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III-BS HRM Philippine History NINOY S CONTRIBUTION ON THE LAWS OF DEMOCRACY The Filipino is wroth dying for, Ninoy said. But did the Filipino learn the value of his martyrdom? President Marcos railroaded the 1973 Constitution just so he would remain in power. Yet Cha-Cha and the Concorde were initiated under two Presidents. The people resisted the change, they remembered Ninoy, their leaders did not die. 10,000 human rights victims, approximately only a third of those who were tortured, tormented, detained and salvaged, joined in a class suit to collect damages for their sufferings from the Marcos heirs. A U.S. Federal Court awarded the victims over $2 billion to be paid for by the Marcos heirs. The victims were ready to accept a muchreduced sum of $150 million, but even the Philippine Government confesses to its inutility to enforce and satisfy the judgment. Up to now they have not collected a centavo. Meanwhile the Marcoses, unrepentant, are strutting around looking very much that they have over $2 billion. Ninoy's murder is exhibit no. 1 for human rights violations. Yet only the small fries were convicted for his killing; the masterminds have not been tried. Other than that, no one has been convicted criminally for human rights violations. The police of late behave like clones of the deadened security forces of Mr. Marcos. They bludgeon and clobber even fleeting demonstrators, in a manner that is more savage than during the martial law years. What was EDSA if not a massive demonstration of defiance and people power. Even Marcos did not order his loyalist armed forces to fire upon them, but lesser men nowadays do not hesitate to order their men to beat up demonstrators. Nobody knew, until after EDSA, the unbelievable extent of the ill-gotten wealth and plunder by the Marcoses and his cronies. We had recovered some, but the startling thing is that the Marcos cronies are back with their economic clout only after a brief forced vacation. Worst, a new set of cronies have risen, some more brazen and callous than the Marcos cronies. As Ninoy said, only the batters change, the baseball game remains the same, rigged, in favor of the favored. No big fish of the Marcos era has been convicted for ill-gotten wealth. That encourages the bigger fish of the present crop of cronies to covet more and more big deals. Meanwhile, many of the well-off who fought Marcos and lost their fortunes during martial law were not able to recover after EDSA. Marcos, with his eyes set on the verdict of history, authored books explaining his New Society while his supporters likewise wrote book after book justifying martial law and martial rule. The school textbooks in Philippine history published during the Marcos regime extolled the virtues of Marcos' New Society. Public funds were spent for the propaganda. After EDSA, were they expunged from our history books? Empirical data indicate that they were not. On the contrary, passages in these textbooks echo the Marcos' propaganda and justification for the declaration of martial law, that it was imposed to save the Republic from anarchy, and the exigencies for the use of authoritarian powers. References to the "vision" of Marcos peddle the "myth" that the New Society was benign if not desirable. The
But those were the days of living dangerously. . The systematic revision of history is masked by vain attempts by the textbook writers at attribution to Marcos' claims. Perhaps he had in mind the verdict of history. But for 14 years they doggedly persisted in their opposition to the dictatorship. Ninoy the politician did not hide his ambition to be president. namely. Taxpayers pay for the publication of these misleading texts? How can the government prosecute Marcos and at the same time pay for the books that make them look good? The government. the corruption and veniality during the Marcos regime. in effect. but this is buried in the acceptance of propaganda as truth. How do the poor fare now? Those who were poor during martial law strikers were clubbed and died in the hands of the constabulary when they dared form picket lines. Ninoy led the parliamentary struggle to dismantle the Marcos dictatorship and restore democracy. the armed struggle carried out by the Communist Party of the Philippines through its military arm. winners just join the party of the elected President. Today. Forget the past and we libel the present.Philippine textbooks are confoundingly mute on the extent of political repression. So. We see careerism and crass opportunism in politics. But he was ready to forfeit his dream and the business of politics for a legacy. is undermining the teaching of the values that Ninoy stood for. they don't even have the good sense to review the contents of history books they order for distribution and reading by high school students. The subtlety of the distortion of the truth is alarming. Politicians have not learned from Ninoy. The lesson of history is clearly imperative. So he refused to collaborate even if that meant solitary confinement in his prison cell. the kind that has impoverished politics and given it a bad name. After all he knew that the legacy of a hero would endure more than the politics of a president. The opposition to Marcos could be classified into roughly two distinct classes. The freedom fighters were few. has there been an opposition after EDSA? What has happened since EDSA is that we have had opposition parties that operated like company unions? After elections. There can be no true representative of democracy without an opposition party. Quite a number were arrested and detained on orders of Marcos. the quintessential politician. the significance of both the Marcos dictatorship and the EDSA Revolution seems to be lost on the current generation of high school students and probably even the general public. the widespread human rights violation. along with the other advocates and defenders of freedom and justice. and the unarmed parliamentary struggle on the other. After EDSA. A sense of history gives our leaders and us a sense of limits. It is nothing short of tragic to note that today. He detested martial law and all that it stood for. Not only are education officials involved in the payola scandal. the no-strike dictum of Marcos is being revived by the elitist cabinet members for the sake of fast-tracking development. Our memories of the past should reconcile with us with the discontents of the present. and the New People's Army and the Muslim secessionist movement of the MNLF on the one hand. they laid down the legal foundation of the government. Parties have thus lost their meaning.
The army and the Philippine Constabulary seized weapons and disbanded private armies controlled by prominent politicians and other influential figures (Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law). The alleged attempt to the life of then Minister of Defense Juan Ponce Enrile gave Marcos a window to declare Martial Law. The emergency rule was also intended to eradicate the roots of rebellion and promote a rapid trend for national development. was to lead the country into what he calls a New Society . President Ferdinand E. the New People s Army. Thirty-thousand opposition figures including Senator Benigno Aquino. Martial Law and the Aftermath). The autocrat assured the country of the legality of Martial Law emphasizing the need for control over civil disobedience that displays lawlessness. Marcos placed the Philippines under Martial Law. we as a people will draw the newfound strength that will rouse our national spirit and build a creedal nation. Marcos imposed the need for self-sacrifice for the attainment of national welfare. Marcos started to implement reforms on social and political values that hindered effective modernization. Ninoy failed in his dream PHILIPPINES DURING MARTIAL LAW PERIOD n September 21. The declaration issued under Proclamation 1081 suspended the civil rights and imposed military authority in the country. Marcos announced the emergency rule the day after the shooting incident. . To match the accomplishments of its Asian neighbors. that from his example. Marcos used several events to justify martial law. journalists. student and labor activists were detained at military compounds under the President s command (Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law).Ninoy had a bigger dream. Supporters of CPP s military arm. according to Marcos s plan. Experts call this the crony capitalism. Marcos took control of the legislature and closed the Philippine Congress (Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law). Marcos also declared insurgency in the south caused by the clash between Muslims and Christians. also grew in numbers in Tarlac and other parts of the country. His reforms targeted his rivals within the elite depriving them of their power and patronage but did not affect their supporters (US Library of Congress. 1972. which Marcos considered as a threat to national security. The emergency rule. Marcos explained citing the provisions from the Philippine Constitution that Martial Law is a strategic approach to legally defend the Constitution and protect the welfare of the Filipino people from the dangerous threats posed by Muslim rebel groups and Christian vigilantes that places national security at risk during the time. Marcos explained that martial law was not a military takeover but was then the only option to resolve the country s dilemma on rebellion that stages national chaos threatening the peace and order of the country. The Muslims were defending their ancestral land against the control of Christians who migrated in the area. Martial law ceased the clash between the executive and legislative branches of the government and a bureaucracy characterized by special interest. The move was initially supported by most Filipinos and was viewed by some critics as a change that solved the massive corruption in the country. Marcos also allegedly funnelled millions of the country s money by placing some of his trusted supporters in strategic economic positions to channel resources to him. The minority group organized the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) in Malaysia and pushed for the autonomy of Mindanao from the national government. Marcos defended the declaration stressing the need for extra powers to quell the rising wave of violence allegedly caused by communists. Threat to the country s security was intensifying following the reestablishment of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) in 1968. In that respect. Numerous media outfits were either closed down or operated under tight control (Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law).
Marcos held a snap election in 1986 but what he hoped will satisfy the masses only increased their determination to end his rule that seated Corazon Aquino. Turning again to his electoral strategy. These efforts including the exposure of numerous human rights violations pushed Marcos to hold an election in 1978 and 1981 in an aim to stabilize the country s chaotic condition. Social unrest reached its height after former Senator Benigno Aquino was murdered. his extended term as President of the Republic of the Philippines elicited an extensive opposition against his regime. won the election. The incident sent thousands of Filipinos to the streets calling for Marcos removal from post. . in both events. Marcos. as President of the Philippines ousting Marcos from Malacañang Palace and ending the twenty-one years of tyrant rule. Urban poor communities in the country s capital were organized by the Philippine Ecumenical Council for Community and were soon conducting protest masses and prayer rallies. widow of Benigno Aquino. however. More and more Filipinos took arms to dislodge the regime.The deterioration of the political and economic condition in the Philippines triggered the decline of support on Marcos plans.
And I met an old barrio captain of mine from Tarlac. You know why you are rocky. the extravagance of the First Couple and many others that viewers will suddenly find themselves laughing. A funny story told by Senator Aquino entitled 'Marcos and the Psychopathic Patients. one of the leading industries of Japan. His tales about President Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos. whose company invested 450 million dollars in the Philippines. Kristeen. Benigno Aquino Jr. And so this Japanese gentleman stood up and said. As you very well know. you are very rocky.417 times (as of August 21. what is the actual situation in the Philippines? I think I owe it to a Japanese executive. sabi niya. during the speech in LA in 1981. he said. Here is a transcribed speech of Sen. they wanted to know why they were lucky. and then I sat down with him and I said.Bajar. the Filipino people to be the most rocky peopre in Asia. He said. And this old barrio captain of mine never failed to give me a sage advice. California in February 1981 has been viewed on Youtube 874. ito ba y may katapusan na? May katapusan pa ba ito? Bakit?. and you have a First Lady who robs you more.Ninoy and the Tarlaqueno Barrio Captain And so dear friends. and I consider. and he spoke at the opening ceremonies. My dear Firipino peopre. and this Japanese official came to the Philippines. the Japanese have a difficulty in pronouncing their r s [l's] Manila becomes Manira . .4:03 PM Dublin Time). L. I think this Japanese explained the situation in the Philippines very well. They set up a big plant in Mindanao.' which he narrated to the crowd. It was a sintering plant and this plant is now completed. human rights violations committed by his regime. angry. Marcos and the Japanese Businessman I have been asked by many people. Marcos to go out for two weeks last year on Christmas after seven years in prison. And the people were of course surprised. 2010 . He visited me. I was allowed by Mr. teary-eyed and inspired. . you have a President who robs you. III-BS HRM Philippine History NINOY S CONTRIBUTION TO THE LAWS OF DEMOPCRACY Ninoy's famous hour-long speech in Los Angeles. the many actions that the President did to cling on to power. Apo kakong ganoon. we broke bread.
1737 Dear friends. last January 17. I already spent seven years. he may close the school or prevent those students from enrolling in those schools. Marcos thinks that next month. Section 2 says and I quote. and gave me this law. they d be shouting Hallelujah! And the bells should be ringing the Te Deum. you would say this is the greatest thing that happened after 8 years. Marcos. any violation of this law entails an imprisonment for not less than thirty days and not exceeding one year. eh lahat ng lalaking diborsyado na nag-iisip pa lang magliligaw. Marcos. signed by Marcos a few days by martial law. Hayop kako. It was Presidential Decree No. It is very good news. 1737. And my friends. He may direct the closure of any publication or other media of mass communication he may believe to be subversive. Now let me read to you section 2. Marcos was met with stony silence. Marcos and Presidential Decree No. He suspects next week you may commit a crime. he may restrain or restrict movement and other activities persons or entities with a view to preventing them from acting in a manner prejudicial to the national interest or security or maintenance of public order. kung matatapos to. Is there any hope for our redemption? Hindi ko nga ika alam anak eh. may issue such orders as he may deem necessary to meet the emergency including but not limited to preventive detention. he. Ano pong ibig sabihin nitong preventive detention? The meaning of preventive detention is Mr. he can now order you arrested so you will not be able to commit your crime. like V . Marcos told the world martial law was lifted in the Philippines. and that in his mind. Eh kako. the police can arrest you in the Philippines today. Marcos. . ikang ganoon. in the mind of Mr. Freedom should be returned by now. Mr. patay na sa asawa. bakit? What is your reason? Aba y sabi niya. Why? Because it was only a cruel deception. is prejudicial to national security. Whenever in the judgment of the President/Prime Minister. But the announcement of Mr. 1737 Cambridge Street. I was stunned and I had cold chills in my back. banning or regulating the holding of entertainment or exhibitions detrimental to the national interest. And when I saw the number. Let me proceed. Ako po y ninerbyos. Doon sa Iran ay meron isang tunay na Shah natapos. sa dami ng numerong kumbinasyon. I said.Ninoy. Marcos signed into a law Presidential Decree No. 1737. and this is exactly the address of my office at Harvard. I mean if you re all reading the headlines. malapit na akong mamatay eh. you pose a great threat to national security. martial law is lifted. Napakatagal na ika. ito pa ang tinamaan ng sweepstakes. you will commit a crime. yan po ay si Marcos yan. Aba y hayop kako itong batas na ito. Because three days before martial law was lifted allegedly in the Philippines. control admission to educational institutions whose operations are found prejudicial to the national security. I m very very impatient. Imagine my friends. I did not know about this law until Senator Tañada came to me in Boston.J Day.Eh ako kako y inip na inip na. An Act Providing For The Preservation Of Public Order And The Protection Of Individual Rights And Liberties During Periods Of Emergency And Exercise Of Extraordinary Executive Powers. if in the mind of Mr. palagay ko matatapos din. Pero alam mo. and the Filipino people should be out in the street like V . Anong klaseng batas iyan? Iniisip mo pa lang eh nabilanggo ka na eh. there exist a grave emergency or a threat or imminence thereof.E Day. eh itong atin na-shahan lamang eh. Eh kung totoo ito. . Mr. and I hope Danny Lamilla hears this very well. If there are many students who want to demonstrate. They should be dancing in the street. Hindi ko man nalaman kung sinadya ito sa Maynila ngunit ito po y hindi nagpatulog sa akin ng isang linggo sapagkat this presidential decree says. Mr. President at Prime Minister. hindi pa ika natatapos.
but a mad dictator blinded by absolute power. This suspension of individual rights denies the person due process of law. legislative and judicial functions normally delegated to the civil government by virtue of its constitution. which is even worse that the former martial law. As the write of habeas corpus was suspended. Many reasons can be brought forward to explain why a government can bring forth such a Draconian system on its populace. Marcos manipulated. such as this case of civil war. On that fateful day. the course of Philippine history would be changed forever. may be suspended indefinitely. Anyone who lived during that period of Martial Law will tell you that those times were the darkest times in Philippine history. Marcos lifting martial law on one hand. The law as it was intended to be simply ceased to be. the successive right to freedom of speech was non-existent. More often than not. threaten to unravel a peaceful and productive soviety. The common citizens were at the mercy of a man who had every intention of holding on to power as if it was life itself. However. . PHILIPPINE LIFE DURING MARTIAL LAW Martial Law is the temporary superimposition of military government over civil government. September 21 1972. 1081. The government controlled media and all its related resources. Those were dark times indeed. the military picked up and incarcerated many innocent civilians on trumped up charges of sedition. Curfew was imposed leaving many stranded in their offices. many of the said elements were disgruntled citizens who were fed up with the corruption of the Marcos government. As a consequence. seditious Communist elements and Muslim extremists as reasons for his decision.So we have Mr. unable to return to the refuge of their homes. President Ferdinand Edralin Marcos. and putting another law on the other. or the right of an individual in custody to be brought to court to determine whether such incarceration is lawful. decided to take matters into their own hands. the writ habeas corpus. there are situations in which such measures are taken in order to cater to selfish and corrupt desires to remain in power. The are cases when civil unrest. During such times. these people were convicted without trial. placing the entire country under his firm grasp. prompting many student and labor organizations to disband amidst threats of arrest. signaling the start of a new fight for freedom. the military and its accompanying superiors take over the executive. He cited rebel factions. The right to assembly was also withheld. maybe the imposition of Martial Law can be justified. President of the Republic of the Philippines signed Proclamation No. Under the guise of insurrection and by staging of several bogus "ambushes" on members of the cabinet. In such cases. and denied the due process of law. In truth. This military-run government is put into place in the event of war or serious national emergencies. ever tailored events to justify the imposition of Martial Law. not against a foreign invader. all that existed was the whim of a dictator who sat with the entire nation in his grasp.
exiled to foreign lands and denied the chance to better their country s state. the power of the dictator and his cronies were too great. However. were simply sent away. The Philippine Republic simply ceased to exist in that one dark moment of history.It was during these hard times that the patriotic spirit of the Filipinos rekindled. many brave souls faced the darkness and denounced the abuses being performed on the Filipino people under the guise of Martial Law. Those who were too influential such as the case of Ninoy Aquino. . denied the right to defend themselves in court. The shadow of Martial Law will always be remembered. slowly the corruption and greed overwhelmed the new heroes. Many were incarcerated for many years. as one of the truly tragic events that gripped this gallant nation. Many of these patriots "mysteriously" disappeared only to reappear as corpses.
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