colloidal graphites. How to make sure you have continuity between pieces. there will be 0% overscan (no need to build the extra pixels) but that doesn't mean that all 480 lines will be visible. be quite unnecessary. you would need a decent adhesive. This would be particularly significant for CRTs. Are there any CRT rebuild shops around the USA? See the Thomas Catalog (ThomCat) in a library to find Acheson. I'm not so sure.) Aquadag used to be a trademark of Acheson Colloids [Corp. If you can find some reasonably-priced nickel-flake or copper-flake paint (be sure it's conductive!). I suppose when we have true flat panel digitally addressed displays. do not interfere. One wonders whether it will ever change or whether this really matters. I am pretty sure there's nothing magic about the graphite. maybe even ordinary aluminum foil? You surely don't need current-carrying capacity. 2.?]. 3. and Alcoholdag. At the Japan Electronics Show all the signs are pointed toward flat panel displays so maybe I will not have to hold your breath for much longer. it's probably sold in 55-gallon drums minimum. . I hope you can find smaller quantities. as I recall. Unfortunately. NY. (This might. What is Aquadag? You may see the term 'Aquadag' referring the black paint covering the outside of most of the funnel section of the CRT. if any. however. The separate cathode and filament can be electrically isolated so that the filament voltage and cathode drive signal. they also made Oildag. I think around Niagara Falls or Buffalo. though. shoot for really tight crimps that deform the metal and are gas-tight. we might have 0% overscan.) Why are Indirectly Heated Cathodes Used in CRTs Here are three reasons: 1. you might have an affordable (?) The cathode can have an optimal shape for the application. How about plain metal foil. Physically.being a certain percentage. as with an LCD display on a laptop computer.

Assuming a beam current of 5 mA p-p at 100 V p-p swing then above 800 kHz there will be more peak-peak capacitive current than beam current ! The pull-up resistor in the typical class-A video amplifier also consumes current. spot size (sharpness of focus) is critical to allow a better CRT to achieve a sharper picture! A better monitor needs both a better CRT (sharper beam) and better video amplifiers (higher bandwidth). series inductance plays no important role but parallel capacitance does! In fact.7 MHz. Frequency compensation alone is not enough. Remember that. Better tubes may or may not have lower C but it is not very Of course.Stessen@philips. The dominant pole is first shifted to a higher frequency by using lower-value pull-up resistors in the video amplifier. This is what allows a better monitor chassis to achieve a higher bandwidth. often with inductors. Then the dominant pole is compensated by a zero in the emitter circuit of the output transistor. Of course this will increase dissipation losses. boys and girls! Of course. class-B designs with active pull-up will improve much. about 12 mA p-p for an 8. Without a sufficiently low value for the pull-up resistor the NPN transistor will simply switch off during a rising edge and the edge will be limited by the R*C of the dominant pole alone. Together with the beam current this shifts the dominant pole up to 2. CRT Service Information How to Read CRT Part Numbers .Frequency Response of CRTs (From: Jeroen Stessen (Jeroen. even for TV. But good wide-band high-voltage PNP transistors are still a bit hard to get.2 K Ohm resistor. with 50 to 100 V p-p swing and 1 to 5 mA p-p beam current it is in the order of 10 to 100 K Ohm. There may be other compensation networks too. The compensation network is effectively decoupled from the output by the switched-off transistor. Obviously there is a dominant pole well within the range of interest.) The impedance of a gun is fairly high.  Back to CRT FAQ Table of Contents. Consequently. the video amplifiers supply more parasitic capacitive current than beam current! For a TV tube the total parasitic capacitance (CRT + socket + PCB + amplifier output devices) is at least 10 pF.

) The following information comes from the Sencore CR7000 Manual The tube number is broken down in to 5 parts: Example: M / 36 / KME / 20 / XX Part 1: Tube Type: A or W = TV picture tube. Measurement is in cm. etc. for example. Part 4: Member of Family . Part 3: Family Number . double digit members = Color tubes. Part 5: Phosphor Type. followed by "AAB". Here is one pinout common in color TVs. (1 inch = 2. Typical Color CRT Pinout It is usually possible .54 cm). Tubes with the same sequence of letters are identical as far as their setup for the Sencore CR7000.Tubes Within a particular family have specific mechanical and electrical characteristics. A different number is assigned to tubes within the same family that have different neck diameters. M = Monitor tubes (differ in the size and pitch of the phosphor dots). These letters are assigned alphabetically beginning with "AAA".This one or two digit number specifies a particular member within a determine the pinout of a CRT from the markings and circuit configuration on the CRT neck board and by visually following the base lead wires inside the neck of the tube. Note that this tube socket includes integral spark gaps and pin 12 doesn't actually go into the CRT. Single digit member #s = monochrome. P = Projection tube. Part 2: Minimum viewable diagonal.with a little effort . "AAC". Pin 1: Focus Pin 2: NC . The letter sequences are grouped according to the country they are manufactured in. D = Electrostatic than you ever wanted to know (but still not that useful)! (From: Jeff Roberts (jroberts@axionet.

They generally use various permanent magnet glued to the perimeter of the yoke to set the geometry of the raster. compare the parameters and then decide.) Perhaps you need to know why the #'s are different? The A is for the grade of the tube (AA is all new. I would not spend the time to sub the tube without first check the voltages on the old one. It takes a special factory jig to do this step or really great persistence and get a schematic of set for new one. and the X is for phosphor type." (From: Tech 7 (gscivi@aol. the 51 is size in cm.) CRT Substitution "I have an RCA TV model # f20700dg that has a bad crt #A51ABU14X what I would like to know is can I replace it with a #A51AGC14X. Since the gun type is different in your two tubes. CRT Replacement Worth It? The sad fact is that even if you can obtain a new CRT you won't have the proper set up for getting proper alignment and convergence.Pin 3: NC Pin 4: NC Pin 5: G1 Pin 6: Green Cathode Pin 7: G2 Pin 8: Red Cathode Pin 9: Filament Pin 10: Filament Pin 11: Blue Cathode Pin 12: Sparkgap Ground Here is another without sparkgaps in the socket: Pin 1: Focus Pin 2: NC Pin 3: Blue Cathode Pin 4: Filament Pin 5: Filament Pin 6: G1 Pin 7: Red Cahtode Pin 8: G2 Pin 9: Green Cathode (There may actually be no pins present for those marked "NC" as well as a gap between the highest numbered pin and pin 1. the ABU is gun type. However. if you . B is rebuilt etc). the 14 is # of elements used (pins).

I just put the CRT from an old Gateway2000 with analog controls into a nice 2 year old monitor. Inc. by all means. Replacing a monochrome CRT is a snap in comparison. 724 Scott Don't try to swap the yokes or you will never get it converged. Everybody around said he sold the best rebuilt tubes that you could get. They have been giving us good service for at least 15 years.) Try Hawkeye. K. Des Richardson (rchvid7@flash. (From: Andy Cuffe (baltimora@psu. He made a living with it for a few years selling rebuilt b&w tubes. consider the cost of a new CRT may be more than half the cost of the monitor when it was new. . He always said that a tube could be made to last practically forever if you could get a high enough vacuum on it. The only real money he put into his plant was in the pump. • Hawk-Eye Picture Tube Mfg. As long as the yokes and CRT sockets are similar it should work fine.. 50309-5052 Phone: 515-288-8567 Fax: 515-288-8568 Suppliers of standard & high resolution color and monochrome picture tubes. Their rebuilds are covered by warranty. Rebuilt CRTs (From: B. Really? (From: Charles Godard (cgodard@iamerica. He said the secret was in the good vacuum pump and that he used and the amount of time that he pumped down the tube.) I have found that most 15" monitors use compatible Back in the late 50's A Tech friend of mine built a picture tube rebuilding plant from scratch. IA. Also. What Does It Take to be a Picture Tube Rebuilder.have the time and will resist punching a hole in the new CRT before you finish. A better (or at least less stressful) approach is to locate a monitor that died due to a circuit problem and salvage the CRT including the yoke and all the other magical magnets and coils.

My friend never got anything from his invention. Speaking of patent' They could start with a few old scraps and build something worthwhile and useful. I've got a copy of his patent on display in my shop. but was recognizable as his original with only a couple of changes. In addition to the tube plant. they took the idea from the patent and redesigned it so they wouldn't have to pay our local guy for the hinges. The lathe where he welded the tube necks onto the tube was built of scraps of angle iron with a washing machine motor.) Monitors are more prone to shipping damage than most other computer components.A few years ago he retired and brought the whole thing down to my shop for storage. The cooker was an old upright deep freeze with a pyrex pie plate for a window. RCA's redesign didn't work as well as his original. I made a service call a few years ago. I've also seen the original patent for the hinges RCA used to hold up the tops on the old console stereo's. We found the contract where he sold the rights to build and market the picker for a $500 per picker royalty. He said it was the only transformer he could find. The guy he sold it to took the patent and went to a nearby state.000 from the bank with the Patent as collateral then skipped the country. The only thing is. and it doesn't help that they typically pass through several people's hands (several stages of shipping) before they get to you: factory -> distribution center -> vendor -> you. RCA 'did him' about the same way they 'did' Philo Farnsworth. but when he died. . It was a marvel to behold. he also designed and got a patent on a cotton picker. I try it on the tubes and let you know. we searched the shop and found his patent papers hidden away in a file cabinet of old Sams Photofacts. Some of us only half believed him for years. that would hold up to heat the wire hot enough to cut the neck off of the tube. If it does. He said he had the most trouble when designing the inductance heater but finally got it built with the help of a local genius who had built one of our local TV station's nearly from scratch back in the 50's. at the time. and some of his design ideas were later stolen and incorporated into some one of the big name picker manufacture's products. Those old guys were something else. When I get a slack spell. when he said he had the patent. I'll try the inductance heater to see if it still works. borrowed $200. I believe you called it a Tesla coil? Shipping Damage: Why Monitors are Like Basketballs (From: Stephen Swann (swann@panix. The device that he used to cut the necks off of the tube was a model railroad controller with a homemade foot pedal and a couple of whittled down broomsticks with metal tips shaped so that you could easily fold the nichrome wire around the tube neck. and the guy's widow showed me the patent and his original prototype hinges. It was very low voltage but would supply hi current.

you're right.And from what I've seen first hand of shipping practices (I put in a couple of months working in a distribution warehouse during college). then?" "How about this squashed piece of aluminum?" "Yeah. You wouldn't *believe* the abuse that UPS and FedEx can subject packages to. it was some kind of lamp. and it took us 20 minutes to figure out what the contents of the box had originally been.  Back to CRT FAQ Table of in the knowledge that the package had passed through so many hands that the damage could never possibly be traced back to them. In fact. I remember receiving packages marked "FRAGILE" where the (originally cubical) cardboard boxes had been smashed into shapeless cardboard "bags". what I'm saying is that if 1 monitor in 3 arrives arrives in workable condition. :-) Shipping guys would think nothing of dropping "fragile" boxes from waist-high onto a concrete floor . "Blameless is Guiltless" should be the motto of these folks.02 -- . -. you should be surprised that even that one monitor survived. but where's the cord then?" etc).end V2. ("What are all these shards?" "I think it was some kind of vase" "No. you can safely assume that each stage of shipping is roughly the equivalent of your monitor being dropped down a flight of stairs. putting a *FRAGILE* sign on the side of the box is about the equivalent of writing "KICK ME" on it." "Where's the bulb socket. Basically.

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