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8 HEALTH CARE

Health is not valued till sickness comes.


Dr. Thomas Fuller

The doctor of the future will give no


medicine, but will interest her or his pa­
tients in the care of the human frame,
in a proper diet, and in the cause and
prevention of disease.
Thomas A. Edison

 VOCABULARY INPUT
In this unit you will come across the vocabulary listed below. If there are any words you do not
understand, look them up in your dictionary.

• human body: ankle, arm, armpit, back, bottom, (coll. belly), breast, calf, chest, cheek, chin, elbow, eye, eyebrow,
eyelashes, eyelid, face, fi nger, foot, forehead, genitals, hair, hand, head, hips, jaw, knee, leg, nail, palm, shin, shoul-
der, skeleton, skin, stomach, thigh, thumb, toe, tooth, tongue, waist, wrist
• injuries: bruise, blister, bite, burn, fracture, fall, cut
– broken, pulled, swollen, twisted, sprained, dislocated, bleeding
• common illnesses: flu, cold, headache, earache, stomachache, backache, toothache, tonsillitis
• contagious diseases: jaundice, chicken pox, small pox, mumps, scarlet fever, rabies, SARS, AIDS, bird flu, swine flu
• civilisation diseases: asthma, diabetes, allergies, migraine, hypertension, heart attack, ulcers, epilepsy
• respiration diseases: tuberculosis, bronchitis, pneumonia
• heart and blood circulation diseases: heart attack, hypertension, angina pectoris, anaemia, stroke, arterioscle-
rosis, leukaemia
• degenerative diseases: osteoporosis, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, cancer, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease
• venereal diseases: AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis
• skin diseases: eczema, atomic eczema, herpes, psoriasis
• symptoms: high temperature, insomnia, spots, cough, sore throat, high/low blood pressure, rash, loss of appetite,
diarrhoea, sweating, pain, vomiting, headache, running nose, sneezing, weight loss (gain), hallucination, cramps,
constipation, paleness, nausea
• causes: stress, hectic lifestyle, insufficient sleep, polluted environment, sedentary work, lack of physical activities,
overeating
• doctors and specialists: GP (general practitioner), dentist, ophthalmologist, paediatrician, physiotherapist, sur-
geon, plastic surgeon, psychologist, radiologist, virologist, dermatologist, gynaecologist, internist, cardiologist,
homoeopath, immunologist, urologist, rheumatologist, obstetrician
• doctor’s activities: to examine a patient, to examine a patient’s chest or throat, to listen to someone’s breathing or
heartbeat, to prescribe some medicine, to operate, to take blood count/throat culture/urine
• medicaments: painkillers (pain relievers), antibiotics, vitamins, dosage, pills, capsule, tablets, syrup, drops, oint-
ment, cream, powder, spray, injection (AmE: shot), vaccine, infusion, side effects, to overdose
– pharmacy/chemist’s , drugstore, pharmacist, prescription
• healthy way of life: eating fruit/vegetables, wholesome food, lean meat, doing exercises, have sufficient sleep, well-
adjusted mind, undergo preventive medical check-ups, avoid smoking, stress and alcohol, prevention, vaccination
• medical care: hospitals (state, private, semi-independent/ward/surgery/doctor’s office, waiting room), clinics,
spas, maternity hospital, mental hospital, old people’s home, nursing home, hospice
• alternative medicine and treatment: acupuncture, homeopathy, osteopathy, aromatherapy, acupressure
• fi rst aid kit: thermometer, scissors, gargle, adhesive plasters, pills, drops, pain relievers, bandages, cotton wool,
ointment, gauze, vitamins, disinfectants
114 ANGLIČTINA – MATURITA

 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
Before reading the text, discuss the following questions in class.

1. Why should people take care of their health?


2. Do you take care of your health? If so, what exactly do you do?
3. When do you go to see a doctor?
4. What questions do doctors ask their patients?
5. Can you name any medical specialists in English?
6. Which diseases do small children typically get?
7. Which disease/illness do you think is the most serious? Why?
8. What items does a first aid kit contain?
9. Do you believe in alternative medicine (acupuncture, homeopathy, aromatherapy etc.)?
10. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using private health care establishments?

 INTRODUCTORY TEXT
Read the texts below. Check you understand the meaning of the words in bold and
answer the questions below.

RAISING HEALTH CARE AWARENESS


More and more people today seem to realise that good health means a longer and a hap-
pier life. Therefore, they take better care of their health than before. They eat healthier
food, practise different kinds of sports and try to avoid stressful situations as much as
possible. We need to be in good shape and also to have good mental health to be able
to work and fully enjoy our lives. Doctors often stress that mental health influences our
physical condition. Problems with digestion, ulcers or migraines can be the results of
mental problems such as depression, fear or anger. Bad eating habits, lack of physical
activities, sedentary work, stress – all these factors cause serious diseases. A healthy,
strong and beautiful body is the ideal for the majority of people and not only among
the young. It is not so difficult to pursue this aim if you live in a developed country
with good health care. However, in Third World countries, too many people are still
starving and epidemics of plague, cholera, typhus and malaria are a part of everyday
life, and not long forgotten epidemics of the past.
Every year, many people worldwide become victims of various accidents. Most ac-
cidents happen on the road and many at work. In every country, a lot of different security
measures are taken to prevent car accidents. Many children are injured playing outside
or at home handling dangerous objects.

1. According to the writer, what do people do to stay fit?


2. What factors cause diseases?
Unit 8:  HEALTH CARE 115

HEALTH CARE IN OUR COUNTRY


When we are ill, we usually see a doctor, called a GP (general practitioner). Sometimes we
need to have an appointment with a specialist. The doctor examines our body, asks what
symptoms we have and usually prescribes some medication, antibiotics, painkillers or
vitamins, which are usually available on prescription in a pharmacy. When the illness
is too serious to be treated at home, the patient is taken to hospital and sometimes even
undergoes surgery. People who are employed pay their health insurance monthly. In
general, they do not need to pay for basic health care and basic medication. When they
want extra care or special treatment, they have to pay extra costs. Some people decide
to go to a private health care establishment, usually for surgery (e.g. plastic surgery),
delivery or dental care. Patients in our country are free to choose their doctors.

3. Describe what happens in a doctor’s office (a surgery) when you go to see your GP.
4. What are patients supposed to pay for?

DISEASES AND TREATMENTS


Everybody has to go through various diseases during their childhood and adult life.
Most of these diseases are not serious and do not take a long time to cure. Thanks to
research in medicine (both in diagnostics and treatment), microbiology and chemistry,
we now have efficient medication against diseases such as flu, tuberculosis or scarlet
fever, which killed many people in previous centuries. However, there are diseases
which we have problems in curing and some which we have failed to find a cure for.
Cancer is one of the biggest threats nowadays. Every year, more and more people of all
ages are diagnosed with tumours of all types. However, scientists continue to develop
more and more efficient treatment techniques. We also get a lot of information about the
prevention of cancer and its treatment. Daffodil Day is organised in many countries,
including Slovakia. The money raised on this day is used to fund scientific research
into the causes and treatment of cancer and to provide support for people with cancer
and their families.
In medicine, there are many therapies and procedures. Those practised by medi-
cal doctors and other healthcare professionals using medicine, radiation or surgery are
usually called conventional medicine. Alternative therapies, on the other hand, include:
acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, homeopathy, naturopathy, herbal medicine,
massage, aromatherapy and reiki to name but a few. Some alternative therapies and ap-
proaches have already been integrated into health systems all over the world (Britain,
India, Brazil). So why do some patients choose alternative therapies even though they are
not covered by their insurance? Reasons vary from human curiosity, unsuccessful con-
ventional treatment to simply wishing to take responsibility for one’s own health.

5. Which serious diseases are mentioned in the text above?


6. What are alternative therapies in medicine?
116 ANGLIČTINA – MATURITA

ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME


(AIDS)
AIDS is one of the most serious diseases that threaten people nowadays. It is a viral
disease that impairs the immune system of the human body leaving it open to any
infection. Those infections that are not dangerous for people with normal immune systems
may be mortally dangerous for AIDS patients. It continues to be a major global public
health issue. According to the World Health Organization in 2016, 1 million people died
from HIV-related causes globally. 1.8 million people became newly infected in the same
year. AIDS was first identified in homosexuals, but later it was found among intravenous
drug abusers, haemophiliacs and other persons who had received a blood transfusion,
heterosexuals and their children. No cure or vaccine for AIDS has yet been discovered.
Many countries in the world spend a  lot of money trying to find a cure. AIDS can be
transmitted through infected needles and sexual intercourse.

7. Why is AIDS dangerous?


8. How do people get infected with AIDS?

EPIDEMICS
In the last decade, the world has been threatened by several epidemics. SARS (Severe Acute
Respiratory Syndrome) is a highly contagious disease, which was first recognised in
2003. The virus spread rapidly from Asia to other countries, including Canada, infecting
hundreds of people. Scientists say that the development of effective drugs and vaccines for
SARS is likely to take a long time. Another one, bird flu, is very contagious among birds
and can also kill some domesticated birds (e. g. chickens, ducks and turkeys). Thousands of
birds had to be killed after the virus appeared on farms all over the world. The virus does
not usually infect humans and transmission from one person to another has not been
observed yet. In 2009, the emergence of a new flu virus H1N1 (so-called swine flu) killed
many people in Mexico, the United States and many other countries. This virus has the
ability to pass from one human to another.
There has been a lot of debate among parents, scientists, virologists and doctors about
the need to be vaccinated against some diseases. In many European countries vaccination
against selected childhood diseases is mandatory. There are parents who vaccinate their
children according to the recommended schedule and there are parents who worry a lot
about vaccine risks and side effects and refuse to have their children vaccinated.

9. What kinds of flu epidemics are discussed in the text above?


10. Why is there a huge debate about vaccination nowadays?
Unit 8:  HEALTH CARE 117

 VOCABULARY LIST

antibiotics [æntɪbaɪɒtɪks] – antibiotiká mortally dangerous – smrteľne nebezpečný


approach – prístup needle [ni:dl] – injekčná striekačka
to avoid – vyhnúť sa painkiller – tabletka proti bolesti
bird flu – vtáčia chrípka to pass from... to... – prejsť z... na...
cancer – rakovina plague epidemics [pleɪg] – epidémia moru
cause – príčina to prescribe [prɪskraɪb] – predpísať, naordi-
cholera [kɒlərə] – cholera novať
condition – stav to recognise (AmE: recognize) – rozpoznať
contagious [kənteɪdʒəs] – nákazlivý (SARS) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndro-
conventional – konvenčný, zaužívaný me – Syndróm akútneho respiračného
costs – náklady zlyhania
curiosity – zvedavosť scarlet fever [ska:lət fi:və] – šarlach
to cure [kjʊə] – vyliečiť scientist [saɪəntɪst] – vedec
Daffodil Day – Deň narcisov security measure – bezpečnostné opat-
delivery – pôrod renie
dental care – zubná starostlivosť sedentary work – sedavé zamestnanie
diagnostics [daɪəgnɒstɪks] – diagnostika serious – vážny
digestion [dɪdʒestʃən] – trávenie sexual intercourse [ɪntəkɔ:s] – pohlavný styk
disease [dɪzi:z] – choroba side effect – vedľajší účinok
drug – liek, droga to spread – rozšíriť sa
efficient medication – účinný liek to starve [sta:v] – hladovať
emergence – vznik, objavenie sa to stress – zdôrazniť, vystaviť stresu
epidemic – epidémia stressful – stresujúci
establishment – zariadenie surgery – ordinácia (BrE); operácia
even though – aj keď swine flu [swaɪn flu:] – prasačia chrípka
to examine – vyšetriť (u lekára) therapy – liečba, terapia
flu – chrípka threat [θret] – hrozba
general practitioner [præktɪʃənə] – praktic- to threaten [θretən] – ohrozovať
ký lekár to treat [tri:t] – liečiť, ošetriť, zaobchádzať
to go through – prejsť čím treatment – liečba, ošetrenie
haemophiliac (AmE: hemophiliac) transmission [trænnzmɪʃən] – prenos
[hi:məfɪlɪæk] – hemofilik tuberculosis [tjʊb3:kjələʊsɪs] – tuberkulóza
to handle – zaobchádzať typhus [taɪfəs] – týfus
health care – zdravotnícka starostlivosť ulcer [ʌlsə] – vred
health insurance – zdravotné poistenie vaccine [væksi:n] – vakcína, očkovacia látka
illness – choroba various – rôzny, rôznorodý
to infect – nakaziť to vary – líšiť sa
to injure [ɪndʒə] – poraniť victim – obeť
intravenous drug user – človek, ktorý viral [vaɪrəl] – vírusový
prepadol vnútrožilovému užívaniu drog virologist [vaɪ’rɒlədʒɪst] – virológ
lack (of) – nedostatok vitamin [BrE: vɪtəmɪn, AmE: vaɪtəmɪn ] –
likely – pravdepodobne vitamín
majority [mə’dʒɒrətɪ] – väčšina World Health Organization (WHO) – sveto-
mandatory – povinný vá zdravotnícka organizácia
mental health – duševné zdravie worldwide – na celom svete
migraine [maɪgreɪn, also mi:greɪn] – migréna
118 ANGLIČTINA – MATURITA

all over the world – na celom svete in good shape – v dobrej forme
available on prescription – dostupný na to name but a few – aby sme pomenovali
lekársky predpis aspoň niektoré
to be covered by – byť financovaný čím to pursue an aim – sledovať cieľ, snažiť sa
diagnosed with tumors – diagnostikovaný o dosiahnutie cieľa
nádor to take a long time – trvať dlho
to fund scientific research – financovať to take care of one‘s health – starať sa
vedecký výskum o svoje zdravie
to have an appointment with – mať dohod- to take responsibility for – niesť zodpoved-
nuté stretnutie s  nosť za
to impair the immune system – oslabiť to undergo surgery [s3:dʒərɪ] – podstúpiť
imunitný systém operáciu


ILLNESS: the way the patient feels discomfort or pain
CHOROBA DISEASE: the illness seen from doctor’s perspective
SICKNESS: how society/culture perceives it

"My arm hurts."


Unit 8:  HEALTH CARE 119

 VOCABULARY PRACTICE

Task 1   Name the parts of the body.


The first letter of the words has been given to help.

Example: (čelo) F O R E H E A D 17. (koleno) K _ _ _


1. (ucho) E _ _ 18. (lýtko) C _ _ _
2. (krk) N _ _ _ 19. (členok) A _ _ _ _
3. (plece) S _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 20. (palec na nohe) T _ _
4. (prsia) B _ _ _ _ _ 21. (hlava) H _ _ _
5. (hruď) C _ _ _ _ 22. (čelo) F _ _ _ _ _ _ _
6. (rameno) A _ _ 23. (oko) E _ _
7. (lakeť) E_ _ _ _ 24. (mihalnice) E _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
8. (žalúdok) S _ _ _ _ _ _ 25. (obočie) E _ _ _ _ _ _
9. (zápastie) W_ _ _ _ 26. (nos) N _ _ _
10. (dlaň) P _ _ _ 27. (líce) C _ _ _ _
11. (palec) T _ _ _ _ 28. (brada) C _ _ _
12. (chrbát) B _ _ _ 29. (pery) L _ _ _
13. (bedro) H _ _ 30. (čeluste) J _ _ _
14. (zadok) B _ _ _ _ _ 31. (zuby) T _ _ _ _
15. (prst) F _ _ _ _ _ 32. (jazyk) T _ _ _ _ _
16. (stehno) T _ _ _ _

Task 2   Read the following expressions and explain their meanings in English.
Then, decide which activities are typical for doctors (D), patients (P) or both (B).

Example: to shiver with cold (P) 11. to examine a patient


1. to take someone’s temperature 12. to make an appointment with the doctor
2. to check someone’s blood pressure 13. to go through a regular check-up
3. to make out a prescription 14. to prescribe antibiotics
4. to have a sore throat 15. to get an injection
5. to take an aspirin 16. to have a cold
6. to feel dizzy 17. to suffer from diabetes
7. to remove tonsils 18. to undergo surgery
8. to pull out a tooth 19. to deliver a baby
9. to take an X-ray 20. to put on/(lose) some weight
10. to stay in bed
120 ANGLIČTINA – MATURITA

Task 3   Put a tick (√) next to the diseases and aches which you have had.
Talk about their symptoms.

Diseases and aches:


flu – chicken pox – herpes – toothache – tonsillitis – sunstroke – bronchitis –
pneumonia – brain fever – eczema

Symptoms:
temperature – insomnia – spots – cold – cough – sore throat – high blood
pressure – rash – loss of appetite – diarrhoea – sweating – pain – vomiting
– headache – weight loss – hallucination – cramps – constipation – migraine

Task 4   What do the following doctors/specialists deal with? Which doctor would you go to see
if you suffered from the diseases/pains/aches in task 3 above?

GP (general practitioner) – dentist – ophthalmologist – paediatrician –


physio­therapist – surgeon – plastic surgeon – psychologist – radiologist –
infectologist – dermatologist – gynaecologist – internist – cardiologist –
homoeopath – immunologist – urologist – rheumatologist – obstetrician

 LISTENING

Task 5   Eat Healthy! Stay Healthy!

CD 1
You are going to hear a lecture by a food specialist who is talking about good
eating ha­bits. Fill in the missing words in the summary below. Listen to the
Track 16
recording twice.

The food specialist is talking about the importance of a varied diet. Improving your
1
________________ ________________ (2 words) can give you a good feeling. All four
food groups are important in order to have a 2________________ (1 word) diet. Cereals,
bread and pasta belong to a food group called 3________________ (1 word). Vitamin A and
folacin can be found in 4________________ (1 word) and dark green vegetables.
Unit 8:  HEALTH CARE 121

5
________________ (1 word) milk products give you the proteins and calcium that your
body needs.
Vegetarians should eat enough lentils, beans and pulses to 6________________ (1 word)
the meat group. If you eat enough starch and 7________________ (1 word), your body will
store less fat.

Task 6   Spots

You are going to hear a conversation between a paediatrician, little Charlie CD 1


and his dad. For questions 1–6, decide which option (A–D) finishes the sen-
tence starters according to the text. Listen to the recording twice. Track 17

1. Charlie has come to see the doctor


A) for a regular check-up. C) because he has a cold.
B) because he has a cough. D) because he has some skin problems.

2. The specialist is going to


A) take Charlie’s blood. C) have a look at his spots.
B) give him an injection. D) take a sample from one of his spots.

3. The spots have spread onto


A) his back, waist and bottom. C) his back, arms and bottom.
B) his waist, bottom and arms. D) his bottom, back and genitals.

4. Charlie has been in contact


A) with somebody who had chicken pox. C) with somebody who had herpes.
B) with children from nursery school. D) with his mother and little sister.

5. Charlie is sent to the specialist


A) to have some medicine prescribed. C) to get a note from the doctor for his father.
B) to find out what his diagnosis is. D) to have his blood pressure checked.

6. Charlie’s mother cannot go to hospital with him because


A) her employer won’t let her take sick C) she has got chicken pox.
leave. D) the baby sister has already caught the
B) she’s breastfeeding her younger infection.
daughter.
122 ANGLIČTINA – MATURITA

 LANGUAGE IN USE

Task 7   Use the word in capitals to form a new word to fit into the gap in the same line.
Follow the example.

Example: Thirty per cent of 0Am e ricans aged four to thirty bite 0. AMERICA
their nails.
1
show that nail-biting can cause many 1. STUDY
2
problems connected with the teeth such as 2. HEALTHY
3
of a tooth and damage to gums. The spread- 3. LOSE
ing of skin 4
from the hands to the mouth is 4. INFECT
also very 5
. Tommy Hopkins, a  nine-year- 5. DANGER
old boy, made 6
to his dentist about the 6. COMPLAIN
7
in his gums. During a check-up, his den- 7. PAINFUL
tist noticed that Tommy had a  8
nail-biting 8. SERIOUSLY
habit. The dentist then explored the 9 area in 9. SWELL
his mouth and found a piece of nail stuck in his gum. Certainly, cases
such as this one add scien­tific 10
to parents’ 10. WEIGH
arguments when they are telling their children “Don’t bite your nails.”
Adapted from https://www.vox.com/2015/4/22/8464365/nail-biting

Task 8   Read the text about sunbathing and decide which word or phrase A–D best fits each
space. There is only one correct answer for each space. Follow the example.

Suntan lotions were 0 B long ago, before the Industrial Revolution, when bronzed skin
belonged to manual 1_______ . To be brown in 2_______ days was a symbol of belonging
to a low social class. Pale, porcelain skin was in vogue – 3_______ because the rich stayed
indoors. 4_______ as machines began to appear, the 5________ classes left the fields for
the factories. 6________ they turned paler, 7________ rich turned progressively browner:
Sporting a suntan meant you had money and 8________ afford a leisurely outdoor life.
9
________ the early 1920’s, heliotherapy was all the rage. Daily exposure to sunlight was
touted as a 10________ for health problems ranging from acne to tuberculosis. In the 40’s
suntan lotion hit the market. 11_______ that time, it was designed to assist with roasting,
not to protect people from the sun. 12_______ ten years, the bikini had arrived on the
Unit 8:  HEALTH CARE 123

scene, allowing 13
________ bodies to achieve almost total exposure to the sun’s rays.
Throughout the 70’s and 80’s, the suntan was promoted as something to make you look
younger, 14________ a growing body of scientific evidence which indicated 15________ it
not only leads to wrinkles, but reduces 16________ expectancy too. Increasing awareness of
the link 17_____ exposure to the sun and the risk of skin cancer as well as growing concern
over damage to 18________ ozone layer have so far failed to have a significant impact on
our society’s habits concerning being exposed to the sun. Today, beaches are as busy as
________ . Pale skin has yet to 20________ a real comeback.
19

Adapted from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/feb/19/history-of-tanning

0 A discovered B invented C found D set up


1 A labourers B lab workers C people D readers
2 A the B these C those D such
3 A likely B mainly C hardly D unlikely
4 A Since B Actually C More or less D Then
5 A work B labour C working D social
6 A When B Despite C While D As
7 A the Ba C that D this
8 A could B should C would D shall
9 A In B On C At D–
10 A ointment B cure C medicine D care
11 A On B At C In D With
12 A Before B During C While D Within
13 A woman’s B women C women’s D feminine
14 A because B in spite of C furthermore D therefore
15 A which B what C that D even if
16 A alive B live C lives D life
17 A between B among C from D forward
18 A the Ba C an D–
19 A usually B always C never D ever
20 A return B do C make D appear
124 ANGLIČTINA – MATURITA

 READING
Task 9   Read about four types of contact lenses and answer questions 1–10.
Find the answers to the questions in sections A–D. Follow the example.

Example: Which part(s) of the text (A, B, C, D) gives information about:


0 contact lenses which are most likely to be able to correct your eyesight? part A

Lens Types Advantages Disadvantages


A) Rigid gas-permeab­le – provide excellent vision – require continuous use for
(RGP) – only a short adaptation adaptation to occur
made of slightly flexible period is required – can slip off the centre of
plastic that allows oxygen – comfortable to wear the eye more easily than
to pass through to the – can correct most problems other types
eyes with vision – debris can get under them
– easy to put on and to take – require regular visits for
care of follow-up care
– durable with a long life
– available in tints and
bifocals
B) Daily-wear soft lenses – only a very short – do not correct all
made of soft, flexible adaptation period required problems
plastic that allows oxygen – more comfortable and – vision may not be as sharp
to pass through to the harder to dislodge than as with RGP lenses
eyes RGP lenses – require regular visits for
– available in tints and follow-up care
bifocals – lenses soil easily and must
– great for active lifestyles be replaced
C) Extended-wear – can usually be worn for – do not correct all
available for overnight up to seven days without problems
wear in soft or RGP removal – require regular visits for
plastic lenses follow-up care
– increased risk of
complications
– require regular
monitoring and
professional care
D) Planned replacement – require simpler cleaning – vision may not be as sharp
soft daily wear plastic and disinfection than some as RGP lenses
lenses that are replaced on other types – do not correct all
a fixed schedule, usually – good for eye health problems
every two weeks, monthly – available by most – handling may be more
or quarterly prescriptions difficult
Adapted from https://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/caring-for-your-vision/contact-lenses/advantages-and-disadvantages-
-of-various-types-of-contact-lenses
Unit 8: HEALTH CARE 125

Which part of the text gives information about: part:

1 contact lenses which can be worn nonstop for a week before taking them out? _____
2 the type of contact lenses which may be difficult to handle? _____
3 contact lenses which need to be worn regularly, so that the eyes become
adapted to them? _____
4 contact lenses which can be worn also at night? _____
5 contact lenses which are more likely to stay fixed in the centre of the eye? _____
6 contact lenses which are suitable for sportsmen? _____

Which parts of the text give information about: parts:

7 contact lenses which are easy to get used to in a short time? _____ , _____
8 contact lenses which can cause slightly blurred vision? _____ , _____
9 contact lenses which get dirty easily? _____ , _____
10 contact lenses which are available in different colours? _____ , _____

Task 10 Read a leaflet about a voluntary organisation which helps people with eating disorders.
Based on the text, fill in the gaps with missing words in the summary provided.

AnoreXia and Bulimia Care (ABC)

According to a survey, physical appearance, particularly that of the body is one of


the biggest concerns that people in their 20’s and 30’s have. People in this age group
are often affected by eating disorders such as anorexia or bulimia. Anyone or any
family can fall victim to an eating disorder. Eating disorders often have a devastating
impact on the lives of those directly affected as well as on their parents and family.

ABC is a national Christian charity working exclusively with eating disorders. We try
to help families through all the “ups and downs” on the journey towards recovery
and a brighter future. ABC has been in existence for nearly 20 years, helping to
support hundreds of people every month who struggle because of eating disorders:
sufferers, helpers and families.

ABC provides telephone help-lines for sufferers, a parents help-line and e-mail
support. We provide advice, information, encouragement and prayer.
ABC is a resource for professionals. We offer training and literature to church
leaders, youth leaders, counsellors, teachers and health professionals...
126 ANGLIČTINA – MATURITA

ABC receives no funding from the government and is entirely dependent on the
generosity of individuals in order to be able to carry on caring for those in need.
Where does your donation go?
• ₤2 to send out information to just one person who has been in touch seeking
help.
• ₤10 to cover the costs of one of our trained staff spending one hour giving advice
and support.
• ₤100 to cover the costs of one of our staff to speak at a weekend conference or
a training event.
• ₤150 to keep our website up-to-date and running well for one month. We have
250 visitors daily.
• ₤500 to place an advert in a magazine so that people know that we exist.
• ₤1000 to cover the costs of new leaflets for schools and colleges.
• ₤2000 to cover the costs of producing one issue of Lifeline Magazine
for our members and supporters.

Source: http://www.anorexiabulimiacare.co.uk

Young people care too much about their 1______________ (1 word). As a result, they often
become victims of 2_________________ ________________ (2 words) such as anorexia and
bulimia. ABC is a 3________________ (1 word) religious organisation that helps patients,
their families and helpers overcome such disorders and 4________________ (1 word) from
them. It has existed for almost 20 years and helps anybody in 5________________ (1 word).
Their common activities are telephone help-lines for 6________________ (1 word), their
parents and e-mail support. They also provide 7_______________ and ________________
(2 words) for church leaders, youth leaders, counsellors, teachers and health specialists.
ABC is not financed by the government and therefore, it 8________________ (1 word)
solely on donations. For example, ₤2 will help ABC respond to one person who needs
________________ (1 word). ₤150 will help ABC keep their website 10________________
9

(1 word) for one month. ₤500 will help ABC 11________________ (1 word) their activities
in a magazine. ₤2000 will help ABC publish their 12_______________ (1 word) for a year.
Unit 8:  HEALTH CARE 127

 REVIEW

Task 11   What is the difference in meaning between the following words?


If you are not sure, check their meanings in your dictionary.

a) to be ill/sick/unwell i) nurse/male nurse


b) to have a temperature/fever j) chemist’s/drugstore/pharmacy
c) stomach/belly k) to heal/to cure
d) cheek/cheeky/chin l) maternity hospital/mental hospital/old
e) twisted/sprained/broken people’s home/hospice
f ) pimples/rash/eczema m) prescription/receipt/recipe
g) ward/department n) to hurt/to injure
h) ambulance/surgery/waiting room o) illness/disease

Task 12   Match the sentences in column A with the sentences in column B.

A B

1. I am sitting my school leaving exam to­ a) I’ll keep my fingers crossed for you!
morrow. b) It’s heading towards Glasgow.
2. My sister and I were just talking about you. c) I won’t tell you anything. You are
3. I can’t fix the car on my own. a real big mouth.
4. Can I have another one of these cocktails? d) Your ears must be burning!
5. Come on, tell me about it. e) He is a pain in the neck.
6. My father will take care of your garden. f) Don’t worry. I will give you a hand.
7. Where does this train go? g) Of course, but be careful. They really
8. I can’t stand Kevin. He is so annoying. go to your head.
9. Sue is very self-confident. She thinks she h) He’s got green fingers.
knows everything. i) I’ve got butterflies in my stomach.
10. I am terribly nervous about my exam. j) She is the armpit of the universe.
128 ANGLIČTINA – MATURITA

Task 13   Idioms

Work in groups. Read the text. Replace the underlined expressions with other words
without changing the original meaning. Then, translate the following text into Slo-
vak and compare your translations with other groups. Make sure you find the most
suitable Slovak equivalent for the English idioms that are underlined.

When thinking about giving up smoking you should 1bear in mind the effects your smoking
has on your friends and family. Do you often find that you 2lose your temper with your
parents when they try to stop you smoking? All young smokers are 3in the same boat: You
often find that you 4feel under the weather, especially with such things as that disgusting
smoker’s cough, or 5going to any lengths to get that first cigarette of the morning.
Now is the time 6to come to your senses, 7pull yourself together, and 8put an end to this
expensive habit. If you are not sure how to stop, then you should consider 9having a word
with your doctor or looking for some information elsewhere. It 10goes without saying that
you may 11find it difficult to simply stop by yourself, especially if you have been smoking
for some time. 12Take your time, but when you 13have the situation under control you will
feel better, and 14in the long run your health will improve.

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Unit 8:  HEALTH CARE 129

 SPEAKING

Look at the pictures below. Describe the female pairs in each picture and talk about how their
A behaviour affects their health. Compare and contrast their lifestyles. Say what people of diffe­
rent ages should do to stay fit and healthy.

A C

Pozri ukážku tejto odpovede na DVD: A. Opis a porovnanie obrázkov (a návod v Knihe 2).

B Talk about the most common diseases people get in their lives.

• Talk about:
– their symptoms,
– how people feel when they have these diseases,
– what kind of doctor they go to see (GP, dentist, specialist...),
– what questions doctors might ask their patients,
– what medication and advice they are given in order to make them feel better and
healthy again.

C Simulation

Your friend does not care a  lot about his health. Despite his/her terrible cough, he/she
keeps smoking. He/she has tried to give up smoking many times but he/she has never
succeeded. He/she does not play any sport. You are a  bit worried about his/her health.
What would you tell him/her? How could he/she quit smoking? What activities would you
re­commend to him/her to make him/her feel better?
130 ANGLIČTINA – MATURITA

D Role-play “HEALTH TROUBLES”

You: You have just returned from the Philippines, where you worked as a volunteer help-
ing rescue workers save and treat victims of an earthquake. You are teasing your friend;
pretend that you are not feeling well and complain that maybe you have caught some
contagious disease. Describe all the symptoms you have to alarm your friend who is
a hypochondriac.

Your partner: Your friend has just returned home from the Philippines, where he/she
spent his/her summer holidays. He/she feels sick. Ask what worries him/her. Show sym­
pathy and calm your friend down. However, you are worried that your friend may have
caught some contagious disease there.

 WRITING – essay (esej) 


Nowadays, so called alternative therapies are becoming popular. They are alternative to
conventional medicine and include therapies such as acupuncture, traditional Chinese
medicine, homeopathy, naturopathy, herbal medicine, aromatherapy and reiki, to name
but a few.

Step 1: Choose some of these therapies. Search on the Internet more about them. List their
advantages and disadvantages. Search for some case studies of patients using them.

Step 2: Write an essay about the chosen therapies. Consider positive and negative aspects
of each of them. Compare them to therapies used in conventional medicine.
NÁVOD K DVD 311

PRÁCA S UKÁŽKAMI ODPOVEDÍ MATURANTOV NA DVD


Na DVD je nahratých 6 ukážok správnych a 6 ukážok nesprávnych odpovedí týchto typov
úloh:

A) Opis a porovnanie obrázkov


B) Interpretácia textu
DVD
C) Riešenie problému a argumentácia
D) Vyjadrenie súhlasu/nesúhlasu – argumentácia
E) Simulácia (čo by si spravil/a v danej situácii)
F) Hranie rolí (Role-play; odohranie dialógu v role niekoho v danej situácii)

Odpovedajú dvaja maturanti – Silvia a Vlado. Pri sledovaní DVD odporúčame pracovať
s nižšie uvedenými úlohami, ktoré vedú k uvedomovaniu si potrebných krokov pre úspeš-
né zvládnutie ústnej maturity.

PRED SLEDOVANÍM UKÁŽKY NA DVD:

∙  si prečítaj  
Z adanie

∙  vyplň úlohy  A ko na to?

NA DVD:

∙  si pozri ukážku nesprávnej odpovede  a vyplň úlohy v knihe.


∙  si pozri komentár učiteľa. 
∙  si pozri ukážku správnej odpovede  a vyplň úlohy v knihe.
NAKONIEC:

∙  si prečítaj návrh správnej odpovede v knihe. 


POZOR! Ukážky odpovedí maturantov na DVD nie sú jazykovo upravované ani pri
správnych odpovediach. Obaja maturanti sa dopúšťajú viacerých gramatických
chýb a  chýb súvisiacich s  výslovnosťou. Cieľom DVD však nie je zamerať
pozornosť len na jazykovú stránku, ale predovšetkým na štruktúrovanie
odpovede v rámci jednotlivých zadaní počas maturitnej skúšky.
312 ANGLIČTINA – MATURITA

A.  TYP ÚLOHY: OPIS A POROVNANIE OBRÁZKOV


(čas odpovede: cca 5 minút)

 Zadanie:
Look at the pictures below. Describe the female couples in each picture and talk about how
their behaviour affects their health. Compare and contrast their lifestyles. Say what people
of different ages should do to stay fit and healthy.

A C

 Ako na to?
• Dôkladne si prečítaj zadanie tejto úlohy. Čo je dôležité splniť pri plnení tejto úlohy?
• Ako by si TY začal/a postupovať pri plnení tejto úlohy?
• Uveď dva príklady fráz, ktoré by si použil/a pri:
a) opise týchto obrázkov:
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b) porovnaní spoločných a odlišných prvkov:
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c) vyjadrení názoru o obrázkoch:
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NÁVOD K DVD 313

Ukážka nesprávnej odpovede

• Pred pozeraním DVD si pozorne preštuduj túto tabuľku.


• Pozri si ukážku odpovede na ústnej maturitnej skúške. Po prezretí vyplň túto tabuľku.

Sledované kritérium hodnotenia: Tvoj komentár k jednotlivým kritériám:

Splnenie úlohy:
Opísala študentka všetky obrázky?
Porovnala spoločné a odlišné prvky?
Vyjadrila svoj názor?

Štruktúra prehovoru:
Boli v prehovore prítomné postupy
otvorenia, riadenia a ukončenia
prehovoru?

Plynulosť a zrozumiteľnosť prehovoru:


Bol prehovor študentky pri plnení tejto
úlohy plynulý?
Bol prehovor študentky pri plnení tejto
úlohy zrozumiteľný?

• Aká bola reakcia študentky, keď neporozumela otázke skúšajúceho? Bolo to adek-
vátne? Mohla študentka zareagovať inak?
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• Vypočuj si hodnotenie skúšajúceho. Do akej miery s ním súhlasíš/nesúhlasíš. Objasni.
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• Akou známkou by si ohodnotil/a splnenie tejto úlohy berúc do úvahy vyššie uvedené
kritéria?
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314 ANGLIČTINA – MATURITA

Ukážka správnej odpovede

• Čo myslíš, v čom sa bude líšiť kvalita odpovede študentky od prvej ukážky?


• Počas pozerania DVD vypíš frázy, ktoré študentka použila pri štruktúrovaní svojho
prehovoru, keď:
a) otvárala prehovor:
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b) viedla prehovor:
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c) ukončovala prehovor:
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• Aké frázy použila na porovnanie rovnakých a odlišných vlastností pri opise predlo-
žených obrázkov?
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è Návrh správnej odpovede: Opis a porovnanie obrázkov

Let me describe the pictures first. There are three pictures of different people.

In the first picture, I can see two small girls. They are pretending to phone each other. They
can’t see each other because they are back-to-back. I think they are playing a game that
they are lawyers or secretaries.
I think it is very bad when small children use mobiles from an early age. They call people
rather than talk to them face to face. It is sad that nowadays people don’t have a lot of real
human contact.

In the second picture, there are two teenagers. I think they are teenagers because they’re
wearing typical teenage clothes. They are smoking. I think they are protesting. Smoking
is very unhealthy. They have a very bad lifestyle. These young women are damaging their
health. They might not realise it because they are having a good time.

The third picture shows two old ladies who are having a walk in a park. I think they are
good friends. They have probably known each other for a  long time. They seem to be
having a good time together. Walking outside breathing fresh air is a very good activity.
NÁVOD K DVD 315

This is very good for the health of the two women. Their lifestyle is very good.
People’s lifestyles can affect their lives in positive and negative ways. Smoking cigarettes
should not be a part of our lives. Smoking can cause lung cancer. Using mobile phones
from a very early age is not good for our health either. However, scientists have still not
explained the full effects of the use of mobile phones on our health.
In conclusion I can say that in order to be fit and healthy at every age, we should neither
smoke cigarettes, nor use mobile phones. We should walk outside with people we like and
talk to each other face to face instead. People of all ages should take greater care of their
health. To stay fit they should eat healthy food, play some sport and find time for their
hobbies. They should also avoid stress.

Zhrnutie

V správnej odpovedi Silvia:


• už predstavila úlohu: popísala, čo má robiť; rozdelila svoj prehovor na úvod, jadro a zá-
ver; hovorila o všetkých obrázkoch; hovorila o podobných a spoločných znakoch ob-
rázkov; adekvátne reagovala na otázku skúšajúceho.
• V porovnaní s jej „nesprávnou odpoveďou“ stále robila dosť gramatických chýb a chýb
vo výslovnosti, no mala svoju odpoveď lepšie pripravenú, čo sa týka štruktúry a fráz
a splnila všetky čiastkové úlohy.

Obsahové chyby oboch odpovedí


a) Gramatické chyby: At the first picture I see... (In the first / last picture...); They
look very good friend. (It seems they are good friends.); They know each other
a long time. (for a long time); They are calling each others. (calling each other);
...not to face to face (not face to face); two old woman (women); They should not
drinking alcohol or smoking. (should not drink or smoke); I think no. (I don´t
think so.); They are play some game (playing); They are playing to teachers. (They
are pretending to be teachers or lawyers.); I see two young girl. (girls); typical
clothes for the teenagers (keď sa hovorí vo všeobecnosti, je to clothes typical for
teenagers, bez the); to have a good mood (to be in a good mood); how should the
people care about their health (nepriama otázka: how people should care about
their health + keď sa hovorí vo všeobecnosti, je to people bez the); breathing a
fresh air (breathing fresh air)
b) Chyby vo výslovnosti: technological (správne /tekˈnɒlədʒik(ə)l/), blouse (správne
blaʊz), damaging (správne ˈdamɪdʒɪŋ/)

 NAUČIL/A SOM SA,


že pri opise a porovnávaní obrázkov budem postupovať takto:

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