“NVH Analysis in Automobiles”

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“NVH Analysis in Automobiles”


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The use of NVH analysis provides essential benefits towards designing vehicles for ride comfort and quietness, an increasingly competitive advantage in today's global automotive market. Requirements for NVH analysis at increasingly higher excitation frequencies is driving NVH modeling promoters beyond practical limits for conventional NVH methods. This paper examines details behind conventional NVH practice, NVH modeling directions for the future, and an alternative to conventional NVH that will allow future modeling targets to be achieved. Automotive manufacturers undergo increasing market pressures to satisfy consumer demand for vehicles designed with improved ride-comfort and quietness. Good management of a vehicle's NVH characteristics helps auto makers produce a more competitive product, especially in luxury vehicle markets. Sources of NVH are dynamic and acoustic response to typical mechanical loads -- those mainly applied from vehicle interaction with the road and operation of the Powertrain. Significant NVH improvements have occurred recently such that vehicle sounds and vibrations previously masked by road noise are becoming a substantial noise source. As such, additional NVH reductions will only occur with design investigation at higher levels of fidelity and precision. Only the NVH laboratory offers such levels today since conventional NVH analysis still has several limitations.




but this does not mean that two noises with the same A-weighted level are equally disturbing. adding or subtracting particular harmonics. vibration.INTRODUCTION NOISE Noise is a audible sound generated in vehicle or any other system including engine. driveline. In some cases the NVH engineer is asked to change the sound quality. and includes drive-by noise testing. The vibrations can be measured and controlled. and harshness (NVH). particularly cars and trucks. i. brakes. or with analytical tools that provide results reflecting human subjective impressions." Interior NVH deals with noise and vibration experienced by the occupants of the cabin. tire contact patch and road surface. This is partly because the human body has its own frequency response.e. rather than making the car quieter. The field of psychoacoustics is partly concerned with this correlation. the ear's response at moderate noise levels is approximated by A-weighting. e. NVH is mostly engineering. # Noise can be measured • VIBRATIONS Vibration is generated in the driveline and can be experienced / sensed and seen by any person. cooling fan etc. also known as noise and vibration (N&V). gearbox . The source of vibration can be any part / assembly of the vehicle. Harshness is a subjective quality. is the study and modification of the noise and vibration characteristics of vehicles.g. 1 . but often objective measurements fail to predict or correlate well with the subjective impression on human observers. These latter tools belong to the field known as "psychoacoustics. While noise and vibration can be readily measured. while exterior NVH is largely concerned with the noise radiated by the vehicle. clutches. • HARSHNESS Harshness is a combination of NOISE and VIBRATIONS and hence is tactile and audible WHAT IS NVH Noise. and is measured either via "jury" evaluations.

brakes. including the engine. and then radiated acoustically into the cabin. tire contact patch and road surface. These are classified as "structure-borne" noise. or the HVAC. Vibrations are sensed at the steering wheel.Sources of NVH The sources of noise in a vehicle are many. Many problems are generated as either vibration or noise. alternator. driveline. Others are generated acoustically and propagated by airborne paths. Some problems are sensed visually . or the floor and pedals. armrests. the seat. and other engine accessories is also fairly common.such as the vibration of the header rail or rear view mirror on open topped cars. CPCB & NCNPC # Noise Pollution # Customer Awareness Of Vehicle Ride Comfort # Marketability #Trend Towards Higher Power And Smaller Size Power trains. while airborne noise is reduced by absorption or through the use of barrier materials. and wind. transmitted via a variety of paths.AUDIBLE -TACTILE -TACTILE AND AUDIBLE • Necessity of NVH – CMVR. # Sound Quality # Design Optimization # Consistency In Production 2 . Structure-borne noise is attenuated by isolation. Noise from cooling fans. • Necessity of NVH Awareness SOUND IS A PROPAGATING TYPE OF ENERGY. # NOISE # VIBRATION # HARSHNESS . NOISE IS A UNWANTED SOUND.


etc. 4) SQUEAK /RATTLE There are some misalignments in various assemblies of various components which creats noise when automobile is in motion. # By Vehicle Systems 1) BODY NVH NVH related to the body shell of the vehicle only. 2) CHASSIS NVH NVH related to the chassis or the main stress line components such as the engine . transmission. # Vehicle Components 1) CLIMATE CONTROL SYSTEM Noise of climate control system such as Air Conditioning. axles. 3 . side wind which brushes the vehicle bode at the time of motion. Heating Systems etc.. 3) POWERTRAIN/DRIVELINE NVH During power generation and transmission some form of noise gets the share due to friction in mating parts such as gears. combustion in engine cylinders etc. 2) WIPERS Vehicle wipers also generates noise during working due to rubbing action occurring between the glass and wipers 3) SEAT MOTORS They form the most integral part of modern cars which generates noise but is only limited to a short time lapse.NVH CLASSIFICATION # BY NOISE TYPE 1) ROAD NVH Comprises of the noise generated due to the road contact patch with tyres and their relative motion. 4) SWITCHES They form the most integral part of all cars which generates noise but is only limited to working of very short period only when the operator needed to turn the switch. 2) WIND NOISE Noise generated due to the wind .


It gets transmitted inside the vehicle by. 1) Direct infiltration: 2) Improper sealing . support bearing.ANALYSIS Interior Noise of Vehicle One of the most decisive selling points for passenger car is the level and quality of interior noise. Like exterior noise engine is the main source of vehicle interior noise. rear axle drive shaft Noise Contributions from Various Systems # Fan and Radiator Assembly –10% # Drive Line –14% # Engine -21% # Intake System-14% # Exhaust System –32% # Structural Components.10% # Miscelleneous-3% Automotive Noise Sources-Levels and Frequency Bands 5 . Holes in the lower dash panel 3) Structural vibrations 4) Engine mounts. loops in the exhaust system 5) Drive shafts.

Noise Sources-Levels  Actual Testing Of PASS BY NOISE of a VEHICLE 6 .

although they look like tonal problems on any one spectrum. and rolling road dynamometers. normally. Many NVH facilities will have semi-anechoic chambers. their amplitude varies considerably. and ISO. examples include tweaking an automobile door latching mechanism to impress a consumer with a satisfying click or modifying an exhaust manifold to change the tone of an engine's rumble. Most of the acoustical measurement and instrumentation systems can be broken down into three components: 1) Sensors 2) Data Acquisition 3) Analysis 7 . The x axis is given in terms of multiples of engine speed. such as engine noise. Analysis of sound and acoustics plays a role in such engineering tasks as product design. such as road noise or wind noise. accelerometers and force gauges. Acoustical measurements and instrumentation range from a handheld sound level meter to a 1000-microphone phased array. For instance. The work might also involve design fine-tuning to meet market expectations. The integrity of the signal chain is very important. typically each of the instruments used are fully calibrated in a lab once per year. The y axis is logarithmic. Therefore. or broadband. In the past magnetic or DAT tape recorders were used. Here. Aircraft designers are also using acoustic instrumentation to reduce the noise generated on takeoff and landing. and process control. product design can require modification of sound level or noise for compliance with standards from ANSI. and any given setup is calibrated as a whole once per day. IEC. Typically signals are recorded direct to hard disk via an Analog-to-digital converter. Some resonant systems respond at characteristic frequencies. and uncelebrated. showing the various harmonics. Instrumentation Typical instrumentation used to measure NVH include microphones. production test. but in response to random excitation. or load cells. such as whistles from antennas. machine performance.Tonal versus broadband NVH can be tonal. Here is the noise spectrum of Michael Schumacher's Ferrari at 16680 rpm. Tonal noises often have harmonics.

To prevent aliasing. For example.S. as prescribed by the Nyquist sampling theorem. many devices come with antialiasing filters. OROS. National Instruments. sensor excitation. Other sensors include hydrophones for measuring sound in water or accelerometers for measuring vibrations causing sound. free-field. Thus. Other well known microphone suppliers include PCB Piezotronics and Brüel & Kjær. This signal conditioning may include amplification. taking into account the range of the sensor. Expressed in decibels. Brüel & Kjær. a device with an input range of ±10 V and a dynamic range of 110 dB will be able to measure a signal as small as 10 µV. anti-aliasing filters. which cut the maximum frequency range of the device to a little less than one-half the maximum sampling rate. and other signal conditioning. filtering. Another consideration is the frequency range of the instrumentation. Dynamic range is a common way to compare performance from one instrument to another.R. the input range and the specified dynamic range are important for determining the needs of your instrumentation system. It should be large enough to cover the frequency range of signal interest.Sensors The most common sensor used for acoustic measurement is the microphone. Dynamic range is a measure of how small you can measure a signal relative to the maximum input signal the device can measure. G. The three main groups of microphones are pressure. the dynamic range is 20 log (Vmax/Vmin). 8 . Measurementgrade microphones are different than typical recording-studio microphones because they can provide a detailed calibration for their response and sensitivity. Some well known vendors include Prosig. and LMS. Data Acquisition Data acquisition hardware for acoustic measurements typically utilizes 24-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). each with their own correction factors for different applications. Sound & Vibration has a selection guide detailing the difference between microphones.A. and input configuration. and random-incidence.


industrial production. it became conventional to identify these frequency ranges as "ultrasonic" and "infrasonic" respectively. "heard. science and technology have provoked one another to advance the whole. as in many other fields of knowledge.ACOUSTICS Artificial omni-directional sound source in anechoic acoustic chamber Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of sound. ready to hear"[1] and that from ακουστός (akoustos). Art. medicine. craft. So it is no surprise that the science of acoustics spreads across so many facets of our society . and solids). architecture. and speech is one of the most distinctive characteristics of human development and culture. which in turn derives from the verb ακούω (akouo). The Latin synonym is "sonic". After acousticians had extended their studies to frequencies above and below the audible range.music. ultrasound and infrasound (all mechanical waves in gases. audible"[2]. "I hear"[3]. warfare and more. liquids. There is often much overlap and interaction between the interests of acousticians and acoustical engineers. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician. The application of acoustics in technology is called acoustical engineering. meaning "of or for hearing. The word "acoustic" is derived from the Greek word ακουστικός (akoustikos). while letting the word "acoustic" refer to the entire frequency range without 8 . Hearing is one of the most crucial means of survival in the animal world.


acoustic intensity. frequency response measurements. colormap displays. and subjective evaluation of signals modified in real time are also used. lead cladding. and octave graphs. transfer path analysis. rig tests. 9 . Most NVH work is done in the frequency domain. Third Octave Analysis FFT Frequency Response Function Color Map Investigative techniques Techniques used to help identify NVH include part substitution. modal analysis.ACOUSTIC ANALYSIS Audio and acoustic analysis includes: fractional-octave analysis. power spectra. and partial coherence. statistical energy analysis. Wavelet analysis. using Fourier transforms to convert the time domain signals into the frequency domain. and transient analysis. Results are viewed on waterfall displays. sound-level measurements.

Back-of-envelope calculations are very useful. or tuned vibration dampers. say. These early prototypes are very expensive. In some circumstances. retuning exhausts and Intakes. for testing. When the phenomenon being considered occurs below. 10 . or 3. Sometimes these work. 2. for example the idle shaking of the powertrain. adding sound deadening or absorbing materials. with barriers (for noise) or isolators (for vibration). balancing. Deciding which of these to use in solving a particular problem is the challenge facing the NVH engineer.Computer-based modelling NVH needs good representative prototypes of the production vehicle. absorption of the noise or vibration energy. or improving the balance of a rotating mechanism. Specific methods for improving NVH include the use of Tuned mass dampers. so there has been great interest in computer aided predictive techniques for NVH. a multi-body model should be established. for example above 1 kHz. One example is the modelling works for structure borne noise and vibration analysis. interrupting the noise or vibration path. as in making a noise source quieter with a muffler. reducing the source strength. when the phenomenon being considered occurs at relatively high frequency. substantial changes in vehicle architecture may be the only way to cure some problems cost effectively. modifying the characteristics of elastomeric isolators. a SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) model should be established. or using active noise control. as for example with foam noise absorbers. Sub frames. 25-30 Hz. Typical solutions There are three principal means of improving NVH: 1. In contrast. These are needed early in the design process as the solutions often need substantial modification to the design. forcing in engineering changes which are much cheaper when made early. modifying the stiffness or mass of structures.


Forced vibration is when an alternating force or motion is applied to a mechanical system. Sine (onefrequency-at-a-time) tests are performed to survey the structural response of the device 12 . The mechanical system will then vibrate at one or more of its "natural frequencies" and damp down to zero. uneven friction. More often. road.g. Generally. usually with some type of shaker. For example.VIBRATIONS Vibration refers to mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium point. are generated by vibrating structures (e. Other "response" points experience maximum vibration level (resonance) or minimum vibration level (anti-resonance). electric motors. Types of vibration Free vibration occurs when a mechanical system is set off with an initial input and then allowed to vibrate freely. Examples of this type of vibration include a shaking washing machining due to an imbalance. the reed in a woodwind instrument or harmonica. Careful designs usually minimize unwanted vibrations. a DUT (device under test) is attached to the "table" of a shaker. Examples of this type of vibration are pulling a child back on a swing and then letting go or hitting a tuning fork and letting it ring. ear drum). The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road. Two typical types of vibration tests performed are random. these pressure waves can also induce the vibration of structures (e. servohydraulic (electrohydraulic) shakers are used. necessary for the correct functioning of the various devices. vibration is undesirable. when trying to reduce noise it is often a problem in trying to reduce vibration. Vibration testing Vibration testing is accomplished by introducing a forcing function into a structure. electrodynamic shakers are used. with order of magnitude being dependent on the actual mechanical system. or "pressure waves". wasting energy and creating unwanted sound -noise. or the vibration of a building during an earthquake. For example the motion of a tuning fork.and sine test. Sound. the meshing of gear teeth. vocal cords). etc.g. In forced vibration the frequency of the vibration is the frequency of the force or motion applied. the vibrational motions of engines. transportation vibration (caused by truck engine. etc). The study of sound and vibration are closely related. Hence. For relatively low frequency forcing. Such vibrations can be caused by imbalances in the rotating parts. or the cone of a loudspeaker is desirable vibration. springs. Alternately. one or more "input" or "control" points on the DUT are kept at a specified vibration level. For higher frequencies. or any mechanical device in operation are typically unwanted. Vibration is occasionally "desirable".

Vibration analysis The fundamentals of vibration analysis can be understood by studying the simple mass– spring–damper model. A random (all frequencies at once) test is generally considered to more closely replicate a real world environment. but will focus on the major equations and concepts in vibration analysis. Vibration isolation Subframe vibration isolation graph: force transmission on suspended body vs. Note: In this article the step by step mathematical derivations will not be included. 13 . Indeed. even though most real-world vibration occurs in various axes simultaneously. Most vibration testing is conducted in a single DUT axis at a time. The mathematics used to describe its behavior is identical to other simple harmonic oscillators such as the RLC circuit. such as a piece of equipment.under test (DUT). MIL-STD-810G. The mass– spring–damper model is an example of a simple harmonic oscillator. Test Method 527. calls for multiple exciter testing. Please refer to the references at the end of the article for detailed derivations. released in late 2008. from the source of vibrations. Vibration isolation is the process of isolating an object. frequency for rigidly and compliantly mounted subframes. even a complex structure such as an automobile body can be modeled as a "summation" of simple mass–spring–damper models. such as road inputs to a moving automobile.

This doubles the high frequency attenuation rolloff. Vehicle Ride Comfort > Ride comfort in a vehicle is a subjective perception normally Associated with level of comfort experienced during traveling in a vehicle. As a result of such a feedback system. at the cost of introducing additional low frequency modes which may cause the low frequency behavior to deteriorate. spring and damper (dash-pot). This is commonly used in the rear suspensions of cars with Independent Rear Suspension (IRS).20KHz. a considerably stronger suppression of vibrations is achieved compared to ordinary damping. Active isolation Active vibration isolation systems contain. a feedback circuit which consists of a piezoelectric accelerometer. This splits the system with an additional mass/spring/damper system.Passive isolation Passive vibration isolation systems consist essentially of a mass. > Perceived ride is cumulative effect of many factors. 14 . and in the front subframes of some cars. > In the vibration spectrum. which amplifies the signal.25Hz . The acceleration (vibration) signal is processed by a control circuit and amplifier. Then it feeds the electromagnetic actuator. a controller. Above 42 Hz the compliantly mounted subframe is superior. Ride . but below that frequency the bolted in subframe is better. > Ride is a tactile and visual vibrations.0 -25 Hz Noise . along with the spring. Subframe isolation Another technique used to increase isolation is to use an isolated subframe. The graph (see illustration) shows the force into the body for a subframe that is rigidly bolted to the body compared with the red curve that shows a compliantly mounted subframe. and an electromagnetic transducer.


APPLICATIONS NVH test equipment are used for various applications such as: • • • • • • • • Engine noise vibration testing Acoustic performance testing Sound power testing Pass by noise testing Telephone testing Environmental noise measurements and noise field mapping Structural dynamics and vibration testing Occupational health and safety ADVANTAGES OF NVH TEST • • • • Real-time multi-analysis is possible in one test run Results obtained are accurate and precise Report generation is made easy Shorter lead times. and hence improved productivity 16 .


18 . . The significance of a highly scalable NVH solution like direct frequency response is that engineers will be able to model at increasingly critical frequency levels within a wider hearing range of occupants.. .CONCLUSION The need to improve product quality and differentiate from the competition. This market has a huge potential and it can be expected that this market would grow for the next couple of years. create a viable market for NVH. concerns about human health and safety combined with stringent regulations.


. F. "Frequency Window Implementation of Adaptive Multi-Level Substructuring. Duncan. April 1998.VRDE NVH Test Lab (National Center For Automotive Testing)NCAT Division 5. Version 70. 3. and Wolf. 2. F." Journal of Vibration and Acoustics. J. L.. MSC/NASTRAN Numerical Methods. A. 20. 20 .Komzsik.. pp. 4.. Bennighof. Su. Body Design and Engineering..REFERENCES 1. pp. 1998. K. and Kaplan. "Understanding NVH Basics. No. M. 2. W. 120. CQAV Ahmednagar Reports . Vol. 111-116. Vol. 1996. 409-418." Proceedings of the International Body Engineering Conference.

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