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Advancing Science and Discovery



Metallogeny of Bolivia 2010 Dues

(p. 53 for member-
Osvaldo R. Arce-Burgoa† (SEG 2008 F), EMUSA, Casilla 291, La Paz, Bolivia; and
ship benefits and
Richard J. Goldfarb (SEG 1989 F), U.S. Geological Survey, Box 25046, Mail Stop 973,
p. 51 for online
Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO, 80225-0046,USA, and School of Earth and
dues procedures)
Geographical Sciences (M004), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, 6009, Australia

INTRODUCTION 69°W 66°W 63°W 60°W

Bolivia covers an area slightly larger than 1 10°S

million km2 and has long been recognized as Madre de Dios District

one of the world’s most remarkably metal rich COBIJA

regions. Many metalliferous deposits have been
known for more than 3,000 years (Mesa et al., 0 100 200 300 Km
1997); Ag, Au, Cu, and Sn were extracted by DEPOSIT TYPE
Río Itenez
Incan and earlier civilizations (Capriles, 1977). IOCG
Río Madidi VMS
Soon after conquest of “Upper Peru” by the 13°S PGM in mafic/ultramafic
layered intrusions
Spaniards in the 1530s, discovery of the excep- San Simon BIF iron
tionally rich Cerro Rico de Potosi veins made MVT
Orogenic Au (Sb)
Bolivia the largest silver producer in the world Epithermal
Pluton-related tin-polymetallic
for more than two centuries. By the early Apolobamba
TRINIDAD Bolivian polymetallic vein
Ulla Ulla Vein-type Zn-Pb-Ag
1900s, the great tin deposits had been discov- La
Tipuani Sedimentary rock-hosted copper
Tit Matilde Alluvial gold
ered and had replaced silver as the most valu- ica

able metal for the nation’s economy, and con- 16°S

Bolsa Negra

LA PAZ Illimani
tinued as such until collapse of the tin market Los Machos
Cocapata-El Molino Ñuflo de Chavez
Puquio Norte

in 1985. Throughout the 20th century, mining Corocoro
La Española
Berenguela Laurani Colquiri COCHABAMBA
was the country’s top industry, producing Chacarilla
Kori Kollo
Don Mario
much of the world’s antimony, bismuth, lead, Kori Chaka (Iroco)
Japo-Santa Fe-Morococala
Mallku Khota
silver, tin, tungsten, and zinc. Bolivia is Bolivar
Amayapampa Colquechaca
Rincón del Tigre

Lake Poopo
presently ranked as the third largest producer Carangas
San Bernardino Maragua SUCRE
Salar of
of antimony in the world, as well as ranking 19°S Coipasa Colavi
El Mutún
Salinas de Garci Mendoza Cerro Rico-San Bartolome
fourth in tin and zinc, and sixth in tungsten. In Salar of Carma
Porco Huara Huara
Uyuni San Lucas
addition, the salt lakes (salars) of the southern Empexa
Pulacayo Toropalca
Tasna Cuevo
Altiplano are estimated to contain >50% of the Chocaya
Siete Suyos Chorolque
Western Cordillera
world’s lithium resources. Finally, Bolivia has San
Chiguana Cristobal
San Vicente Tatasi
Cornaca Altiplano
Pastos grandes TARIJA Eastern Cordillera
large resources of gold, platinum, palladium, Lipeña-Lamosa

San Juan del Oro
Subandean Zone
tantalum, chromium, nickel, San Antonio de Lipez

to page 8 . . .
Capina Mojo
Jaquegua Chaco-Beni Plains
cadmium, indium, bismuth, Challviri Precambrian Shield
Capital of Department

† Corresponding author: e-mail, osvaldo_arce@ FIGURE 1. Major ore deposits in the physiographic provinces of Bolivia.

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SEG Contents
1 Metallogeny of Bolivia


4 Presidential Perspective: Keeping Things in Perspective
4 Corrections & Amplifications
5 A Reader Responds…Dear Editor
Brian G. Hoal 6 SEGF Presidential Perspective: Fund-Raising Progress and
NEWS EDITOR a Transition in the Student Grants Committee
Alice Bouley 7 Contributions
PRODUCTION MANAGER 7 SEG Foundation Special Request for Support Contributions
Christine Horrigan 7 Editor’s Corner: What’s New in Economic Geology
Society of Economic Geologists, Inc. SEG NEWS
7811 Shaffer Parkway 16 SEG Well-Represented at the SGA Conference in Townsville, Australia
Littleton, CO 80127-3732 USA
17 Letter on a Lecture Tour of China
Tel. +1.720.981.7882
Fax +1.720.981.7874 18 2009 Student Research Grant Awards
Email: 20 SEGF Student Research Grants Available for 2010
21 SEGF 2009 Graduate Student Fellowship Awards
WEB PAGE: 21 SEGF Graduate Student Fellowships Available for 2010
22 The XXVIII UNESCO-SEG-SGA Course on Metallogeny
Feature articles are 23 Second International Exploration Forum, CESCO 2009
23 Symposium in Xi’an, China
peer reviewed before they
28 Gold: A Review of the October Issue of Elements Magazine (v. 5, no. 5)
are accepted for publication.
Please submit material to the 24 Nazca SEG Student Chapter — Universidad de Concepción
Executive Editor. 24 Institut Polytechnique LaSalle Beauvais, LaSalle, France Student Chapter at PDAC
Tel. +1.720.981.7882 25 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín Student Chapter
25 Jeff Hedenquist, SEG President-Elect Greets Two New SEG Student Members
Fax +1.720.981.7874
26 New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology SEG Student Chapter
E-mail: 26 University of Athens SEG Student Chapter
27 Abitibi Field School 2009
The SEG Newsletter is published quarterly in EXPLORATION REVIEWS
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of Economic Geologists, Littleton, Colorado,
32– Africa · 34– Alaska · 34– Asia · 36– Australasia · 39– Canada · 40– Europe ·
exclusively for members of the Society. 43– Latin America · 45– Northern Eurasia · 46– Contiguous United States
Opinions expressed herein are those of the writ-
ers and do not necessarily represent official MEMBERSHIP
positions of the Society of Economic Geologists. 48 SEG Membership: Candidates and New Fellows, Members and Student Members
When quoting material from the SEG Newsletter 51 SEG Announcements & Deadlines
please credit both author and publication. 52-53 SEG Membership Application
© 2009 The Society of Economic Geologists, Inc. 54 Personal Notes & News
Designed & Produced by Type Communications
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29 Elements — An International Magazine
Jefferson City, Missouri
30-31 SEG 2010 Conference — Keystone, Colorado (centerspread)
38 Mineral Deposits Studies Group — Thayer Lindsley Lecturer Guest Speaker
— FOR CONTRIBUTORS — 47 Northwest Mining Association’s 115th Annual Meeting, Reno/Sparks, Nevada, USA
The SEG Newsletter is published for the bene- 47 11th International Platinum Symposium, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada
fit of the worldwide membership of the 49 GSN 2010 Symposium, Reno/Sparks, Nevada, USA
Society of Economic Geologists. We invite 59 Student Mentoring Program
news items and short articles on topics of 60 Reviews in Economic Geology — Volume 16 (back cover)
potential interest to the membership. If you
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60 Uranium: A Compilation — The Second in a new SEG Series (back cover)
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November 30, 2009 58 Economic & Environmental
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Spectral International, Inc.
Zonge Engineering & Research


Keeping Things in Perspective

In my first three columns, I used three that new discoveries are probably more ments can eat up
geological themes to discuss aspects of important now than they have ever a significant pro-
our science, business, and SEG. The been! portion of their
themes, Scale, Depth, and Time, are well As demand recovers—and it will, hard-won fund-
understood by geoscientists, and partic- given population growth and increas- ing. One simple JOHN F. H. THOMPSON
SEG President
ularly, I would argue, by economic ing standards of living in countries like answer for the
geologists, to the extent that we take China and India—the focus will return junior sector is to
them for granted. Amongst other to the exploration industry and our in- consolidate and
attributes, the ability to understand ability to discover new quality resources create larger
these concepts gives us the breadth and at a rate that reflects global exploration (small) companies that can meet corpo-
problem-solving ability to tackle many expenditure. Many reasons have been rate requirements more efficiently and
other tasks. It is no coincidence that proposed to explain declining discovery hence allow them to devote more
some economic geologists go on to rates, the most popular being that the money to effective exploration pro-
become successful leaders of companies, majority of the easy, outcropping grams, including grass roots explo-
universities, and geological surveys—a deposits have been found and that we ration, while still meeting investors’
fact that those entering our profession lack the tools to search effectively under needs for timely results.
should be aware of even if the thought cover and at depth. This may be true in Much of this debate focuses on statis-
of such jobs has no immediate appeal. some mature districts, although out- tics such as discovery rates, global ex-
My theme for this, my last column, is cropping mineralization is still found in ploration expenditure, declining
discovery and the related discovery even the most mature districts, proving reserves and reserve-resource grades,
record. that such generalizations should not be and other supply-related problems.
One of the challenges in life is to treated as gospel. Other factors influ- These paint an interesting picture that
maintain a balanced perspective. In encing discovery rates may include the collectively suggests that resource prices
just a year, we have been from the reduced emphasis on field work and may remain firm for some time to
highs of a supposed resource super-cycle field skills in education and industry, come, although of course the margins
to the depths of the world’s worst reces- the loss of experienced explorers as the that producers enjoy may not correlate
sion in 80 years, and back to at least demographic age bubble works its way with commodity prices due to other
partial recovery. Budgets, grants, jobs, through, the marked decline in grass increasing costs—e.g., energy and
and programs have been slashed and roots or greenfields exploration, and the water. The focus on discovery numbers
while some of these will improve as the limited proportion of exploration bud- may, however, be somewhat mislead-
economy recovers, it is likely that many gets that are actually spent on field pro- ing. The timing and significance of a
perspectives on the natural resource grams and drilling. The latter is a par- reported discovery is variable. Market
business will have become a little dis- ticular concern for junior explorers regulations demand that junior compa-
torted at this point. It is hard to realize because regulatory and market require- nies report material results immedi-
ately, although in some cases these
“discoveries” may turn out to be
CORRECTIONS & AMPLIFICATIONS insignificant. Conversely, major compa-
The photo caption nies may not report discoveries until
in the July News- there is much more certainty in the
letter (no. 78, p. 30, result, and mine exploration successes
second page of may only surface in reserve statements.
“Student Dedicated In some cases, significant new resources
Field Course— face subsequent technical challenges
Gold Systems of often related to mining or metallurgical
Northern Nevada”) issues. These challenged deposits fade
gave an incorrect from attention and may sit almost
location for the unnoticed for decades until rediscovered
outcrop shown. A with the advent of new technology.
corrected and Other discoveries fail to live up to the
expanded descrip- initial drill holes and quietly disappear,
tion follows. only to be rediscovered when explorers
are willing to drill deeper or when
changing prices make the original
“Field course participants are standing before an outcrop of the lower Battle Formation “low” grades potentially economic. The
that lies unconformably on Harmony Formation. This relationship, and mapping net result is that discovery records need
throughout the district—notably by the old townsite of Galena where Ralph Roberts closer examination, particularly at a
and his family stayed several summers—is what led Roberts to infer the middle
regional scale, before we
to page 5 . . .
Paleozoic Antler orogenic event that affected the west margin of North America.”
draw too many conclu-

... from 4 Presidential Perspective A READER RESPONDS…


sions on the economic return from explo-

Dear Editor:
ration and the availability of future resources. I read the July SEG Newsletter (no. 78) effort taken in collecting and inter-
Perhaps the most exciting thing about a with interest. There are a couple of preting what is often irrelevant, or
new discovery is that it can change explo- points made in the President’s column worse, never used.
ration ideas overnight and subsequently pro- (p. 7) that I strongly agree with. In As our geological teams become
vide radical changes in our understanding of particular, I would like to respond to more skilled at running Surpac,
ore-forming processes and regional controls. the phrase beginning at the bottom MapInfo and Geosoft, they often
Some examples of deposits discovered over of the second column: “… did we take have less time and become less
the last 40 years that had a significant impact enough time to plan, complete work, skilled at the collection and interpre-
include Oyo Tolgoi, Voisey’s Bay, Ekati, and perhaps most importantly, think?” tation of primary geological data
As explorationists, we have the and even more importantly, less
Yanacocha, Eskay Creek, Goldstrike,
ability to generate very large volumes skilled at thinking about what the
McLaughlin, Olympic Dam, Kambalda, and of data and to construct powerful primary data are trying to tell them.
Kidd Creek. These were major discoveries of graphic images of what should be This is true for the core-logger, who
either new types of mineralization at the time equally powerful concepts and just sees a yellow rock-green rock,
of discovery, or known types of mineraliza- thoughts. Unfortunately, I see too and for the mapper, who covers a
tion discovered in areas where conventional many drill holes targeted toward two topographic surface with circles or
wisdom suggested that they should not exist. standard-deviation geochemical and cigar-shaped objects. The real joy in
In either case, they reflected some combina- geophysical anomalies which really this science should be how we get to
tion of creative thinking, perseverance with have, at best, the longest of long use what Agatha Christie’s famous
dedicated field work and drilling, supportive odds for success, and at the worst are detective Hercule Poirot calls, “the
simply foolish. little grey cells.” Hiring geologists
and open-minded management, and luck.
The military uses a term,“CCD,” with B.Sc. degrees to push buttons on
Understanding deposits of this caliber and the which is “camouflage, concealment, high-tech tools all summer will not
full discovery story is important because it is and deception.” Pattern recognition develop that skill set. We need to
likely that the discovery of new world-class specialists clearly point out that one change this diversion. We need to
deposits of known and new types will reflect a of the best ways to conceal patterns think less about whether we can run
similar combination of factors. is simply to flood or distort them Surpac, Geosoft, and MapInfo and
SEG plays many indirect roles in the dis- with masses of unrelated data. That more about the process of hypothe-
covery process, principally by communicating challenge is becoming increasingly sis-testing and the design and devel-
information and ideas. This occurs in many relevant for many exploration plan- opment of exploration programs.
ners. Volumes of data—some of it of Our exploration planners would be
forms, but the Newsletter provides a particu-
dubious quality, some of it irrele- better off reading Thomas Kuhn’s
larly useful format for getting new ideas to vant—steals our brainpower and the The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
SEG fellows and members. The Exploration time of our geologists. We need to than filling out another form from
Reviews in the Newsletter is a global explo- think about those parameters that Human Resources.
ration summary and although this cannot are key to improving our chances for At any rate, good column!
compete with the barrage of daily digital success and diminish the time and JIM OLIVER (SEG 2000) 1
information in terms of timeliness, it should
provide more context and commentary than
typical news services. Jeff Hedenquist, my suc-
cessor as president of SEG, and I have initi-
ated a new feature for the Newsletter, a series
of opinion pieces discussing the philosophy
and approach to exploration. Together, we
have contacted a group of senior explorers
and academics close to the exploration busi- ALS Minerals
ness, and based on the positive responses, we
expect to produce a series of thought-provok-
ing articles over the next year or two. Our The world’s leading supplier of analytical and
hope is that these will provide a range of assay services for the exploration and mining
views on successful exploration and the dis- industries.
covery process, and will generate debate that
can take place through the Newsletter. USA: +1 775 356 5395
Periodic changes to the format and content Canada: +1 604 984 0221
of this publication are important for main-
taining this fresh and vital means of commu-
nicating within SEG. After all, it is the transfer
of knowledge from seasoned explorers and
academics to those entering either the profes-
sional body or the scientific community that
will help us to new discoveries. That’s a per-
spective worth supporting! 1 PAID ADVERTISEMENT


Fund-Raising Progress and a Transition in the

Student Grants Committee
In mid-May by e-mail, and subse- SEG and in the mineral exploration student programs.
quently in the July SEG Newsletter, the industry. He has been an SEG member James’s extensive
SEG Foundation made a special request since 1973 and has served as president global network in
to our membership and corporate friends of both SEG and SEGF. Dick received the both industry and B ARTON S UCHOMEL
for support. We did this in response to a Society’s prestigious Marsden Award in academia will be SEG Foundation
President 2009
decline in the Foundation’s financial 2006. invaluable as our
assets and significant uncertainties sur- Dick has been a key leader of the student member-
rounding investment income, all SEG Foundation. He was directly ship continues to
brought about by the recent global involved in creating the Student expand globally. Please join me in
financial crisis. I am pleased to report Research Grants Program in 1996 and wishing James every success in this key
that, for the year as of this writing has served tirelessly as chair of the SEGF role.
(September 10), we have received nearly Students Grants Committee. In this role, Returning to the topic of support for
$56,000 in individual contri- Dick has pro- SEGF student programs, over the past
butions, with more than 60% vided man- few months I have met with representa-
of this received following the Dick, on behalf of the Society, agement and tives of a number of mining and explo-
special request. I extend a the Foundation, and all stu- stewardship ration companies to discuss our student
special thank you to all of dents who have benefited to a program programs and the various benefits they
our generous contributors from the Student Grants that has provide. The Foundation has several
during this downturn! Program over the years, I grown from a strong corporate supporters and it has
We are steadfastly com- extend our sincere thanks for few thousand been good to hear some very positive
mitted to providing support your service. Your vision, com- dollars of feedback from these companies in
and encouragement to the mitment to scientific excel- support per regard to the current student programs.
next generation of economic lence, and passion for students year to over Nonetheless, the fact remains that SEGF
geologists. We aim to sustain and student programs is so $220,000 in receives direct support from only a
our student support programs very much appreciated! 2008. The small fraction of the pool of global min-
at levels similar to recent Student erals companies.
years and to expand them prudently. Grants Committee now receives and If you are employed by a minerals
With your generous support and a mod- evaluates over 100 grant applications company, please raise awareness of the
est rebound in financial markets, we per year. Simply put, Dick Nielsen has SEGF student programs and their bene-
should be able to provide a robust over- been instrumental in the progress and fits (and especially if you are in a posi-
all funding level for our programs in growth of the SEG Foundation and in tion of corporate influence). In addition,
2010. But I believe we can do even bet- the success of the Student Research check to see if your company has a con-
ter. SEG is approaching 1,000 student Grants Program. tribution-matching program. Even a
members worldwide and continues to Late last year, Dick informed the small to modest level annual contribu-
add student members from new coun- Foundation Trustees that he desired to tion from a more significant percentage
tries. This constitutes a significant part step aside as Student Grants Committee of the global minerals industry would
of the global pool of next-generation chair following 2009. be huge for the Foundation and the sus-
economic geologists. In a real bottom- Dick, on behalf of the Society, the tainability of the student programs. I
line sense, we need the support of our Foundation, and all students who have am quite confident that with the help of
members and our industry (more on benefited from the Student Grants our membership we can increase the
this a bit later) to keep our programs Program over the years, I extend our level of industry support for these
robust and growing. If you have not yet sincere thanks for your service. Your important programs. 1
contributed this year, I urge you to do vision, commitment to scientific excel-
so. lence, and passion for students and The SEG/SEG Foundation
In addition to depending on mem- student programs is so very much contribution form
bers for funding of activities, most non- appreciated! can be downloaded at
profit organizations tend to benefit Following several months of careful <
greatly from the efforts of a few key vol- review and consideration of potential contributionform.pdf>
unteers. These are people who exhibit a candidates, I am pleased to announce
passion and a selfless commitment to that James Macdonald has been T hank You!
the mission of the particular organiza- selected by the SEGF Trustees to take on
tion. In this Perspective, I want to recog- Dick Nielsen’s role as Student Grants
nize one of our key volunteers, Richard Committee chair. Like Dick, James is
(Dick) Nielsen, for his exceptional ser- well known and respected both within
vice to the SEG Foundation. Dick is very SEG and our industry and brings a
well known and highly regarded within similar strong passion for students and


What’s New in Economic Geology

We continue to make incremental • Resources of Gold in Phanerozoic Pyrophyllite-
changes in the journal and the Epithermal Deposits Altered Facies
GeoScienceWorld web page to make • Gold and Trace Element Zonation in at the Boco
Economic Geology more useful and acces- Pyrite Using a Laser Imaging Tech- Prospect,
sible to the SEG membership. The latest nique: Implications for the Timing of Western LARRY MEINERT
addition is that a full color PDF of the Gold in Orogenic and Carlin-Style Tasmania Editor
cover of Economic Geology is now down- Sediment-Hosted Deposits • Early Archean Economic Geology
loadable from the GeoScienceWorld • Upper Temperature Limits of Orogenic Hot Springs
website (http://econgeol.geoscience Gold Deposit Formation: Constraints Above Epi- so that subscribers who only from the Granulite-Hosted Griffin’s thermal Veins,
get the electronic version of the journal Find Deposit, Yilgarn Craton North Pole, Western Australia:
can now see the cover in full color and • Geochemistry of Garnet-Rich Rocks New Insights from Fluid Inclusion
read the cover caption. in the Southern Curnamona Microanalysis
As a preview of coming attractions, Province, Australia, and Their • The Millennium Uranium Deposit,
three special issues of Economic Geology Genetic Relationship to Broken Hill- Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan,
are planned for the next year. One is on Type Pb-Zn-Ag Mineralization Canada: An Atypical, Basement-
secular variations of ore deposits through • Assessment of Tourmaline Composi- Hosted Unconformity-Related
geologic time. This special issue is being tions as an Indicator of Emerald Uranium Deposit
coordinated by Richard Goldfarb, Dwight Mineralization at the Tsa da Glisza • Anomalous, Sulfur-Poor Platinum-
Bradley, and David Leach. Another spe- Prospect, Yukon Territory, Canada Group Element Mineralization in
cial issue is on the application of thermo- • Replacement Dolomites and Ore Sul- Komatiitic Cumulates, Mount Clifford,
dynamics to ore deposits, as pioneered fides as Recorders of Multiple Fluids Western Australia
by Harold Helgeson, and is being coordi- and Fluid Sources in the Southeast • A Process-Based Approach to
nated by John Dilles. A third special issue Missouri Mississippi Valley-Type Dis- Estimating the Copper Derived from
is devoted to applications of fluid inclu- trict: Halogen-87Sr/86Sr-δ18O- δ34S Sys- Red Beds in the Sediment-Hosted
sion analysis to ore deposits, as pioneered tematics in the Bonneterre Dolomite Stratiform Copper Deposit Model
by Edwin Roedder, and is being coordi- • Pb in the PACMANUS Sea-Floor • The Lead Isotope Composition of Ore
nated by Jean Cline and Robert Bodnar. Hydrothermal System, Eastern Minerals from Precious-Metal
Manus basin: Numerical Modeling of Bearing, Polymetallic Vein Systems
Papers to be published in a Magmatic Versus Leached Origin in the Cobalt Embayment, Northern
issues 5 and 6 for 2009 • Zinc Isotopes in Sphalerite from Base Ontario: Metallogenetic Implications
• Quantitative Identification of Metal Deposits in the Red Dog • A Normalization Solution to Mass
Metallogenic Epochs and Provinces: District, Northern Alaska Transfer: Illustration of Multiple
Application to Phanerozoic Porphyry • Lithogeochemical and Stable Isotopic Progressively Altered Samples 1
Copper Deposits Insights into Submarine Genesis of

SEG Foundation
Contributions 6/1/09–8/31/09
Special Request for Support
Thank you for your generous contributions to the Society and the SEG Foundation. General Fund Student Field Trip Fund
Universidad Nacional de Colombia Esperanza Silver Corporation, USA McEwan, Craig J., Chile
Sede Medellin SEG, Colombia Geotemps, Inc., USA Petersen, Erich U., USA
Blakestad, Robert B., USA Student Chapter Pudack, Claudia, Switzerland

Muessig, Siegfried, USA Canada Foundation

Veliz Mamani, F. Javier, Peru Veliz Mamani, F. Javier, Peru Wake, Bradley A., Australia
Kingsley, Timothy R., USA (Can)
Student Fellowship Fund
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General Fund Hammer, Donald F., USA (Can)
Seavoy, Ronald E., USA Kyle, J. Richard, USA
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Nielsen, Richard L., USA Asare, Francis Y.A., Ghana

Pryor, Ian J., Australia Petersen, Erich U., USA

... from 1 Metallogeny of Bolivia (Continued)

antimony, potassium, boron, iron ore, (PGM) and nickel in mafic and ultra- Occidental). The latter four provinces
natural gas, and petroleum. The under- mafic intrusions, base metals in volca- make up the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Andean
explored and underdeveloped resources nogenic massive sulfide (VMS) and sedi- orogen in Bolivia (Arce-Burgoa, 2002,
of Bolivia today represent one of indus- mentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits, 2007), which hosts an abundance of
try’s most prospective global targets for and iron in banded iron formations (BIF). mineral deposits (Tables 1, 2), many of
an exceptionally broad group of com- Mining has traditionally been conducted which have been mined for centuries. The
modities (e.g., Arce-Burgoa, 2007, 2009). in underground operations. Develop- landward Precambrian Shield, exposed
Diverse metallic mineral deposit ment of the Kori Kollo gold deposit in far to the east of the Andes, represents
types have been recognized in the geo- 1983 represented the first large-scale open- an area of great mineral potential, but
logically varied and metallogenically pit operation in Bolivia. Subsequently, has had limited exploration.
favorable environments of Bolivia. The additional open-pit mines have been Rocks of the Precambrian Shield in
“Guaporé craton,” representing the put into operation at Toldos, Don Mario, easternmost Bolivia have commonly
Precambrian Shield in Bolivia, underlies Kori Chaca (Iroco), and San Cristobal. been suggested as defining the south-
the eastern part of the country, where western part of the Amazon craton and
resource potential is very poorly known. cover an area of approximately 200,000
The most highly endowed part of the
GEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK km2, or 18% of Bolivia (Fig. 1). The units
country is that of the central Andean OF BOLIVIA are mainly Mesoproterozoic medium-
physiographic provinces in western The geologic-tectonic framework of and high-grade metasedimentary and
Bolivia. Polymetallic vein deposits, rich Bolivia can be divided into six physio- meta-igneous rocks, which are widely
in tin and base metals, dominate the graphic provinces. From east to west covered by Tertiary laterites and Quater-
resource inventory in this part of Bolivia. (Fig. 1), these are the Precambrian nary alluvial basin deposits. Previous
Bolivia, however, is also favorable for Shield, the Chaco-Beni Plains, the workers have referred to this as the
economically significant epithermal Subandean zone, the Eastern Cordillera Guaporé craton, but Santos et al. (2008)
precious metal deposits, orogenic gold (or Cordillera Oriental), the Altiplano, suggest that these may not be basement
in slate belts, platinum-group metals and the Western Cordillera (or Cordillera rocks of the craton; rather, they could

TABLE 1. Major Gold (silver, copper, antimony, bismuth) Deposits in Bolivia

Name Physiographic province Metallogenic belt Deposit type Company

Yani-Aucapata Eastern Cordillera Gold-antimony Orogenic Au (Sb) Cooperatives and private

Gold district companies
Liphichi Eastern Cordillera Gold-antimony Orogenic Au (Sb) Vista Gold
Apolobamba Eastern Cordillera Gold-antimony Orogenic Au (Sb) Cooperatives and private
Gold district companies
Rosario de Araca Eastern Cordillera Gold-antimony Orogenic Au (Sb) EMUSA
Kori Kollo Altiplano Alt. and W. Cord. Transitional Newmont Corp.
San Bernardino Altiplano Gold-antimony Orogenic Au (Sb) EMUSA-Orvana
Laurani Altiplano Alt. and W. Cord. Epithermal Soria family
Iroco (Kori Chaka) Altiplano Gold-antimony Orogenic Au (Sb) Inti Raymi
Vinto Altiplano Gold-antimony Orogenic Au (Sb) EMUSA-Orvana
Amayapampa district Eastern Cordillera Gold-antimony Orogenic Au (Sb) Vista Gold
Mallku Khota Eastern Cordillera Gold-antimony Orogenic Au (Sb) South American Silvera
Cajuata district Eastern Cordillera Gold-antimony Orogenic Au (Sb) Private companies
Cocapata Gold district Eastern Cordillera Gold-antimony Orogenic Au (Sb) Private companies
Carma Eastern Cordillera Gold-antimony Orogenic Au (Sb) Grupo Minero Carma
Pulacayo Altiplano Alt. and W. Cord. Epithermal COMIBOL-Apogee JV
Tasna Eastern Cordillera Tin belt Transitional COMIBOL
Lipeña-Lamosa Western Cordillera Alt. and W. Cord. Transitional EMUSA
(Lípez región) polymetallic
Don Mario Bolivian Precambrian Polymetallic of Sunsás IOCG Orvana
San Simón Bolivian Precambrian Paraguá Craton Au-Mn Orogenic Au Eaglecrest
Miguela Bolivian Precambrian Sunsas polymetallic belt VMS ESSEX
Puquio Norte Bolivian Precambrian Sunsas polymetallic belt Orogenic Au Comsur

represent a small inlier within the ca. episodes of postkinematic and epeiroge- Paleozoic siliciclastic marine and Meso-
1.45–1.10 Ga Sunsas orogen, formed netic isostatic adjustment in the Eastern zoic and Tertiary continental sedimen-
along the craton margin. Major tectonic Andes and its piedmont. tary rocks.
events in the orogen are dated at 1465– Rocks of the Bolivian Andean orogen The Eastern Cordillera (Fig. 1), the
1420, 1370–1320, and 1180–1110 Ma. underlie approximately 42% of Bolivia uplifted interior of the Andean thrust
Subsequent Brazilian tectonism (ca. and include those of the Subandean zone, belt, includes polydeformed Ordovician
600–500 Ma) had only minor effects on Eastern Cordillera, Altiplano, and the to Recent shale, siltstone, limestone,
the orogen (Litherland et al., 1986, 1989). Western Cordillera. These physiographic sandstone, slate, and quartzite sequences.
The Chaco-Beni plains are located in provinces form a series of mountain These mainly Paleozoic clastic and
the central part of the country (Fig. 1) chains, isolated mountain ranges, and metamorphic rocks have an approxi-
and cover 40% of Bolivia. The topogra- plains, with a north-to-south trend mate area of 280,000 km2, and repre-
phy is dominated by the southwestern (Ahlfeld and Schneider-Scherbina, 1964; sent flysch basin sediments that were
Amazon basin wetlands, which lie below Fig. 1). This part of the orogen has a deposited along the ancient Gondwana
250 m elevation, with little relief or out- length of 1,100 km, a maximum width margin and first deformed in the mid-
crop. These extensive plains are part of of 700 km, and an average crustal dle to late Paleozoic. Subsequent to
the foreland basin of the Central Andes, thickness of 70 km; the orogen includes Permian to Jurassic rifting, they were
and include 1 to 3 km of Cenozoic fore- a distinct oroclinal bend at the Arica uplifted to high elevation and folded
land alluvial sediment in the west and Elbow (18°–19°S). and thrusted again during Andean
much thinner accumulations atop a The Subandean zone (Fig. 1) is the compression, which may have begun as
broad forebulge to the east (Horton and thin-skinned, inland margin of an oro- early as Late Cretaceous (McQuarrie et
DeCelles, 1997). These overlie Tertiary gen-parallel fold-and-thrust belt, which al., 2005).
red-bed sediments that are >6 km thick is partly covered by sediments of the The Altiplano is a series of intermon-
and cover the Precambrian crystalline western side of the active foreland basin. tane, continental basins, which have a
basement to the east and Paleozoic and It is characterized by north-south– combined length of approximately 850
Mesozoic sedimentary rocks to the west. trending, narrow mountain ranges with km, an average width of 130 km, and
These alluvial accumulations are prod- elevations between 500 and 2,000 m. an area of approxi-
to page 10 . . .
ucts of several Neogene to Holocene Rock types in this province include mately 110,000 km2.

Status Estimate past production Present resource Grade

Underground development 5 t Au 15 t Au 3.8 g/t Au

Undeveloped 2 t Au 9.5 t Au 3.8 g/t Au

Underground development 10 t Au 84 t Au 7 g/t Au

Past underground 5 t Au 34 t Au 1.3–2.5 g/t Au

Past open pit 167t Au, 907t Ag 8t Au, 40 t Ag 2 g/t Au, 11 g/t

Undeveloped 1 t Au 72 t Au 1.4 g/t Au

Past underground 0.5 t Au,0.3 Mt Cu, 40 t Ag 20 t Au, 1 Mt Cu, 1,500 t Ag 1 g/t Au 8% Cu, 40 g/t Ag

Open pit 30 t Au 5 t Au 0.7 g/t Au

Undeveloped 0.3 t Au 9 t Au 1.1 g/t Au
Undeveloped 2 t Au 17 t Au 1.68 g/t Au
Undeveloped Unknown 1,700 t Ag, 14 t Au 50 g/t Ag, 0.4 g/t Au
Underground development 7 t Au, 0.01 Mt Sb 50 t Au, 0.06 Mt Sb 5 g/t Au, 2% Sb
Past underground 2 t Au, 0.05 Mt Sb 20 t Au, 0.4 Mt Sb 1 g/t Au, 2 % Sb
Past underground 0.2 t Au 23. 5 t Au 1.5 g/t Au
Exploration 1 t Au, 5,000 t Ag 77 t Au, 7,153 t Ag 65 g/t Ag, 0.7 g/t Au

Underground development 0.5 t Au, 0.05 Mt Bi 48 t Au, 0.5 Mt Bi 1.2 g/t Au, 1.3% Bi
Undeveloped 0.05 t Au, 10,000 t Cu, 15 t Au, 140,000 t Cu, 1.5-1.8 g/t Au, 1.5-2% Cu, 30 g/t Ag
0.3 Mt Ag 8 Mt Ag
Underground and open pit 10 t Au, 100 t Ag, 40,000 t Cu 21 t Au, 254 t Ag, 82,000 t Cu 1.4 g Au/t, 47 g/t Ag, 1.5% Cu
Past underground 2 t Au 20 t Au 5 g/t Au
Undeveloped ——————— 5.3 t Au, 56.5 t Ag 1.26 g/t Au, 11.3 g/t Ag
Past open pit 28 Au ——————- 2.8 g/t Au

TABLE 2. Major Tin (silver) and Base Metal Deposits in Bolivia

Name Physiographic province Metallogenic belt Deposit type Company

Cerro Rico Potosí Eastern Cordillera Tin belt Bolivian polymetallic vein COMIBOL
San Bartolome Eastern Cordillera Tin belt Bolivian polymetallic vein COMIBOL
Llallagua Eastern Cordillera Tin belt Bolivian polymetallic vein COMIBOL
Huanuni Eastern Cordillera Tin belt Bolivian polymetallic vein COMIBOL
Colquiri Eastern Cordillera Tin belt Polymetallic vein COMIBOL – Manquiri JV
pluton associated
Japo, Sta Fe, Eastern Cordillera Tin belt Bolivian polymetallic vein COMIBOL
Bolivar Eastern Cordillera Tin belt Bolivian polymetallic vein COMIBOL –
Sinchi Wayra JV
Oruro district Altiplano Tin belt Bolivian polymetallic vein COMIBOL
Colquechaca Eastern Cordillera Tin belt Bolivian polymetallic vein Private companies and
Chorolque Group Eastern Cordillera Tin belt Bolivian polymetallic vein COMIBOL
Colavi Eastern Cordillera Tin belt Bolivian polymetallic vein COMIBOL and private
San Cristobal Altiplano Alt. and W. Cord. Epithermal Sumitomo Corp.
San Vicente Western Cordillera Tin belt Bolivian polymetallic vein COMIBOL -
(Lípez región) Panamerican JV
Jaquegua Western Cordillera Alt. and W. Cord. Epithermal EMUSA
(Lípez región) polymetallic
Huara Huara – Eastern Cordillera Zn-Pb belt Vein type Zn-Pb-Ag Private
Mojo district

... from 9 Metallogeny of Bolivia (Continued)

They form a high plateau at elevations were emplaced along the coasts of adja- the San Simón area near the Brazilian
between 3,600 and 4,100 m (Fig. 1). cent Peru and Chile. In Bolivia, this border (SERGEOMIN-YPFB, 2000), on a
Geomorphologically, the province con- province is dominated by high andesitic plateau above the Amazonian low-
sists of an extensive flat plain that is to dacitic stratavolcanoes, formed since lands, in a region sometimes called the
interrupted by isolated mountain ranges. ca. 28 Ma, that define the narrow, main Paragua craton Au-Mn belt (Fig. 2). The
Crustal shortening, rapid subsidence, Central Andes modern magmatic arc. 22 t San Simón deposit, mined at small
and, simultaneously, as much as 15 km scale since the mid-1700s, is hosted by
of sedimentation took place during the ca. 1450 Ma graywacke. Several aurifer-
Andean orogeny (Richter et al., in USGS METALLIFEROUS DEPOSIT ous placers are associated with erosion
and GEOBOL, 1992). Basin fill was DISTRIBUTION of the San Simón ridge gold veins. The
dominated by erosion of the Western Bolivia contains parts of three important 10 t Au Puquio Norte deposit, within
Cordillera during Late Eocene-Oligocene, South American metallogenic provinces: the San Ramon district along the west-
but Neogene shortening in the Eastern the Precambrian Shield, the Chaco-Beni ern edge of the Sunsas province, consists
Cordillera and Subandean zone led to a plains, and the Central Andes. Precam- of quartz-carbonate veins hosted by the
subsequent dominance of younger sedi- brian terranes are highly underexplored early Mesoproterozoic BIF of the Sunsas
ments derived from the east (Horton et but have great undiscovered mineral orogen. These deposits may be related
al., 2002). resource potential; the Chaco-Beni plains to those of the Guapore gold belt in
The Western Cordillera consists of a have been the locus of extensive placer adjacent Brazil, which includes the
volcanic mountain chain that is 750 km gold recovery; and the Central Andes recently developed São Francisco (40 t
in length and 40 km in average width, host most of the known significant met- Au) and São Vincente (19 t Au) deposits.
with an area of about 30,000 km2 (Fig. alliferous lode deposits in Bolivia. A scattering of ore-related dates between
1). Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous 1.0 and 0.8 Ga in the gold belt (Geraldes
flows and pyroclastic rocks and marine Eastern Bolivia: The Precambrian et al., 1997) are coeval with with Sunsas
sandstone and siltstone sequences dom- Shield and Chaco Beni Plains tectonism and might indicate a regional
inate the Cordillera in Peru and Chile. Although very poorly explored, a few metallogenic event at that time.
Lesser Late Cretaceous continental sedi- scattered, high-grade orogenic gold High-grade gneissic parts of the Pre-
ment was deposited above the marine deposits of unknown age in the Pre- cambrian Shield host the Don Mario de-
rocks and, simultaneously, large grani- cambrian Shield indicate considerable posit and similar Au-Ag-Cu prospects. The
toid plutons, many of which are associ- resource potential. Auriferous veins, com- 31 t Au Don Mario deposit, from which
ated with large porphyry orebodies, monly along saddle reefs, are located in copper oxide was mined beginning in the

Status Estimate of past production Present resource Grade

Underground development 60,000 t Ag, 0.2 Mt Sn 55,182 t Ag, 0.8 Mt Sn 102 g/t Ag, 0.15% Sn
Surface development ——————- 35 Mt Ag 108 g/t Ag
Past underground development 1 Mt Sn Unknown 5% Sn
Underground development 0.1 Mt Sn 0.2 Mt Sn 3% Sn
Underground development 0.05 Mt Sn, 0.3 Mt Zn 0.1 Mt Sn, 0.8 Mt Zn 1% Sn, 8% Zn

Underground development 0.05 Mt Sn 0.07 Mt Sn 0.4% Sn

Underground development 0.1 Mt Sn, 0.2 Mt Zn, 0.15 Mt Sn, 0.5 Mt Zn, 3% Sn,10% Zn, 8% Pb
0.15 Mt Pb 0.4 Mt Pb
Underground development 0.1 Mt Sn, 10,000 t Ag, 0.1 Mt Pb 0.5 Mt Sn, 9,200 t Ag, 3.2 Mt Pb 200 g/t Ag, 1% Sn, 7% Pb
Underground development 5,000 t Ag, 0.4 Mt Zn, 0.05 Mt Sn 6,749 t Ag, 1.85 Mt Zn, 0.37 Mt Sn 55 g/t Ag, 1.5% Zn, 0.3% Sn

Underground development 0.2 Mt Sn, 3,000 t Ag 2.4 Mt Sn, 9,600 t Ag 2% Sn, 80 g/t Ag
Underground development 1,000 t Ag, 0.05 Mt Sn, 6,400 t Ag, 0.4 Mt Sn, 80 g/t Ag, 0.5%Sn, 0.5% Pb, 0.8%Zn
0.05 Mt Pb, 0.1 Mt Zn 0.4 Mt Pb, 0.64 Mt Zn
Open pit development 3 Mt Zn, Ag, Pb 250 Mt Zn, Ag, Pb 1.5% Zn, 62 g/t Ag, 0.55% Pb

Underground development 2,000 t Ag, 0.2 Mt Zn 4,800 t Ag, 0.8 Mt Zn 240 g/t Ag, 4 % Zn

Exploration 300 t Ag, 0.01 Mt Zn, 0.1 Mt Pb 1,800 t Ag, 0.15 Mt Zn, 90 g/t Ag, 0.7%Zn, 3.5% Pb
0.8 Mt Pb
Underground development 1 Mt Zn, 0.5 Mt Pb 3.4 Mt Zn, 3.6 Mt Pb 8-9% Zn, 9% Pb (30-70% Ag)

1700s, is also enriched in Pb, Zn, W, grabens within the Tucavaca basin. of the Bolivian Precambrian province
and Bi (Arce-Burgoa, 2007). Ore-bear- These deposits are hosted within Rapitan- were intruded by the ca. 990 Ma
ing veins and stockworks are described type BIF. The Guarayos greenstone belt, Rincón del Tigre Complex, one of the
as overprinted by magnetite-rich skarn. along the western edge of the province, largest mafic-ultramafic complexes in
These auriferous occurrences have been hosts Cu-Au-Ag-Zn VMS occurrences, South America and part of a 1,100-km-
referred to as IOCG deposits, but more mainly in rocks of the La Pastora Forma- long, north-south belt of similar intru-
detailed geologic information is needed tion, which is exposed along a 20-km sions (Annels et al., 1986; Arce-Burgoa,
before the alternative possibility of Fe- strike length. Massive to laminated 2009). The chronology of Santos et al.
Cu-Au skarn systems can be ruled out. pyrite-chalcopyrite ± galena-sphalerite (2008) suggests that these intrusions
Disseminated to massive polymetal- bodies are localized in rhyolite and meta- are representative of post-Sunsas, ca.
lic sulfide deposits are associated with sedimentary rocks of a Mesoproterozoic 1060–990 Ma A-type magmatism,
Neoproterozoic rift basins in the south- bimodal volcanic sequence at the although the rocks of the Rincón del
ern part of the Bolivian Precambrian, Miguela deposit (Arce-Burgoa, 2009). Tigre Complex were nevertheless
particularly the 650 × 55 km Tucavaca A series of poorly understood mag- deformed sometime after emplacement.
basin. Disseminated Cu-Pb-Zn mineral- matic-related mineral occurrences are Magnetite gabbro in the upper part of
ization and quartz-barite-galena veins, also recognized in the Precambrian the complex contains a Skaergaard-
mainly localized along lithologic con- Shield. Syn- to late-kinematic, ca. 1.0 type, strata-bound, precious metal zone
tacts in both oxidized clastic rock Ga pegmatites (e.g., Los Patos, La Bella, and highly anomalous but subeco-
sequences and in reduced black shale Ascencion de Guarayos) that cut schists nomic concentrations of PGM and Au
units, suggest potential for undiscovered are favorable for Be, Sn Ta, Nb, Th, and (Prendergast, 2000).
SEDEX deposits. Lead- and Zn-rich zones U resources (Bennet and Zerain, 1985). The great Madera, Madre de Dios,
in ferruginous dolomites and stroma- In addition, hydrothermal events are Beni, and Mamoré rivers and their
tolitic reefs in the northern part of the related to emplacement of a series of numerous tributaries drain the north-
Tucavaca basin indicate potential for rift-related, alkaline syenitic bodies that eastern slopes of the Central Andes and
Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits. host Lovozero-type Nb, Ta, and REE their abundant Paleozoic orogenic gold
In addition, the Mutún-Tucavaca ferro- mineralization of both suggested Jurassic- deposits (see below), and then transect
manganiferous belt, approximately 230 Cretaceous (Velasco and Manomó Hill) the northern part of the Chaco-Beni
× 30 km in size and trending northwest, and Proterozoic (Mercedes rift and the plains. Several of these river systems
hosts the largest and highest grade sedi- El Tigre Complex) ages (Fletcher and contain exceptional amounts of placer
mentary Fe-Mn ores in Bolivia (Fig. 1). Litherland, 1981; Fletcher et al., 1981; gold (Fig. 1) and they define the so-
These Rapitan-type BIFs include the El Arce-Burgoa, 2007, 2009; SERGEOMIN- called Amazonian gold basin. The
Mutún, Cerro Rojo, and Cerro Colorado- YPFB, 2000). Mesoproterozoic metasedi- placer deposits have
to page 12 . . .
Murciélago deposits that are located in mentary rocks near the southern border an average grade of

... from 11 Metallogeny of Bolivia (Continued)

approximately 0.5 g/m3 Au, although Most of this gold was recovered from conglomerates may contain 54 M m3 of
concentrations in some localities sur- the late Tertiary Cangalli Formation, material grading 0.05 g/m3 Au.
pass 4 g/m3 (Heuschmidt and Miranda, which has been reworked by modern
1995). Historic production from these river channels. Significant resources are Western Bolivia: The Central Andes
placers has been estimated at >1,200 t still present in these alluvial deposits; The Bolivian part of the Central Andes
Au (Arce-Burgoa, 2009), which consti- for example, in the headwaters of the is characterized by a diverse series of
tutes a world-class placer environment. Alto Madidi River, a series of thick deposits (Fig. 1) and metallogenic belts

69°W 66°W 63°W 60°W







Río Des




Paragua Craton Au-Mn

Sunsás Polymetallic
Mutún-Tucavaca Fe-Mn
Lead - Zinc
Gold - (Antimony)
22°S Tin
Altiplano and Western Cordillera Polymetallic

Amazon Gold Basin

Capital of Department

FIGURE 2. Metalliferous provinces in Bolivia (modified from SERGEOMIN-YPFB, 2000).


(Fig. 2). These include the Miocene to Mineralization style varies from vein The polymetallic vein deposits,
Pliocene red-bed copper deposits and lodes and stockworks to disseminations located in the southern half of the
epithermal deposits of the Altiplano in breccias, porous pyroclastics, and Bolivian tin belt, include veins, veinlets,
and Western Cordillera, and the porphyries. Mineralized rock is com- stockworks, and disseminated ores
Miocene tin belt, Paleozoic gold-anti- monly banded, brecciated, and drusy to within the various host rocks. Mineral-
mony belts, and the poorly dated lead- vuggy. Vertical deep to shallow metal ization ages vary between 22 and 4 Ma.
zinc belt principally in the Eastern zoning, sometimes telescoped, ranges The porphyry-hosted veins are mainly
Cordillera. In addition, the high salars from enrichments of Cu, Zn-Pb-(Ag), hosted in subvolcanic dacite and latite
of the Altiplano and Western Cordillera Pb-(Ag), to Ag-(Au) near the surface. bodies. The Llallagua deposit, which
contain economically important evap- Hydrothermal alteration of the igneous produced >1 Mt Sn, is probably the
orite deposits that constitute more than rocks is generally penetrative and largest Sn vein-type deposit discovered
50% of the world’s lithium resources. zoned; system cores exhibit phyllic or to date anywhere in the world. Ore
silicified alteration, widespread argillic recovered from veins along the margins
Sedimentary-Rock Hosted and/or propylitic haloes, and apical of the host porphyry initially ranged
Copper Deposits of the Altiplano zones altered to advanced argillic from 12 to 15% Sn. However, most low-
More than 80 Miocene to Pliocene strat- assemblages or silicic plugs. grade ores generally graded 0.2 to 0.3%
iform copper deposits are scattered Silver-rich epithermal deposits are Sn. These deposits are recognized as
along the length of the Bolivian mainly intermediate sulfidation types products of orthomagmatic processes
Altiplano; these include those of the (Arce-Burgoa, 2009). Important examples active late in the history of the evolu-
most productive Corocoro district, which of these include Pulacayo, Berenguela, tion of coeval overlying stratovolcanoes
has been mined since Inca times (Arce- Carangas, Salinas de Garci Mendoza, (Sillitoe et al., 1975).
Burgoa, 2009). Red-bed copper ore gen- San Cristobal, San Antonio de Lipez, Bonanza-type Ag-Sn veins are hosted
erally occurs along contacts and uncon- and Jaquegua. High-sulfidation epi- by rhyodacitic, dacitic, and quartz latitic
formities between Tertiary units. thermal deposits are less common but composition volcanic dome complexes
Although widespread, these deposits, include those at Laurani in the Altiplano (Cunningham et al., 1991). The most
except for Corocoro and Chacarilla, are and La Española in the Western Cordil- voluminous stage of ore formation in
generally small, which reflects the lera. At La Española, vuggy silica and the southern part of the tin province
absence of broad marine transgressive quartz-alunite alteration appear to over- occurred between 18 and 16 Ma (Grant
sequences that are required to form the print an earlier low-sulfidation event et al., 1979; SERGEOMIN-YPFB, 2000).
favorable reductants above continental (Arce-Burgoa, 2009). The intermediate- Sillitoe et al. (1998) indicated that litho-
red beds in areas of world-class deposits sulfidation epithermal deposits include caps of vuggy residual quartz in this
(USGS-GEOBOL, 1992). The most signifi- the ca. 15.7 Ma Kori Kollo deposit, less eroded part of the province are con-
cant copper deposits of the Altiplano which, with a pre-mining reserve of 161 sistent with high-sulfidation epithermal
are associated with gypsum diapirs that t Au and 907 t Ag (Redwood, 1993), was deposits, although low sulfidation-type
serve as local reductant traps. the largest gold producer in South mineral assemblages in deeper massive
America during the early 1990s. At the sulfide zones formed at temperatures
The Polymetallic Belt of the much higher than typical epithermal
Altiplano and Western Cordillera Lipena-Lamosa epithermal deposit, Au,
Bi, and Cu were mined in colonial times. ores. The Cerro Rico de Potosi poly-
The 800 × 200 km polymetallic belt of metallic vein deposit, mined since the
the Altiplano and Western Cordillera The Bolivian Tin Belt mid-1500s, is the world’s largest silver
provinces (Fig. 2) is mainly composed of The Bolivian tin belt (Fig. 2) extends for deposit. It has yielded 60,000 t of silver,
epithermal Ag-Au-Pb-Zn-Cu deposits. approximately 900 km in a northwest- and estimated resources are 540 Mt of
These formed during the Middle-Late to north-south–trending direction in the 102 g/t Ag and 0.10–0.17% Sn (Bernstein,
Miocene and Early Pliocene, when vol- Eastern Cordillera of Bolivia, where con- 1989). The deposit formed at ca. 13.8 to
canism and shallow magmatism led to tinental crust is thickest (Turneaure, 13.5 Ma and subsequently underwent
formation of widespread precious and 1971; Arce-Burgoa, 1990; Fig. 2). High- at least 7.5 m.y. of supergene oxidation
base metal-bearing epithermal deposits grade (1–5% Sn) hydrothermal tin lodes, (Rice et al., 2005). Sedimentary rock-
(USGS-GEOBOL, 1992; Redwood, 1993). which typically also contain significant hosted polymetallic veins are found in
The most important metallogenic fea- amounts of Ag and W, are spatially clastic units of both early Paleozoic and
tures include epithermal mineralization associated with peraluminous granite Tertiary age, although igneous rocks
of intermediate- and high-sulfidation and porphyry intrusions of different are present within a few kilometers of
type associated with small, shallow por- ages between Late Permian and 4 Ma, almost all of these deposits.
phyritic subvolcanic plugs, flow domes, with most being late Tertiary. The intru- Pluton-related, tin-polymetallic vein
stratovolcanoes, flows, pyroclastic rocks, sions are dominantly deep crustal melts deposits are dominant in the Cordillera
ignimbrite shields, and/or volcanic of Paleozoic sedimentary rock. According Real in the more deeply eroded north-
calderas of dacitic, rhyodacitic, rhyolitic, to Arce-Burgoa (2009), deposits of the ern part of the tin province, where two
and andesitic composition. The giant tin belt can be divided into four groups: distinct ages of mineralization are rec-
San Cristobal disseminated Ag- and Zn- porphyry-(Sn), volcanic rock-(Sn-Ag-Pb- ognized. Ore is hosted by faults and
rich deposit may reflect porphyry dome Zn, which includes bonanza-type Ag- fractures in Paleozoic sedimentary
emplacement into a lacustrine environ- Sn), and sedimentary rock-hosted (Sn- rocks, contact aureoles, pegmatites, and
ment (Phillipson and Romberger, 2004). Ag-Pb-Zn), which are together defined intrusive complexes. Late Permian to
Most deposits exhibit structural control as Bolivian polymetallic vein deposits, Jurassic igneous rocks (Grant et al.,
along lineaments, large transcurrent and distinct pluton-related tin-poly- 1979) are associated
faults, and local-scale tension fractures. to page 14 . . .
metallic deposits (Sn-Au-W-Zn). with numerous Sn-W ±

... from 13 Metallogeny of Bolivia (Continued)

Au-Bi-Zn-Pb-Ag-Sb vein-type deposits in quartz (Lehrberger, 1992; Dill, 1998; lack of a spatial association between
the northern part of the belt (e.g., La Arce-Burgoa, 1999, 2002). Conflicting the deposits and intrusive bodies makes
Chojlla, Enramada, Bolsa Negra, dates of ca. 314 Ma (K-Ar) and 59 Ma this less likely. The importance of small,
Milluni). Tin and polymetallic mineral- (Ar-Ar) characterize the San Bernardino Early Ordovician SEDEX-type Pb-Zn-
ization in the southern part of the deposit (Arce-Burgoa, 2007); the older (Cu-Ag-Ba) occurrences in the shales
Cordillera Real are hosted by 28 to 19 date seems most realistic based on the (Troeng et al., 1993) to later formation
Ma granitoid plutons and Paleozoic sed- timing of orogenic gold formation in the of the Ag-Pb-Zn veins is unknown.
imentary rocks (e.g., Rosario de Araca, nearby Eastern Cordillera of Peru and Some of the SEDEX mineralization is
Colquiri; Grant et al., 1979). These Argentina (e.g., Haeberlin et al., 2002). economic, such as in the Aguilar
deposits, which are locally telescoped, The majority of these deposits have deposit, just across the border in
are zoned with a W-Sn ± Au core and been and are being exploited on a small Argentina (Gemmell et al., 1992).
outer, base metal-rich veins. scale from the precolonial days to the
present, although the future Amaya- Evaporitic Deposits of the
The Gold-Antimony Belts of pampa mine will be a medium-scale Altiplano and Western Cordillera
the Eastern Cordillera operation (16 t Au) and the entirely of Dozens of salars in the Altiplano and
Three distinctive belts of orogenic Au ± the Amayapampa district may contain Western Cordillera of southwestern
Sb deposits (Fig. 2), containing more 80 t Au. Other significant gold resources Bolivia contain large resources of B, K,
than 500 known deposits and occur- include deposits at El Molino (15.5 t Au), Li, Mg, and other evaporitic minerals.
rences, are recognized along the length Iroco (Kori Chaca, 32 t Au having been Evaporation in closed basins concen-
of the Eastern Cordillera (Tistl, 1985; recovered from the most recent open pit trates these elements in residual brines
Lehrberger, 1992). These include (1) a in Bolivia) in the Oruro district, Carma and precipitated salts. Given the recent
northwest-trending belt from near La (24 t Au), and San Bernardino (73 t Au). global interest in the possible future use
Paz, through the Oruro-Challapata belt, Additionally, these deposits were the of lithium-ion car batteries, the Bolivian
to the Amayapampa district; (2) a north- main source of gold in the numerous lithium resources have attracted a great
south–trending belt from the Caracota- placer deposits of the Subandean zone deal of interest. The brines at Salar de
Carma districts to the Candelaria dis- and Chaco-Beni plains (Arce-Burgoa, Uyuni are estimated to contain 8.9 Mt
trict on the Argentinian border; and (3) 2007). Most gold deposits have reported Li, the largest resource of that metal in
a northwest-trending belt from the average grades of 1 to 3 g/t Au, which the world, as well as 194 Mt K, 7.7 Mt B,
Apolobamba district near the Peruvian are somewhat low for orogenic gold and 211 Mt Mg (Arce-Burgoa, 2009).
border, through the Aucapata-Yani and lodes. Consequently, these epizonal The surface area of the salt lake is
Cajuata-Los Machos districts, to the vein systems are much more likely to be approximately 10,000 km2 and evapo-
Cocapata-El Molino district. The linear- prospective as future low-grade, bulk ration to form the average 121-m-deep
ity of all three belts is consistent with minable systems, similar to Sb-rich ores ancient salar layer below the present
with major crustal structures in the at Donlin Creek, Alaska, rather than as lake surface was completed 3,520 years
Central Andes; the former two belts fol- high-grade underground mines. ago. Present-day brines, located 5 to 20
low the Altiplano-Eastern Cordillera cm below the salt crust surface, have
boundary, whereas the latter belt is The Lead-Zinc Belt of concentrations of between 80 and 1,150
solely within the center of the northern the Eastern Cordillera ppm Li (Garrett, 2004). A relatively
half of the Bolivian Eastern Cordillera. A series of sedimentary rock-hosted Ag- high Mg/Li ratio of these brines could,
Many of the gold districts are in the same Pb-Zn veins, with anomalous concen- however, inhibit lithium recovery.
general parts of the Eastern Cordillera trations of Au and Sb, and with no clear
that have tin mineralization related to association to magmatic centers, are
Mesozoic and Tertiary intrusions. located along the length of the central CONCLUSIONS
The orogenic gold deposits, which part of the southernmost Eastern Cordil- The Precambrian of eastern Bolivia,
form ribbon veins, stockworks, saddle lera in Bolivia (Figs. 1 and 2). Important although poorly characterized, has
reefs, and disseminated ores, are mainly districts include Huara Huara, San Lucas, great potential for discovery of
hosted by Middle Ordovician to Early Toropalca, Cornaca, Tupiza, and Mojo. Mesoproterozoic through early
Silurian sedimentary rocks. Many de- The deposits have a combined estima- Paleozoic precious metal-(orogenic gold,
posits, particularly those of the Caracota- ted resource of 40 to 45 Mt of 10% Zn, IOCG) and base metal-(VMS, MVT,
Carma-Candelaria belt, contain as 5–7% Pb, and 70–80 g/t Ag (Arce-Burgoa, SEDEX, sedimentary Fe-Mn) bearing
much as 10 to 20% Sb; consequently, 2009). These Coeur d’Alene-type veins deposits. The Chaco-Beni plains contain
many of these were originally mined for occur in faults and along fold hinges in one of the world’s greatest, yet least
antimony. These deposits typically have mainly Ordovician shale and, less com- familiar, alluvial gold concentrations,
relatively uniform mineralogy and pre- monly, siltstone. Their age is uncertain; with source regions in the high eleva-
serve two principal paragenetic events. they may have formed during the major tions of the Eastern Cordillera of north-
Products of the earlier event include episode of deformation at ca. 320–290 ernmost Bolivia. The diversity in metal-
gold, pyrite, arsenopyrite, and tungsten- Ma in southern Bolivia (e.g., Jacobs- logeny and an abundance of mineral
bearing minerals in milky quartz. The hagen et al., 2002), essentially coevally occurrences in the Central Andes, par-
later, lower temperature event involved with orogenic gold formation. Alterna- ticularly Cenozoic Bolivian-type poly-
deposition of Pb-Zn-Cu– and Sb-bearing tively, they may have formed during metallic vein and more classic epi-
sulfides in microgranular, bluish-gray later Tertiary magmatism, although the thermal deposits, reflect the complex

tectonic framework of this part of the the Sb mineralisation in the Central Andes Litherland, M., Annels, R.N., Darbyshire,
Andes, which is characterized by the (Bolivia) and the Western Carpathians D.P.F., Fletcher, C.J.N., Hawkins, M.P.,
greatest amount of crustal thickening (Slovakia): Mineralium Deposita, v. 33, p. Klinck, B.A., Mitchell, W.I., O’Conner, E.A.,
359–378. Pitfield, P.E.J., Power, G., and Webb, B.C.,
and the most crustal shortening along Fletcher, C.J.N., and Litherland, M., 1981, 1989, The Proterozoic of eastern Bolivia
the length of the orogen (e.g., The geology and tectonic setting of the and its relationship to the Andean mobile
McQuarrie et al., 2005). Velasco Alkaline Province, eastern Bolivia: belt: Precambrian Research, v. 43, p.
Journal of the Geological Society of 157–174.
London, v. 138, p. 541–548. McQuarrie, N., Horton, B.K., Zandt, G., Beck,
Fletcher, C.J.N., Appleton, J.D., Webb, B.C. S., and DeCelles, P.G., 2005, Lithospheric
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS and Basham, I.R., 1981, Mineralization in evolution of the Andean fold-thrust belt,
Ed du Bray and Steve Luddington are the Cerro Manomó carbonatite complex, Bolivia, and the origin of the central
thanked for their insightful comments eastern Bolivia: Transactions of the Andean plateau: Tectonophysics, v. 399, p.
on an original version of this manu- Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, v. 90, 15–37.
p. B37–50. Mesa, J., de Mesa T.G., y Mesa, C., 1997,
script. An additional detailed review
Garrett, D.E., 2004, Handbook of lithium and Historia de Bolivia: Editorial Gisbert, 779 p.
from Stewart Redwood made this a natural calcium chloride: San Diego, Phillipson, S.E., and Romberger, S.B., 2004,
much more through contribution. Academic Press, 476 p. Volcanic stratigraphy, structural controls,
Gemmell, J.B., Zantop, H. and Meinert, L.D., and mineralization in the San Cristobal
1992, Genesis of the Aguilar zinc-lead-silver Ag-Zn-Pb deposit, southern Bolivia: Journal
deposit, Argentina: Contact metasomatic of South American Earth Sciences, v. 16, p.
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SEG Well-Represented at the

SGA Conference in Townsville, Australia
August 17–20, 2009

Shunso Ishihara, past director of the

Geological Survey of Japan, was the
recipient of the SGA-Newmont Gold
Medal at the SGA biennial conference
in Townsville, Australia, in recognition of
a full career in performance of “unusu-
ally original work in the mineral deposit
sector.” Here Dr. Ishihara (left) talks with
Lluís Fontboté and Stuart Simmons at
the conference in front of a busy SEG
booth staffed by Doug Kirwin, SEG Vice
President for Regional Affairs.

At the August SGA meeting, James Mcdonald (center) speaks with students Nathan Fox and Anita Parbhakar while he tends the SEG
booth. Conference attendance was approximately 500; SEG contributed a half-day plenary session.

Doug Kirwin smiles at the camera during his and James Mcdonald’s tenure at the SEG booth. Thanks to Jeff Hedenquist for providing pho-
tos and information about the meeting!

From: Anthony J. Naldrett (SEG 1970 SF; SEG Past President)
To: Douglas J. Kirwin (SEG 1997 F; Current Vice President for Regional Affairs)

I have just returned from three weeks in seriously,

China, most of which was occupied by and we were
a lecture tour at six Chinese universities greeted with
in the company of Dr. Chusi Li, SEG the greatest
honorary lecturer. Chusi has asked me hospitality
to send you a few lines of comment wherever we
about the tour. went.
First, I must say that it was one of Our talks
my most pleasant recent experiences. (mine in
Chusi had organized it extremely well, English,
contacting friends or acquaintances at Chusi’s in
each of six universities: Peking Univer- Mandarin)
Tony Naldrett and Chusi Li (4th and 6th from left) are greeted warmly when
sity in Beijing, the Ocean University of attracted
they arrive at Peking University on June 1st.
China in Qingdao, Zhejiang University large audi-
in Hangzhou, China University of Geo- ences by
sciences in Wuhan, the Guiyang Institute today’s standards in our field (30–70). understanding of the subject to be
of Geochemistry in Guiyang, and Chan- While many students were shy of ask- slightly below Western levels at the pre-
gan University in Xián. These people ing me questions in English, I received 3 sent time, but, with more and more
were responsible for arranging for our to 6 questions at each location, and Chinese spending 1 to 3 years at
lectures, our local costs, our ticket to the some of these showed a good under- Western institutions and their unparal-
next destination, and a day’s sightsee- standing of the topic. Both staff and stu- leled access to the latest equipment at
ing in and around their city. They dents were keen to speak English after their home institutions, this is fast
undertook these responsibilities very the talks and during our stay. The improving. I think that papers from
Chinese are making a mainland China will soon be a major
tremendous effort to factor in Economic Geology and
learn, and teachers Mineralium Deposita. I am very proud of
require that their stu- the way in which Chusi, who joined me
dents learn English. at the University of Toronto in 1988
Having lectured there with very little English under his belt,
almost every year for and who is now based at Indiana
the last 5 years, I have University, has become one of the most
noticed a distinct productive researchers in the field of
improvement over this magmatic sulfide deposits, and is mak-
time. ing a major effort to enthuse geologists
There is no doubt in in his home country about this field. I
my mind that China is would urge the Society to do all it can to
While at the China University of Geosciences Beijing, guests an enormously fertile foster the “Chinese Connection.”
enjoyed a festive meal. Participants included (left-right) field in which to pro- Tony Naldrett
Shangguo Su, Xuanxue Mo, Tony Naldrett, Yuseng Zhai, Chusi mote SEG. I would judge Professor emeritus, University of Toronto
Li, and Chunji Xue. the overall standard of June 26, 2009 1



2009 Student Research Grant Awards

The Society of Economic Geologists • Michael J. Kallstrom, $2,000, Uni- • Anita K. Parbhakar, $2,000, Univer-
Foundation (SEGF) and the SEG Canada versity of Texas, Austin, USA, M.S.; sity of Tasmania, Australia, PhD;
Foundation (SEGCF) are pleased to Origin of native silver mineralization, Predictive environmental mineralogy
announce the Student Research Grant Batopilas district, Chihuahua, Mexico. and geochemical techniques.
awards for 2009. Ninety-seven applica- • Douglas C. Kreiner, $3,000, Univer- • Remigio Ruiz, $2,000, Universidad
tions were received; SEGF awarded 42 sity of Arizona, USA, PhD; Hydro- Nacional de La Plata, Argentina,
grants for a total US$ 100,000. The thermal alteration and mineralization PhD; Geology and mineralization,
SEGCF awarded 13 additional grants for in mining districts of northern Chile. SW Deseado massif, Santa Cruz,
CDN$34,500. • Alina V. Kuptsova, $3,000, St. Peters- Argentina.
These grants will assist students with burg State University, Russia, M.S.; • Julia Rutkowski, $3,000, Berlin Free
field and laboratory expenses for thesis Sequential dissolution in U-sandstone University, Germany, PhD; Shallow
research on mineral deposits as required deposits and basement rocks, Russia. seawater hydrothermal systems,
for graduate degrees at accredited uni- • Mark A. Leatherman, $2,000, Tonga-Kermadec island arc.
versities. Grants are awarded on a com- University of Missouri, Columbia, • Saeed Saadat, $2,000, University of
petitive basis and are available to stu- USA, M.S.; Geochemical and isotopic Colorado, USA, PhD; Field and labo-
dents worldwide. analysis and modeling the Beowawe ratory study of Neogene volcanism
This year’s successful candidates geothermal field, Nevada. and mineral deposits in eastern Iran.
attend 30 different universities in 10 • Julie E. Leibold, $2,000, Colorado • Adam T. Simmons, $2,000, Univer-
countries distributed as follows: United School of Mines, USA, PhD; Develop- sity of British Columbia, Canada,
States – 19, Canada – 18, Australia – 9, ment of new exploration techniques PhD; Geochemical evolution of por-
Great Britain – 2, Argentina – 2, and for uranium roll-front deposits. phyry intrusion and Cu-Mo porphyry
one each from Germany, Hungary, • Brandon Lewis, $2,000, Colorado deposits, Quellaveco, southern Peru.
Russia, Spain and Sweden. School of Mines, USA, M.S.; Geology • William A. Starkel, $2,000,
The awards are listed in the following of the Toboggan Au-Te prospects, Washington State University, USA,
format: grant recipient, dollar amount (in Shoshone County, Idaho. PhD; Geology of the mid-Miocene
U.S. dollars except for SEG Canada awards, • Luciano Lopez, $2,000, Universidad McDermitt volcanic complex, north-
which are in Canadian dollars), university, Nacional de La Plata, Argentina, ern Nevada.
degree, and research topic. PhD; Geology and metallogenesis, • Elizabeth D. Stock, $3,000, Univer-
Purisima-Rumicruz district, Jujuy sity of British Columbia, Canada,
Hugh E. McKinstry Student Research Province, Argentina. PhD; Geochemical and mineralogi-
Awards are granted to students whose • Angela C. Marshall, $2,000, cal footprints, Red Lakes gold mines,
projects involve studies of mines or ore University Wollongong Australia, Ontario, Canada.
districts, topical studies toward improved Honours; Genesis of the Wanmunna • Greg W.H. van Hees, $2,000, Uni-
understanding of ore genesis, and exper- Marra Mamba iron ore deposits, versity of Ottawa, Canada, M.S.; 3-D
imental research in field applications. Hamersley Basin, Western Australia. geometry of the Lundberg zone,
This year’s 30 recipients are listed below. • Scott A. McFadden, $3,000, Iowa Buchans, Newfoundland.
• Jonathan Bachtel, $2,000, Univer- State University, USA, M.S.; Origin of • Victoria H. Vry, $2,000, Imperial
sity of Ottawa, M.S.; Stable and nodular sillimanite rocks and rela- College of London, PhD; Metal trans-
radiogenic isotopic study of zircons, tionship to Cu-Zn deposits, Colorado. port and deposition in a supergiant
Abitibi subprovince, Canada. • Janina Micko, $2,000, University of porphyry-copper deposit, El Teniente,
• Isaac Corral, $3,000, Universitat British Columbia, Canada, PhD; Chile.
Autònoma de Barcelona Spain, PhD; Geology of Central zone alkalic Cu- • Zach J. Wenz, $2,000, University of
Cerro Quema Au-Cu high-sulfidation Au porphyry deposit, Galore Creek, Missouri Columbia USA, PhD; Geo-
system, Panama. Canada. chemical groundwater modeling,
• Sophie M. Fielder, $2,000, University • Nicola Mitchell, $2,000, James Cook Mississippi Valley-type Pb-Zn deposits.
of Leicester, M.S.; The potential of University, Australia, Honours;
travertines in exploration for epi- Tectonic controls on kimberlite Newmont Student Research Grants
thermal gold deposits. emplacement in northern Australia. are awarded to facilitate economic geol-
• Nathan Fox, $2,600, University of • David R. Mole, $3,000, University of ogy research, with a primary interest in
Tasmania, PhD; Controls on alter- Western Australia, PhD; Melt-litho- gold. The six recipients for 2009 follow.
ation and mineralization, Cadia Au- sphere interactions: Understanding • Lindsey V. Clark, $1,000, Univer-
Cu deposit, NSW, Australia. Ni mineralization, Archaean Yilgarn sity of Tasmania, Australia, PhD;
• Benedek Gal, $3,000, Eotvos Lorland craton. Geology of the Kencana epithermal
University, Budapest Hungary, PhD; • Erik Nordfeldt, $2,000, Stockholm Au-Ag deposit, Indonesia.
Model for Cu-Ni-PGE mineralization, University, Sweden, M.S.; Sources of • Andrew Fornadel, $4,000, Iowa
south Kawishiwi intrusion, Minnesota. metals and fluids in orogenic gold State University, USA, M.S.; Fluid
• James D. Girardi, $2,750, University deposits. inclusion and stable isotope geochem
of Arizona, USA, PhD; Field and Sr • James R. Pape, $2,000, University of of an intrusion-related Bi-Te-Pb-Sb-
isotope study of brine-dominated Arizona, USA, M.S.; Reconstruction of Au deposit.
alteration, coastal batholith, Copiapo, middle and late Tertiary extension, • Michael J. Kirsch-
to page 19 . . .
Chile. Elko-Carlin region, Nevada. baum, $3,500,

... from 18 2009 Student Research Grant Awards (Continued)

Colorado School of Mines, USA, M.S.; • Mark D. Lindsay, $2,500, Monash • Taryn Gray, $4000, St. Mary’s Uni-
Geologic character of the Guelb University, Australia, PhD; quantify- versity, Nova Scotia; Late Paleozoic
Moghrein iron oxide Cu-Au deposit, ing geological uncertainty during 3D felsic volcanic rocks in southern New
Mauritania. geological modeling. Brunswick and related uranium min-
• Takayuki Manaka, $3,000, Univer- • Elizabeth R. Sharman, $2,000, eralization.
sity of Tasmania, Australia, PhD; McGill University, Canada, PhD; • Shawn B. Hood, $3,000, University
Geology of Au mineralization at Developing VMS exploration vectors: of Alberta, Canada, PhD; High-grade
Phuoc Son goldfield, central Vietnam. Tracing hydrothermal plume partic- hydrothermal copper in foliated
• Rachel M. Repprecht, $1,500, Uni- ulate distribution. granites, Minto Cu-Au deposit, Yukon.
versity of North Carolina, USA, M.S.; • Ali Imer, $1,500, University of
Petrography and origin, Cu-Au-Mo The Hickok-Radford Grants are Alberta, Canada, PhD; Geology and
mineralization and associated host awarded to support field-based research geochemistry, Copler porphyry-
rocks, N. Carolina. as applied to exploration for metallic epithermal deposit, Turkey.
• Qingtao Zeng, $2,000, University of mineral deposits, for projects located in • Gideon Lambiv-Dzemua, $3,500,
Western Australia, PhD; Geochrono- Alaska, northern Canada and other University of Alberta, Canada, PhD;
logical study on the Liba gold deposit, regions north of Latitude 60 North, or Controls on the Nkamouna Co-Ni-
central China. projects at very high elevations else- Mn formation.
where. The recipient for 2009 follows. • Yanan Liu, $2,000, University of
Alberto Terrones L. Fund awards are to Toronto, Canada, PhD; Partitioning
provide financial support to students from • Chris R. Siron, $4,000, Colorado
of precious and semi-metals between
Latin American countries that are pur- School of Mines, USA, M.S.; Geology of
silicates, sulfides and arsenides.
suing graduate studies for a M.S. or PhD the LWM massive sulfide carbonate-
• Stephanie Mrozek, $3,500, Univer-
degree in the United States or Canada. hosted replacement deposit, Alaska.
sity of Alaska, USA, M.S.; Geology of
The two recipients for 2009 follow. the Mike Lake Au-Cu skarn deposit,
SEGF Canada Foundation Awards
• Jaime Andrés Poblete, $1,500, Yukon Territory, Canada.
support study of Canadian mineral
University of British Columbia, • Joshua Mukwakwami, $2,000,
deposits or mineralized regions, research
Canada, M.S.; Geology, geochronol- Laurentian University, Canada, PhD;
at Canadian universities, or Canadian
ogy and structure, Cerro Bayo epi- Structural controls of Ni-Cu-PGE ores
students studying at foreign universities.
thermal district, Chile. and mobilization of metals, Garson
Grants listed are in Canadian dollars.
• Carlos A. Vargas, $2,000, New mine, Sudbury.
This year’s 13 recipients are the following.
Mexico Tech, USA, M.S.; Assessment • Abdul Razique, $3,000, University of
of deep hypogene alteration mineral • Nelson F. Bernal, $1,500, University British Columbia, Canada, PhD;
distribution, Los Bronces, Chile. of Alberta, Canada, PhD; Halogen Genesis of Reko Diq porphyry Cu-Au
and chlorine stable isotopic composi- deposits, Chagai district, Belochistan,
The Hugo Dummett Mineral tion of mineralizing fluids, Zambian Pakistan.
Discovery Fund supports applied eco- copper belt. • Amanda D. Smith, $2,000, Univer-
nomic geology research, including the • Stephanie M. Boucher, $3,000, sity of Missouri, USA, M.S.; Geochem-
development of new exploration tech- University of Ottawa, Canada, M.S..; istry of gold and base-metal mineral-
nology and techniques, and the dissem- Geology of the West Ansil volcanic- ization, Yellowknife greenstone belt,
ination of related results. This year’s hosted massive sulfide deposit, NWT, Canada.
three recipients are the following: Noranda, Quebec. • Gabriel Sweet, $3,000, Lakehead
• Jack V. Gibbons, $3,000, Colorado • Suzanne Byron, $2,500, University University, Canada, M.S.; The Black
School of Mines, USA, M.S.; Vectors of Alberta, Canada, PhD; Giant Mountain porphyry Cu-Au deposit,
to ore, Hoyle Pond deposit, Porcupine quartz veins of the Great Bear mag- Baguio mineral district, Philippines. 1
gold camp, Timmons, Ontario. matic zone, NW Territories, Canada.




The SEG Foundation and the SEG Newmont Mining Corporation Grants Society of Economic Geologists
Canada Foundation will provide support research projects worldwide re- Canada Foundation Fund supports
Student Research Grants for the year lated to the geology, mineralization and research by Canadian or non-Canadian
2010. Individual grants are for one year metallogeny of gold deposits. Emphasis students on mineral deposits or districts
and will typically range from US$1,000 is placed on research with a strong field in Canada; non-Canadian projects at
to US$5,000. These grants support grad- component, with funding available for Canadian universities; non-Canadian
uate student research projects leading to directly related laboratory work. students studying at Canadian universi-
master’s or doctoral degrees, and excep- ties, or Canadian students doing
tional BS Honors or “BS Titulo” projects. Hugh Dummett Mineral Discovery research at universities outside of
Students in mineral resource study pro- Fund supports applied economic geol- Canada.
grams throughout the world are eligible ogy research, including the develop-
and encouraged to apply. Instructions ment of new exploration technology
on how to apply for student research and techniques, and the dissemination General Information:
grants are given below. of related results through publications, • Awards are intended to fund specific
lectures, short courses, workshops and expenses related to student research
Preference will be given to those appli- conferences. projects leading to advanced degrees.
cants who are SEG Student Members. • Awards are competitive and based
Student Membership application infor- Alberto Terrones L. Fund annually upon project merit and qualification
mation can be found below. supports qualifying students from of the applicant.
Mexico, Peru, and other Latin American • Applicants must describe what the
countries who are pursuing graduate project is; why the research is impor-
Grants will be awarded from the follow- studies in applied economic geology or tant, and how it is to be done.
ing funds: geological engineering while regularly • An estimate of expenses for the pro-
enrolled at MS or PhD degree-granting ject must be included with the appli-
Hugh E. McKinstry Fund supports universities in the U.S. or Canada. The cation.
“study, research and teaching of the sci- grants may be used for thesis research, • Grants are expected to be fully uti-
ence of economic geology or for related university fees, living expenses while on lized by the end of the year in which
projects,” with preference give to field campus, travel, or any other expense they are dispersed.
and related laboratory research by directly related to pursuing the gradu- • Grant recipients are required to pro-
graduate students. Geologists on study- ate study program. vide a year-end accounting of how
leave from their employment are also the funds were spent together with a
eligible to apply. Timothy Nutt Memorial Fund pro- suitable progress report or final
vides financial support for geology stu- abstract.
Hickok-Radford Fund supports field- dents and young economic geologists
based research projects and directly located in Zimbabwe or in Southern Applicants requesting financial sup-
related laboratory studies as applied to Africa with ties to Zimbabwe. The fund port from the Alberto Terrones L. fund
metallic mineral deposits, with prefer- may be used to support SEG student for non-research expenses must include
ence given to projects located in Alaska, chapter activities, travel to meetings, a statement describing the need and
northern Canada and other regions field trips and for research or study purpose of their request.
north of Latitude 60 North, or for pro- grants, technical lectures or any other Applications may be submitted for
jects at very high elevations elsewhere activities approved by the SEG Regional any one of the awards, but will be con-
and extreme southern latitudes. Vice President for Africa. sidered for all awards. 1

The Student Research Grant Application form may be downloaded from:


Applications and Advisor Appraisals must be received by February 15, 2010.

Awards will be announced by April 30, 2010.

SEG Student membership information is available at:

Completed applications should be sent to:

Student Research Grants Committee c/o Assistant for Student Affairs
Society of Economic Geologists Foundation, 7811 Shaffer Parkway, Littleton CO 80127-3732 USA
Phone: +1.720.981.7882/Fax: +1.720.981.7874

SEG Foundation 2009 Graduate Student Fellowship Awards
The SEGF Graduate Student The 2009 SEG Foundation Graduate Stu- John V. (Jack) Gibbons, USA - $10,000,
Fellowship Program provides fel- dent Fellowships in Economic Geology have Colorado School of Mines, USA, MSc, Barrick
lowships to students who intend been awarded to the following students: Scholar
to pursue a course of study in (Listing in order: name of student, home Shawn B. Hood, Canada - $10,000,
economic geology leading to a country, amount of award, university where University of British Columbia, Canada,
Professional Master’s, Master of student is either attending [first year] or MSc, Gold Fields Scholar
Science (MSc) and/or PhD plans to attend graduate school, and degree David G. Larimer, USA - $10,000,
degree, with preference given to being sought) University of Alaska, USA, MSc, Gold Fields
those who will be entering grad-
Ayesha D. Ahmed, Canada - $10,000, Scholar
uate school following comple-
University of British Columbia, Canada, Guillaume Lesage, Canada - $10,000,
tion of a Bachelor of Science (BS)
MSc, Barrick Scholar University of Alberta, Canada, Gold Fields
degree, or equivalent. A total of
US$150,000 has been awarded Nathan J. Bridge, Canada - $9,000, Uni- Scholar
to sixteen students who will be versity of Western Ontario, Canada, MSc Brandon D. Lewis, USA - $9,000, Colorado
entering graduate school this Gráinne M. Byrne, Ireland - $9,000, National School of Mines, USA, MSc
year, or who are currently University of Ireland Galway, Ireland, PhD Stephanie A. Mrozek, USA - $10,000,
enrolled as first-year graduate Lindsey V. Clark, UK - $9,000, University of University of Alaska, MSc, Barrick Scholar
students. This is one of the Tasmania, CODES, Australia, PhD
Foundation’s three core student Edward W. Nelles, Canada - $9,000,
programs “to encourage and Jeffrey C. Edelen, USA - $9,000, Colorado Laurentian University, Canada, MSc
develop a new generation of eco- School of Mines, USA, MSc Sonja C. Wiedmann, USA - $9,000, Wayne
nomic geologists.” The SEGF Hannah I. Fay, USA - $9,000, University of State University, USA, MSc
Graduate Student Fellowship Arizona, USA, MSc Kelsey J. Zabrusky*, USA - $9,000,
Program is supported by Lutz Geissler#, Germany - $9,000, TU Colorado School of Mines, USA, MSc 1
major grants from AngloGold Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany, PhD
Ashanti Limited, Barrick Gold
Corporation, Gold Fields Ex-
ploration Inc., and Newmont # Fellowshipwithdrawn; not currently enrolled as a full-time graduate student.
Mining Corporation. *Declined fellowship, having received significant funding from other sources.


Graduate Student Fellowships Available For 2010
The Society of Economic Geologists • Have been accepted, or are in the pro- Completed application forms must be
Foundation, Inc. (SEGF), under its cess of being accepted, as a first-year accompanied by:
Graduate Student Fellowship Program, graduate student at a recognized col-
(1) an official transcript of grades from
will award one-year fellowships, rang- lege or university offering a graduate
the institution awarding the BS
ing from US$7,500 to US$15,000 each program leading to a Professional
degree and
for the year 2010, to students who intend Master’s, MSc, and/or PhD in eco-
(2) two letters of recommendation—one
to pursue a course of study in economic nomic geology as it relates to the
from the student’s undergraduate
geology leading to a Professional Mas- study of mineral and ore deposits,
advisor or head of department, and
ter’s, Master of Science (MSc) and/or geochemistry or geophysics with
another from a faculty member
PhD degree. Preference will be given to applications to minerals exploration
familiar with the applicant’s aca-
those who will be entering graduate and mine geology, or must be cur-
demic record and character.
school following completion of a Bache- rently enrolled as a full-time first-year
lor of Science (BS) degree, or equivalent. student in a graduate program that
Students throughout the world with an fits the foregoing description. Application forms can be downloaded:
expressed interest in pursuing graduate • Have manifested a strong interest in <
studies in economic geology are encour- the study of economic geology as it SEGF-2010GSFellowshipApp.pdf>
aged to apply. Awards are competitive relates to mineral and ore deposits,
and based on merit and qualifications geochemistry or geophysics with
Applications, together with the sup-
of the applicant. Applicants must meet applications to minerals exploration
porting information, must be received
the following requirements: and mine geology, or in a discipline
no later than February 15, 2010.
directly related to the field of eco-
• Have completed, or are in the process of nomic geology.
completing, a BS or equivalent degree • Must be an SEG student member, or have Fellowships under this program will be
in the geosciences or a related field. applied for SEG student membership. announced in April 2010. 1

The XXVIII UNESCO-SEG-SGA Course on Metallogeny

Belo Horizonte, Brazil • May 19–26, 2009
Fernando Tornos (SEG 1993 F)

The XXVIII edition of the UNESCO-SEG- affiliated with universities, geological basement with banded iron formations,
SGA Course on Metallogeny was orga- surveys, and mining companies, attend- orogenic gold deposits, and Witwaters-
nized by the CDTN-CNEN (Centro de ing from Brazil, Colombia, Argentina, rand-like deposits. The practical course
Desenvolvimento Tecnologia Nuclear - and Peru. included visits to some of the largest de-
Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear, As in previous editions, we unfortu- posits of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero, includ-
Brasil), in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, with nately were not able to host all the ing the Itabira and Samarco iron mines
Francisco Javier Rios (SEG 2008) as aca- applicants. This especially merits a as well as the orogenic gold deposits of
demic coordinator and Fernando Tornos note—that the course is becoming more Corrego do Sitio and Lamego. The field
(SEG 1993 F) as his international part- and more popular among geologists trip was highlighted with a visit to the
ner. The theoretical part included talks coming from industry, who see that famous outcrop of itabirite of the Sierra
on radiogenic geochemistry and isotope many of the disciplines taught here, da Piedade and some prospects of Au-U
dating (Fernando Barra, University of such as theoretical geochemistry, fluid in conglomerate that are strikingly sim-
Arizona), orogenic gold and iron deposits inclusion studies, and isotopic dating, ilar to the Witwatersrand.
(Steffen Hagemann, University of West- are not only for academic scientists. All the speakers participated in the
ern Australia, SEG 1996 F), fluid inclu- After nearly 30 years, this was the field trip. Nights were spent at the natu-
sion analysis and the transport of Cu- first time that the course was not held ral reserve of Sierra de Caraça and the
Au in magmatic-hydrothermal systems in a Spanish-speaking country. We World Heritage City of Ouro Preto, one
(Christoph A. Heinrich, ETH Zurich, SEG would like to acknowledge the big effort of the most prominent mining cities of
1990 F), gold deposits in Brazil and the by speakers and participants to solve the world.
Quadrilatero Ferrifero (Lydia Lobato, challenges raised by possible language As with previous editions, the course
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, barriers. Talks were presented in could not be held without the collabora-
SEG 1993 F), iron deposits (Carlos Alberto Spanish, Portuguese, and English. tion of international and local institu-
Rosiére, Universidade Federal de Minas The accompanying field trip was tions. The attendance of students and
Gerais, Brazil), geochemistry of ore de- planned and led by Javier Ríos (CDTN), some professors was possible owing to
posits and IOCG-like deposits (Fernando and Lydia Lobato and Carlos Rosiere the economic support of UNESCO, SEG,
Tornos, Instituto Geológico y Minero de from the CPMTC-UFMG, Brazil. Geologists and SGA, whereas the general costs
España), gold deposits in Carajas (Rai- accustomed to the geology of the Andes were covered with the generous contri-
mundo Netuno Nobre Villas, Univer- enjoyed the geology of an old cratonic butions of the CDTN and the govern-
sidade Federal do Pará, Brasil, ment of Minas Gerais, as well as
SEG 2001) and fluids in IOCG Ministerio de Minas e Energia of Brazil,
systems (Roberto Perez Xavier, Anglo Gold Ashanti, Votorantim, Vale,
Universidade de Campinas). Anglo American, Ferrous, Terra Ativa,
The theoretical classes were and other institutions and companies.
complemented by short practi- The next course will be held in Con-
cal courses on electron micro- cepción, Chile, and is being organized
probe, fluid inclusions, and by Bernhard Dold; it will be devoted to
geochemistry. Javier and his the environmental aspects of mining.
great team at the fluid inclu- The 2011 edition will very likely be held
sion lab (Sonia, Tatiana, Lucilia, in Colombia and coordinated by Juan
and Ana Rosa) organized a fan- Carlos Molano (University of Bogotá)
tastic course that mixed work and Fernando Barra.
with fun. This theoretical part More information on the course can
was attended by about 70 scien- At the XXVIII Course on Metallogeny held in Brazil, sev- be found at
tists, M.Sc. and Ph.D. students, eral presenters, participants, and volunteers pause for ences/terre/mineral/seminars/belo_hor
professors, and geologists a photo. izonte09/belo_horizonte09.html. 1



Second International Exploration Forum, CESCO 2009

At the 2nd International Exploration Forum, CESCO 2009, Francisco Camus (second from the left; SEG 1981 F) joined a panel discussion
about exploration and the economy. SEG was a sponsor for the forum, held March 31 in Santiago, Chile.

Symposium in Xi’an, China

At the Ni-Cu (Pt) Deposit Symposium 2009 held in Xi’an, China, in June, 110 attendees made the international event a success.

Shown above are those who participated in an SEG-sponsored pre-meeting short course. Lecturers included Tony Naldrett, Steve Barnes,
Mike Lesher, Chusi Li, Wolfgang Maier, Sarah Barnes, Ed Ripley, and Peter Lightfoot.


䊴 䊳
Report on Geomin 2009, First International Seminar on Geology for the Mining Industry,

Antofagasta, Chile • June 10–12, 2009

Geomin 2009, an international seminar Atacama Desert. The lat-
on geology for the mining industry, was ter allowed for viewing
held in Antofagasta, Chile, in June of a wide variety of min-
2009. In conjunction with the seminar, erals of the Antofagasta
an SEG short course on geometallurgy Region and relics from
was given. The SEG invited four mem- the first mines of north-
bers of the Nazca student chapter from ern Chile. Students from
the University of Concepción to partici- Nazca joined their peers
pate in these events and learn more from the Universidad
about new technological developments Católica del Norte to dis-
in geology. cuss ideas and projects.
The short course was led by Karin Geomin 2009 was an
Hoal (Director of the Advanced Miner- opportunity for members
alogy Research Center at the Colorado of the Nazca student
School of Mines), Jean Richardson chapter and other stu- Nazca members networking while visiting SGS laboratories
(Global Marketing Director, SGS Mineral dents to communicate (left to right): Beatriz Sáez, Laura Torres (Nazca student
Services), and Guillermo Turner-Saad with professionals who chapter vice president and treasurer, respectively), Karin
(Global Vice President of Metallurgy were generous in sharing Hoal (Director of the Advanced Mineralogy Research
and Mineralogy, SGS Mineral Services). their knowledge and Center at the Colorado School of Mines), and students
The course included an introduction to experiences. The chapter Viviana Carrasco and Alfonsina Sobarzo.
geometallurgy and followed up with would like to thank the
applications of the technology to explo- Society of Economic Geologists for inviting us to the seminar
ration and production. and short course and for their enthusiastic support, Guillermo
Following the talks, students were Turner-Saad for the tour of SGS facilities, and the Geomin
invited to visit to SGS facilities and the 2009 organizing committee for letting us participate.
opening of the new Museum of
Beatriz Sáez Seguel, Vice President of Nazca Student Chapter 1


At the Prospectors and

Developers Association of
Canada (PDAC) meeting,
held March 1–4 in Toronto,
student members from the
new SEG student chapter
at LaSalle, France (Institut
Polytechnique LaSalle
Beauvais), met some other
SEG members at the exhibit
booth. SEG long-time mem-
bers providing a welcome
are M. Stephen Enders
(left), and, from right, Stuart
F. Simmons, Johann Tuduri,
Brian G. Hoal, and Jeffrey
W. Hedenquist.

䊴 䊳

The year got off to a good start for students from the chapter who attended a course, “Structural
Geology with Applications to Mineral Exploration,” with Dr. Eduardo Rosello of the Universidad de
Buenos Aires. Shown here are some of the 65 course attendees.

Peter Laznicka is flanked by Carlos Jimenez (UNC

On July 4 and 5, student chapter members visited the only current copper former chapter president) and Catalina
operation in the country and some outcrops of the gold-rich district of Titiribi, Londoñez (2007 chapter member) during his visit
where the El Zancudo mine is located. Here students are photographed prior to Medellín to present a short course, entitled
to entering tunnels within the El Roble Cu-Ag-Au mine. Pablo Mejia (SEG 2007, “Future Metal Sources and Giant Metallic
left), of MINER SA, led the tour. Deposits with Applications to Latin America.”



Students pose with Drs. Oswaldo Ordoñez and Eduardo

Rosello (third and fourth from left, standing) during a field trip
to study structural geology.
Jeff Hedenquist greets two new SEG student members
in June at the annual Resource Geology meeting in
Tokyo. Alba Nury Gallego, left, is from Medellín,
For more news Colombia, and Euis Tintin Yuningsih comes from
on Student Chapters, please go online to Bandung, Indonesia. Both are doctoral students in Japan, studying at Shimane University and Hokkaido
University, respectively.




2009 Thayer Lindsley Lecturer Visit

Dr. Nikos Skarpelis, academic advisor to the
SEG student chapter at the University of Athens,
Greece, wrote in praise of Dr. Richard M. Tosdal’s
Thayer Lindsley lecture, given May 18 in the
Department of Economic Geology and Geo-
chemistry, Faculty of Geology and Geoenviron-
ment. Dr. Tosdal spoke on “Tectonic Transitions,
porphyry Cu, and epithermal deposits.” The lec-
ture was well attended by academic and industry
members, graduate and post-graduate students. 1

An engrossed audience at the University of Athens listens to

2009 Thayer Lindsley Lecturer Richard Tosdal.

A group of academic staff members and students surrounds

Richard Tosdal (sixth from the left) in the lecture hall.


Jack V. Gibbons (SEG 2009 SM) As the trip

On May 9, a group of five students, led progressed
by Mark Hannington (University of through the dif-
Ottawa) and Thomas Monecke (Colo- ferent camps,
rado School of Mines), began a two- participants
week field school focused on the Abitibi worked through

greenstone belt of Ontario and Quebec. a variety of
Student members included Greg Van exercises.
Hees (University of Ottawa), Florian Underground
Huthmann (Freiberg University), John mapping at the
Jamieson (University of Ottawa), Julie Dome gold
Leibold, and Jack Gibbons (Colorado mine, interpre-
School of Mines). tation of sulfide
The focus of the field school was to textures in drill Abitibi Field School 2009 participants and instructors in the former Dome
study the geology of the Abitibi’s world- core from the open-pit gold mine near Timmins, Ontario. From left to right: Jim Shannon
class mining camps (Cobalt Lake, Kirk- Kidd Creek (Oz Minerals), Florian Huthmann, Jack Gibbons, Thomas Monecke,
massive sulfide Julie Leibold, Mark Hannington, John Jamieson, and Greg Van Hees.
land Lake, Timmins-Porcupine, and
Noranda) through a systematic approach mine, and vol-
to observations and interpretations. canology mapping traverses in Noranda Manville, Dave Gamble, Patrick
Through the students’ observations and massive sulfide camp were just a few of Mercier-Langevin, and Jean Goutier.
interpretations, with an occasional the many field school exercises. Besides By the end of the field school on May
guiding hint from Mark, Thomas, or Mark and Thomas, the school was for- 21, students were all a little tired but,
one of our many guest instructors—the tunate enough to tap into the expertise thanks to Mark’s, Thomas’s, and our
group worked out the significance of of many regional and mine geologists: many guest instructors’ enthusiasm,
each outcrop or drill core to build each Harold Gibson, Howard Poulson, expertise, and energy, all were amazed
camp’s unique geologic story. Gerhard Meyer, Erik Barr, Alain at what they had accomplished. 1

For more news on Student Chapters, please go online to


GEOCON, INC. Metallica Mining ASA

VP Exploration
Exploration and Mining Geology Fornebuveien 1, 1366 Lysaker
P.O. Box 137, 1325 Lysaker, NORWAY
Direct: +47-67519008 Norway mobile: +47-47487725
13741 Braun Drive E-mail: Fax: +47-67519009 U.S. mobile: +1-509-990-6786
Golden, CO 80401 Phone/FAX (303) 279-3118


Exploration Geophysicist
• consulting
• interpretation
• project management
• geophysical surveys
• domestic & foreign

P.O. Box 370526 303-337-4559

Denver, Colorado 80237 telephone/fax



Gold: A Review of the October Issue of Elements Magazine (v. 5, no. 5)

Guest Editors: Robert Hough and Charles Butt
Scott A. Wood (SEG 1993 F), Department of Geological Sciences,
University of Idaho, Box 443022, Moscow, Idaho 83844-3022 (e-mail,

Gold is an element that has captivated the the subsequent articles in the issue. In this in detail, the possibility of in situ formation
imagination for millennia, despite its practi- article we learn, among other things, that of gold grains in surface waters, possibly via
cal uses being largely limited to high-tech- Australian aborigines apparently had very colloidal transport, is left open.
nology applications. However, it is a symbol little interest in gold in spite of the likely The sources and sinks of gold in aurifer-
of wealth and its production has generated availability of gold nuggets, that the vast ous magmatic-hydrothermal porphyry and
billions of dollars for the mining industry. majority of gold ever mined is still available, epithermal deposits are reviewed briefly in
Indeed, even when other commodities have and that the rate of increase in the total an article by R.M. Tosdal, J.H. Dilles, and
had depressed prices, gold has tended to amount of gold mined throughout history D.R. Cooke. Topics discussed include the ulti-
remain buoyant, such that approximately has outstripped the rate of population growth mate source of the magmatic components,
half of world-wide exploration expenditures (i.e., the cumulative amount of gold mined per the nature of the hydrothermal system and
over the past few decades have been devoted person is larger today than ever in history). metal transport, and the mechanisms of
to gold. Therefore, it is fitting that the maga- A very useful feature of the gold issue is metal deposition for these two deposit types.
zine Elements has recently published an issue an article by J.L. Walshe and J.S. Cleverley The article covers a fair amount of ground,
devoted to this intriguing metal. titled “Gold Deposits: Where, When and Why,” ranging from magmagenesis and tectonic
Not all members of SEG may be familiar which is set off in a “box”. This section con- setting to alteration and ore mineralogy.
with Elements or its raison d’être, so I will tains a concise review of such basic informa- Although the focus is on gold, the article is
take the liberty of making a brief introduc- tion as typical concentrations of gold in eco- useful as a basic review of the nature and
tion before launching into a review of the nomic deposits as well as typical elemental origin of porphyry and epithermal deposits
gold issue. Elements is published bimonthly and mineralogical associations. The authors in general. The article concludes with a dis-
by a consortium of international societies briefly relate deposit classification to genetic cussion of the duration of hydrothermal sys-
that support geochemistry, mineralogy, and processes, and advocate a mineral systems tems. The authors suggest that, although
petrology. Currently there are 15 participat- approach to answering the three questions individual porphyry or epithermal deposits
ing societies from the United States, Canada, posed in the title. The mineral systems can be formed over geologically very short
and Europe, a number that has grown rapidly approach involves addressing the following timescales (thousands to tens of thousands of
from the six founding societies that were aspects of deposits: (1) geodynamic history, years), porphyry-forming systems are usually
listed in the inaugural issue in January 2005. (2) architecture, (3) fluid sources and reser- associated with multiple episodes of intru-
Each issue explores a theme of broad and voirs, (4) fluid pathways and driving forces, sion and associated hydrothermal activity
current interest in the mineral sciences. The and (5) metal transport and depositional over extended periods of time, making it
mission of Elements is to integrate mineral- mechanisms of a mineral system. It is exactly appear as though there was a single, contin-
ogy, petrology, and geochemistry, and to these types of questions that the remainder uous, long-lived system rather than a series
showcase these disciplines among practition- of the issue attempts to address. The “box” of episodic, short-lived, temporally distinct
ers and to a much broader community, in- includes an informative cartoon illustrating events.
cluding scientists in other disciplines, policy- the various geological environments of gold An article by R.M. Hough, C.R.M. Butt,
makers, the general public, high school deposition. Finally, the authors introduce an and J. Fischer-Buehner, “The Crystallography
students and teachers. The magazine strives intriguing hypothesis relative to gold trans- and Composition of Gold,” discusses the sig-
to publish articles at the level of a first-year port as complexes in anhydrous fluids, possi- nificance of the crystallography and metal-
university science student and has become a bly at concentrations as high as 103–104 ppm! lography of gold to the investigation of gold
valuable teaching resource. The themes of An overview of the behavior of gold in ore-forming systems. After a brief review of
most issues of Elements should be of broad solution, in both hydrothermal and surface the natural abundance, physical properties,
interest to most economic geologists, includ- environments, is provided by A.E. Williams- and mineralogy of gold, the authors discuss
ing such varied topics as Supervolcanoes Jones, R.J. Bowell, and A.A. Migdisov. how the Au/Ag ratios and other composi-
(v. 4, no. 1), the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (v. 2, no. Because most major gold deposits, with the tional parameters of gold alloy can be
6), Early Earth (v. 2, no. 4), Large Igneous exception of placers, result from dissolution- employed to make inferences about the ori-
Provinces (v. 1, no. 5), and Toxic Metals in the precipitation processes involving hydrother- gin of hypogene deposits and the source of
Environment (v. 1, no. 4). Those of special mal solutions, and many geochemical explo- alluvial gold grains (for instance, Cu, Ag,
interest to SEG members include Gems (v. 5, ration techniques depend on the degree to and Pd contents and the nature of mineral
no. 3), Bentonites (v. 5, no. 2), Platinum-Group which gold is chemically dispersed in surface inclusions can be used to distinguish epi-
Elements (v. 4, no. 4), Phosphate (v. 4, no. 2), and groundwaters, the behavior of gold in thermal and porphyry provenances of allu-
Energy: A Geoscience Perspective (v. 3, no. 3), solution is highly relevant to exploration for vial gold) and how composition relates to
Zircon: Tiny But Timely (v. 3, no. 1), Arsenic new deposits (and exploitation of existing microstructure, color, and hardness. Finally,
(v. 2, no. 2), Diamonds (v. 1, no. 2), and Fluids deposits). The authors begin their overview they provide a brief overview of the contro-
in Planetary Systems (2005, v. 1, no. 1). More by outlining the history of investigations of versy regarding the origin of gold nuggets,
information on these issues and others can gold solubility, starting with the eighth-cen- concluding that “nuggets are weathering,
be found at tury discovery that gold dissolves in aqua not forming, in the supergene environment.”
The gold issue begins with an introduc- regia through to the first quantitative studies The authors state that gold nuggets are
tory article by the issue editors, C.R.M. Butt of the solubility of gold in heated aqueous hypogene in origin and their relative abun-
and R.M. Hough, titled “Why Gold is Valu- liquid and vapor by Ogryzlo, in 1935. This dance in surficial environments is solely a
able,” which presents a brief history of overview is followed by succinct but state-of- result of physical concentration by chemical
humankind’s interest in gold, the uses of the the-art reviews of the aqueous geochemistry wasting and fluvial transport.
element, and the development of the tech- of gold, hydrothermal transport and deposi- The role of the biosphere in the geochem-
nology to recover, refine, and process the tion, colloidal processes, vapor transport, istry of gold is the subject of an article by G.
metal. This article also briefly describes the hydrocarbons as a transport medium, and Southam, M. Lengke, L. Fairbrother, and F.
content of and piques the reader’s interest for supergene processes. Although not addressed Reith. These authors point out the existence

of an active, microbially driven biogeochem- for medical imaging. These techniques have his contributions to the economic geochem-
ical cycle for gold under surface and near- several advantages over current imaging istry of gold. This Parting Shot relates back
surface conditions. This is an exciting area of methods such as MRI and CT. The inclusion to one of the common threads running
research that has really accelerated in the of this article provides a good example of the throughout the issue relative to the origin of
last decade. Topics such as the weathering of kind of cross-pollination for which Elements nuggets. Butt points out that after careful
gold, the formation of secondary gold, and strives. People interested in biomedical appli- study of the composition and crystallogra-
bacterioform gold are covered. The authors cations of gold may well seek this issue of the phy of numerous nuggets and low-tempera-
conclude that growth of gold grains in the magazine for the article, but then be exposed ture solubility of gold, Liversidge concluded
secondary environment can and does occur to articles on the economic geology of gold! that the most, and possibly all, gold nuggets
(in contrast to the conclusion reached in the Conversely, economic geologists reading this are hypogene in origin.
Hough et al. article) and is mediated by article may find some stimulation for new As is the norm for Elements, the articles are
organic compounds and microorganisms. ideas regarding the transport and deposition all written by experts on the topics. The pro-
The premise of the article, “Gold and of gold. Could nanoscale gold catalyze reac- duction is sleek, including outstanding pho-
Nanotechnology,” by C.M. Cobley and Y. tions involving organic matter in some tographs and color graphics, and the editing
Xia, is that the remarkable physical and deposits? Given that organic material may is excellent. The issue is not, nor is it intended
chemical properties that make gold so prized be involved in gold transport, are there pre- to be, comprehensive with respect to the eco-
at the macroscale change radically when viously overlooked synergies that might come nomic geology of gold. For example, several
gold is at the nanoscale, opening up avenues into play, and thus point to previously uncon- gold deposit types, such as Carlin-type,
for new applications in biomedicine and sidered environments for gold deposition? Archean lode gold, paleoplacers, and skarns,
catalysis. Topics covered by this article Finally, at the end of the issue, the gold receive only brief mention. Nevertheless, the
include an explanation for the ruby red color theme is continued in a regular feature of issue provides an excellent starting point for
of gold colloids, shape-controlled synthesis of the magazine called Parting Shots. This fea- professional economic geologists who want
gold nanoparticles, biomedical applications ture presents some interesting photographs to update their knowledge on gold as well as
(photoacoustic tomography, photothermal and a short explanatory story. In this case, for professors wishing to introduce their stu-
therapy), and catalysis using nanoporous the subject is the “Liversidge nugget”, a gold dents to the topic. Finally, the issue will con-
gold. Although this article is not directly crystal cluster named after Archibald tribute to improving the understanding by
related to the economic geology of gold, I Liversidge, FRS, a pioneering Australian gold the public and policymakers regarding eco-
found it to be fascinating as it introduced me geologist and geochemist. The photos in this nomic geology. I recommend that SEG mem-
to a variety of concepts and uses of gold feature include two of the nugget and one of bers interested in expanding their knowledge
about which I was previously completely Liversridge holding the specimen. The accom- acquire a copy of the issue for themselves, as
unaware. For example, gold appears to be panying story, by C.R.M. Butt, is a concise well as one or more to distribute to students,
an ideal contrast agent in optical techniques biography of Liversidge, with emphasis on members of the public, policymakers, etc. 1
SEG 2010
October 2–5
Keystone, Colorado

The geology and metallogeny of the world’s major domains will be

covered, highlighting those that are emerging and gaining focus
The conference will be organized on the basis of
commodities with topic outlines as follows:
• Revised metallogenic model(s)
• Premier metallogenic province update
• Current exploration methodology
• Recent major and unreported discovery case histories

Please join us at Keystone, one of the premier mountain resorts in
the United States and site of the highly successful SEG 2006
Conference. Special accommodation rates have been negotiated
and will soon be publicized.

Corporations can support student attendance and continuing
education by becoming a Premier, Gold, Silver, or Bronze sponsor.
Benefits include exhibit booth(s) at the upper sponsorship levels
and complimentary registrations in all categories. Please contact
John Thoms ( for further information.

Already 20% of the available space has been reserved at this key
gathering of decision-makers in the minerals industry. Exhibit hall
activities include 5 breaks, 3 receptions, and 3 lunches. Exhibit space
is limited, so please make your booth selection as soon as possible by
contacting Darline Daley.

Organizing Committee
Jim Franklin, Chair
Dick Sillitoe, Technical Sessions
Thomas Monecke, All Posters and Student Conference
Darline Daley, Exhibits, Logistics, Administration
Nate Brewer & Bob Laidlaw, Workshops
Pete Drobeck & Bill Chávez, Field Trips
Rich Goldfarb, Publications
John Thoms, Fund Raising
Brian Hoal, Publicity, Administration
Christine Horrigan, Secretary

Contact details at

General inquiries and exhibits to QBS at +1.303.914.9647 or


October 2–5 • Keystone, Colorado USA

Technical Program
The program includes updates on geological models and exploration methodologies for Cu, Ni, Zn, Au, Ag, and U deposits as
well as metallogenic overviews of the premier Central Chile porphyry Cu, Thompson Ni, Northern Australia and Eurasia Zn, Altaid
Au, and Athabasca Basin U provinces. Case histories of major new discoveries will also be featured, including Cu in the Centinela
district and at Los Sulfatos (Chile) and Kamoa (DRC), Ni-PGE at Eagle One (Canada) and Nachingwea (Tanzania), Zn at Lalor Lake
(Canada) and Toqui (Chile), Au at La Colosa (Colombia) and Pequops (USA), Ag at Pitarilla and El Aguila (Mexico), Navidad
(Argentina) and Corani (Peru), and U at Wheeler River (Canada) and Rössing South (Namibia).
January 15, 2010 — Invited manuscript drafts for SEG Special Publication • March 1, 2010 — All extended abstracts

Student Conference
In conjunction with the main conference, it is anticipated that more than 100 earth science students and SEG student leaders
from around the world will convene on October 2 for another International SEG Student Conference. During this conference,
students will present posters on their research results, network with industry, academic, and government economic geologists,
and discuss issues affecting them as students, SEG members, and future members of the economic geology profession.
The best student papers will form part of the main technical sessions.

Pre-conference Post-conference
• Volcanic-hosted epithermal Au-Ag deposits in • Economic drivers for the development of porphyry Cu-Au
a caldera setting (Creede District, Colorado — deposits (1 day)
field workshop; 3–4 days) • Geology and exploration of Cu-Au porphyries: focus on selected
• ArcGIS training for exploration and mining belts (1 day)
(1–2 days) • GeoMet: Introduction and applications to exploration &
production (1–2 days)
• Geochemistry in mineral exploration and • Exploration in 2020: The tools and techniques to explore under
development (1 day) cover (convened by Society of Exploration Geophysicists — Mining
& Geothermal Committee, and co-sponsored by SEG (1 day)

Field Trips
Pre-conference Altos (Agnico-Eagle Mines), Palmarejo (Coeur d’Alene
• SEG Foundation Student Field Trip (6 days): start Salt Lake Mines Corp.), Ocampo (Gammon Gold Inc.) and other
City, Utah, Saturday evening Sept 25, visit giant Bingham new operating mines. Combined production from six new
Canyon Mine (Kennecott Utah Copper Corp.), Alta Stock operations in region will total nearly 1 Moz gold per
area, East Tintic District, Lisbon Valley Cu mine and annum. Return Oct. 1.
Henderson Mo mine (Freeport McMoran Copper Gold Post-conference
Corp.); end at Keystone early evening, Friday, Oct 1. • Mexico Altiplano (5 days): fly from Denver to Zacatecas to
• Cripple Creek (1 day): from Keystone, visit the world’s review historic and new operations including Cerro San
premier alkaline epithermal gold mine at Cripple Creek Pedro (New Gold Inc.), Peñasquito (Goldcorp), Camino
(Cripple Creek & Victor Mining Co.) on Oct. 1. Rojo (Canplats Resource Corp.), Francisco I. Madero
• Colorado Mo Porphyry Deposits (2 days): from Keystone, (Peñoles), and Cozamin (Capstone Mining Corp.).
visit both world-class Mo deposits at Climax and • Abitibi Belt (6 days): fly to Canada to visit the great gold
Henderson (Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold). and base-metal camps of the Abitibi belt. Trip includes
• Bingham — Tintic, Tops & Bottoms of Porphyry Cu updates on regional geology, metallogeny, and setting of
Deposits (2 days): visit giant Bingham Canyon Mine and world-class ore deposits. We will spend much more time
Tintic Mining district to see un-mined porphyry Cu. on the setting of the deposits than the actual visits.
• NE Nevada Gold (5 days): fly from Denver to visit world- • SW USA Cu Porphyries (5 days): visit porphyry Cu belt in
class gold district including many Carlin mines. SW USA to review leached caps, supergene enrichment
• Mexico Sierra Madre Gold-Silver (5 days): fly from Denver blankets, and hypogene ore at the Sierrita, Safford District
to Chihuahua to tour Dolores (Minefinders Corp.), Pinos and Bisbee deposits.

Notice: Views expressed in the Exploration Reviews do not necessarily reflect those of the Society of Economic
Geologists, Inc., and columnists are solely responsible for ascertaining that information in this section is correct.

drilling at Kambele within the Batouri GHANA

AFRICA gold project in eastern Cameroon, with
Adamus Resources has encouraging
Regional Vice President Africa: grades up to 37 g/t over 1 m in multiple
initial results a its new Kanyankaw
Paul Nex (SEG 2005) shallow-dipping gold-in-quartz zones.
gold prospect, which is located 20 km
Umbono Financial Services Data compilation is underway for a
from the proposed mill site at the South
E-mail: maiden resource estimate
Ashanti gold project, it provides excel-
and CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC lent potential to add to the existing
Judith Kinnaird (SEG 2002 F) mineral resource of 30.2 Mt @ 1.8 g/t for
School of Geosciences AXMIN reported a 30% increase in re-
1,750,000 oz (measured and indicated),
University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa source at Main zone, Passendro project.
together with 6.98 Mt @ 1.62 g/t for
E-mail: 362,000 oz (inferred).
Keegan has released a 43-101
In Africa, green shoots of growth are Government has approved contracts resource of 2.025 M oz Au indicated,
signaling a resurgence in exploration with AngloGold Ashanti, Banro, averaging 1.5 g/t Au and 1.451 Moz Au
and development, although challenges Mwana Africa, and Gold Fields, pro- inferred, averaging 1.6 g/t Au using a
still exist. The saving grace has been vided it completes a feasibility study at 0.6 g/t Au cutoff.
that the downturn in demand for many its Kisenge project, after completing its
commodities has been accompanied by long-delayed mining contract review,
a renewed regional focus on energy. In
although the massive Tenke project has
South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, yet to be fully approved. The review Mano River has confirmed an initial
and Botswana, in particular, there is launched in early 2007 in an effort to independent mineral resource estimate
potential for expansion in the coal boost state revenues from agreements of 1.08 billion tons of iron ore at its
industry, whereas in Namibia and signed mostly during the chaos and cor- 38.5%-owned Putu Range project with
Niger, the focus on uranium continues ruption of a 1998-2003 war and the Russian steelmaker Severstal. This
and, in Burkina Faso, exploration for transitional government that followed, resource covers less than one-quarter of

uranium is also underway. has examined 61 deals in the mining the 12-km strike length of the Putu pro-
sector, one of Congo’s biggest foreign ject. Mano and Severstal Resources are
BOTSWANA currency earners. working toward a prefeasiblity study
A-Cap Resources is undertaking a Red Back Mining plans to accelerate during 2010.
bankable feasibility study at its the development of the Moto gold project.
Letlhakane uranium project following The Ruashi copper mine, of
successful results from drilling 134 RC Metorex, achieved increased produc- Avion Gold has intersected 5.37 g/t gold
holes for 4,800 m. tion with 5,245 t of copper in the quar- over 20.9 m at Segala mine in the first
Hana Mining has obtained excellent ter ended on June 30, 2009. two of five holes drilled to test the Segala
results for its new sedimentary rock- Main zone at depth to support the plan-
hosted Ghanzi copper-silver project EGYPT ning for underground development.
from 9 RC holes drilled on the north Centamin has poured its first gold at Etruscan Resources has an updated
limb of a syncline along strike of miner- the Sukari gold project, the first modern resource estimation has for the
alization intersected in 7 RC holes in commercial gold mine to be operated in Tabakoroni gold deposit on the Finkolo
2008. Egypt, and has current mineral reserves permit in southern Mali, with 610,000
of about 142 Mt at 1.4 g/t of gold, for oz now classified as measured and indi-
BURKINA FASO 6.4 Moz. The current mineral resource cated and 220,000 oz as inferred.
Volta Resources has commenced a stands at 191 Mt at 1.53 g/t of gold 9.39
1,500-m RC drilling program to depths Moz measured and indicated, and 64 MAURITANIA
of 100 m on the Maména-Fofora gold Mt at 1.7g/t for 3.5 Mt inferred resource. Australian Aura Energy plans further
prospect at its 100% owned Kampti III exploration for uranium on the Requibat
property in southern Burkina Faso to ERITREA project to determine the continuity and
assess 3 target zones identified during Sunridge has made a preliminary eco- grade of uranium mineralization found
previous RC drilling. nomic assessment on its large copper- during a reconnaissance survey of pit-
High River Gold Mines has pub- zinc-gold Emba Derho Project. The esti- ting and sampling in 85 shallow pits.
lished an updated mineral resource esti- mated mineral resources will permit Nineteen of the pits contained elevated
mate for its Bissa gold exploration pro- open-pit mining of 4 Mt of ore per year uranium values, ranging from 119 ppm
ject. With 91,000 oz measured and for 10 years with a potential for mine U3O8 to 2,217 ppm U3O8.
832,000 oz indicated resources, and an life extension through either an
inferred resource of 799,000 oz at a cut- expanded open-pit or underground pro- MOZAMBIQUE
off grade of 0.5 g/t gold. duction. A conventional flotation pro- Canadian gold and diamond explorer
cess plant would produce concentrates African Queen is expanding its explo-
CAMEROON containing annually approx. 55,000 t ration activities at the Fingoe belt pro-
African Aura Resources has received zinc, 25,000 t copper, 20,000 oz gold ject area. Noventa Ltd has announced
positive gold results from follow up and 0.6 Moz silver. that it plans to restart the Marropino

opencast tantalum mine, which has 8.3% of the country’s total mining vol- Midex Gold Corp. plans to begin
been in care and maintenance since ume. Lonmin’s platinum production fell exploration at the Magembe diamond
May 2009. by 8% to 172,574 oz in the third quarter project located in the Shinyanga district
of the 2009 financial year, while plat- of northwestern Tanzania and will eval-
NAMIBIA inum-group metals production was down uate indicated diamond potential from
Extract Resources released the prelimi- 13%, at 321,050 oz, compared with the both alluvial and kimberlite sources.
nary capital and operating cost esti- third quarter of 2008. Production target Regional geophysical data indicates
mates report, which confirm the Rossing for the full year remains at between four unexplored kimberlite targets with
South project’s potential to be one of 680,000 and 700,000 oz. magnetic expressions similar to that of
the world’s largest uranium mines. The Gold One has set itself a target to the adjacent 75% de Beers owned
report states that the project can sup- produce 20,000 oz of gold by the end of Williamson (Mwadui) kimberlite pipe.
port a viable open-pit mining operation 2009, 140,000 oz of gold in 2010 and Lake Victoria continues to advance
developed to feed a 15-M tpa agitated 180,000 oz of gold in 2011, following its Kinyambwiga gold project toward
tank sulphuric acid leach processing the successful commissioning of the pro- the establishment of a low-cost, high-
plant. Annual production has been esti- cessing plant at its Modder East project. grade gold mine. Recent trenching has
mated at 14.8 Mlb U3O8 with capital Iron ore producer Kumba Iron Ore defined the continuity along strike of
costs estimated at US$704M and operat- (KIO), expects its headline earnings for mineralized quartz veins along a NE-to-
ing costs of US$23.60 per lb U3O8. the first half of the year to be between ENE–trending structure.
Exemplar, through its wholly owned 19% and 22.5% higher than the same
subsidiary, Namura Mineral Resources, period in 2008 and be between R3.35- ZAMBIA
began RC exploration for calocrete- billion and R3.45-billion for the six Zambi’s sole nickel operation, the
hosted carnotite on the Cape Cross months ended June compared with the Munali nickel mine, will be re-opened
property 20 km inland from Henties R2.8-billion for the first half of 2008. by China’s Jinchuan Group, after the
Bay, along a wide, 60-km-long pale- Platinum Australia has increased operation was suspended in March due
ochannel on three EPL’s covering an the resources estimates at the Kalahari to low nickel prices.
area of 2,773 km2. platinum (Kalplats) project in the Equinox Minerals produced a less-
Paladin Energy Ltd concluded a fea- Kraiipan-Stella layered complex. The than-expected 24,414 t of copper in
sibility study on expansion options for Orion deposit’s high-grade resource concentrate from its Lumwana mine
its 100%-owned Langer Heinrich ura- increased by 13% to 2.72 Mt at 3.33 g/t during the second quarter of 2009.
nium mine and plans to increase pro- of Pt+Pd+Au with 291,000 oz Pt+Pd+Au. Zambia’s largest cobalt producer,
duction to 5.2 Mlb pa U3O8 by September The Crux resource had been upgraded Chambishi Metals Plc, will resume
2010. There are currently sufficient ore by 8% to 5.2 Mt at 2.59 g/t Pt+Pd+Au, operations in August following an

reserves to sustain the operation for a containing 436 100 oz Pt+Pd+Au. agreed cobalt concentrate supply deals
minimum of 12-13 years, with a run of DiamondCore has entered into an with some mines in the Democratic
mine grade of 800 ppm U3O8. agreement with KIG Mining for the Republic of Congo.
sale of BRC’s alluvial diamond projects
SENEGAL in South Africa, for $10,7 million. The ZIMBABWE
In early July, ArcelorMittal suspended company is selling its Silverstream, Zimbabwe will reevaluate all mining
development of its Faleme iron ore pro- De Kalk, Muishoek, Sanddrift, and contracts and introduce a “use it or lose
ject as a result of the global economic Uitdraal projects, along with the asso- it” policy for its mining industry under
downturn. The $2,2-billion project in ciated processing plant, mining fleet, a proposed law. This has surprised
the southeast of the country was due to and equipment. investors at a time the country is want-
begin producing steel-making raw Bongani Minerals is currently ing help to develop the battered econ-
material iron ore in 2011, and full pro- assessing the Riviera tungsten project omy and government is appealing to
duction capacity was estimated at 25 in the western Cape, which has an esti- Chinese firms to invest in Zimbabwean
Mt per year. mated reserve of 10.86 Mt with an aver- mines, asking companies to ignore the
age grade of between 0.28% and 0.31% country’s recent troubles. Government
SOUTH AFRICA of tungsten oxide. says it needs $10 billion to rebuild
President Jacob Zuma, in a speech Firestone Energy plans to start a dilapidated infrastructure and ease a
delivered to the National Union of small-scale coal mining operation in the 90% unemployment rate. Government
Mineworkers in early July, said that he Waterberg region before the end of 2009. also plans to impose a law to ban the
plans to focus on enforcing safety mea- The merger between platinum min- export of raw chrome.
sures to curb mining deaths which have ers Aquarius Platinum and Ridge Following a meeting of members of
reduced output, to review black owner- Mining has been approved. the Kimberly Process, although its con-
ship in the mining industry and to clusions were not made official, a
ensure local communities benefit from TANZANIA leaked report suggests that it wants
mining activities in their areas. The Impala completed due diligence on Zimbabwe to be officially banned from
country’s total mineral production in newly optioned property in the Geita the international diamond trade. The
May declined 14.5%, with gold produc- district, Lake Victoria zone. move follows reports that the Zimbab-
tion down 10.5%, year on year, and African Eagle expects to open a low- wean army has forced some people to
total combined non-gold production cost nickel mine at Dutwa by 2012. The search for diamonds at gunpoint.
decreasing 15%. Diamond production economic viability of the proposed mine Central African Mining &
fell 62.4% in May compared with one had been based on a nickel price of $7/lb Exploration Company plans to com-
year ago. Compared with April, dia- and a break-even price of $6.50/lb. The plete a bankable feasibility study at the
mond production fell 1% in May. For Zanzui nickel laterite project has also Bokai platinum prospect by September.
the three months that ended May 31, shown promising results, with acid The construction of a
to page 34 . . .
diamond output rose 1.9% from the leach test results comparable to that of mine is still expected
previous quarter. Diamonds contributed the Dutwa project. to start this year with

... from 33 Exploration Reviews (Continued)

expected production of 163,000 oz a Zone project from Hidefield Resources August, the index had risen an aston-
year of PGM in concentrate form over a and Mines Trust Co.; Fire River Gold ishing 134% YTD (see table below). No
20-year life-of-mine. Corp. acquired the Kansas Creek pro- surprise then that exploration compa-
ject from a private vendor; Usibelli nies are once again fully funded and
Coal Mine posted new coal reserve esti- moving forward with their projects.
ALASKA mates on its Nenana coal field. An administrative note: OZ Minerals
has been dropped from the Index after
Regional Correspondent: NORTHERN ALASKA the sale of its 90% interests in the
Curtis J. Freeman (SEG 1996) Goldrich Mining Company announced Sepon gold-copper mine (Laos) to
Avalon Development Corp. mobilization of an alluvial gold recov- China Minmetals Non-Ferrous Metals.
P.O. Box 80268 ery plant to its Chandalar project.
Fairbanks, AK 99708 CAMBODIA
Tel.: 907-457-5159, Fax 907-455-8069 SOUTHEAST ALASKA Surface sampling by Oz Minerals at the
E-mail: Announcements follow: Hecla Mining Area 6 prospect of the Okvau tenement
Website: posted 2nd quarter production from the in NE Cambia averaged 1.67 g/t Au
Detailed Alaska mineral exploration Greens Creek mine; Coeur d’Alene over a 20 km2 area. Drilling is now
highlights can be found at www.aval- Mines Corporation indicated the U.S. underway. Supreme Court has confirmed the previ- Southern Gold cut at least four
ously issued permit for the tailings facil- quartz-sulfide veins in its first drilling
WESTERN ALASKA ity for the Kensington gold mine; campaign at the Anchor prospect. Four
Second quarter reports were given by Constantine Metal Resources began of the 10 holes returned intercepts over
drilling on its Palmer project; CBR 1 g/t Au, with Hole SNRC009 delivering
Teck Cominco American for its Red
Gold Corp. and the Hunter Dickinson 8 m at 5.94 g/t Au, 26.6 g/t Ag, 0.3%
Dog mine, and by NovaGold
Group began exploration at the Cu, and 0.2% Zn starting at 12 m
Resources for the Donlin Creek project.
Niblack project; Ucore Uranium Inc. depth.
Other companies making announce-
gave assay results from its Bokan
ments were as follows: Zazu Metals
Corporation, on revised mineral
Mountain property; Full Metal CHINA
Minerals and Mosam Capital Corp. Eldorado Gold discovered a new gold
resource estimates for Lik deposit; Fire
began exploration at the Mount zone beneath alluvial sediments 2 km S
River Gold Corp. exercised its option to

Andrew project. of the Qinglongtan (QLT) open pit at

acquire the Nixon Fork gold project
from Pacific North West Capital; its Tanjianshan operation. The QLT
Mantra Mining acquired the Golden open pit was mined out in 2008 and
Lynx properties from Cougar Gold ASIA produced 293 koz Au at an avg grade of
6.07 g/t Au. The drill holes intersected
LLC; Kiska Metals Corporation began Regional Correspondent:
its 2009 work at the Whistler project; multiple zones containing 2 to 6 g/t Au
Paul L. Zweng (SEG 2003 F)
Millrock Resources began field work with widths of up to 18 m. Eldorado is
Managing Member
on the Estelle project, Victory West acquiring Sino Gold in a transaction
Resource Venture Advisors
Moly Ltd. acquired the Goodnews Bay valued at ~A$2.2 billion. Sino Gold’s
P.O. Box 235901
platinum operation from XS Platinum main assets include the 82%-owned
Honolulu, Hawaii 96823-3517
Ltd.; Full Metal and Kinross Gold Jinfeng gold mine (Guizhou), now the
Tel. 808-536-3646
acquired an option from Calista second largest Au mine in China with
2008 Au production of 151,000 oz, the
Corporation on the Russian and Horn
Contribution from 95%-owned White Mountain Au mine
Mountain projects.
Andrew E. Nevin (SEG 1979) – India (Jilin), and the high-grade Eastern
EASTERN INTERIOR Dragon Au project (Heilongjiang).
The SEG Asia Exploration Index, the Inter-Citic Minerals announced that
Announcements are as follows: Kinross
equal-weighted index that gauges the the scoping study for its Dachang pro-
Gold posted second quarter results from activity, excitement, and value creation ject forecasts an open-pit mine deliver-
the Fort Knox mine; Teryl Resources being generated by non-government ing 2 Mtpa of ore to a fully integrated
Corp. and Kinross Gold Corporation controlled companies working in Asia, flotation, Biox ® and CIL circuit over 9
gave drilling results from the Gil pro- as measured by the financial markets, yr. The Dachang project is estimated to
ject; Sumitomo Metal Mining and continues to surge. The second quarter generate an after-tax IRR of >40% and
Sumitomo Corp., revised production delivered a whopping +34% return, an after-tax NPV (5% discount rate) of
estimates for the Pogo mine; Alix once again outperforming most global >$198 M assuming a $750/oz Au price.
Resources Corp. acquired the Money indices (e.g., +15.52% SP 500, +8.23% Peabody Energy and Shanxi Lu’an
Rock project; International Tower Hill FSTE 100, +22.80% Nikkei 225, and Mining Group Company (Lu’an)
Mines Ltd., updated resources and new +35.38% Hang Seng). By the end of entered into an agreement to consider
drilling results at its Livengood project;
Golden Predator Royalty & Develop-
ment Corp. acquired Ogopogo project SEG Asia Exploration Index
from Copper Ridge Explorations Inc. Periods are month end Jun-08 Dec-08 Mar-09 Jun-09 Jul-09 Aug-09
ALASKA RANGE Index Value 388.95 120.00 178.75 239.51 264.15 280.43
Announcements are as follows: Fire % Change (Mo-Mo) xxx xxx 18.0% 2.1% 10.3% 6.2%
River Gold Corp. acquired the Golden % Change (YTD) xxx –69.1% 49.0% 99.6% 120.1% 133.7%

joint development and operation of the as 200 Mt. KGF was first acquired for into effect on August 13, 2009. Clearly
Lu’an Shaxi thermal coal project systematic mining by John Taylor & our small community of explorers has
(Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region). Sons in 1880 and most recently oper- some work to do to convince the gov-
SilverCorp Metals announced that ated to depths of 3,200 m by the public- ernment of the adverse impact of this
the addition of 13 new veins increased sector company Bharat Gold Mines schedule.
the measured and indicated resource by Ltd. After producing about 800 tonnes Meanwhile, the Ministry of Mines
250% at its GC project (Guangdong). of gold, BGML started letting lower lev- has issued state governments new
The current 26 veins sum to 6.408 Mt els flood in the mid-1990s and finally guidelines to harmonize mineral tenure
measured and indicated at 138 g/t Ag, decommissioned the mine in 2001. practices with the National Mining
1.49% Pb, and 3.34% Zn with an addi- The Indian government is going in Policy, 2008, that grew out of the Hoda
tional 7.892 Mt inferred at 121 g/t Ag, two directions at the moment: In two Committee’s work several years ago.
1.45% Pb, and 2.70% Zn (150 g/t recov- separate and disconnected actions, it Minerals are owned and controlled by
ered Ag equiv cutoff). has raised royalty rates to discouraging the states under central government
levels, but it is liberalizing mineral con- laws and oversight. NMP has been
INDIA cession practices. crafted, discussed, and recrafted at
India Resources Ltd. continues to farm Royalties based on LME or London length. As we have written in this col-
out its exploration projects in order to prices X metal in ore are Cu, 4.2%; Zn, umn before, we expect it to be enacted
concentrate on mining and milling ore 8% (or 8.4% of metal in concentrates); into law soon.
from the Surda deposit in Jharkhand Pb, 7% (or 12.7% of metal in concen- Finally, Rio Tinto announced inten-
as contractors to the public sector’s trates); primary Ag, 5%; byproduct Ag, tions to spend $75M on diamond explo-
Hindustan Copper and to pursue other 7%; primary Au, 2%; byproduct Au, ration in India. Deep enough!
mining contracts in India. IRL and 3.3%; Ni, 0.12%; Sn, 7.5%. Ad valorem
Vagra Diamond Mining have exe- royalties, comparable to royalties on LAOS
cuted a JV for Vagra to earn into 80% of NSR, are Cd, 15%; Cr, Nb, and Ta, 10% China Minmetals Non-Ferrous Metals
IRL subsidiary Amil Mining, which each. Diamond royalty is 11.5% ad val- completed its purchase of several min-
holds diamond prospects in Orissa, orem; PGM and most other metals are ing-exploration assets held by OZ
Andhra Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh. lumped into “other” at 10% ad val- Minerals, including the Sepon Cu-Au
IRL retains an option to operate any orem. Tungsten is Rs 20 (about US 40 mine.
future mine under normal commercial cents) per WO3 %-unit/T. Drilling by PanAust at the Ban
terms. The Mines and Minerals Houayxai project extended ore along
Indian Minerals Corporation (Aust) (Development and Regulation) Act, strike and at depth. Better intersections
Pty Ltd proposes to reopen the historic 1957, provides that royalty rates be included 8 m at 5.5 g/t Au and 51.2 g/t

Kolar Gold Fields in Karnataka in a JV revisited periodically and may be Ag (from 36 m) and 39 m at 2.8 g/t Au,
with the United Mine Employees increased no more often than every and 6.4 g/t Ag (from 57 m), 39 m at 0.9
Cooperative Society. Announced plans three years. The last review was a report g/t Au, and 9.4 g/t Ag (from 62 m) and
are to rework 35 Mt of tailings with a submitted to the government by a study 22.7 m at 1.8 g/t Au & 10.9 g/t Ag
JORC compliant 0.7 g/t; to reopen cer- group of the Ministry of Mines in (from 106 m), and 17 m at 3.3 g/t Au
tain shallow underground workings September 2007—with peak world and 27.5 g/t Ag (from surface).
containing 6.9 Mt @ 4.5 g/t; and to prices firmly in mind, it appears. Those
investigate open-pit mining of as much royalty rates were accepted and went MONGOLIA
The most important news out of
Mongolia was the passing of parlia-
mentary amendments to four mining
laws, including a sunset provision to
cancel the 68% windfall profits tax on
copper and gold that has hindered the
development of these commodities since
Nine holes drilled by Entreé Gold-
Ivanhoe Mines at the Heruga por-
phyry Cu-Au deposit confirmed a strike
length of over 2.2 km, a vertical extent
of 400 to 800 m, and a width of 200 to
300 m. The shallowest portion of the
mineralized system starts at a depth of
~500 m below surface.
Erdene Resource Development
announced an updated 43-101 resource
estimate for its Zuun Mod deposit. At a
0.05% Mo cutoff grade, there are 98 Mt
(measured & indicated) at 0.062% Mo,
and 73 Mt (inferred) at 0.060% Mo.
Gulfside Minerals is acquiring the
Onjuul lignite coal project for US$19 M,
the issuance of 2 M shares, and a 6%
royalty on produc-
to page 36 . . .
tion. Norwest Corp.
PAID ADVERTISEMENT has estimated the

... from 35 Exploration Reviews (Continued)

project’s tonnage potential to be Intex Resources updated resources

159–178 Mt. for Mindoro Nickel, following drilling AUSTRALASIA
The Mongolian Parliament voted in the Buraboy and Lower Kisluyan Regional Correspondent:
on July 16 to authorize the government areas. The new work increases the mea- Russell Meares (SEG 1996)
to conclude a definitive investment sured and indicated laterite resources by Malachite Resources Limited
agreement for the Oyu Tolgoi Cu-Au 115% from 92.4 Mt (May 2009) to 198.9 P. O. Box 5218
project with Ivanhoe Mines and Rio Mt at 0.86% Ni (0.5% cutoff). The con- West Chatswood, NSW 1515
Tinto. Now that the parliament has tained nickel is estimated to be 3.8 Blb Australia
amended the general mining law (see Ni. Tel: +612 9411 6033
above), the stage is set at last for the Medusa Mining increased the JORC E-mail:
finalization of the Oyu Tolgoi invest- resource estimate for its Co-O vein sys- Website:
ment agreement. tem to 1.38 Moz Au. Individual veins
The Russian Rosatom mining arm, hosting >50 koz Au sum to 3.98 Mt at With contributions from
Atom RedMed Zoloto, and Mongolian 10.8 g/t Au (>0 g/t Au cutoff). Medusa Tony Christie (SEG 1992) - New Zealand
state-owned AtomMon formed a JV to also announced its maiden resource Geoff Green (SEG 2000) – Tasmania
develop the Dornad U deposit after the estimate for its disseminated Au deposit Bianca Pietrass-Wong (SEG 2006) –
Soviet-era allies settled a $150 M debt at Bananghilig (Tambis district) where NSW & NT
owed to Moscow. The JV comes after 650 koz Au are contained in 15 Mt at Andrew Rowett – South Australia
Mongolia’s legislature in July passed a 1.3 g/t Au (0.6 g/t Au cutoff). The main Phil Ferenczi – Queensland
nuclear energy law that gave the state gold zone remains open in all direc- Paul McDonald – Victoria
greater ownership over U deposits. tions.
Canadian Khan Resources, which
holds a 58% interest in the mining THAILAND AUSTRALIA
license, is inquiring how Mongolia’s Drilling by Kingsgate Consolidated at With the global economic recovery well
new nuclear energy law will affect its Chokdee extended the ore zone ~1 km under way, the local exploration and
ownership. to the NW of the original discovery mining industry is getting back to busi-
Peabody Energy and Polo Resources area. Initial highlights include 3 m at ness with successful capital raising
at their JV Val coal project in the South 6.05 g/t Au (90 m downhole) in hole mixed with a blend of takeovers and
Gobi Desert identified coal seams over a 4368RC, 10 m at 1.16 g/t Au (131 m mergers, as a new order emerges. Out in

20 km2 area. downhole) in hole 4379RC, and 7 m at the bush the drill rigs are turning again
The US$30 M proposed acquisition by 4.87 g/t Au (27 m down hole) with 2 m and a number of exciting discoveries
Falcon Mining AG (Zug, Switzerland) at 13.60 g/t Au (30 m downhole) in have been announced, particularly in
for a 100% interest in the Red Hill hole 4391RC. Western Australia.
Energy Ulaan Ovoo thermal coal pro- PanAust expects to announce the In the last issue, the Ivanhoe
ject collapsed after Falcon failed to results of the feasibility study for its JV Australia Merlin Mo-Rh discovery in
deliver on the financial terms set forth Puthep Cu project by early 2010. Queensland was the talk of the town,
by the agreement. Guangdong Rising Assets and first mention was made of the
SouthGogi Energy received a min- Management received approval from DeGrussa Cu-Au discovery at the Sand-
ing license for the Tsagaan Tolgoi ther- the Chinese government to invest fire Resources Doolgunna project near
mal coal property. A$216 M to acquire 19.9% of PanAust. Meekatharra in the Eastern Goldfields.
This discovery has started a pegging
PHILIPPINES VIETNAM rush and the company’s stock price has
Cadan Resources sampled over 850 m The Asian Mineral Resources Ban soared from 10 cents to A$2.35 since the
of adits at the Maangob porphyry Cu- Phuc Ni project remains on care and discovery was announced in May (see
Au deposit, indicating a horizontal true maintenance as discussions with the below for the latest drilling results).
width of 105 m at 0.52% Cu. Vietnamese government continue. Doolgunna points to the potential for a
CGA Mining achieved its first gold Vietnamese government may revoke number of West Australian gold de-
pour at its Masbate Au-Ag project in the license for the Tiberon Minerals posits to be accompanied by significant
May. A helicopter geophysical survey Nui Phao mining project because of base metal systems.
over the tenement detected a 4-km-long production delays. Mr. Nguyen Duc
potassium anomaly (with associated Minh, head of Thai Nguyen province WESTERN AUSTRALIA
magnetic vein response) at Pinanaan, Department for Planning and Drilling by Sandfire Resources continues
east of Main Vein. Additional targets Investment said, “the prime minister to build the inventory of gold-bearing
occur to the south at Bart AG, Balete, may want to give it to a big state-owned massive sulfide lenses at Doolgunna.
and David Sun. company.” Nui Phao may be the largest Fifteen core holes have now been com-
The JV partners in the Tampakan W-Bi-fluorspar project outside China. In pleted with a best intersection of 42 m @
Cu-Au project gave the formal go- December 2006, Tiberon was acquired 6.6% Cu, 2.4 g/t Au, 1.4% Zn and 20.5
ahead to the final feasibility study. The by Dragon Capital Management for g/t Ag in the DeGrussa deposit which
feasibility study is targeting avg annual $251 M. has been drilled over a strike length of
production of 340,000 t of Cu and 200 m and to a depth of 300 m from
350,000 oz of Au over 20 yrs at a cash surface. The mineralization is chalcopy-
cost of US$0.46/lb Cu (net Au credits). rite rich and quite conductive, so air-
Indophil and Xstrata hold 34.2% and borne, ground and downhole EM tech-
62.5% interests, respectively, in the niques have been used successfully
project. since the initial discovery to locate more

targets. The first of these to be drilled Twin Hills gold project, located 190 km Hill-Reward narrow-vein high-grade
(Conductor 1) is parallel to, and 100 m by road south of their Pajingo gold mining operation at Hill End has inter-
north of, DeGrussa and recent intersec- mine and that Twin Hills would operate sected a 35-m true width zone of closely
tions there include up to 26.1 m of mas- as a satellite mine with ore to be trucked spaced quartz veining with many veins
sive sulfides with drill samples at the to Pajingo for treatment. Since that containing abundant visible and coarse
laboratory. The DeGrussa and Conductor announcement, the mine operators gold in the Patriarch area.
1 deposits are open in all directions, have confirmed a new gold deposit “in In the New England orogen, Anchor
and a maiden resource estimate is the shadow of the headframe” at Pajingo. Resources has completed a drilling pro-
expected shortly. The massive sulfides This is an intact epithermal vein sys- gram at the Wild Cattle Creek Sb-W-
are hosted by volcanic rocks, and their tem, called Moonlight, which contains Au deposit, with results including 11.5
clustered nature and Cu-Zn-Au-Ag the same Pajingo-style veining in terms m @ 2.32% Sb. Peel Exploration
metal association are all characteristic of grade and vein orientation. Recent announced the results of drilling at sev-
of the Canadian VHMS systems. intersections have included 138 m @ eral prospects at their Attunga project,
Also in the Meekatharra district, the 1.38 g/t, Au including 8.1 m @ 7.80 g/t including 27 m @ 0.54% WO3 and
Silver Swan Group has discovered a Au. 0.06% Mo from 19 m.
Cu-Zn-Ag-Au deposit of the VHMS type Argonaut Resources has announced
at their Quinns project, with a best a maiden resource for the separate zinc VICTORIA
intersection to date of 61 m @ 1.9% Cu and copper zones at their Kroombit Until Western Australia recently took
from 58 m. The deposit was discovered project southwest of Gladstone. The zinc the title, Victoria had produced more
when the company followed up an old deposit contains indicated resources of gold than any other Australian state at
1991 CRA drill hole intersection with 5.2 Mt @ 1.9% Zn and 0.15% Cu, while 2,400 t Au. The state has a number of
ground EM. Resource drilling is the copper deposit contains indicated gold mining operations, including
continuing. resources of 0.9 Mt @ 1.0% Cu. Bendigo, Ballarat, Fosterville and
Elsewhere in the Eastern Goldfields Sampling and associated testing on Stawell, and several former producers
region, some exciting gold discoveries the tailings at the historic Mount are now being evaluated for reopening.
have been announced. Beacon Minerals Morgan gold mine by Norton Gold Morning Star is currently refurbishing
has intersected 12 m @ 11.23 g/t Au on Fields has increased the resource to 8.3 its namesake mine and is developing to
strike from the Halleys East deposit at Mt @ 1.23 g/t Au. Norton plans to build extract ore from a number of shoots
Barlee, while at its Blair North project, a 1 Mtpa plant to produce 35koz Au per between levels 4 and 9 of the mine.
Northern Mining has intersected 42 m year from the tailings over a 12-year Heron Resources announced it has
@ 2.72 g/t Au from 32 m which extends period. purchased an option to acquire and
the mineralized envelope around the reopen the A1 gold mine. During the

Southern zone deposit. option period, Heron will evaluate these
Pioneer Resources has had success CBH Resources holds mining title possibilities by driving an exploration
testing previous shallow RAB drilling (CML7) over the central 3.8 km of the decline to level 10, approximately 150
gold anomalies on two lines of reverse boomerang-shaped Broken Hill lode m below the surface, and undertake an
circulation drill holes at the Tregurtha system containing substantial tonnage extensive program of drilling, bulk sam-
prospect at the Lignum Dam project. of unmined zinc, lead and silver miner- pling, and mapping upon which to
Intersections include 19 m @ 5.56 g/t Au alisation. The Western Mineralisation, establish a JORC resource.
from 52 m, including 7 m @ 12.53 g/t a zinc-rich lode horizon, has been the Drilling by Beaconsfield Gold has
Au and are hosted by sheared and focus of a detailed evaluation program defined an inferred resource of 10.6 Mt
altered granodiorite. Also related to for a new mine development based on @ 0.45% Cu for the Thursdays Gossan
intrusive rocks, Troy Resources has low cost mining methods. The new oxide deposit. The company is also
enjoyed success at its Two Mile Hill operation, called the Rasp mine, will earning an interest in an inferred
project near Sandstone, where gold have the benefits of all the existing resource of 0.7 Mt @ 2.7% Cu at the
mineralization has been intersected infrastructure that is in place as well as nearby Mt Ararat copper-gold deposit.
both within the Two Mile Hill tonalite being a mine development without the Dart Mining has reported a very
stock and in a sequence of banded iron constraints of old workings and rem- high grade zone within the Main Lens
formation sediments which the stock nant mining. The company has in its Mountain View project, incorpo-
intrudes. Best intersections include 25.9 recently announced a maiden ore rating over 50 gram-meters in three
m @ 16.56 g/t Au and 96.6 m @ 1.66 g/t reserve for Rasp of 3.2 Mt @ 6.0% Zn, drill holes, including an intersection of
Au. 4.6% Pb and 64 g/t Ag. A new process- 2 m @ 59.3 g/t Au. Further deep drilling
ing plant has been designed to process is continuing to test below the Lower
QUEENSLAND 750 ktpa to produce 32 kt of zinc, 25K Adit level. A recent grab sample from
The first paper has now been presented kt of lead, and 500 oz of silver per year. the Lower Adit level lode channel
on the Ivanhoe Australia high-grade Additional high-grade ore is expected to returned 6.34 g/t Au, 28 g/t Ag and
Merlin molybdenum-rhenium discov- be processed from remnant main lode 1.94% Pb.
ery south of Cloncurry by Doug Kirwin pillars that will significantly enhance
at an SMEDG (Sydney Mineral Explora- the project’s output and cash flow. TASMANIA
tion Discussion Group) meeting in In the Lachlan orogen, Newmont In the West Coast region, Bass Metals
August. The authors are Florinio Lazo has earned a 51% interest in the Orange has announced higher grades for the
and Tamal Pal, and the paper can be district joint venture with Alkane Fossey zone VHMS deposit adjacent to
downloaded from the SMEDG website at Resources. Four core holes have been the Hellyer mine, with combined indi- completed at McPhillamys and results cated and inferred resources of 800 kt @
In the last issue, it was reported that have included 299 m @ 1.09 g/t Au 9.9% Zn, 5.8%Pb, 0.4% Cu, 137 g/t Ag
the Pajingo joint venture (North Queens- from 68 m, including 30 m @ 3.21 g/t and 2.5 g/t Au at a
to page 38 . . .
land Metals Ltd 60% and Heemskirk Au from 336 m. A diamond drilling 5% Zn+Pb cutoff.
Consolidated 40%) had acquired the program at the Hill End Gold Hawkins Project options are

... from 37 Exploration Reviews (Continued)

being evaluated, including a 400 to 450 Venture Minerals has completed a copper-gold-uranium mine, Prominent
ktpa operation at the Fossey zone, prior positive scoping study on the Mount Hill copper-gold mine, and world-class
to mining and processing the Hellyer Lindsay Fe skarn deposit, which has a Carrapateena copper-gold deposit.
and Que River remnants. Bendigo 33 Mt resource and also has significant Although early days, the Rex
Mining has announced completion of tin and tungsten zones. Minerals Hillside project on eastern
the purchase of the Henty gold mine In the north of the state, Iron Yorke Peninsula has the potential to be
from Barrick and has immediately Mountain Mining has announced tin another IOCGU success story. The latest
embarked on an exploration program intersections from reverse circulation drilling results, which include a best
to define reserves to extend the mine’s drilling at the Kara North magnetite intersection of 17 m @ 1.5% Cu and 0.3
life beyond 2009. Currently, the com- skarn deposit, including 41 m @ 0.22% g/t Au from a depth of 84 m (including
pany is accelerating the development of Sn and 51 m @ 0.15% Sn, as well as 7 m @ 3.2% Cu), confirm shallow cop-
the unmined Tyndall zone iron ore intersections, including 100 m per mineralization more than 1 km
MMG, a subsidiary of China Min- @ 38.3% Fe, 29 m @ 45.9% Fe, 35 m @ south of the main copper-gold mineral-
metals Corporation, has purchased the 33.2% Fe and 42 m @ 53% Fe. Frontier ization associated with the Dart, Zanoni,
Tasmanian assets of OZ Minerals and Resources has announced an Inferred Marion, Parsee, and Songvaar struc-
has resumed exploration at the Rose- resource at the Stormont deposit of tures, all of which extend for up to 2 km
bery Zn-rich VHMS mine and is exam- 91.4Kt @ 4.57 g/t Au, 0.30% Bi and 3.52 in length. Uranium has also been
ining the option of re-opening the g/t Ag. Indicated and inferred resources recorded in the Parsee structure, 5 m @
Avebury nickel mine. During the year, at the nearby Narrawa prospect have 0.8% Cu and 276 ppm U3O8 from 439
Metals X has increased total tin been upgraded to 209 kt @ 2.1 g/t Au, m, 18 m @ 297ppm U3O8 from 509 m,
resources from 4.4 Mt @ 2.01% Sn to 7.2 19.5 g/t Ag, 1.32% Pb and 1.12% Zn. and 2 m @ 887 ppm U3O8 from 544 m.
Mt @ 1.82% Sn at the Renison Bell Drilling is continuing to test the exten-
mine, mostly in the Federal zone. SOUTH AUSTRALIA sion of the Zanoni zone.
Yunnan Tin Group from China has The margin of the eastern Gawler cra- The South Australian uranium
signed a Heads of Agreement to pur- ton is one of the largest IOCGU industry is continuing to show strong
chase up to 60% of the Metals X Tas- provinces in the world, extending for growth with the Uranium One Honey-
manian tin interests that also include approximately 700 km from the Peake moon and Heathgate Resources/
the Mt Bischoff mine and the Renison and Denison Ranges in the north to the Alliance Resources Four Mile uranium
tailings resource, on which a positive Moonta-Wallaroo district in the south. projects both expected to be producing
feasibility study has been completed. It hosts the world-class Olympic Dam in 2010. This will take the number of

producing uranium mines in South and 1990s outlined a resource of 110Koz The Dawson Range mineral belt in
Australia to four with every indication Au. Expected mine life is seven years. west-central Yukon historically has been
that there will be more to come in the In the West Coast region, the recognized as a125-km, northwest-
near future (e.g., Crocker Well and Birchfield Minerals Grey River bucket trending corridor of mineral deposits
Oban). Honeymoon has an indicated ladder gold dredge recommenced pro- from the Mt. Nansen epithermal gold-
resource of 1.2 Mt @ 0.24% U3O8 con- duction on the northern side of the Grey silver deposit in the southeast to the
taining 2,900 t U3O8. The operation is River opposite its former production Casino porphyry copper-gold-molybde-
expecting an annual production rate of area near Ngahere. Recoverable placer num deposit to the northwest. The 2008
400 t of U3O8 with a mine life of six reserves are estimated at 170 koz Au. discovery of the White Gold property
years. Following federal government Companies exploring in New has extended the belt a further 50 km to
approval, the Heathgate/Alliance joint Zealand under permits from the govern- the northwest and a number of addi-
venture has announced a new Inferred ment agency (Crown Minerals) are tional gold occurrences continue along
resource for the Four Mile project of 8Mt required to offer samples and core from the trend a further 75 km to the Yukon-
@ 0.35% U3O8 for 28Kt (61Mlb) of con- drilling for lodgement in a core store. Alaska border. If one follows this same
tained U3O8. Mining is planned to com- Crown Minerals have now amalga- general trend, the Pogo deposit is
mence in January 2010. mated all the regional core stores encountered in Alaska approximately
(Paeroa, Christchurch, and Dunedin) 125 km from the border. Mineralization
NORTHERN TERRITORY with the Wellington Petroleum core styles within the Dawson Range min-
Redbank Copper is conducting resource store into a new national facility at eral belt consist of porphyries, epi-
drilling on a cluster of blind copper- Featherston, north of Wellington. thermal veins and breccias, skarns,
bearing breccia pipes hosted by the structurally hosted veins and breccias,
Gold Creek Volcanics at its namesake to name a few, plus placer gold deposits
project located in the South McArthur CANADA in many of the creeks draining the belt.
basin near the Queensland border. Contributing Correspondents: The first drilling in 2008 of the
Recent intersections have included 99 m Mike Burke (SEG 2007) White Gold property of Underworld
@ 1.91% Cu, including 32 m @ 3.4% Cu Head Mineral Services Resources resulted in the discovery of
in the Punchbowl Pipe, and 64 m @ Yukon Geological Survey the Golden Saddle and Arc zones. Early
4.31% Cu, including 28 m @ 6.0% Cu in and drill results in 2009 (WD09-31: 3.39 g/t
the Bluff Pipe. The company is currently Venessa Bennett (Ph.D) Au over 104.0 m) highlighted the signif-
completing a feasibility study and Mineral Assessment Geologist / Metallogenist icance of the discovery and ignited a
expects to commence production in Yukon Geological Survey staking rush that resulted in over 7,000
early 2010. claims recorded in the area. Over 20

In the Tennant Creek district, the junior mining companies have acquired
application of innovative geophysical Canadian mineral exploration activity land in the area, which has been
techniques is producing positive results. in 2009 was markedly reduced in com- dubbed “The White Gold district.”
New 3-D inversion models based on parison to the heightened activity of the Companies focusing their attention on
detailed 50-m spaced gravity data over previous 3 to 5 years, a direct reflection the White Gold district, however, may
the Emmerson Resources Trinity-Troika of unfavorable market conditions asso- be missing opportunities when consider-
project reveal large, discrete gravity ciated with the global economic reces- ing the geological similarities to the
anomalies that are characteristic of sion. A notable contrast in nationwide broader mineralizing event that created
iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG) targets trends is the vigorous exploration activ- the Dawson Range mineral belt. Some
such as Olympic Dam and Prominent ity occurring throughout the Yukon of the more advanced projects in the
Hill across the border in South Australia. Territory, a region renown for its histori- Dawson Range that are being actively
In addition, two trial orientation lines cal gold placer and bedrock production. explored in 2009 include a 12,000-m
of deep-looking electrical geophysics With the price of gold nearing the drilling program at the Nucleus deposit
over the Trinity 1 target have been com- $US1,000/oz mark three times within (inferred resource of 1,082,000 oz Au
pleted using induced polarization and the last 12 months, and the gradual within 67.57 Mt @ 0.50 g/t Au) of
audiomagnetotelluric methods. Model- upward trend of gold prices since April Northern Freegold Resources; a 2,500-
ing of the gravity and electrical geo- this year, the search for new gold tar- m drilling program at the Sonora Gulch
physical data has indicated the pres- gets in the Yukon became an increas- project of Northern Tiger Resources on
ence of deep, dense IOCG-style targets ingly attractive exploit during the 2009 the Night Music zone, another 2008
represented by high chargeability and exploration season, particularly in light drill discovery (SG-08-27 intercepted
low to moderate resistivity at depths of of the new bedrock discoveries, Under- 26.6 m grading 4.96 g/t Au, 11.9 g/t Ag
up to 1 km below the surface. Drill test- world Resources Ltd., Whitegold prop- and 0.23% Cu); 10,000 m of drilling at
ing of these targets is underway. erty, south of Dawson City and ATAC Western Copper Corporations Casino
Resources Ltd, Rau property, 50 km NE Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit (4.4 billion
NEW ZEALAND of Keno City. Additionally, Victoria lb Cu, 8 Moz Au and 475 M lb of Mo,
News this issue focuses on alluvial gold Gold Corp., on the Eagle zone (Dublin contained in a resource of approxi-
mining in the South Island. Glass Earth Gulch), has commissioned a prefeasibil- mately 1 billion t) designed to upgrade
Gold has been exploring placer gold ity study and a comprehensive project inferred resources and to test potential
prospects in the Otago district and com- proposal to move closer to open-pit pro- new mineralization identified in a
pleted 175 shallow reverse circulation duction of the 2,690,400 oz indicated Quantec Titan 24 deep-penetration geo-
drill holes in the Ida Valley region, resource. Although Yukon exploration physical survey; 2000 m of drilling at
identifying the McAdie and Poolburn activities occurred throughout the clas- Cariboo Rose and Alder Resources
prospects for bulk testing. Also in Otago, sically known “Tintina gold belt,” the Canadian Creek project adjacent to
L&M commenced placer gold mining at area of most intense interest was and Casino; and, of course, the more than
to page 40 . . .
Earncleugh on permits where approxi- continues to be the grossly underex- 20,000-m drill project
mately 1,300 holes drilled in the 1980s plored Dawson Range. at the White Gold

... from 39 Exploration Reviews (Continued)

project of Underworld Resources Inc. 2. A spatial distribution of deposit understanding of these magmatic belts
Many other companies are active in the types that represent end members of a and their associated ore deposits, and
belt (see structural-magmatic continuum, such that help guide exploration within the
with earlier stage programs of soil sam- structurally hosted mineralization Dawson Range mineral belt.
pling, geophysics, mapping and trench- (veinlets, mechanical breccias, and
ing. Initial results from the Kaminak quartz stockworks) prevail within the
Gold Coffee property include soil sam- northern end of the Dawson Range
ples containing up to 3.16 g/t Au and
trenching, returning 2.3 g/t Au over
(e.g., White Gold, Coffee), while mag-
matic deposit types (Cu-Au skarn, mas-
21.0 m and farther south Tarsis sive sulfide replacements, porphyries, Regional Correspondent:
Resources reporting porphyry style and epithermal veins) coexist with Paul W. Kuhn (SEG 1983 F)
mineralization with grab samples of structurally hosted mineral occurrences Metallica Mining ASA
altered intrusive assaying 3.1 g/t Au, at the southern end of the belt (e.g., the Oslo, Norway
206 g/t Ag, and 0.04% Cu and a Nucleus and Night Music zones). E-mail:
prospecting discovery of a 0.30-m-wide 3. A temporal distribution of deposit
quartz vein type assaying 4.06 g/t gold, types such that structurally hosted min- Contributing Correspondents:
161 g/t silver, and 0.89% lead on the eralization is successively superimposed Rumyana Todorova – Bulgaria
Prospector Mountain property. by earlier phases of structurally con- Ozcan Yigit (SEG 2002 F) – Turkey
Mineralization in the Dawson Range Pasi Eilu (SEG 2002) – Finland
trolled mineralization in the northern
mineral belt can simply be considered Maria Boni (SEG 1991 F) – Italy
part of the belt, whereas a transition
as the product of Cretaceous magma- Duncan Large (SEG 1984 F) – Germany
from deeper level skarn and porphyries
tism. Southwest of the Tintina fault, to higher level epithermal systems The summer vacation season is over in
magmatic products that have intruded occurs in the southern end of the belt. Europe. Exploration news is again
the Yukon-Tanana terrane can be beginning to filter out into the public. It
divided into three temporally and Collectively, these criteria suggest appears to be more positive than the
broadly spatially distinct suites: (1) an that variable amounts of crustal thin- last quarter, as the industry still rides
Early Jurassic belt located closest to the ning were associated with Early to mid- high on strong metal prices. However,
Tintina fault and host to Capstone Cretaceous magmatism. To date, our the rally, going strong since early in the
Mining Corps., Minto Cu-Au mine, understanding of the overprinting Late year, looks tired. Although the spin on

and Western Copper Corp. Carmacks Cretaceaous magmatic event is limited; economic news is positive, I cannot help
Copper Cu-Au deposit, (2) an Early to however, emplacement of these mag- but get a feeling that major world
mid-Cretaceous belt, immediately west matic products are closely associated economies are reaching the brink for
of the Jurassic belt, which was the focus with regional NE-trending normal faults yet another downslide. The sudden
of the greater part of gold exploration that dissect preexisiting mineralization spike in gold prices to $1,000 per ounce
activity in the Dawson Range during associated with the Early to mid- may be a not-so-subtle reminder that
2008–2009; and (3) a Late Cretaceous Cretaceous magmatic belt. Ongoing economic instability has not disap-
belt, the products of which are most regional studies by the Yukon Geological peared. As summer turns to autumn we
commonly located along the western Survey and the Geological Survey of should be preparing for a cold, long
margin of the Dawson Range mineral Canada, the upcoming release of high- winter. However, I also think that
belt and which hosts deposits such as resolution aeromagnetic surveys, and preparation for a subsequent long-term
the Casino Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, continuing exploration in all three of rally is a necessity in the exploration
the Cyprus Cu-Mo porphyry at Mount these magmatic belts will provide a more business. If at all possible, exploration
Nansen, and occurrences such as detailed geodynamic and metallogenic companies should prepare themselves
Prospector Mountain. for the near-term difficulties, but also
Exploration results position themselves for a fast turn-
from 20082009 have around. Keep a working cash reserve,
greatly assisted in de- hold on to your core group of explo-
veloping a preliminary rationists, stabilize your priority land-
regional framework in holdings and prospects, and keep a
which to understand lookout for new projects that may
Early to mid-Cretaceous become available on the cheap. Now
mineralization. Several for a quick review of the good news!!
key geologic criteria
are replicated through- ALBANIA
out the interior mag- After raising an additional $3M this
matic belt including summer, Tirex Resources also
the following: announced continued positive drilling
results at the Letitna zone on its Mirdita
1. An intimate asso- district VMS project. The company
ciation between miner- announced that it had been able to
alization and promi- Generalized geologic map of the Dawson Range mineral belt, significantly expand its land holdings
nent, long-lived, west-central Yukon. Bold boxes are the outline of recently in the district, as well. Tirex will initiate
NW-NNW regional acquired aeromagnetic surveys in SW McQuesten and northern exploration drilling on the East Slope
structures and E-W to Stevenson Ridge map areas, as part of the Geomapping for Trend, a 5-km-long, previously
ENE-WSW structures. Energy and Minerals Program of Natural Resources Canada. undrilled VMS trend, this fall.

ARMENIA two gold mines in Finland, while drilling, the company has outlined a
aggressively exploring at both. potential high-grade target area for pre-
Lydian International announced
Taranis Resources is newly active in cious metal mineralization within their
impressive step-out drilling results from
Finland, and has started working on previously announced gold zone
its Amulsar high-sulfidation epithermal
two prospects, Naakenavaara and inferred resource estimate area. The
gold project in southern Armenia.
Marskinkuusikko, in the Central company has much work to do before a
According to the company, the drilling
Lappland greenstone belt, near the A-E mineral resource can be confirmed, but
program targeted steeply dipping, fault-
Kittilä mine. Geophysics and re-logging the news is certainly positive. Work will
controlled mineralization, as well as
of old drill core at Naakenavaara sug- continue until winter closes in.
shallower dipping, strata-bound miner-
gest the presence of a “large copper- Angus and Ross announced a corpo-
alization in the Artavasdes and Arshak
gold target,” with trenching and drilling rate restructuring and name change to
areas of the district, outside the previ-
planned before the end of the field sea- Angel Mining, reflecting its main pro-
ously announced resource area. More
son. No previous ground work has been ject, the development and potential re-
recent news indicates that the Erato
completed at the second target area, opening of the Black Angel Zn-Pb
area, some 2 km north of the defined
and the company is preparing to com- mine, previously operated by Cominco
resource area, may also host significant
mence ground follow-up of airborne from 1977 to 1990. The company also
gold mineralization. Drilling continues.
magnetic anomalies previously gener- reportedly completed purchase of the
ated by the Geological Survey of Finland. Nalunaq Au mine from Crew Gold.
BULGARIA In eastern Finland, Vulcan Nalunaq is an orogenic-type gold
Sofia-based Euromax Resources com- Resources remodeled the mineral deposit located in southern Greenland.
pleted a takeover of Silk Road Resources resource at its Kylylahti Cu-Co massive The recent flurry of excitement over
and sold the company’s primary asset, sulfide project, resulting in a slightly rare earth element projects moved to
the 90%-owned Bulagou property, to larger global resource of 8.1 Mt @ the European region late this summer.
Chinese entity Chengzhou Ming Group 0.29% Co, 1.18% Cu, 0.22% Ni, 0.47% Hudson Resources announced that it
Company Limited. Euromax will use Zn, and 0.66 g/t Au. However, remodel- had started drilling on its Sarfartoq car-
the proceeds of the sale to advance, par- ing also demonstrated the presence of a bonatite project on the west coast of
ticularly, exploration projects in Mace- significantly higher grade zone of 4.2 Greenland. The object of the program is
donia and Serbia, contained in a joint Mt @ 0.29% Co, 1.82% Cu, 0.16% Ni, to test three target areas already delin-
venture with Freeport McMoRan 0.63% Zn, and 0.74 g/t Au within the eated by mapping, sampling, and
Exploration. global resource. The project was put on radiometric surveys. Sampling in one of
hold late in 2008 due to adverse finan- the areas averaged 3.6% TREO (sum of
FINLAND cial conditions, but Vulcan has just all 14 REE oxides + yttrium oxide),

Bad news did hit in Finland where nickel announced a merger agreement with including 1.8% neodymium oxide.
explorer Finn Nickel, a 100%-owned fellow Australian explorer Universal
subsidiary of Belvedere Resources, Resources, which may be an indication IRELAND
declared voluntary bankruptcy. The of ability to restart the project. Higher metal prices have been encour-
company has a number of small- to aging for zinc exploration in Ireland.
medium-sized nickel projects in south- GERMANY However, a string of strong results com-
ern and central Finland, as well as the News about a new exploration push ing from three recent discoveries has
recently mothballed Hitura and around the historic Rammelsberg dis- been the real driver behind interna-
Särkiniemi mines. Belvedere will con- trict in the western Harz Mountains tional exploration in the country. The
tinue to explore for gold in Finland. became public knowledge this summer. three discoveries are at Pallas Green
Both Agnico-Eagle and Lappland Danish-based Scandinavian Highlands operated by Minco/Xstrata (in 2002),
Goldminers now report having and subsidiary Harz Minerals GmbH at Stonepark and Stonepark North,
achieved “commercial levels” of gold have obtained an exploration license operated by Connemara/Teck (in
production from their mines at Kittilä covering 1,250 km2 of the Harz Moun- 2007), and the Kilbricken discovery
and Pahtavaara, respectively. Gold tain range, an area with at least a operated by Belmore/Lundin Mining
recovery at Pahtavaara has been excep- 2,000-year mining history for silver, (in 2008).
tional, as the deposit is 93% free gold, lead, zinc, and copper. The companies Pallas Green, located at the south-
whereas recovery at Kittilä is still lower have identified an anomalous area ern boundary of the Irish Midland ore-
than planned. Gold in the Kittilä labeled the Gosetal anomaly, centered field between Limerick and Tipperary, is
deposit is nearly totally refractory, with just 2 km west of the Rammelsberg clearly the most important of the dis-
fine-grained graphite in the ore adding sedex deposit. Drilling, targeting EM coveries, if not one of the potentially
to problems in processing. Agnico-Eagle conductors and soil-gas hydrocarbon most important in the history of zinc
continues to announce positive news targets, is planned for the 4th quarter. exploration in Ireland. The Pallas Green
concerning exploration around the Rammelsberg operated for over 1,000 alteration and mineralization trend is
Kittilä mine. Deep drilling continues to years, finally closing in 1988. Estimated approximately 25 km long by 2 km
encounter mineralization under the production from this World Heritage wide. An initial JORC resource pub-
Suuri deposit, and near-surface gold Site is presumed to be 27 to 30 t @ 2% lished this summer by Xstrata for the
mineralization has been discovered to Cu, 6% Pb, 14% Zn, 1 g/t Au, and 140 Tobermalug target stands at 11.3 Mt @
the north and at depth at the Rimpi g/t Ag. 10.2% Zn and 1.9% Pb. According to
deposit. A-E states that 40% of its world- published maps, the companies are
wide drilling in 2009 will occur around GREENLAND drilling at least three other deposits
Kittilä and other Finnish prospects. Australia-based Platina Resources is along the trend. And much of the trend
Dragon Mining announced that working on a number of precious metal is still relatively underexplored.
development of the Kujankallio open targets in and around the Skaergaard The Stonepark dis-
to page 42 . . .
pit at the Jokisivu mine commenced intrusion in eastern Greenland. This coveries are located
over the summer. Dragon now operates summer, based on reconnaissance in County Limerick,

... from 41 Exploration Reviews (Continued)

less than 5 km west of Tobermalug. plans to continue to test copper targets the El Valle project in the Rio Narcea
Teck has two drill rigs working, and at Lombador Mid and Lombador North. gold belt.
plans a 5,000-m program for this sum- Both Berkeley Resources and
mer and fall. To date, drill results have ROMANIA Mawson Resources are presently
been strong, but the program is still in European Goldfields added to its prop- exploring for uranium in west-central
the exploratory phase. Connemara erty position in the Deva area of the and southwestern Spain. Mawson also
holds seven other license blocks in addi- “Golden Quadrilateral” district by has uranium exploration projects in
tion to the two blocks in the Teck JV. acquiring an additional 454 km2 cover- Sweden and Finland.
Drilling on one of these blocks, Lough ing western extensions of its Certej Au-
Sheelin, in northeastern Ireland 20 km Ag deposit and the Deva porphyry SWEDEN
west of the Tara mine, has already inte- deposit. Work centered on the histori- Gold-Ore Resources continues to fund
cepted zinc mineralization in 9 of 11 cally mined Deva porphyry pipe (~20 exploration and resource definition
holes. Mt of 0.8% Cu). The company is excited drilling at and near the Bjorkdal mine
Drilling by Lundin Mining at the about a combination of new coincident from cash flow at the mine. The com-
Kilbricken project in County Clare has magnetic and geochemical anomalies pany expects to complete over 10,000 m
been accelerated after a number of ore in an area that has not seen modern of drilling by the end of the year at the
grade intercepts since signing of the JV systematic exploration for metals. Bjorkdal orogenic gold deposit and the
agreement earlier this year. Lundin has satellite Ronnberget target, located
the right to earn into 70% of the project SPAIN about 4 km east of the mine. The com-
by spending €14.7 M over a number of The Los Santos tungsten mine, located pany is also extending underground
years. Presently four rigs are drilling at in Salamanca province, is operated by access along strike of the deposit to the
Kilbricken. Heemskirk Consolidated. Production north to further explore the quartz vein
started in 2008, and ore is processed at swarm that is presently being mined at
KOSOVO 1,200 tpd in a gravimetric plant. Heem- Bjorkdal.
Lydian International operates the skirk is currently making flow-sheet Dragon Mining announced that it
Drazhnje Pb-Zn-Ag project in the modifications and upgrading and had been granted permission to begin
Vardar mineral belt in the north-central expanding the plant. development of a 1,000-m exploration
part of the country. Since acquisition of Goldquest Mining Corp. entered decline and a 100,000-t test mining
the property in 2006, the company has into an agreement with Lundin Mining operation at their Svartliden open pit

drilled 8,500 m and rehabilitated old to purchase the Toral project, which mine in the Skellefteå district. Svartliden
mine workings. Lydian is currently cal- has a reported, but non-NI 43-101 com- has produced nearly 200,000 oz of gold
culating a resource and completing a pliant, historical resource estimate of since opening in 2005.
mini-scoping study for the project. 5.4 Mt @9% Zn, 6% Pb, and 45 g/t Ag. Gold production commenced at the
There are multiple exploration targets The project is located about 30 km Blaiken mine, operated by Lappland
on the property, including gold poten- southeast of the old Rubiales mine, Goldminers. The mine is located in the
tial on the Trpeza prospect, north of the previously operated by Cominco from “Gold Line” district, west of Skellefteå.
old Yugoslav workings. The company is 1976 to 1991. The company has at least six other pro-
targeting a 10 Mt toll-treatment opera- The Kinbauri Gold saga ended jects ongoing in the district, including
tion. peacefully when Orvana Minerals their Fäboliden gold project, which has
Corp. announced that they had taken a published reserve of 20.74 Mt @ 1.43
PORTUGAL up over 64% of the Kinbauri shares. g/t Au. The company also plans to
Lundin Mining Corp. continued to With no other suitors or possible deals begin updating the Fäboliden feasibility
intercept massive copper mineralization on the horizon, the Kinbauri board of study during the 4th quarter.
in the Lombador East zone at Neves directors capitulated and accepted the Northland Resources announced
Corvo. Underground development is Orvana takeover offer, recommending that they had completed a Preliminary
underway to provide access for explo- full acceptance of the offer to all share- Economic Assessment (PEA) on its
ration and expansion. The company holders. Kinbauri has been developing Kaunisvaara project. The PEA, which



included the Tapuli, Sahavaara, and production. The combined near-surface intersections from the program include
Pellivouma magnetite deposits, con- oxide resource of the two projects is a zone of 7.45 m grading 703.8 g/t sil-
cluded that the project could be techni- approximately 570,000 oz of gold. NTF ver within a broader zone of 48.2 m
cally feasible and financially positive. will operate the project. grading 194.4 g/t silver. Preliminary
Subject to receiving all necessary per- Chesser Resources is drilling at the interpretations suggest that three paral-
mits and securing pertinent financing, Sisorta high-sulfidation gold project in lel zones of mineralization have been
the company believes that it can start north-central Turkey. The company identified to date at La Negra.
production by 2012. The company announced a first mineral resource of
needs to raise at least US$417 M to 303,000 oz of near-surface oxide gold CHILE
complete the project. mineralization and hopes to expand Quadra Mining released a scoping
upon this with the present campaign. study on its Sierra Gorda project in
TURKEY The company is earning into a 70% Chile’s region II, outlining a 25-yea-life
European Goldfields continues advanc- interest on the prospect from Eurasian operation in which it would produce
ing into northeastern Turkey by com- Minerals. 306 Mlb per year copper, 16 Mlb per
pleting a JV agreement with Aldridge year molybdenum and 36,000 oz per
Minerals to option the Derinköy year gold. Capex is estimated at
licenses, located adjacent to the Ardala
porphyry project. The Ardala project is
LATIN AMERICA US$1.66 Bn with cash costs of US$0.79/lb.
The study contemplates an open-pit
operated within the Pontid JV with part- Regional Correspondent: operation with a 111,000 tpd through-
ner Ariana Resources. The joint ven- Mark I. Pfau (SEG 2001) put. Quadra also updated Sierra Gorda’s
ture now holds/operates 14 licenses in Tellurian Exploration, Inc. resources to 1.35 Bt in measured and
the Eastern Pontide mountain ranges. Missoula, Montana indicated sulfide resource grading
Centerra Gold is also advancing E-mail: 0.42% Cu, 0.03% Mo, and 0.07 g/t Au.
into Turkey, both in the northeastern Oxide measured and indicated
region through the Artvın JV with Country Correspondents:
resources stand at 251 Mt grading
license-holder Kefi Minerals, and in Angelo Peri (SEG 1992) – Argentina and Chile
0.33% Cu.
central Anatolia through a JV with Erme Enriquez (SEG 1985) – Mexico
Antofagasta Minerals has budgeted
Stratex International to explore the Minera Canasil, S.A. de C.V.
US$7.0 M to explore for copper and
Öksüt high sulfidation epithermal gold E-mail:
gold over four years at the Cerro Matta
prospect. Regina Baumgartner (SEG 2001) – Peru
project and plans to drill a total of
Anatolia Minerals sold 5% of its’ Minera Gold Fields Peru
60,000 m. The project is located in
Çöpler gold project (with an option for Tierra Amarilla, in Region II.

sale of a further 15%) to the mining Far West Mining reported iron ore
subsidiary of Turkish conglomerate The Santa Cruz province, in southern sampling results from its Santo Domingo
Çalık Holding AS. Although the sale Argentina, remains the main focus of project in Chile, including 33.1, 30.3
price appeared to be on the low side, exploration and new project develop- and 35.1. Further drill results showed
the benefits of having an established, ment in Argentina. Andean Resources 27.4, 46 and 35.3% iron in the ore. The
respected local partner will be substan- is currently investing some US$1.5 M in company will assay over 6,500 drill
tial over the long term. Congratulations exploration on its Cerro Negro gold-sil- intervals for iron ore.
on realization and successful imple- ver project and has reported six new Anglo American reported a discovery
mentation of an important pathway to drill results from the Bajo Negro area, of 900 Mt grading 0.81% Cu and 0.02%
development of this project! including 3.5 m of 26.7 g/t gold and 58 Mo in inferred resources in the San
In other news from Anatolia, the g/t silver from 242 m depth. Recently Enrique Monolito deposit next to its
company announced encouraging updated resource estimates for the Los Bronces mine in Central Chile, some
results for the first resource estimate at Eureka vein at Cerro Negro contain 50 km northeast of capital Santiago.
their Karakartal Cu-Au porphyry 20.8 Moz silver in an indicated resource The company also reported inferred
deposit, located just 12 air-km southeast category of 3.61 Mt of 12.3 g/t gold and resources of 1.2 Bt grading 1.46% Cu
of Çöpler. Indicated resources stand at 179 g/t silver. and 0.02% Mo at the Los Sulfatos por-
13.75 Mt @ 0.51% Cuequiv, and Exeter Resource has completed the phyry deposit, also near Los Bronces.
inferred resources come in at 17.76 Mt first NI-43-101 resource estimate for its Exploration activity has been rela-
@ 0.38% Cu equiv. According to the Cerro Moro project in Argentina and tively quiet in the last quarter in Mexico.
company, the work to date demon- plans to complete a scoping study in Most companies are dedicated to acqui-
strates a Cu-Au porphyry system of the first quarter of 2010. Cerro Moro sitions, and delineation of existing
moderate size and low to moderate holds inferred resources of 371,000 oz properties.
grades, but with a number of positive gold and 19.2 Moz silver in the Geologix Explorations Inc. has
mitigating factors, including proximity Escondida vein. An 18,000-m drill pro- signed a letter of intent with Riverside
to Çöpler, low strip ratio, conservative gram has begun on the Escondida to Resources Inc., where they will acquire
resource modeling, and good potential upgrade the resource category. an 85% interest in the Libertad property
for further mineralization in a number Mirasol Resources announced in Sonora State. The Libertad property is
of directions. results from its second phase of drilling located 15 km southeast of the Gulf of
In further positive news concerning in the La Negra zone at its Joaquín California port town of Puerto Libertad
joint ventures with local Turkish part- project in Santa Cruz. Mirasol’s joint and is made up of the 160 km² Libertad
ners, Stratex International gained a venture partner, Coeur d’Alene Mines concessions and the central 485 hectare
local partner by signing a memoran- Corporation, can earn up to 71% in Destierro property. Destierro has numer-
dum of understanding with the Turkish Joaquín. Coeur recently completed a ous geochemical surface samples with
construction group, NTF Insaat, to second phase diamond drill program analytical results of
develop the Inlice and Altıntepe high-
to page 44 . . .
at Joaquin, including eight core holes up to 8.0 g/t Au and
sulfidation epithermal gold projects into totaling 1,096 m. Best true width up to 198 g/t Ag. The

... from 43 Exploration Reviews (Continued)

property has never been drill tested. COLOMBIA development, is looking at the sale of
Mineralization shows evidence of a low- their assets in Ecuador. Codelco Chile is
Colombia, in contrast, appears to be
sulfidation system overprinting earlier rumored to be interested, as Codelco
moving forward with private develop-
shear zone mineralization. The targets has signed a cooperative agreement
ment of its resources, in spite of an eco-
are low-sulfidation stockwork and shear with the Ecuadorian government for
nomic downturn-inspired rise in secu-
zone related gold-silver mineralization development of its copper resources.
rity issues. The Marmata Mountain
as well as porphyry related dissemi- Other companies are silent on their
project, has been purchased from
nated copper and molybdenum mineral- Ecuadorian assets. No news from
Colombia Goldfields, Ltd, by Medoro
ization. IAMGOLD on Quimsacocha (3.8 Moz
Resources. No word yet on their plans.
US Gold Corp. has release results Au) or International Minerals (Rio
Greystar is in full swing at its
from 10 additional core holes at its El Blanco).
Angostura property in the California
Gallo project in Sinaloa State. A new The Chevron environmental liability
district. Eight drill rigs are currently on
mineral zone 200 m north of the Main case, which will drag on for years, has
site with 10,000 m of hydro and geotech,
zone has been identified, where all of got to be impacting any decision to
and 10,000 m of exploratory drilling
the previous core drilling was com- remain in Ecuador. When government
will be completed in 2009. Their recently
pleted. The initial three holes included dependence on resource income turns
discovered Mongora zone adds an inter-
6.5 m at 242.1 g/t Ag and 1.1 m at 946 downward, government will always
esting new aspect to the development of
g/t Ag. Delineation drilling to the east seek additional revenue through the
oxide gold on the project.
has returned 192.6 g/t Ag over 51.7 courts. One judge has already been
Colombia has caught the attention
meters. Drilling to the west has expanded removed from the case for judicial
of other companies too. Galway Re-
the mineralization in this area with misconduct.
sources, which just last year was drilling
intersections of 1.9 m at 1395.1 g/t Ag, the W-Mo property at Victorio, New
and 1.2 m at 2110 g/t Ag. Mineraliza- PERU
Mexico, has taken an interest in 140,000
tion at El Gallo occurs in quartz stock- hectares of coal resource in the San Luis Peru, the second largest Cu producer in
work and breccias zones associated with Basin, in Santander and Ceasar states. the world, could have its output of the
moderate to strong silicification. Galway and its neighbor, Ventana red metal rise by nearly 70% in the next
Endeavour Silver Corp. announced Gold, are also actively exploring for 5 years. The increase would come from
that the first drilling program on the gold in the California district, on lands expansions at existing mines and from
recently acquired Porvenir Cuatro prop- adjacent to Angostura. Ventana’s La new projects that are moving forward

erty in Guanacevi district, Durango Bodega property covers 4600 hectares despite challenges of developing deposits
State, has discovered a new zone of high and currently has six drills operating on in Peru. The estimate for a 70% increase
grade, silver-gold mineralization on the it. Recent intercepts include 52.2 m of was based on projects with forecasted
Santa Cruz vein. Early results show 5.67 6.1 gpt Au. production data and start dates. Included
m at 713 g/t Ag and 3.85 g/t Au, and Colombia and Ecuador, with their in the calculation were the Toromocho,
2.22 m at 389 g/t Ag and 2.29 g/t Au. unique Northern Andean geologic his- Galeno, Tia Maria, Toquepala, and Las
Drilling at Porvenir Cuatro and La Brisa tory and tremendous resource potential, Bambas developments.
extend by 670 m the strike length of the will continue to be a contrast in invest- Southern Copper has two projects in
Santa Cruz vein system. The Porvenir ment opportunities and lessons in gov- Peru, Tia Maria and Toquepala. The
Dos mine is currently in development for ernment interference. North American company expects Tia Maria will be
production in Q4, 2009 and lies adjacent and European NGOs continue to operational by 2011 and produce
to Endeavour’s operating Porvenir mine. directly impact decisions in Ecuador 120,000 tpy of copper. An expansion on
Orko Silver Corp. (Orko) has received while establishing themselves in its existing Toquepala mine is expected
the Phase-I delineation drilling assay Colombia. Neither country is for the to lift output by some 40,000 tpy by the
results from joint venture partner Pan exploration faint-at-heart, though. second half of 2012. Xstrata plans to
American Silver Corp. (PAS) on the La begin production at its Las Bambas
Preciosa project in Durango State. The ECUADOR project by the end of 2014 and to have
drilling at La Preciosa consisted of 31 News from Ecuador is slow and not its Antapaccay expansion operational
HQ diamond drill holes totaling 8,850 good these days. The government of by the beginning of 2013. Feasibility
m, and were centered on the Martha Rafael Correa continues to add red tape studies on both projects are expected at
vein in a 50 × 50 m grid in an area pre- and interference in the granting of per- the end of this year, when the company
viously drilled by Orko. The results con- mits for ongoing projects. Those compa- has said it will give official output esti-
firm Orko’s previous results, and will nies such as Kinross (Fruta del Norte) mates. Xstrata has said Las Bambas will
form the basis of a geostatistical study. and Dynasty Mining (Zaruma) that likely have production of nearly 300,000
Phase-II diamond drilling is underway. already have their permits under the tpy. Anglo American Plc has two devel-
A highlight of the PAS drilling is a new mining law are moving forward opments in Peru—Quellaveco, which
thick, high-grade intercept of the with development while those without has an annual forecast of 225,000 tpy,
Martha vein, which cut 32.68 m at permits are seeking exit strategies. and Michiquillay, which is expected to
245.5 g/t Ag and 0.376 g/t Au; and Cornerstone Capital has sold its produce 300,000 tpy. Chinalco’s
34.77 m at 202.4 g/t Ag and 0.278 g/t interest in the La Plata project to an Toromocho is scheduled to begin con-
Au. Orko has performed an excellent Ecuadorian private firm, and several struction this year and production in
exploration program on this project other sales are pending as of this writ- 2012. It has an estimated cost of $2.2
and we wish the best of the luck in the ing. Corriente Resources (El Mirador, billion and is forecast to produce some
coming stages. measured and indicated 438 Mt grad- 210,000 t of copper per year in the first
ing 0.61% Cu and 0.19 gpt Au) which 10 years of its expected three-decade-
obtained their permits to resume long life. Minmetals’ Galeno is expected

to produce some 140,000 tpy of copper The Investment Committee that FAR EAST, RUSSIA
in its first five years. The project is still overlooks the screening process for pro-
Renova and China National Gold
in development. jects potentially eligible for the Russian
Federation Investment Fund participa- Group Corp have signed a Memoran-
Sulliden Exploration Inc. released
results of the exploration campaign cur- tion has reviewed and approved the fol- dum of Understanding and Coopera-
rently ongoing on its Shahuindo gold lowing projects: tion. OJSC Zoloto Kamchatki (a sub-
project in northern Peru. The objective sidiary of Renova) owns licenses for
• Development of the Natalka Au Aginskoe, Ametistovoe, Baranyevskoe,
is to determine the potential to expand
deposit (controlled by Polyus Gold); Kumroch, Zolotoe, Oganchinskoe, and
the orebody beyond the mineral
• Creation of a downstream mining Kungurtsevskoe gold deposits, all situ-
resource established in 2004. The drill
and metallurgical company in the ated in the Kamchatka peninsula. In
campaign, totaling 4,127 m RC drilling,
Khabarovsk Krai. 2007, the company produced 65.09 koz
returned intercepts of 79.5 m @ 0.69 g/t
Au (RSH09-01), 58.5 m @ 0.68 g/t Au (2,024.6 kg) gold, and 44.24 koz (1,376
This indicates that the government is
and 115 m @ 0 .60 g/t Au (RSH09-03), prepared to participate in the private kg) in 2008. By 2012, Zoloto Kamchatki
63 m @ 0.72 g/t Au (RSH09-04), and projects in the country. plans to reach 8 t annual production of
76.5 m @ 0.88 g/t Au (RSH09-05). The gold.
preliminary economic assessment, RUSSIA, NORTHWEST The Corporation for Development
scheduled for completion in September, Barrick Gold Corp has suspended work of East Yakutia, created by Polyus
established a 0.22 g/t gold economic on the Fyodorova Tundra Pt deposit, (49.8%), GeoProMining (25.1%) and
cutoff grade. Kola Peninsula. the government of the Republic of Sakha
Antares Minerals Inc. commenced By the end of 2009, Kola Mining Yakutia (25.1%), intends to request the
8,000 m of core drilling at the Haquira intends to complete a feasibility study RF Investment Fund to finance con-
Cu-Mo-Au project in southern Peru. for the development of the Souker Cu- struction of a road and two power lines.
Drilling will focus on four satellite tar- Ni deposit on the Kola Peninsula. The This infrastructure is necessary to de-
gets in the immediate vicinity of the FS will include measured and indicated velop the gold and lead-zinc deposits
known Cu-Mo-Au mineralization at the resources of 103 Mt ore with 0.26% Ni in the eastern part of Yakutia, where
Haquira East and Haquira West zones. and 0.06% Cu, as well as inferred Polyus, jointly with Kinross Gold, plans
These targets have the potential to add resources of 261Mt ore with 0.24% Ni to develop one of the largest gold
significant tonnage to the already size- and 0.06% Cu. Total Ni resources are deposits in Russia, with a resource of
able Haquira deposits (NI-43-101 com- 268 and 630 kt, respectively. 21.9 Moz at Nezhdaninskoye, and
pliant resources of 8.0 billion lb Cu or Verkhne-Menkeche deposit contain-
9.2 billion lb Cu equiv with a cutoff SIBERIA, RUSSIA ing 2.7Mt of silver, lead, and zinc ore,

grade of 0.2% Cu for leachable Highland Gold Mining (HGM) has controlled by GeoProMining. This
resources and 0.3% Cu for primary sul- increased the reserves of the Taseevsky request is also important for Mechel’s
fide resources). Antares can obtain a deposit in Transbaikalia by 2.5 times Dzhebariki-Haya coal deposit nearby.
100% interest in the principal Haquira up to 110.9 t Au (3.56 Moz). HGM Production is not high at present, but it
portion of the project with one final bought the Taseevskoye deposit for would increase if the road and power
payment of US$5 M to Minera Phelps US$25.5 M at an auction in 2004. Its lines are in place. Polyus and GeoPro
Dodge del Peru by March 4, 2010. C1+C2 reserves were previously esti- Mining believe the beneficiation plants.
mated at 44.5 t Au (1.43 Moz). Total Polyus Zoloto and Kinross Gold Corp
investments into construction and com- will form a technical alliance to further
mencement of operations on this site geological exploration on the Nezh-
NORTHERN are estimated at US$350 M. Mining of
gold will be carried out in an open pit.
daninskoe gold deposit in Yakutia. It is
EURASIA HGM has also approved reserves of the
anticipated that Kinross will invest
US$20 M to study this project. Within
Regional Correspondent: Balei ZIF-1 tailings, also in
the next 12 months, both companies
Alexander Yakubchuk (SEG 1999 F) Transbaikalia, of 10 t Au.
Darasun Rudnik of Yuzhuralzoloto plan to put together final report on the
Orsu Metals Corp, London UK results of additional exploration.
E-mail: has resumed production in Transbaikalia
following its complete shutdown in Magadangeologia has started geo-
Detailed information can be found at logical exploration of the Primorskoe October 2008. The production should
reach its design capacity of 750 ktpa by (Tyoploe) silver deposit in Magadan.
2011. However, to achieve this it will be Greenfield exploration indicated a
RUSSIA necessary to carry out geological explo- potential of 0.6 Mt ore with average
High River Gold (HRG) and Severstal ration and recalculate reserves of the grade of 693 g/t Ag and 3.3 g/t Au.
agreed to Severstal’s buying out the Teremki, Yougo-Zapadny and Talatuy Ayax announced that Polymetal
remaining 47% of the company. fields. The reconstruction of the process- has commenced mining operations on
However, Severstal has only managed ing plant will be necessary in case of its Goltsovoe silver deposit in the
to buy 61.7% of the shares due to added exploration success from current capac- Omsukchan district of the Magadan
opposition of HRG shareholders. This ity of 350 ktpa. Oblast. The company is planning to
matter remains unresolved. Metalloinvest Holding has paid for secure mining production in the
The board of directors of Norilsk the license for the Udokan Cu deposit in amount of 120–170 kt of ore and pre-
Nickel will review a new exploration full. The total amount paid for this world’s pare ore for transportation to the
strategy and will concentrate on largest undeveloped Cu resource is RUB15 Omsukchan silver processing plant,
deposits situated at close proximity to billion (~US$500 M). The payment has mostly working on the Dukat ores.
the main production sites. It is antici- been made after Metalloinvest and the Also in Magadan, Polymetal has
to page 46 . . .
pated that the company will reduce its RF Federal Agency for Subsoil Use signed started mining of the
insignificant exposure to green fields. new terms in the licensing agreement. Sopka Quartzevaya

... from 45 Exploration Reviews (Continued)

deposit in the Severo-Evensk district. Kazakh independent mining compa- TAJIKISTAN

The first 100 kt of ore from the deposit nies. National experts believe that the
Kryso Resources Plc actively continues
will be delivered to the Kubaka deposit consequences of the world economic cri-
exploration of the Pakrut deposit and
site (formerly operated by Kinross) for sis will continue to affect the economy
expects to increase its resources. A
processing during coming winter. The for over 10 years from now.
bankable feasibility study based on
first gold will be produced in the early Polyus Zoloto is acquiring 50.1% of
mining of 100 koz Au annually will be
in 2010. Kazakh gold-mining company Kazakh
completed by the end of 2009. This pro-
After a period of silence, Geocentr, a Gold. The deal is estimated to cost
ject is expected to contain over 28t Au
Russian-Chinese JV, has commenced US$269 M.
of extractable reserves. Earlier, Kryso
geological exploration on the Igu- Polymetal plans to buy 100% of the
announced approved Russian-style
menovskoe deposit in the Tenka dis- gold-copper project from Orsu Metals
compliant resources of over 2 Moz (64 t)
trict, Magadan. According to company’s Corp. Resources of the Varvarinskoye
Au with average grade of 2.44 g/t Au.
top management, exploration will be deposit are estimated at 92.2 Mt ore
This company also owns the Khukas
completed in 2010. Once the data on with 1.05 g/t Au and 0.54% Cu (the lat-
Cu-Ni deposit in Tajikistan.
orebodies positioning is updated, the ter in Cu-Au ores only), containing
pilot plant can restart production. The 3.103 Moz (96.5 t) Au and 117 kt Cu.
plant was temporarily shut down at the Total payment will be US$8 M in cash,
beginning of 2009. Geocentr was spe- US$12 M in deferred payments and
cially created in 2006 to develop the interest on deferred payments calcu- CONTIGUOUS
Igumenovskoe deposit. The partner in
this JV is a Chinese mining corporation
lated based on future Au and Cu prices.
Orsu has Varvarinskoye-related loan UNITED STATES
of the Heilongjiang province. The and hedge liabilities in the amount of Regional Correspondent:
reserves of the deposit stand at 7t Au, approximately US$73 M and gold Roger C. Steininger (SEG 1978)
but its low-grade forecast resources hedge liabilities in the form of 338,468 Consulting Geologist
could top 100 t Au. oz at US$574.25/oz. Polymetal will also 3401 San Mateo Ave.
The RF Ministry of Natural Resources issue a loan, in the amount of US$20 M, Reno, NV 89509
has extended the license of Fortress to be used to finance operating capital Tel. 775-323-7775; Fax: 775-323-1134
Minerals Corp for the Svetloe deposit and offsetting some capital expenditures. E-mail:
in the Khabarovsk Krai until December This year, Central Asia Resources
Contribution from

31, 2011. Fortress is currently carrying Ltd (CAP) plans to allocate US$360 k to
out exploration drilling. It has concen- exploration drilling on the Dalabai Dennis LaPoint (SEG 1983 F) –
trated on one of the nine zones, Emma. gold deposit. CAP and an Australian- Southeast United States
Its 43-101 resources stand at 467 koz based company Steelcrust signed a The new Fraser Institute report, Survey of
(14.5 t) Au @ 2.43 g/t. At the beginning contract on construction of a heap Mining Companies 2008/2009, claims
of 2010, the company plans to obtain a leaching plant with the capacity of 500 that the vast majority of “mining exec-
mining license for 25 years. Inferred kt ore/year. Reserves of the Dalabai utives” believe that somewhere north of
resources of Sveltoe are 1.428 Moz (44.4 deposit are around 10 koz (300 kg) Au 30% of the junior exploration compa-
t) Au @ 2.21g/t. and 16 koz (500 kg) Ag, but closely situ- nies will fail due to a lack of new invest-
Polymetal does not plan to postpone ated Altynas deposit has reserves of ments. Does this surprise anyone? If you
the US$220 M construction of 5 tpa Au 608,232 koz (19 t) Au. haven’t noticed, it is grim out there and
production at the Albazino-Amursk we are not part of any governmental
project in Khabarovsk. According to the KYRGYZSTAN stimulus program. Additionally, the
FS, it will be an open-pit mine. The Kentor Gold has signed an option majority of those surveyed predicted
flotation and pressure circuits plant will agreement with Aurum Mining plc to that exploration activities will decline
be processing 1.5 Mt of ore annually. develop an Andash Cu-Au porphyry “a great deal” in the near term. Does
Unaudited reserves and JORC compliant deposit. this have something to do with the
resources of the Albazino stand at 22 Mt Chaarat Gold Holdings Ltd is sell- surge in drilling company calls that we
ore @ 4.2 g/t Au for 3 Moz (93 t). The ing 22,469,289 of its shares to China are receiving this year? Wyoming is
audited reserves (as of February 2008) Nonferrous Metals Int’l Mining Co now ranked the second best exploration
are 65 t Au or 15 Mt @ 4.3 g/t Au. Ltd. Total value of the deal is about environment in the world. See what
Amur Minerals Corp has calculated US$9.275 M. CNMIM will own 19.9% of happens when an interesting gold dis-
reserves of the Kun-Manye deposit in Chaarat Gold and will be eligible to covery is made? Nevada is the fourth
Khabarovsk. C1+C2 reserves stand at introduce its two representatives to the largest gold producer in the world, and
31.7Mt ore containing 203.9 kt Ni and Chaarat Gold board of directors. it declined from the second to third
56.8 kt Cu. C1+C2 reserves of the Maly Investments will be used to finance most attractive exploration environ-
Krumkon (part of Kun-Manye) are 12.9 exploration and putting together a fea- ment. The entire survey can be obtained
Mt ore containing 81.9 kt Ni and 23.7 kt sibility study for the Chaarat gold at <>.
Cu. Amur Minerals plans to produce 16 deposit. Its JORC compliant resources In the recent Strategies for Gold
kt Ni annually. The company also owns are 3.14 Moz Au. Reserves Replacement study, Metals
a license on the gold-copper Anadjakan Cameco Corp intends to reduce its Economics Group concludes that the
deposit in the Khabarovsk Krai. share in the capital of the gold mining world’s largest gold producers replaced
company Centerra Gold from 49% to almost twice the reserves lost through
KAZAKHSTAN 38% by public share sale. It will subse- production between 1999 and 2008.
Samruk-Kazyna, National Kazakhstan quently raise over CAD600 M (US$555 There were also 62 significant (>2 Moz
Fund, plans to acquire shares in the M). of gold) worldwide discoveries with a

cumulative potential of 377 Moz of handsome agreement with a landowner mineralization which may coalesce
recoverable gold made during the same for a proximity play. Using my 12-inch proposed pits and reduce the overall
period. world globe, I discovered Rattlesnake strip ratio. The current drilling program
Long Canyon continues to grow, this Hills seems to be on trend with Long is using four core rigs and one RC rig.
time while drilling a metallurgical hole Canyon in Elko County. Eighty-five km of drilling are planned.
a new gold zone (Syncline zone) was Remember Bear Creek Mining Recent drilling at the Sawyer mine
discovered parallel to, and about 400 m Company’s discovery of the Southwest in North Carolina has been completed
southeast of the Discovery zone. Tinitic copper deposit in the early by an investment group. Meetings were
Bingham Canyon is evolving into a 1970s? The top of the deposit is over held with state regulators to discuss per-
molybdenum mine. Drilling defined a 1,000 ft deep. Since there are so few mitting requirements. Significant explo-
steeply dipping arcuate zone of >0.09% younger geologists among our ranks, ration interest is developing in the
Mo wrapping around the barren core. my bet is that most of you remember Carolinas owing to success at Romarco.
Initial estimates suggest that there may the original announcement. Quaterra Old-time exploration geologists were
be 500 to 600 Mt of 0.1–0.15% Mo, part Resources acquired the deposit and well aware of the metal potential, but
of which is exposed in the current pit entered into a joint venture with had few believers in the investment
bottom. Freedodgecymax (see my Aug. 2008 community. 1
The stealth gold discoveries continue. column) to explore said deposit.
Great Basin Gold has Hollister well
over 1 Moz of gold and 10 Moz of silver. SOUTHEAST U.S.
Allied Nevada reports that Hycroft Romarco Minerals continues the
contains over 6 Moz of gold and 100 positive development of increasing
Moz of silver. US Gold released an resources at the Haile gold mine in
updated resource estimate for Lancaster County, South Carolina.
Limousine Butte, which it now calls The deposit is in the bankable feasibil-
Limo, Nevada. ity stage with 1.62 Moz of gold (mea-
Evolving Gold intersected 220 ft of sured and indicated) and a total gold
0.315 opt Au at Rattlesnake Hills, resource of 3.26 Moz including inferred.
Wyoming, and is one of several attrac- The most recent news is the expansion
tive gold intercepts in other drill holes. of the Ledbetter in all directions.
There is somewhat of a land rush in the Drilling between the Snake, Ledbetter,
area. Crescent Resources signed a and South pits has identified new


To be held after the 2010 Goldschmidt Conference

in Knoxville, USA
Abstract Deadline: 18 March 2010
Early Registration Deadline: 18 April 2010

Geological Survey



To All SEG Fellows:
Pursuant to the Society’s Bylaws, names of the following candidates, who have been recommended for Fellowship by the Admissions
Committee, are submitted for your consideration. Each applicant’s name and current position are followed by the names of their
SEG sponsors. If you have any comments, favorable or unfavorable, on any candidate, you should send them in writing before
November 20th, 2009. If no objections are received by that date, these candidates will be presented to Council for approval.

Address Comments To:

Chair, SEG Admissions Committee
SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC GEOLOGISTS • 7811 Shaffer Parkway • Littleton, CO 80127 • USA
Garcia, Walter V. Aruntani, Lima, Peru: Jeffrey W. Moore, Paul J. Royal Roads Corp., St. John’s, Canada: Derek
Hedenquist, Murray Hitzman; H.C. Wilton, Anthony J. Naldrett;
Guliy, Vasyl M. Ukrainian State Geological Research Institute, Rodriguez, Gustavo A. Minera Mariana Argentina S.A.,
Kyiv, Ukraine: Holly J. Stein, Judith L. Hannah: Cordoba, Argentina: Richard Spencer, Richard Sillitoe;
Hollings, Peter N. Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Canada: Rosana, Mega Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, Indonesia:
David R. Cooke, J. B. Gemmell; Douglas Kirwin, Jeffrey W. Hedenquist;
Hou, Zengqian Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Wolfe, Rohan Ivanhoe Australia, Brisbane, Australia: Douglas
Beijing, China: David L. Leach, Richard Goldfarb; Kirwin, Paul Carter;
Kirkham, Garth D. Geoscience BC, Burnaby, Canada: Lyn Zweistra, Paul VP3 Geoservices Pty. Ltd., Capetown, South
Anglin, Gerald G. Carlson; Africa: John M. Moore, Brian G. Hoal.
Molano Mendoza, Juan C. National University of Colombia,
Bogota, Colombia: Craig Hart, Richard Goldfarb;

Andia Barrios, Lumina Copper SAC, Gregory M. Dipple, The University of

The Society Welcomes Cusco, Peru; Lizbeth Aranibar Martinez, British Colombia, Earth and Ocean
The Following Arequipa, Peru; Ricardo Antonio Sciences, Vancouver, Canada; Cassandra
NEW 1 FELLOWS: Rodrigues Araujo, Magellan Minerals
Ltd., Cuiabá, Brazil; Francis Y.A. Asare,
A. Dressler, Cliffs Natural Resources,
Perth, Australia; Patricio East, La Serena,
Artun, Bayram, Teck Cominco Ltd., Goldfields Ghana Ltd. Tarkwa Goldmine, Chile; Leandro E. Echavarria, Hochschild
Ankara, Turkey; Ceyhan, Nuri, Teck Tarkwa, Ghana; Hector R. Barrueto, Mining, Mendoza, Argentina; Liubov
Cominco Ltd., Ankara, Turkey; Chang, Altoro Mineracao Ltda. Solitario Explora- Egorova, SRK Exploration Ltd., Moscow,
Zhaoshan Centre of Excellence in Ore tion & Royalty Corp., Rio de Janeiro, Russia; Victor J. Florez Toro, Mineros S.
Deposits, Hobart, Australia; Cluer, Kelly J. Brazil; William D. Baugaard, Gordon’s A., Medellin, Colombia; Luiz J. Frutuoso,
Altan Rio Minerals Ltd., Carson City, NV; Bay, South Africa; Hugo J. Bedoya Mining Ventures Brasil Pesquisa e
Crosta, Alvaro P., Institute of Geosciences Villegas, Medellin, Colombia; Adriana P. Mineracao Ltda., Natal, Brazil; Jesus
– UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil; Hassan- Blesa, Mendoza, Argentina; Ria D. Fuentes, Lumina Copper SAC, San Juan
zadeh, Jamshid, University of Tehran, Brabham, Warwick Resources Ltd., Salter de Porres, Lima, Peru; Jair Garcia
Tehran, Iran; Howard, Avrom E., Home- Point, Australia; Elang N. Bramudy A., Navarro, Geotecnica SAC, Lima, Peru;
land Uranium Inc., Grand Junction, CO; Indo Multiniaga PT, Serpong, Indonesia; Jhimer Gonzales Sanchez, Compania de
Kiziltepe, Ugur, Teck Cominco Ltd., Rachel T. Burgess, Newmont Mining Minas Buenaventura SAA, Lima, Peru;
Ankara, Turkey; Menzies, John C., Corporation, Elko, NV; Samuel M. Sarah H. Gordon, Anglo American PLC,

EurOmax Resources Ltd., Druzhba, Canchaya, CIA de Minas Buenaventura London, Great Britain; Camilo P. Guarin,
Bulgaria; Miyatake, Shuichi, Japan Oil, S.A.A., Lima, Peru; Remi Charbonneau, Jr., Cliffs Asia Pacific Iron Ore Pty. Ltd.,
Gas and Metals National Corp., Kawasaki, Inlandsis Consultants, Montreal, Canada; Ellenbrook, Australia; Reinet C. Harbidge,
Japan; Mondal, Sisir K., Natural History Victor Jesús Chavez, Norsemont Mining, Randgold Resources, London, Great
Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Den- Arequipa, Peru; Curtis R. Cohen, Britain; Cassady L. Harraden, Pebble
mark; Taylor, Cliff D., U. S. Geological Terralliance, Houston, TX; Michele L. Limited Partnership, Iliamna, AK;
Survey, Denver, CO; Tuduri, Johann, Cooke, University of Massachusetts, Margaret L. Hawke, Sandfire Resources
LaSalle Beauvais, Beauvais, France. Amherst, MA; Pedro F. Cordeiro, Anglo NL, West Perth, Australia; Andres G.
American /University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Hernandez Gomez, Anglo American,
Brazil; Graeme Corlett, Ivanhoe Australia, Bogota, Colombia; Matthew P. Hill,
The Society Welcomes Cloncurry, Australia; Rolando Cruzado Kenex Ltd., Wellington, New Zealand;
The Following Moreno, Junefield Group S.A., Lima, Peru; Matthew J. Houston, M.J. Houston &

Waldo A. Cuadra, Minera Metallica - Associates Pty. Ltd., Eumundi, Australia;
New Gold Inc., Santiago, Chile; Charlotte Yoshihiko Ichii, Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd.,
Ernesto B. Alvarez Vasquez, Compania D. de Nooy, SGS, Milton, Australia; Tokyo, Japan; Braulio E. Ito, Cia de Minas
Minera Quechua S.A., Arequipa, Peru; Carlos A. Del Carpio, XSTRATA Copper, Buenaventura S.A.A., Lima, Peru; Greg L.
Darren G. Anderson, Graymont Western Arequipa, Peru; Sean F. Derby, The Kary, Red Metal Limited, Bellevue Hill,
Canada Inc., Calgary, Canada; Johel Reaugh Group, White Rock, Canada; Australia; Alfredo V. Kihien, CALKIM

SRL, Lima, Peru; Garth D. Kirkham, Compania Minera Poderosa S.A., Lima, Salvador, Brazil; Kirstie A. Simpson,
Geoscience BC, Burnaby, Canada; Ilkay Peru; Eric G. Potter, Geological Survey of Geoscience BC, Vancouver, Canada;
Kuscu, Mugla Universitesi, Mugla, Turkey; Canada, Kanata, Canada; Stephen A. Sandra A. Solihat, PT. Antam Tbk. Unit
Genevieve M. Luketina, GEOS Mining, Prevec, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, Geomin, Tangerang, Indonesia; Diego E.
Ravenshoe, Australia; Elena Malasquez, Eastern Cape, South Africa; Victoria J. Sologuren, Compania Minera Poderosa
CIA de Minas Buenaventura, Lima, Peru; Quintana, CIA Minera Milpo S.A.A., S.A., Lima, Peru; Fabiano L. Souza,
Christian Marignac, Ecole des Mines de Lima, Peru; Fernando Remigio, Buena- Magellan Minerals Ltd., Cuiaba, Brazil;
Nancy, Nancy Cedex, France; Paul M. ventura, Lima, Peru; Ana A. Rieger, Mark Styles, Rodinia Geological Services,
McDonnell, Barrick Gold Corp., Bolton, Ludwig-Maximilians Universitat Dept. of Klemscott, Australia; Hiroyuki Takahara,
Great Britain; Christopher RM McFarlane, Earth & Environmental Sciences, Munich, Nittetsu Mining Consultants Co. Ltd.,
University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Germany; Orlando G. Rocha Filleo, Min- Sakura, Japan; Juan Teran, Anglo
Canada; Brian A. McNulty, Pebble ing Ventures Brasil Pesquisa e Mineracao American Exploration, Cajamarca, Peru;
Limited Partnership, Willow, AK; David Ltda., Natal, Brazil; Alexandre M. Rocha, Daniel G. Torres, INGEMMET, Lima, Peru;
Meade, Tigers Realm Minerals, Melbourne, Mining Ventures Brasil Pesquisa e Bernardo Horta de Cerqueira Viana,
Australia; Kent Mezaki, Nittetsu Mining Mineracao Ltda., Natal, Brazil; Benjamin Coffey Mining Brazil, Belo Horizonte,
Consultants Co., Ltd. Tokyo, Japan; Pieter Ruzive, Assmang Limited, Santoy, South Brazil; Carlos Manuel Villanes, CIA
G. Moeskops, Robust Resources Ltd., Africa; Carlos Salazar, Norsemont Minera Poderosa S.A., Lima, Peru; Jeremy
Newington, Australia; Wenceslao C. Mining, Lima, Peru; Jorge Sanchez R. Vore, Newmont Mining Corporation,
Mollohuanca, Minera Ancash Cobre S.A., Espinoza, Goldfields, Cajamarca, Peru; Winnemucca, NV; Christopher C. Welch,
Lima, Peru; Marian J. Myers, MARS Alexander Santisteban, INGEMMET, Bloomsbury Minerals Economic Ltd.,
Geosciences US Inc., Newport, TN; Luke Lima, Peru; Patrick W. Senge, Newmont Rochester, Great Britain; Jo-Elle E. Wood
A.R. Nuske, Barrick Gold of Australia, Mining Corporation, Winnemucca, NV; Wicke, Greenville, TX; James M. Yates,
Perth, Australia; Rolando E. Pena, Philex Juan R. Sierra Largo, Anglo American, Blackpool, Great Britain; Cun Yu, Gold
Mining Corporation, Metro Manila, Bogota, Colombia; Maria da Gloria Fields China Exploration, Wuhan, China;
Philippines, Jose E. Perez Lutgardo, Silva, Instituto de Geosciencias da UFBA, Javier R. Zamudio, Lima, Peru.



Rizfan Hasnur, Universitas Gadjah Mada Cook University, Kew East, Australia;
The Society Welcomes Yogyakarta, Telanaipura, Indonesia; Gilang N. Putra, Universitas Gadjah
The Following Andrea Herazo Mercado, Universidad Mada, Bogong Gede - Bogor, Indonesia;

NEW1STUDENT MEMBERS: Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellin,

Colombia; Ruifang Huang, Guangzhou
Joan J. Quispe Garate, Universidad
Nacional de San Agustin, Arequipa, Peru;
Jasmi Hafiz Abdul Aziz, Institute of Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Muadz A. Rifqi, Padjadjaran University,
Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Academy of Sciences, China; Erik Jensen, Sumedang, Indonesia; Jorge A. Roman-
Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany; Zahra Universidad Catolica del Norte, Antofa- Franco, Universidad Nacional de Caldas,
Alaminia, Ferdowsi University of Mash- gasta, Chile; Jorge L. Jimenez Valen- Manizalez, Colombia; Derek H. Rose,
had, Mashhad, Iran; Robin J. Armit, zuela, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Univesity of Johannesburg, Johannesburg,
Monash University, Aspendale, Australia; Lima, Peru; Olena Kostenko, National South Africa; Rodrigo D.R. Salles, Univer-
Mahesa S. Artsani Alwi, Gadjah Mada University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine; Hossein sidade Estadual de Campinas, Sao Paulo,
University, Sleman, Indonesia; Siti Asyiah, Kouhestani, Tarbiat Modares University, Brazil; Humberto Salvador Montoya,
Padjadjaran University, Payakumbuh, Tehran, Iran; Ruslana O. Krasnopevtseva, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San
Indonesia; Jihan Athian, Universitas National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine; Marcos, Lima, Peru; Israel Sangay
Gadjah Mada, Sleman, Indonesia; Jonas Lasskogen, Lulea University of Yupznqui, Universidad Nacional Mayor
May T. Aye, Yangon University, Yangon, Technology, Lulea, Sweden; Debra C. de San Marcos, Peru; Fernando Scaglia
Myanmar; Faiza F. Azmalni, University Lava Laguna, Universidad Nacional de Cortellezzi, Universidad de la Republica
of Padjadjaran, Jakarta, Indonesia; San Agustin, Arequipa, Peru; Congying Instituto de Ciencias Geologicas, Monte-
Mauricio Banados Felmer, Universidade Li, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, video, Uruguay; Felix M.H. Sihombing,
de Brasilia, Goiania, Brazil; Karina Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang,
Baquero Martinez, Universidad Nacional China; He Li, Guangzhou Institute of Indonesia; Bertuss J.B. Smith, University
de Colombia, Medellin, Colombia; Sebas- Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South
tian D. Benavides Ordonez, Universidad Sciences, Guangzhou, China; Mingxing Africa; Zikri R. Sulistyo, Padjadjaran
Nacional de Colombia Medellin Campus, Ling, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, University, Jatinangor, Indonesia; Eti
Medellin, Colombia; Jason M. Bennett, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Suryani, Padjadjaran University,
Australian National University, Watson, China; Alex Lukomskyj, The Australian Sumedang, Indonesia; Alex J. Sutton,
Australia; Heidi A. Berkenbosch, Univer- National University, Evatt, Australia; University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia;
sity of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia; Dede Alexey V. Lygin, University of Tasmania, Yandri Tarigan, Padjadjaran University,
Bushendra, Padjadjaran University, Hobart, Australia; Olena V. Makarchuk, Sumedang, Indonesia; Sulistyani Utami,
Bandung, Indonesia; Franklin Cayo, National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine; Universitas Gadjah Mada, Pasuruan,
Universidad Nacional de San Agustin, Caroline J. Maluga, James Cook Univer- Indonesia; Frits Van der Merwe, Univer-
Arequipa, Peru; Samneang Chea, Univer- sity, Townsville, Australia; Elio H. Mamani sity of Johannesburg, Johannesburg,
sitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; Anamuro, Universidad Nacional de San South Africa; Andrii U. Vasylenko,
Alexandra Crossingham, University of Agustin, Arequipa, Peru; Alba L. Medina National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine;
Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Martinez, Universidad Nacional de Fabian J. Villafane Diaz, Universidad
Africa; Jose De la Torre, Sr., Queen’s Colombia Sede Medellin, Medellin, Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellin,
University, Kingston, Canada; Frank A. Colombia; Fabio A. Mendoza Villero, Medellin, Colombia; Stuart Walters,
Delgado Careres, Universidad Nacional Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Imperial College London, Bishop’s
de San Agustin, Arequipa, Peru; Ilouga C. Medellin, Colombia; Alejandra M. Mon- Stortford, Great Britain; Fangyue Wang,
Dieudonne Charles Isidore, University of toya Cuartas, Universidad Nacional de Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry,
Yaounde, Yaounde, Cameroon; Daphne Colombia, Bello, Colombia; Leigh M. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou,
Dreyer, University of Johannesburg, Mulqueeney, James Cook University, China; Francis E.B. Wedin, Cardiff
Johannesburg, South Africa; Alba Nury Townsville, Australia; Imam Muttaqien, University, Dorset, Great Britain; Irvan
Gallego Hernandez, Shimane University, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indramayu, Wirandika, Padjadjaran University,
Matsue, Japan; Thomas P. Gemmell, Indonesia; Mara Nasquez, AngloAmerican Sumedang, Indonesia; Helen T. Wood,
Ottawa University, Ashton, Canada; Exploration, Cajamarca, Peru; Nadia The University of Queensland, St. Lucia,
Wilmer Giraldo Ramirez, Universidad Nastria, Padjadjaran University, Bandung, Australia; Fitsum G. Yeshanew, Lulea

Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellin, Indonesia; Dawn M. Niedermiller, University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden;
Marinilla, Colombia; Alexandra Gomez Wayne State University, St. Clair Shores, Hong Zhang, Guangzhou Institute of
Escobar, Universidad Nacional de Colom- MI; Adam Budi Nugroho, Padjadjaran Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of
bia Sede Medellin, Medellin, Colombia; University, Bogor, Indonesia; Roberto Sciences, Guangzhou, China; Yi Zheng,
Maria de las Nieves Gomez Miguelez, Ocola, Universidad Nacional de San Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry,
IGME, Salamanca, Spain; Christiaan Agustin, Arequipa, Peru; Richard W. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guang-
Greeff, University of Johannesburg, Osorio Torres, Universidad Nacional, zhou, China; Sanyuan Zhu, Guangzhou
Johannesburg, South Africa; Stefan A. Lima, Peru; Beiker Paccara Callo, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Aca-
Groflin, James Cook University, Munding- Universidad Nacional de San Agustin, demy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China. 1
burra, Australia; Ana M. Gutierrez Plaza, Arequipa, Peru; Diana Pajuelo Aparicio,
Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Universidad Nacional Mayor de San
Medellin, Bello, Colombia; Esti Handini, Marcos, Lima, Peru; Doli R. Panggabean,
Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Gadjahmada University, Yogyakarta,
Indonesia; Xiluo Hao, Guangzhou Insti- Indonesia; Eleanor C. Peterson, Aus-
tute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of tralian National University, Canberra,
Sciences, Guangzhou, China; Giri Hartono, Australia; Phouvang Phoumephone,
Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta,
‘Veteran’ Yogyakarta, Sragen, Indonesia; Indonesia; Michael G. Pocock, James

SEG Announcements
& Deadlines
Africa, Europe, & Latin America
Exploration Reviews Correspondents
SEG is pleased to announce that Paul Nex (SEG 2005), University of
The Witwatersrand, Paul Kuhn (SEG 1988 F), Metallica Mining ASA,
and Mark Pfau (SEG 2004), Tellurian Exploration Inc. have volun-
CSM-SEG Short Course — Dec. 11, 2009
teered their time to be the Regional Newsletter Correspondents for Gold in Metamorphic Terrains
Africa, Europe, and Latin America, respectively. At the same time, we
would like to sincerely thank Mac Canby, Regional Correspondent Venue: This is a one-day event at the Course Center located
(SEG 2003), Freeport-McMoRan Copper and Gold, for his support and in the lower level of the SEG Headquarters Building at
contributions to the SEG Newsletter as the outgoing Regional Corres- 7811 Shaffer Parkway, Littleton, CO 80127, USA.
pondent for Europe. Thank you all for your service to the Society.
Benoît Dubé (SEG 1994 F), Geological Survey of Canada,
SEG Honorary Lecturer News Québec, QC, Canada
Doug Kirwin (SEG 1997 F) gave lectures and promoted the SEG at the Richard J. Goldfarb (SEG 1989 F), U.S. Geological Survey,
following venues: Denver, CO, U.S.A.
• University of the Philippines and the National Institute of Registration: Please download the registration form at
Geological Sciences, Manila
• Sydney Mining and Exploration and Development Group, Sydney,
Members (US $350), Non-Members (US $440),
• Myanmar Geosciences Society in Yangon SEG Students (US $125), Non-Member Students (US $150).

Tony Naldrett (SEG 1970 SF) and Chusi Li (SEG 1997 F) gave several
lectures throughout China this summer, visiting six universities. See
p. 17 for more information. Membership Recognition — 2009
The Society and SEG Foundation congratulate the following
SEG Brian J. Skinner Award for 2008 members who have received certificates commemorating
Brian G. Rusk (James Cook University, Townsville, Australia) and 50 years of SEG membership:
co-authors Mark H. Reed and John H. Dilles were recognized for
their work in contributing the outstanding paper to Economic Geology Daniel Shawe
during 2008. “Fluid Inclusion Evidence for Magmatic-Hydrothermal
Fluid Evolution in the Porphyry Copper Molybdenum Deposit at
Butte, Montana,” appeared in v. 103, no. 2, p. 307–334. We also extend our congratulations to those members who
received certificates in recognition of 25 years of membership:

Please Pay Your 2010 Membership Dues Online James Anderson Richard McMillan
Robert Barker James Muntzert
The response from members to renew online has been outstanding.
Now, with over 5,000 SEG members in 98 countries worldwide, our G. S. W. Bruce Linda Neff-Kirkpatrick
goal is to send out as few print reminders as possible to save on Gregory Campbell Richard Newport
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to all of the benefits of membership (20% discount on SEG publica-
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tions, electronic and/or print copies of Economic Geology and the SEG
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archive of nearly 9,000 articles of Economic Geology available via
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For a full explanation of 2010 membership benefits, please see p. 53. Pablo Gumiel Jose Portacia, Jr.
To renew online, please go the SEG website at and J. Bruce Harlan Douglas Pride
click on “2010 Dues Renewal”. Assuming you have not changed your Marcus Harris Jose Ramirez-Munoz
login credentials, your Username is your membership number and
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your Password is your last name (6 characters or more). Making a
voluntary contribution to any one of a number of the SEG, H. Richard Klatt Randall Vance
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like to receive a print version of your renewal notice, please contact Duncan Large Andy Wallace
SEG at .
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Thank you for your continued support of the SEG! Robert Leonardson Peter Wood
Brian G. Hoal,
Richard Lorson Robert Wood
Executive Director
Society of Economic Geologists, Inc. Alan Marshall


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personal notes & news

C A R E E R - R E L A T E D C H A N G E S A W A R D S

JORGE BENAVIDES (SEG 1981 F) has director of the John de Laeter Centre
been appointed interim president, and Research Professor at Curtin
CEO, and a director for Zincore University. The JDL Centre is a joint
Metals. research venture between CSIRO,
PETER BOJTOS (SEG 2004) has been Curtin University of Technology, the
named a non-executive chairman University of Western Australia,
of the board of directors for and the Geological Survey of
Kalimantan Gold Corporation. Western Australia. It hosts world-
leading capabilities in mass spec-
ALEX DAVIDSON (SEG 2004 F), exec- trometry and isotope science.
utive vice president of exploration
and corporate development at
2008 F) has been appointed to the GUIDO DEL CASTILLO (SEG 2002 F), left, received
Barrick Gold Corp, has been named
board of directors for Glencar, the Picota de Plata (Silver Hammer) Award
to the board of Noront Resources
which was purchased (83%) by from the Instituto de Ingenieros de Minas del
Ltd. He joined Barrick in October
Gold Fields Ltd. Perú (IIMP) at the conclusion of this year’s
1993 as vice president of explo-
ration. In addition, he has also RONALD MCMILLAN (SEG 1979 F) ProExplo conference, held in Lima, Peru, May
been appointed to the board of has been appointed to the board of 19–22. To his right are Felipe Isasi, then Vice-
directors at Yamana Gold. Troymet Exploration Corp. He has Minister of Mines, Anibal Campos, President of
more than 45 years of experience as IIMP, and Cesar Vidal (SEG 1992 F), President of
CHRISTOPHER HERALD (SEG 1994 F) ProExplo 2009. In addition, Guido has been
an exploration and mining geolo-
has joined the board of Atna chosen as president of the next ProExplo, to be
gist on several continents.
Resources Ltd. He has more than 30 held in 2011.
years experience in the mining in- ELMER STEWART (SEG 2009), chair-
dustry and has been president, CEO, man of the board at Copper Fox SHUNSO ISHIHARA (SEG 1978 SF) was awarded
and a director of Solitario Explora- Metals, Inc., has taken on duties as the SGA-Newmont Gold Medal at the SGA bien-
tion and Royalty Corp since 1992. president and CEO of the company, nial conference in Townsville, Australia, in
in addition to his existing role, fol- recognition of a full career of unusually creative
KEITH LASKOWSKI (SEG 1982 F) has lowing the resignation of Guillermo
been chosen as president of work in mineral deposits. See photo on p. 16.
Salazar. Elmer has been involved in
Canadian Shield Resources, Ltd. He exploration and mining throughout JONATHAN G. PRICE (SEG 1985 F) is the recipient
has worked in the industry for more the Americas, Africa, and Asia for of the Medal in Honor of Ian Campbell for
than 30 years, including 17 years 35 years, including direct and indi- superlative service to the geosciences, to be pre-
with Newmont. rect involvement with the develop- sented at the GSA Presidential Address Cere-
BRENT I. A. MCINNES (SEG 1999 F) ment of five gold mines in Canada mony on October 17. Jonathan is Nevada State
has accepted an appointment as and Kazakhstan. Geologist and a past president (2003) of SEG.

PAUL A. BAILLY Creek Mining, U.S. exploration sub- Six mines were successfully developed
(SEG 1960, SF 1997) sidiary of Kennecott Copper, from 1961 with this innovative venture capital
Paul A. Bailly was to 1967. With his leadership, Bear Creek mine financing.
recently inducted into made important discoveries of copper Paul was president of SEG in 1981

the National Mining deposits in Arizona and Alaska, copper- and received the Society’s Marsden
Hall of Fame in recog- nickel deposits in Minnesota, lead Award in 2000 for a long record of ser-
nition of the broad deposits in Missouri, and stratiform cop- vice to the Society. He was president of
scope of his important per in Montana. the Geological Society of America and
contributions to the Paul joined Occidental Petroleum served on four committees on mineral
mining industry. Corporation in 1968, and organized its issues at the National Academy of
Throughout his career mining subsidiary, Oxymin, which he Sciences. He also received the Mineral
that stretched from led as president through 1983. Oxymin Economics award from the AIME and
1952 to 1996, Paul demonstrated the discovered zinc in Tennessee and devel- the Jackling award from the SME, in
exceptional ability to innovate, orga- oped oxide copper mines in New recognition of his important contribu-
nize, motivate and lead successful Mexico, Nevada, and Arizona. The tions to the mining industry. The career
teams of mineral explorationists, mine company also made discoveries of ura- and achievements of Paul Bailly clearly
developers, researchers and investors. nium in Canada and gold in Western illustrate how a unique blend of knowl-
Paul received degrees in geological Australia. edge, skill, and integrity produced a
engineering from the University of In 1984, Paul joined Fulcrum Man- successful and professional economic
Nancy, France, and a Ph.D. in eco- agement as president. Fulcrum man- geologist.
nomic geology from Stanford aged a venture capital group focused on Contributed by Richard L. Nielsen
University. He was president of Bear investing in new gold mining ventures. (SEG 1973 SF)



Contributed by William X Chávez, Jr.
and Andrew R. Campbell
Mike J. Fitzgerald was born August 5, 1934,
in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and graduated
from the University of Minnesota with a
bachelor’s degree in geological engineering.
Upon graduation, he took a job as a mine geologist for
Phelps Dodge Corporation at the Morenci mine in southern
Arizona. This was followed by a position with Kerr-McGee
Corporation as a senior geologist, until 1968, when he
transferred to Denver, Colorado, to be district geologist in
copper exploration for Kerr-McGee. In 1970, Mike moved to
Vancouver, Canada, as senior staff geologist for Donaldson
Securities. Two years later, he formed his own geological
consulting and exploration company, Min-Ex Services Ltd.
Mike worked with Henry W. Ranspot as the company
acquired mineral claims in the Carlin gold district of
Eureka County, Nevada; exploration of the claims was suc-
cessful, and those discoveries eventually became part of the
Goldstrike mine. Following the success of that program,
Mike became president of Metal Ex-Management Inc., a
position he held for 10 years, after which he became a con-
sulting geologist in Bellingham, Washington. He finally set-
tled in Tucson, Arizona, in the 1990s, with his wife, Marisa.
Mike established the Don Yardley Fellowship Fund at the
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the
Don Yardley Endowment in Economic Geology at the Uni- PAID ADVERTISEMENT
versity of Nevada, Reno, in recognition of his favorite pro-
fessor at the University of Minnesota. Over the past 5 years,
five graduate students at New Mexico Tech have been sup-
ported by the fellowship fund he established. In addition,
Mike’s support of field programs at New Mexico Tech allowed
students to travel internationally to visit some of the most
important mining districts in the world, as well as to travel
within the southwest United States to
perform mapping exercises in geologi-
cally spectacular areas. He supported the
Society of Economic Geologists by con-
tributing to the Discovery Fund, the Hugo
Dummett Fund, and the Alberto Terrones
L. Fund. He was also a philanthropist out-
side the profession, helping the homeless

and others in need. Mike died August 11,
2009, in Tucson, Arizona.

u News Summaries
u Deposit Statistics
u Research Information
100 Lemming Dr. • Reno, Nevada 89523
phone: 775 345-2343 • fax 775 345-1317 •


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GB 8: Industrial Mineral Resources of the Delaware Basin, Comp. 1. CD-ROM ONLY. Diamonds and Kimberlites: 1905–2007. $75.00 $60.00
Texas, and New Mexico. 1990, 203p. $24.00 $19.20
Comp. 2. CD-ROM ONLY. Uranium 1905-2007. $75.00 $60.00
GB 28: The Carlin-Type Gold Deposits Field Conference.
1997, 294p. $36.00 $28.80 REVIEWS IN ECONOMIC GEOLOGY SERIES:
GB 29: Geology and Ore Deposits of the Oquirrh and Wasatch
Mountains, Utah. 1997 (Revised 1998), 308p. $40.00 $32.00 Rev. 1: CD-ROM ONLY. Fluid-Mineral Equilibria in
GB 30: Gold Deposits of Northern Sonora, Mexico. 1998, 252p. $36.00 $28.80 Hydrothermal Systems. 1984. $20.00 $16.00
GB 31: Epithermal Mineralization of the Western Rev. 2: CD-ROM ONLY. Geology and Geochemistry of
Carpathians. 1999, 274p. $36.00 $28.80 Epithermal Systems. 1985. $20.00 $16.00
GB 32: CD-ROM ONLY. PART I. Contrasting Styles of Intrusion- Rev. 3: CD-ROM ONLY. Exploration Geochemistry: Design
Associated Hydrothermal Systems. PART II. Geology & and Interpretation of Soil Surveys. 1986. $20.00 $16.00
Gold Deposits of the Getchell Region. 2000, 234p. $36.00 $28.80 Rev. 4: CD-ROM ONLY. Ore Deposition Associated with
GB 33: CD-ROM ONLY. Svecofennian Ore-Forming Environments: Magmas. 1989. $20.00 $16.00
Volcanic-Associated Zn-Cu-Au-Ag, Intrusion-Associated Rev. 5: CD-ROM ONLY. Sedimentary and Diagenetic Mineral
Cu-Au, Sediment-Hosted Pb-Zn, and Magnetite-Apatite Deposits: A Basin Analysis Approach to Exploration $20.00 $16.00
Deposits of Northern Sweden. 2004, 175 p. $36.00 $28.80
왖 Rev. 6: The Environmental Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits:
GB 34: CD-ROM ONLY. Epithermal Gold Mineralization and PART A: Processes, Techniques, and Health Issues;
Modern Analogues, Kyushu, Japan. 2001 188p. $36.00 $28.80 PART B: Case Studies and Research Topics.
GB 35: PART I. Proterozoic Iron and Zinc Deposits of the 1999, Volume set total 583p. 왖 ADDITIONAL SHIPPING $55.00 $44.00
Adirondack Mountains of New York and the New Jersey
Highlands. PART II. Environmental Geochemistry and Rev. 7: Applications of Microanalytical Techniques to
Mining History of Massive Sulfide Deposits in the Understanding Mineralizing Processes. 1998, 271p. $34.00 $27.20
Vermont Copper Belt. 2001, 294p. $36.00 $28.80 Rev. 8: Volcanic-Associated Massive Sulfide Deposits: Processes
GB 36: CD-ROM ONLY. Cretaceous Porphyry-Epithermal and Examples In Modern And Ancient Settings. 1999, 416p. $40.00 $32.00
Systems of the Srednogorie Zone, Bulgaria. 2003, 132 p. $36.00 $28.80 Rev. 9: Ore Genesis and Exploration: The Roles of
GB 37: CD-ROM ONLY. Lisbon Valley Sediment-Hosted Copper Organic Matter. 2000, 340 p. $49.00 $39.20
Deposits and Paradox Basin Fluids Field Trip. 2005, 50p. $25.00 $21.00 Rev. 10: Techniques in Hydrothermal Ore Deposits Geology.
GB 38: CD-ROM ONLY. Porphyry Molybdenum Deposits in 1998, 264 p. $34.00 $27.20
Colorado: I. Climax Porphyry Molybdenum Deposit. II. Rev. 11: Metamorphosed and Metamorphogenic Ore Deposits.
Henderson Molybdenum Mine. Summary, road log, 9 reprints. $30.00 $24.00 2000, 310p. $44.00 $35.20
GB 39: CD-ROM ONLY. Terroir of Colorado’s Western Slope Rev. 12: Application of Radiogenic Isotopes to Ore Deposit
Vineyards. 30 p. $30.00 $24.00 Research and Exploration. 1999, 208p. $32.00 $25.60
EG Mono 9: Mineral Deposits of Alaska. Rev. 14: Structural Controls on Ore Genesis. 2001, 190p. $45.00 $36.00
1997, 483p., hard cover. $45.00 $36.00 Rev. 15: Banded Iron Formation-Related High-Grade
왖 EG Mono 10: The Giant Kidd Creek Volcanogenic Massive Iron Ore. 2008, 424p. $75.00 $60.00
Sulfide Deposit, Western Abitibi Subprovince, Canada. Rev. 16: Remote Sensing and Spectral Geology. 2009, 266p. $75.00 $60.00
1999, hard cover. 왖 ADDITIONAL SHIPPING $60.00 $48.00
왖 EG Mono 11: Massive Sulfide Deposits of the Bathurst SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS SERIES:
Mining Camp, New Brunswick, and Northern Maine. SP 1: CD-ROM ONLY. Geology and Metallogeny of Sulfide
2003, hard cover. 왖 ADDITIONAL SHIPPING $69.00 $55.20 Deposits, Noril’sk Region, USSR. 1988; rev.1992. $36.00 $28.80
ECONOMIC GEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS: SP 3: Ore Reserve Estimates in the Real World.
Third Edition, 2002, 121p. $37.00 $29.60
Tables for the Determination of Common Opaque Minerals. 왖 SP 4: Carbonate-Hosted Lead-Zinc Deposits.
P.G. Spry and B.L. Gedlinske. CD-ROM ONLY. $12.50 $10.00 1996, hard cover. 왖 ADDITIONAL SHIPPING $60.00 $48.00
The Hugo Dummett Memorial Economic Geology Archive: SP 5: CD-ROM ONLY. Andean Copper Deposits: New
1905-2004. Complete, searchable digital files of Discoveries, Mineralization, Styles and Metallogeny. 1996. $36.00 $28.80
v. 1 through 99 of the journal (DVD only; 5.2 GB).
NOTE: This is NOT A CD-ROM; DVD drive required $1,500.00 $220.00 SP 6: CD-ROM ONLY. Southwest Pacific Rim Gold-Copper
Systems: Structure, Alteration, and Mineralization. 1998. $36.00 $28.80
왖 Economic Geology 100th Anniversary Volume. 2005,
1136 p. hard cover; 왖 ADDITIONAL SHIPPING $100.00 $80.00 SP 7: CD-ROM ONLY. Geology and Ore Deposits of the
Central Andes. 1999, 368p. $38.00 $30.40
SEG CONFERENCE SERIES: (Note: CD-ROMs listed are not audio) SP 8: New Mines and Discoveries in Mexico and
Global Exploration 2002: Integrated Methods for Discovery Central America. 2001, 362p. $68.00 $54.40
Abstracts of Oral and Poster Presentations. 150p. $10.00 $ 8.00 SP 9: Integrated Methods for Discovery: Global Exploration
SEG 2004: Predictive Mineral Discovery Under Cover: in the 21st Century. 2002, 392p. $59.00 $47.20
Extended Abstracts. SEG and the Centre for Global SP 10: Volcanic, Geothermal and Ore-Forming Fluids:
Metallogeny (Australia). CD-ROM ONLY. $20.00 $16.00 Rulers and Witnesses of Processes within the Earth.
SEG Forum 2005: Controversies on the Origin of World-Class 2003, 360p. $59.00 $47.20
Gold Deposits: Carlin and Witwatersrand. CD-ROM ONLY. $20.00 $16.00 SP 11: Andean Metallogeny: New Discoveries, Concepts,
SEG 2006: Wealth Creation in the Minerals Industry: and Updates. 2004, 358p. $59.00 $47.20
Abstracts of Oral and Poster Presentations. 396p. $35.00 $28.00 SP 12: Wealth Creation in the Minerals Industry: Integrating
Science, Business, and Education. 2006, 329p. $75.00 $60.00
Keystone Conference DVD: Wealth Creation in the Minerals Industry (2006) SP 13: Nickel Deposits of the Yilgarn Craton: Geology, Geo-
PowerPoint presentations-audio/posters/extended abstracts (2Gb); PC Only chemistry, and Geophysics Applied to Exploration. 2006, 210p. $59.00 $47.20
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Vid. 11: 1) Mississippi Valley-type Lead-Zinc Deposits through
Vid. 1: 1) The Genesis of Magmatic Ni-Cu (PGE) Sulfide Deposits Earth History: Implications for Ore Genesis, Crustal Fluid-Flow,
2) Physical Volcanology, Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Paleoclimate, and Relation to Shale-Hosted (SEDEX) Deposits:
Komatiite Basalt Lava Channels and Channelized Sheet Flows David L. Leach, U.S. Geological Survey, Mar. 2002 $25.00 $20.00
in the Cape Smith Belt, New Quebec: C. Michael Lesher, Vid. 12: 1) Discovery History and Geology of the Cannington
Laurentian University, Sept. 1998 $25.00 $20.00 Ag-Pb-Zn Deposit 2) Advances in Micro-Analytical Technologies
Vid. 2: 1) Worldwide Exploration: Can We Afford It?, — What a grain can tell you Steve Walters,
2) Exploration Strategic Planning: Michael J. Knuckey, President, Macquarie University, Apr. 2002 $25.00 $20.00
Noranda Mining Exploration, Ltd., Nov. 1998 $25.00 $20.00 Vid. 13: 1) Lode Gold Deposits through Earth History — Patterns
Vid. 3: 1) The Porphyry to Epithermal Continuum: Evidence from in Space and Time 2) Metallogeny of Gold Deposits in
Volcanoes and Ore Deposits, 2) Characteristics of and Exploration China: R.J. Goldfarb, U.S. Geological Survey, Mar. 2003 $25.00 $20.00
for Epithermal Gold Deposits in the Circum Pacific: Jeffrey W.
Hedenquist, Consulting Economic Geologist, April 1999 $25.00 $20.00 Vid. 14: 1) Exploration in the Context of Mineral Supply:
Focus on Copper. 2) Overcoming the Odds:
Vid. 4: 1) Epithermal Gold Deposits—Characteristics, Classes Why Continue to Explore? Michael D. Doggett, Apr. 2006 $25.00 $20.00
and Causes 2) Convergent Evolution and Ore Deposits:
Noel C. White, Consulting Economic Geologist, Sept. 1999 $25.00 $20.00 Vid. 15: 1) Characteristics of Lode Gold Deposits in Greenstone
Vid. 5: 1) Cordilleran Metallogeny of Western Canada Belts 2) Geology and Setting of Gold Deposits in the North
2) Intrusion-related Mineral Deposits: Tectonics, Magmas and Carlin Trend, Nevada: François Robert, Barrick Gold, Dec. 2004 $25.00 $20.00
Fluids: John Thompson, Teck Corporation, Feb. 2000 $25.00 $20.00 Vid. 16: 1) Characteristics and Genesis of Carlin-type Gold De-
Vid. 6: 1) Geology and Genesis of the Irish Zn-Pb-Ag Ore Field posits, NV 2) Upwelling Hot Water at a Proposed Nuclear Waste
2) The Lisheen Deposits, Ireland: Discovery and Delineation Repository: Jean Cline, Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, Feb. 2005 $25.00 $20.00
of a Blind Zn-Pb-Ag Orebody: Murray W. Hitzman, Vid. 17: 1) Breccias in Epithermal and Porphyry Deposits:
Colorado School of Mines, Sept. 2000 $25.00 $20.00 The Birth and Death of Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems
Vid. 7: 1) How Orebodies are Found 2) The Arequipa Resources 2) The Giant Sediment-Hosted Zn-Pb-Ag Deposits of
Pierina Project: David J. Lowell, Lowell Mineral Exploration, Feb. 2001 $25.00 $20.00 Northern Australia: David R. Cooke, Univ. of Tasmania, Feb. 2005 $25.00 $20.00
Vid. 8: 1) Tectonic Setting and Structural Controls in the Giant Vid. 18: 1) Unidirectional Solidification Textures, Miarolitic
Eocene-Oligocene Porphyry Copper Deposits of Northern Cavities, and Orbicules 2) Discovery History of the Giant Oyu
Chile 2) Late Cenozoic Mineralization and Crustal Evolution Tolgoi Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits: Douglas J. Kirwin,
in a Thickening Arc: The Maricunga and El Indio Mineral Ivanhoe Mines, Oct. 2007 $25.00 $20.00
Belts: Constantino Mpodozis, Chilean Geological Survey, Mar. 2001 $25.00 $20.00
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2009 Mar. 7–10. PDAC 2010 — Prospectors and Lufkin Field Trips. Contact Dr. John L.
Nov. 30–Dec.4. Northwest Mining Asso- Developers Association of Canada Inter - Lufkin for further information. Email:
cia tion’s 115 th Annual Meeting, John national Convention, Trade Show & Investors, Tel: +1.303.997.7365.
Ascuaga’s Nugget Casino Resort, Reno- Exchange, Toronto, Canada. Website: For field trip schedules, see website at
Sparks, Nevada, USA. Website: <www.nwma. <>. <>. See ad on p. 19.
org>. See p. 47 for details. Apr. 6–9. 13th Quadrennial IAGOD Sym- H Dec. 2–4. International Symposium on
H Dec. 11. SEG-CSM Short Course on Gold posium, Adelaide Australia. Website: <http:// Magmatic Ore Deposits, Institute of Min-
in Metamorphic Terrains. SEG Head ->. erals and Materials Technology in Bhubanes-
quarters Course Center, Littleton, CO, USA. war, Orissa, India. Details at <http://www.seg
May 14–22. GSN 2010 Symposium: Great
Course presenters Benoît Dubé, Geological>.
Basin Evolution & Metallogeny, John
Survey of Canada, Québec, QC, Canada and Ascuaga’s Nugget Hotel, Sparks, Nevada,
Richard J. Goldfarb, U.S. Geological Survey, USA. Website: < 2010
Denver, CO, USA. For course description sium>. See p. 55. SEG Gold Workshop Mar. 9–12. 22nd Biennial Fairbanks
and registration, see < scheduled. Alaska Mining Conference, Fairbanks,
activities/>. See p. 51 for details.
Jun. 21–24. 11th International Platinum Alaska, USA. Alaska Miners Association:
Symposium, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Pre- Arctic International Mining Symposium held
2010 meeting field trips and short courses: 17–20 at the Westmark Hotel, Fairbanks, Alaska.
H Jan. 5–7. Mineral Deposits Studies Group June 2010. Post-meeting field trips: 25–29 Website: <
(MDSG) Annual General Meeting, June 2010. Abstract Submission and Field 2010conf/>.
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Thayer Lindsley Lecturer, Richard Tosdal, to Early Registration and Block Accommodation Applied Geochemistry Workshop, Van-
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Address: See p. 47 for
H Feb. 9–10. SEG-SGS Geometallurgy H May 12–14. VI Uruguayan GeoCongress,
more details.
Course: Applications to Exploration and Minas, Dpto. Lavalleja. For information,
Production, Riverstone Lodge, Mulders - H Aug. 21–27. International Mineralogical please go to <http://www.geologia-confre
drift, South Africa. For course and registra- Association (IMA) 2010 World Confer->
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activities/. planned. Website: <http://www.ima2010.
Feb. 28–Mar. 3. 2010 SME Annual Meet-
ing & Exhibit, Phoenix Convention Center, Oct. 2–5. SEG 2010 Conference, Keystone,
Phoenix, Arizona. Website: <http://www. Colorado USA. Website: <http://www.seg>.>. See centerspread, p. 30–31.

Economic &
Environmental E 2G
Geochemistry, Inc.
Specializing in Geochemistry Applied to Mining
Permitting, Development, Operations & Closure

Ron L. Schmiermund, Ph.D.

655 Dudley St., Lakewood, CO 80215
(303) 274-6910 cell (303) 437-6235
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