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Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease:

Left-to-Right Shunt Lesions


Jamie N. Colombo, DO,* Michael A. McCulloch, MD*
*Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Virginia Children’s Hospital, Charlottesville, VA

Education Gap
An understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and appropriate initial
management of acyanotic congenital heart disease is needed to
appropriately care for infants in the NICU.

Abstract
Acyanotic congenital heart diseases or left-to-right shunting lesions are the
most common form of congenital heart disease. Although most resolve
spontaneously, many will remain hemodynamically significant, particularly in
the premature infant. Understanding the difference in pathophysiology,
diagnosis, and management between the term and preterm infant is
imperative to minimize the risk of secondary organ dysfunction and ensure
proper growth and development.

Objectives After completing this article, readers should be able to:

1. Explain the pathophysiology, initial presentation, and management of left-


to-right pre-tricuspid shunt lesions.
2. Explain the pathophysiology, initial presentation, and management of left-
to-right post-tricuspid shunt lesions.
AUTHOR DISCLOSURE Drs Colombo and
McCulloch have disclosed no financial 3. List the genetic mutations associated with the different left-to-right shunt
relationships relevant to this article. This lesions.
commentary does not contain a discussion
of an unapproved/investigative use of a 4. Differentiate the effects of these lesions on term and preterm infants.
commercial product/device.

ABBREVIATIONS
ASD atrial septal defect
AVSD atrioventricular septal defect INTRODUCTION
CHD congenital heart disease
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common genetic abnormality, with
ECG electrocardiography
PDA patent ductus arteriosus
an incidence that increases from approximately 8 per 1,000 term births to 12.5
PVR pulmonary vascular resistance per 1,000 premature births. (1)(2) More important, however, are the significantly in-
Qp pulmonary blood flow creased hemodynamic consequences of CHD in preterm infants compared with
Qs systemic blood flow
SVR systemic vascular resistance their term peers. This review will focus on acyanotic CHD defined as an anatomic
VSD ventricular septal defect connection between the pulmonary and systemic circulations in which oxygenated

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systemic blood flow on the left side of the heart shunts to the preductal aortic vessels, and the developing brain. Primum
partially deoxygenated pulmonary blood flow on the right side ASDs exist in the setting of atrioventricular septal defects
of the heart. The vast array of acyanotic heart lesions will (AVSDs) but their physiologic presentation is typically deter-
be grouped into 2 physiologic subtypes of pre-tricuspid valve mined more by the associated lesions. Sinus venosus type
and post-tricuspid valve shunting. Further consideration will ASDs comprise 4% to 11% of all ASD types and are com-
be given to gestational age when appropriate. monly associated with anomalous return of at least 1 pulmo-
nary vein, resulting in a significantly larger left-to-right
shunt. (6) Coronary sinus ASDs not only produce ASD phys-
PRE-TRICUSPID VALVE SHUNTS
iology but are commonly associated with systemic desatu-
The physiologic distinction of pre-tricuspid valve shunts de- ration as they functionally “unroof” the coronary sinus,
scribes shunting across an atrial septal defect (ASD) during adding markedly desaturated blood into the left atrium.
ventricular diastole and atrial systole. The direction of flow
across an atrial communication is dictated by differences in Diagnosis
ventricular compliance. Ventricular compliance can change ASDs are rarely associated with clinical findings in the term
when chronic atrial contraction occurs into a ventricle that neonate. At 2 to 3 years of age, classic findings include a
has become stiff and noncompliant either from myopathic widely split S2 and a systolic ejection murmur along the left
changes (ie, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) or from chroni- sternal border because of increased flow across the pulmo-
cally elevated afterload (ie, pulmonary/aortic valve stenosis nary valve. Echocardiography is the diagnostic tool of choice
or elevated pulmonary or systemic vascular resistance). (Fig 1). Chest radiography may show an enlarged cardiac
Shortly after birth, ASD shunt magnitude is low because silhouette and increased pulmonary vascular markings, but
neonatal right ventricular stiffness and compliance are very this can be difficult to appreciate in an infant with lung
similar to those in the left ventricle. With physiologic de- disease. Electrocardiography (ECG) will show right ventric-
clines in pulmonary vascular resistance, compensatory in ular hypertrophy and right axis deviation, but this is true in
utero right ventricular hypertrophy regresses, resulting in a all newborns and is usually not helpful.
more compliant right ventricle and atrium. This allows a
progressive left-to-right increase in ASD shunt volume that Management
is further pronounced with larger defect size. (3) ASDs are Term neonates with isolated ASDs are typically asymptom-
considered volume-loading defects to the right heart (as atic and rarely require intervention. Should the patient
opposed to pressure-loading defects; see Post-Tricuspid develop significant signs of congestion with increased work
Valve Shunts section), with larger defects producing right of breathing, tachypnea, hepatomegaly, and poor growth,
atrial and ventricular dilation. diuretics are the first-line treatment. As such, ASD closure
is not common until at least 2 years of age, with both de-
Incidence vice closure in the catheterization laboratory and surgical
Excluding patent foramen ovale, which persists in up to 35% closure having excellent results. (7)(8)
of adults, ASDs exist in approximately 1 in 1,500 children,
comprise 6% to 10% of all cardiac anomalies, (4) and are Premature Infants
the most commonly recognized mutation in nonsyndromic The premature infant with chronic lung disease represents
CHD. (5) Although ASDs frequently occur with other con- a unique challenge. When subjected to chronic hyperoxia
genital heart lesions, isolated ASDs have been associated with and positive pressure ventilation, the immature lung paren-
NKX2.5, GATA4, GATA6, and TBX20 mutations. Mutations in chyma exhibits alveolar simplification. (9) The subsequent
the TXB5 gene are associated with Holt-Oram syndrome. reduced number of alveoli renders these infants particularly
Several anatomic classifications of atrial defects can occur sensitive to any increase in pulmonary blood flow, par-
in utero when the septum primum and septum secundum do ticularly when coupled with aspiration, inflammation, or
not appropriately fuse with each other, the endocardial cush- acquired pulmonary vein stenosis, all of which result in
ions, and posterior aspect of the atria. Ostium secundum type congestion from increased intra-alveolar fluid. Therefore,
defects compose 75% of all ASDs and are essentially identical premature infants not following the expected perinatal
to a patent foramen ovale with the major distinction being course (ie, respiratory distress out of proportion to their
size. (4) The foramen ovale is a critical connection maintained lung disease) who have an ASD deemed amenable to device
throughout fetal life, directing oxygenated ductus venosus closure in the cardiac catheterization laboratory should be
blood across its opening to the left atrium, left ventricle, considered for this therapy to improve outcomes. (10)(11)

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Figure 1. Subcostal echocardiogram of a secundum atrial septal defect (indicated by arrow) with and without color. LA¼left atrium; LV¼left ventricle;
RA¼right atrium; RV¼right ventricle.

POST-TRICUSPID VALVE SHUNTS and angulations within a tortuous ductus. However, the
relative resistance that exists within the pulmonary and
Left-to-right shunting lesions distal to the tricuspid valve
systemic vascular beds is markedly greater than that found
include various ventricular septal defects (VSDs; eg, peri-
within the defects themselves, and is subsequently the
membranous VSD and atrioventricular canal defects) and
largest determinant of shunting volume and direction.
systemic to pulmonary shunts (eg, patent ductus arteriosus
These complex interactions ultimately determine whether
[PDA] and aortopulmonary window). The hemodynamic
a post-tricuspid valve shunting lesion produces a pressure
significance of a shunt depends on the size and resistance
and/or volume burden on the heart and lungs.
within the defect, and the relationship between pulmonary
VSD shunting occurs exclusively during systole. Large
vascular resistance (PVR) and systemic vascular resistance
nonrestrictive VSDs are associated with pulmonary arterial
(SVR). In utero and immediately after birth, the PVR and SVR pressures identical to systemic arterial pressures, regardless
are approximately equal, producing a PVR/SVR ratio of 1:1. of the PVR/SVR ratio. This is because pressure generation
After a healthy newborn takes the first breath, the pulmonary within a vascular bed is the product of its vascular resistance
vascular bed is exposed to oxygen, promoting pulmonary (PVR and SVR) and pulmonary (Qp) and systemic (Qs)
arteriolar relaxation and a progressive decrease in the PVR/ blood flow ejected into that bed. For example, if the ratio of
SVR ratio. PVR reaches its nadir between 8 weeks and 6 resistance is 1:1, there is no net shunting (Qp:Qs ¼ 1:1), but
months of age, resulting in a PVR/SVR ratio of 0.2:1 or less. if the PVR/SVR ratio is 0.5:1 and the Qp:Qs is 2:1, the
Regardless of the size and resistance within a post-tricuspid pulmonary circulation is exposed to twice as much blood
valve communication, net shunting of blood will not occur flow as is the systemic circulation.
until the PVR/SVR ratio has deviated significantly from 1:1 VSDs in the setting of a low PVR/SVR ratio (ie, <0.5:1)
(ie, an increase in pulmonary blood flow relative to systemic produce a volume burden on both the lungs and left
blood flow cannot occur until PVR is less than SVR). ventricle. Excess pulmonary blood flow shunted from the
The PVR/SVR ratio effectively acts as the second in a left ventricle combines with the right ventricular output and
series of 2 resistors, with the first being the communication produces hydrostatic pressures that overwhelm oncotic
itself. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation states that resistance forces, resulting in intra-alveolar water or pulmonary
to flow across a vessel is directly related to its length and edema. This total blood volume must then return to the
inversely related to its radius to the fourth power (R ¼ L/ r4). left atrium and ventricle, progressively dilating both cham-
VSDs have no length and act as a static resistor in the bers. Newborns with such ventricular level shunting
neonate, therefore, the resistance to flow across the VSD is become increasingly tachypneic, intolerant of oral feedings,
entirely determined by the radius or size of the defect. By and fail to thrive, producing the classic presentation of
comparison, a PDA has significant length and its radius is congestive heart failure. This rate of decline is reduced with
affected by both contraction of oxygen-sensitive ductal tissue smaller defects and if the PVR/SVR is closer to 1:1. Large,

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long-standing, unrepaired VSDs cause progressive pul- banding may be considered if there are multiple defects
monary arteriolar vasoconstriction and PVR elevation that within the ventricular septum or if the infant’s size or
eventually becomes irreversible, resulting in Eisenmenger syn- gestational age precludes cardiopulmonary bypass. (12)
drome; this is exceedingly rare in the first few years of age.
Although the length of a PDA directly increases resis-
ATRIOVENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT
tance, compared with a large VSD, PDAs typically produce a
larger volume burden on the pulmonary vascular bed for 2 Incidence
reasons. First, a newborn’s ductus arteriosus is large, with a AVSDs comprise a wide variety of congenital heart lesions
cross-sectional area equal to the descending aorta, largely involving endocardial cushion formation. The spectrum
counteracting the resistance effect of its length. Second, ranges from partial defects with a primum ASD and mitral
shunting occurs throughout both systole and diastole. valve cleft (most common type) to a complete defect with an
ASD, VSD, and single atrioventricular valve to an unbalanced
AVSD with heterotaxy syndrome and single ventricle physiol-
VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT
ogy. (15)(16) The incidence of AVSDs ranges from 0.24 to 0.31
Incidence per 1,000 live births or 4% to 5% of congenital heart defects
VSDs are the most common form of CHD, representing 20% and 40% of cases will be associated with trisomy 21. (16)(17)
to 30% of isolated lesions and occurring in 1.3 to 3.9 of 1,000 AVSD is associated with tetralogy of Fallot in 5% of cases. (16)
live births. (12)(13) VSDs are classified as 4 types, with perimem-
branous VSDs being the most common. (14) Isolated VSDs are Diagnosis
the most common CHD seen in patients with trisomy 21, 18, A complete AVSD is commonly diagnosed prenatally. (16)
and 13, but only 5% to 8% of patients with an isolated VSD (17) Defects with large ventricular components will present
will have a chromosomal disorder. (13) TBX5, GATA4, and NKX2 earlier in life when PVR falls, as discussed earlier. Diagnosis
mutations have been associated with isolated VSDs. (13) is made with echocardiography (Fig 3), but ECG can be a
helpful screening test because it commonly shows the
unique finding of a superior QRS axis between –90 and
Diagnosis
–120 degrees (Fig 4).
Small, restrictive VSDs are often found incidentally with a
holosystolic murmur at the left sternal border, but only after
Management
PVR has begun to fall. Because of the lack of flow acceler-
Definitive management is surgical, with current mortality
ation and associated murmur, large defects may not become
rates less than 3% when performed between 3 and 6 months
clinically evident until an infant becomes symptomatic, as
of age, which increases in younger, smaller infants. (18) The
described earlier. Chest radiography may show signs of
concurrent diagnosis of trisomy 21 syndrome does not
pulmonary congestion and an enlarged cardiac silhouette.
significantly alter morbidity or mortality rates unless surgi-
An ECG may show signs of left and right ventricle hyper-
cal intervention is made significantly later than 6 months
trophy with disease progression, but are typically not diag-
of age, because of an inherently earlier development of
nostic. Echocardiography is the diagnostic tool of choice
irreversible pulmonary vascular disease. (16)
(Fig 2) and additional testing is not usually indicated.

PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS


Management
Up to 45% of VSDs spontaneously close during the first year Incidence
of age. (12) For those that become hemodynamically signif- The PDA is a vital structure in utero, redirecting blood from
icant, surgical closure is the primary option, depending on the right ventricle to the lower body. After a term gestation,
the location of the defect and size of the child, with low the PDA will usually close within 72 hours of age, but fre-
morbidity and mortality rates and excellent outcomes. (12) quently this does not occur until much later in preterm infants,
Premature infants with VSDs are particularly challenging making it the most common lesion of prematurity. (19)(20)
because their incomplete pulmonary arteriolar development
produces an extremely compliant pulmonary vascular bed, Diagnosis
resulting in an earlier onset of pulmonary overcirculation Patients may demonstrate a widened pulse pressure with
and congestive heart failure. This is further complicated bounding distal pulses; auscultation of the left upper sternal
in patients with chronic lung disease. Pulmonary artery border will demonstrate either a continuous murmur

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Figure 2. Echocardiogram in parasternal long axis view, with and without color, demonstrating a perimembranous ventricular septal defect (indicated
by arrow). LA¼left atrium; RV¼right ventricle; LV¼left ventricle.

produced by shunting throughout the cardiac cycle or an demonstrated serum brain natriuretic peptide to be another
isolated systolic murmur either when the PVR remains indicator of PDAs in premature infants. (19)(21)
high or as the ductus begins to close and diastolic flow
ceases. As with other left-to-right shunts, echocardiography Management
is the diagnostic tool of choice. Some investigators have Spontaneous PDA closure is more likely to occur in infants
without respiratory distress syndrome, those born after 28
weeks’ gestation (w73%), and those born with birthweights
greater than 1,000 g (w 94%). (19)(22) When closure does
not occur, it is reasonable to consider intervening in the
setting of chronic renal insufficiency, feeding intolerance,
hemodynamic instability, or inability to separate from sup-
plemental respiratory support. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
agents such as indomethacin and ibuprofen are commonly
considered first-line therapy. However, their mechanism of
action (cyclooxygenase inhibition with downstream inhibi-
tion of prostaglandin formation) (23)(24) also carries a sig-
nificant risk of acute renal injury, intracranial hemorrhage,
and spontaneous intestinal perforation. This challenge has
prompted investigation into alternative medical interven-
tions such as intravenous acetaminophen. (24)
Surgical ligation is another option, but is associated with
risks of vocal cord or diaphragm paresis, scoliosis, or accidental
ligation of the pulmonary artery or aorta. (25) Percutaneous
device occlusion is yet another option, but higher rates of
Figure 3. Apical echocardiogram of an atrioventricular septal defect
showing a primum atrial septal defect (top arrow), a common arterial injury and device embolization are reported in infants
atrioventricular valve, and an inlet ventricular septal defect (bottom
who weigh less than 4 kg. (25) Considering the complicated
arrow). LA¼left atrium; LV¼left ventricle; RA¼right atrium; RV¼right
ventricle. risk-benefit profile associated with these options, the decision

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shunting is determined by defect size and differences in
ventricular compliance. These lesions produce right heart
enlargement and are usually asymptomatic throughout
infancy. Post-tricuspid valve lesions include VSDs, AVSDs,
PDAs, and aortopulmonary windows, in which shunting is
determined largely by the relationship between the systemic
and pulmonary vascular resistances but also by the resistance
inherent in the interposing defect. Initially, these lesions
produce a volume burden on the lungs and left ventricle,
Figure 4. Electrocardiogram of a patient with an atrioventricular septal and can lead to progressive respiratory failure, heart failure,
defect demonstrating a superior QRS axis (predominantly negative QRS
waveform in lead I and aVF) consistent with an endocardial cushion and failure to thrive. Untreated, any of these lesions can
defect. progressively result in Eisenmenger syndrome, which is
associated with a significantly worse prognosis. Premature
to intervene in an infant with a PDA should not follow a infants and those with chronic lung disease are particularly
protocol, but instead be individualized for each patient. sensitive to left-to-right shunting lesions and should be
considered for early medical or surgical intervention.
Premature Infants
Some data suggest that the premature ductus arteriosus is
less sensitive to the vasoconstrictive properties of oxygen
and more sensitive to the vasodilatory effects of endogenous
prostaglandin E2, (26) resulting in the higher prevalence
American Board of Pediatrics
of ductal patency in this population. As with VSDs in the Neonatal-Perinatal Content
premature infant, PDAs can be especially challenging be- Specifications
cause they contribute to heart failure, bronchopulmonary • Know the anatomy and pathophysiology (including genetics) of
dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, renal insufficiency, cere- a neonate with a left-to-right shunt lesion.
bral palsy, and prolonged need for ventilator support. (19) • Recognize the clinical features of a neonate with a left-to-right
shunt lesion.
• Recognize the laboratory, imaging, and other diagnostic features
AORTOPULMONARY WINDOW of a neonate with a left-to-right shunt lesion.
• Formulate a differential diagnosis for a neonate with a left-to-
Aortopulmonary windows are a rare (0.2%–0.6% of CHD)
right shunt lesion.
systemic to pulmonary communication associated with
• Know the evaluation and medical and/or surgical management
severe pulmonary overcirculation, heart failure, and respi-
and associated potential complications or adverse effects of
ratory failure. (27) This defect occurs during embryonic such management for a neonate with a left-to-right shunt
septation of the truncus arteriosus in which the 2 vessels lesion.
have a region devoid of intervening tissue. Without any
interposing resistor such as a semilunar valve or length of
ductus arteriosus, there is no functional separation between
the systemic and pulmonary vascular beds and patients
become symptomatic at very young ages. Physical exami-
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1. A newborn with a murmur undergoes echocardiography and is noted to have an atrial NOTE: Learners can take
septal defect (ASD). It is reported that ASDs occur in approximately 1 in 1,500 children and NeoReviews quizzes and
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2. In utero and immediately after birth, the ratio of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to performance level of 60%
systemic vascular resistance (SVR) is approximately 1:1. With exposure of the pulmonary or higher on this
vascular bed to oxygen, the PVR/SVR ratio progressively decreases. When does the PVR assessment, which
nadir occur in a healthy neonate? measures achievement of
A. At 1 week of age. the educational purpose
B. Between 2 and 4 weeks of age. and/or objectives of this
C. Between 4 and 8 weeks of age. activity. If you score less
D. Between 8 weeks and 6 months of age. than 60% on the
E. Between 6 months and 12 months of age. assessment, you will be
given additional
3. A male term newborn is noted at 1 day of age to have a holosystolic murmur.
opportunities to answer
Echocardiography reveals a ventricular septal defect (VSD). VSDs are the most common
questions until an overall
form of congenital heart disease, representing 20% to 30% of isolated lesions and occur-
60% or greater score is
ring in 1.3 to 3.9 of 1,000 live births. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding
achieved.
the physiology of VSDs?
A. VSDs in the setting of a low PVR/SVR ratio (ie, <0.5:1) produce a pressure burden on This journal-based CME
both the lungs and left ventricle. activity is available
B. Pulmonary edema is the result of excess pulmonary blood flow with resultant through Dec. 31, 2020,
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C. The classic presentation of a large hemodynamically significant VSD includes recorded in the year in
tachypnea, intolerance of oral feeds, and failure to thrive. which the learner
D. If untreated, excess pulmonary blood flow can lead to progressive pulmonary completes the quiz.
arteriolar vasoconstriction and irreversible PVR elevation (Eisenmenger syndrome).
E. Due to the lack of flow acceleration and associated murmur, large defects may not
become clinically evident until an infant becomes symptomatic.
4. A female term newborn has features of trisomy 21 and part of the evaluation includes
echocardiography, which reveals an atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). AVSDs account
2018 NeoReviews now is
for 4% to 5% of congenital heart defects and 40% of cases are associated with trisomy 21.
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Which of the following electrocardiographic (ECG) findings is unique to AVSDs?
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A. As with ventricular septal defects, shunting occurs exclusively in systole.
B. The premature ductus arteriosus is less sensitive to the vasodilatory effects of
endogenous prostaglandin E2.
C. The PDA is more likely to spontaneously close in infants without respiratory distress
syndrome.
D. The PDA spontaneously closes in approximately 75% of preterm infants with a
birthweight above 1,000 g.
E. The rate of complications associated with percutaneous device occlusion of the
PDA is similar in older children and neonates weighing more than 2,500 g.

Vol. 19 No. 7 JULY 2018 e383


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Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Left-to-Right Shunt Lesions
Jamie N. Colombo and Michael A. McCulloch
NeoReviews 2018;19;e375
DOI: 10.1542/neo.19-7-e375

Updated Information & including high resolution figures, can be found at:
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http://neoreviews.aappublications.org/content/19/7/e375#BIBL
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_drug_labeling_update
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Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Left-to-Right Shunt Lesions
Jamie N. Colombo and Michael A. McCulloch
NeoReviews 2018;19;e375
DOI: 10.1542/neo.19-7-e375

The online version of this article, along with updated information and services, is
located on the World Wide Web at:
http://neoreviews.aappublications.org/content/19/7/e375

Neoreviews is the official journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. A monthly publication,
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