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METAL BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT BASICS

4 0 4 2 PAT T O N WAY
BAKERSFIELD, CA 93308-5030
PHONE 661.587.2020
FAX 661.587.2022
EMAIL SALES@LORTZ.COM
WWW.LORTZ.COM
HISTORY
Charles W. Lortz, Sr. founded the company as “Lortz & Son” in
1947. The Business Philosophy was simple, “ be the best
that we could be in the metal fabrication business and
provide excellent service to our customers.” The long-term
loyalty of our customers today attests to the soundness of
the founding philosophy
LORTZ TODAY
We have never lost sight of the founding philosophy, and today,
providing excellence in service to our customers remains a
business priority. We have continued to add machinery and expand
our facilities to improve our overall capabilities.
The emphasis on customer service and capability improvement,
coupled with the knowledge, experience and enthusiasm of our
employees, has enabled Lortz to maintain a reputation as the
preferred metal fabricator for an ever increasing number
of customers.
Our most important assets are our customers and our employees.
All Lortz employees are very aware of the importance of providing
customers with the highest quality products and service. Our
outstanding reputation with customers attests to the dedicated
effort and superior results of all of our
employees. We look forward to
the next opportunity
to serve you.

125,000 square feet


of manufacturing area;
14,000 square feet of
offices on 23 acres
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Lortz specializes in On-site Problem solving!

• Metal and Fabric Expansion Joints


• Experienced Engineers
• Experienced Welders
• Experienced Management

24 / 7 /365 Emergency Engineering


and Product Support

Serving Industry Since 1947

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LORTZ PRODUCTS

• Pressure Vessels
• Metal & Fabric Expansion Joints
• Pipe Spool Fabrication
• Process Skids
• Ducting
• Custom Metal Fabrication

PRESSURE VESSELS

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METAL EXPANSION JOINTS

FABRIC EXPANSION JOINTS

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PIPE SPOOL FABRICATION

PROCESS SKIDS

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DUCTING

CUSTOM METAL FABRICATION

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

What is a Metal Bellows........................................................... 8


How Metal Bellows Work......................................................... 9
Pressure Thrust......................................................................... 10
Metal Bellows Pressure Retaining Capability.................. 11
Bellows Pressure Stresses.................................................. 12
Metal Bellows Spring Rate / Force................................ 13
Metal Bellows Cycle Life........................................................ 14
F L E X X C H E C K Bellows Analysis..................................... 15
Bellows Design Variables .......................................................16
Bellows Design Variables....................................................... 17
Common Bellows Materials ..................................................18
What is a Metal Bellows Expansion Joint ?..................... 19
Metal Expansion Joint Components................................. 20
Component Terminology......................................................... 21
Types of Expansion Joints.............................................22... 23
Main Anchors............................................................................... 24
Typical Pipe Guide, Guide Supports.................................. 25
Intermediate Anchors, Pipe Guides and Supports........... 26
Pipe Guide Spacing ......................................................................27
Piping and Ducting System Design Considerations.......... 28
Typical Expansion Joint Applications..............................29... 33
Metal Rectangular Expansion Joints.......................................34
Fabric Expansion Joints................................................................35
Installation Instructions.......................................................36...39
Thermal Expansion................................................................40... 42
Steam Pressure.............................................................................. 43
Dimensions of Welded and seamless pipe............................44
Conversions Table...........................................................................45

7
WHAT IS A METAL BELLOWS ?
Metal bellows are produced starting with a welded tube
(seamless tube use is very rare), and mechanically or
hydraulically forming
“convolutions” in the
number and shape to
meet piping or ducting
system application
requirements Metal
bellows, as a detail
part, are rarely provided
to customers due to the “thin” material thickness which
requires specialized welding processes to attach the
bellows to pipe or flanges.

U - Shaped

S - Shaped

Toroidal

8
HOW METAL BELLOWS WORK

Movements
Metal bellows are designed to absorb thermal and / or
mechanical piping or ducting system movements while
retaining system operating pressure at the system temperature.
Bellows can absorb the following movements.

Axial Lateral Angular


Compression
& Extension

Whereas metal bellows can be designed to resist


torsional loads, metal bellows cannot tolerate torsional
movement. Metal bellows must be designed to avoid
system resonant vibration frequency (if vibration exists)
in order to prevent immediate mechanical bellows failure.
Failure to specify one or the
o th e r, o r b o th , c an resul t
in immediate bellows failure.

Torsion

9
PRESSURE THRUST
Understanding metal bellows pressure thrust
is extremely important.

Metal bellows cannot restrain longitudinal pressure loads


without integral retraining hardware such as tie rods, hinges,
gimbals or external pipe anchors. Longitudinal pressure
load on a bellows results in “pressure thrust”.
Pressure thrust force is created by the system and / or test
pressure acting on the area of the “mean” diameter of the bellows.
A pressurized, unrestrained metal bellows expansion joint in
a piping system without anchors, will elongate (extend) due
to pressure thrust which can result in immediate bellows
“squirm” and failure. Pressure thrust forces are typically
higher than all other system forces combined.

With rigid pipe installed between two flanges


- pressure thrust is restrained by the strength
of the pipe

With a thin wall convoluted bellows welded to


two flanges, the bellows reaction to pressure
thrust results in the bellows growing in length
until the bellows “squirms” and / or the
convolutions stretch out to become the
tube from which they were formed.

10
METAL BELLOWS PRESSURE
RETAINING CAPABILITY
Metal bellows are designed to retrain loads imposed by internal
and / or external system pressure and / or test pressure. Bellows
convolution geometry, numbers
of convolutions, material type
and material thickness all affect
bellows pressure retaining
capability.

Squirm

Over pressurization and / or improper guiding of an metal


bellows expansion joint can cause the bellows to “squirm”.
Squirm can lead to immediate failure of the bellows.

11
BELLOWS PRESSURE
STRESSES
Pressure applied to a bellows is limited by “Hoop Stress”
(EJMA S2) and “Bulge Stress” (EJMA S4).
Hoop Stress runs circumferentually around the bellows resulting
from pressure differential between the inside and outside
diameter of the bellows. Hoop stress is what holds a bellows
together similar to hoop rings on a barrel. Hoop stress must be
held to code allowable levels.
Bulge Stress runs longitudinal to the bellows centerline acting
on the sidewall of the bellows convolutions. Bulge Stress is
also calculated to code.

Hoop Stress EJMA S2 Bulging Stress EJMA S4

12
METAL BELLOWS SPRING
RATE / FORCE
In addition to longitudinal pressure thrust loads, movement
within a bellows requires a “force” to cause the bellows to
compress, extend or angulate. Bellows “Spring rate” is a
design consideration. To calculate the load (force) imposed
on equipment adjacent to the expansion joint.

F = K· X
F - The load (force) imposed on equipment on either
side of the bellows.

K - The bellows spring rate (expressed as pounds / inch


of movement for axial and lateral movements, and
inch / pound per degree for angular movement)

X - The anticipated or specified movement

The result is referred to as “spring force” For a bellows


expansion joint without integral longitudinal pressure
restraining hardware, one must add the bellows spring force
to the pressure thrust force to determine the total force
imposed on adjacent equipment or pipe anchors. Other loads
that must be considered are dead weight, frictional, wind, etc.

13
METAL BELLOWS CYCLE LIFE
When a bellows compresses, extends or angulates, the movement
is absorbed by deformation of the side walls of the bellows
convolutions. The stress caused by the movement is referred to
as the bellows deflection bending stress (EJMA S6). This stress
is highest at the “crest” and “root” of the bellows convolution.
Metal bellows are designed to function with a deflection bending
stress value that far exceeds the yield strength of the bellows
material. Therefore, most metal bellows expansion joints are
designed to deflate in the “plastic” range of materials and the
b e l l o w s w i l l ta k e a permanent “set” at the rated bel l ow s
movements. Bellows are rarely designed to operate in the
elastic range of materials. Bellows operating in the plastics
material range will eventually fatigue after a finite number of
movement cycles. Realistic cycle life should be specified for
bellows design. As the chart on page 16 shows, the higher the
cycle life, the “weaker” the bellows
d e s i g n p r e s s u r e e c a p a b i l i t y.
The “safest” bellows design results
from real-world cycle life, pressure,
movement and temperature date.

Deflection Stress EJMA S6

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EJMA STANDARDS - EIGHTH EDITION
Customer: Lortz Manufacturing Date: 15-Apr-08
Reference: 4/15/08 Lortz Job/Quote: 821000
Tag Number: Ø20” Approved By: WLW
SINGLE BELLOWS DESIGN INPUT
BELLOWS PROPERTIES
Bellows Material SA240-316/316L
Inside Diameter 20.000 in Bellows Length 8.750 in
Outside Diameter 22.375 in Allowable Stress 18,000 psi
Nominal Thickness 0.036 in Mod. of Elasticity 25,800,000 psi
Number of Convolutions 10 Weld Joint Efficiency 100%
Number of Plies 1
COLLAR PROPERTIES
Collar Material N/A
Thickness N/A Allowable Stress N/A
Width N/A Modulus of Elasticity N/A
Weld Joint Efficiency N/A
DESIGN PARAMETERS
Design Pressure 100 psig Design Temperature 500 °F
Design Movements (Concurrent)
Axial Compression 1.50 in Axial Extension 0.00 in
Lateral (1) 0.13 in Lateral (2) 0.000 in
Angular (1) 0.00 ° Angular (2) 0.000 °
Design Cycle Life 2,000 cycles
ANALYSIS RESULTS
STRESS ALLOWABLE
Tangent Circ. Membrane Stress due to Pressure (S1) 21,864 psi 18,000 psi
Circumferential Membrane Stress due to Pressure (S2) 9,463 psi 18,000 psi
Meridional Membrane Stress due to Pressure (S3) 1,645 psi N/A
Meridional Bending Stress due to Pressure (S4) 39,849 psi 47,688 psi
Meridional Membrane Stress due to Deflection (S5) 1,955 psi N/A
Meridional Bending Stress due to Deflection (S6) 211,386 psi N/A
Total Stress Range (St) 242,387 psi N/A
Calculated Cycle Life EJMA (Nc) 2,405 cycles 2,000 cycles
Axial Spring Rate 1,100 lbs/in
Lateral Spring Rate 9,709 lbs/in
Angular Spring Rate 1,081 in-lb/deg
Bellows Effective Area 353.77 in^2
Bellows Maximum Design Pressure based upon Squirm 148 psi

15
BELL OWS DESIGN VARIABLES & THEIR
RELATIONSHIP TO BELLOWS DYNAMICS

g
ng

es
te

re
Bellows

l
la

S4
Ra

S2 ss
r
st

te pri

te rin

fe

su uc
ia

fle
g
a

te d
la

gu d

MA tr
Cy re k.
R al

R
ru re

S
e

l
e ir
Li cle
Design

MAess on
es l B
i xial
Ra r S

Ra l Sp

e
Axated

De S4 s

MAStre
o
r

t
La ate

J
te
gu

An ate

EJ ge S
Pr

J
Pr qu
Th ssu

Bu
Pr rna

E Str cti

E p
Ho
Sp A
La

Ex ssu m
An
Variables
Thicker Material - (1) - (2) + (1) + (3) + - - - - + (3) + (3) + (3) S

Thinner Material + (1) + (2) - (1) - (3) - + + + + - (3) - (3) - (3) S

Higher Convolution - (1) + (2) - (2) - (3) + + + + + - (3) - (3) - (3) +

Lower Convolution + (1) - (2) + (2) + (3) - - - - - + (3) + (3) + (3) -

Smaller Pitch - + - - + + + + + - - - S

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Larger Pitch + - + + - - - - - + + + S

More Plies - - S + + S S S S + + + S

Fewer Plies + + S - - S S S S - - - S

Larger Diameter + (1) S S + - S S - - + + + +

Smaller Diameter - (1) S S - + S S + + - - - -

More Convolutions S S - - S + + + + - - - S

Fewer Convolutions S S + + S - - - - + + + S

LEGEND + = Increase: - = Decrease: S = Same : (1) = No Affect: (2) Value Squared: (3) Value Cubed
BELLOW DESIGN VARIABLES

Refer to the chart on page 16. This chart shows the complexity
of bellows design with the relationship of bellows geometry,
material thickness, pressure and movement. Optimum bellows
design requires actual pressure and temperature to be
specified along with actual calculated thermal movement
to be absorbed by the bellows. Overstating system data will
result in a less safe bellows design.

Most system designers think that specifying an extended


bellows cycle life increases system reliability, whereas a
longer than necessary specified bellows cycle life in most
cases has the opposite result. As the chart on page 16
shows, the relationship between cycle life and pressure
stability is a “balancing act”. The longer the cycle life, the
lower the pressure retraining capability of a given bellows
design. The Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers
Association (EJMA) covers the subject of bellows
cycle life very well and Lortz recommends that
s y s t e m designers refer to the latest edition of the
EJMA Standards.

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COMMON BELLOWS
MATERIALS
Bellows material selection is determined through knowledge
of the system process and media. Responsibility for the
selection of bellows materials is that of the system process
designer or end user.

Material Designation
ASME ASTM
SA 304 Stainless A 304 Stainless
SA 304L Stainless A 304L Stainless
SA 316 Stainless A 316 Stainless
SA 316L Stainless A 316L Stainless
SA 317 Stainless A 317 Stainless
SA 317L Stainless A 317L Stainless
SA 321 Stainless A 321 Stainless
SA 904L Stainless A 904L Stainless
SB 463 Alloy 200 B 463 Alloy 200
SB 162 Alloy 200 B 162 Alloy 200
SB 162 Alloy 201 B 162 Alloy 201
SB 167 Alloy 400 B 167 Alloy 400
SB 168 Alloy 600 B 168 Alloy 600
SB 443 Alloy 625 LCF B 443 Alloy 625 LCF
SB 409 Alloy 800 B 409 Alloy 800
SB 409 Alloy 800 H B 409 Alloy 800 H
SB 424 Alloy 825 B 424 Alloy 825

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WHAT IS A METAL BELLOWS
EXPANSION JOINT ?
A convoluted metal bellows is one component of a metal
bellows expansion joint. When the metal bellows is welded
to pipe, flanges or other parts, the welded part
becomes a metal bellows expansion joint.

There are many “types” of metal bellows expansion joints


which are shown in pages that follow

Vanstone flange / weld end expansion joint

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METAL EXPANSION JOINT
COMPONENTS

T BAR / ROOT RING


TUBULAR ROOT RING BELLOWS
ROUND BAR ROOT RING
LOWS TANGENT REINFORCING RING
COVER
TIE ROD LUG

FLANGE

COVER CLIP
LINER

WELD END

TIE ROD RING

TIE ROD
LIMIT ROD
CONTROL ROD

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COMPONENT TERMINOLOGY
• Bellows – A metal tube with concentric convolutions
• Liner / Telescoping Liner – installed to prevent media flow
on bellows convolution, prevent erosion, flow induced
vibration and minimize solids buildup in convolutions.
• Cover – Installed to prevent damage to convolutions or
for external flow; to act as a liner above. Can be installed
with cover clips or solid cover ring.
• Flange – normally standard ANSI flanges.
• Van Stone Flange - Bellows is formed around flange face
and trimmed. Result is a “floating flange” with bellows
material protecting flange I.D.. Required gasket.
• Weld End – normally standard pipe.
• Tie Rod Lug – A lug to hold tie rod welded to flange or
weld end.
• Tie Rod Ring – A solid ring welded to weld end to hold tie rod.
• Tie Rod – Rods installed to restrain pressure thrust.
Lateral movement only.
• Control Rods – Control rods are not designed to restrain
bellows pressure thrust. Control rods are used to distribute
the applied movement between two bellows or a universal
expansion joint.
• Collar – Collars are used to reinforce the bellows
tangent (cuff).
• Root Rings – Root rings are used to reinforce bellows to
achieve higher internal pressures.

21
TYPES OF EXPANSION JOINTS

Absorbs all movements in a given


piping section. Requires guides
and anchors
Single
A bsorbs l ateral movement, i f
“control Rod’; absorbs axial and
lateral movement. Designed to
restrain full pressure thrust in the
event of anchor failure. Requires
Tied guides and anchors.
Absorbs large amounts of lateral
movement along with specified
axial movement. Requires guides
and anchors.
Universal
Large amounts of lateral movement,
and w i thi n the ti e rods axi al
movement. Designed to retrain
bellows pressure thrust.

Tied Universal

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TYPES OF EXPANSION JOINTS

Designed to absorb angular


movement in one plane only.
Hinged expansion joints are
normally used in sets of
2 or 3 to function properly
Hinge
Designed to absorb angular
movement in any plane.
Similar to a Universal joint
on an automobile

Gimbal
Designed to absorb axial and
lateral movement when a
change of direction occurs in
a piping system. Designed
to restrain bellows
pressure thrust.
Pressure Balanced
Externally pressurized expan-
sion joints can absorb long
axial movements and the
bellows cover is “pipe”

XXpress

23
MAIN ANCHORS

Main anchors must be designed to withstand all of the forces


and movements imposed on them in the piping system section
in which they are installed. This includes bellows pressure
thrust, media flow, bellows spring force and frictional forces
of pipe guides, pipe supports, and directional anchors. The
weight of the pipe, including contents and forces and / or
movements resulting from wind loads may also have to be
considered in the main anchor design.

In systems containing expansion joints, main anchors are


installed at any of the following locations
(A) At a change of direction
of flow:

(B) Between Two expansion jo i nts of


di fferent si zes installed in the same
straight run:

(C) At the entrance of a side branch


containing an expansion joint into the
main line:

(D) Where a shut-off or pressure


reducing valve is installed in a pipe run
between two expansion joints:

(E) At a blind end of pipe

24
TYPICAL PIPE GUIDE

Standard Pipe
Alignment Guide

Tee Guide

Strap Guide

PIPE SUPPORTS
Pipe rings, U-bolts, roller supports and spring hangars are
typical pipe supports devices.
A properly designed pipe support permits free movement
of piping while supporting the dead and live weight of piping,
valves and other components of a piping system.

Proper guiding and supporting of piping systems


containing expansion joints is critical.

25
INTERMEDIATE ANCHORS

Intermediate anchors are not designed to withstand bellows


pressure thrust force. When unrestrained metal bellows
expansion joints are installed in a pipe section, intermediate
anchors must be designed to withstand all of the non-pressure
forces acting upon it which consists of bellows spring force
and other frictional forces such as pipe guides.

PIPE GUIDES AND SUPPORTS

1st Guide 2nd Guide All Other Guides

Piping or ducting systems in which metal bellows expansion


joints are installed must be properly guided and supported in
order for the expansion joint to function properly. It is generally
recommended that the expansion joint be installed near a pipe
anchor and that the first guide be installed a maximum of four
(4) pipe diameters away from the expansion joint. The distance
between the first and second guide should not be greater than
14 pipe diameters. Refer to the recommended pipe guide
spacing chart on the next page.

26
PIPE GUIDE SPACING CHART
The first guide must be located a maximum of 4 pipe
diameters from the end of the bellows; the second
guide a maximum of 14 pipe diameters. Chart is for all
bellows with inside diameter the same as piping.

Recommended Maximum Spacing of Intermediate Pipe Guides


for Applications Involving Axial Movements
400.00

350.00
Intermediate Guide Spacing [ft]

300.00

250.00

200.00

150.00

100.00

50.00

0.00
25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400
Pressure [psi]

This chart is general reference only. Legend


Piping ducting systems should be 4" 8" 12" 16"
designed by qualified engineers and
consider all system requirements 20" 24" 30" 36"

48" 60" 72"

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PIPING AND DUCTING
SYSTEM DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
When the use of expansion joints have been determined
necessary due to the thermal growth in a piping or duct
system, it is very important to attempt to keep the system as
simple as possible.
The first step is to analyze the system for the location of main
anchors. A complex system can be simplified by dividing the
system into several sections isolated with main anchors.
Once divided, the thermal growth pattern in each section can
be analyzed and the simplest expansion joint can be designed
to accommodate the required mountings.

Straight Run L - Bend


Z - Bend

Pump

Tank

Tank

Typical Piping Layout

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TYPICAL EXPANSION
JOINT APPLICATIONS
Axial Movement Only

Single Expansion Joint

Universal Expansion Joint with


Integral Intermediate Anchors

Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joint

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TYPICAL EXPANSION
JOINT APPLICATIONS

Combined Movements

Single Expansion Joint


Combined Axial and Lateral Movement

Single - Tied Application For


Lateral and Axial Movement

30
TYPICAL EXPANSION
JOINT APPLICATIONS

Combined Movements - Tied Universal

Two - Plane Tied


Universal Application

Three - Plane Tied


Universal Application

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TYPICAL EXPANSION
JOINT APPLICATIONS

Angular Movements - Hinge

Two - Hinge Application Three - Hinge Application

32
TYPICAL EXPANSION
JOINT APPLICATIONS

Angular Movements - Gimbal

Two - Gimbal Application Three - Gimbal Application

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METAL RECTANGULAR
EXPANSION JOINTS

Single Miter Corner

LORTZ can fabricate metal


rectangular expansion joints Double Miter Corner
from 2’ to any larger size.
Straight sections can be
formed in 20 foot lengths
without additional welds.

Rounded Corner

34
FABRIC EXPANSION JOINTS
Lortz Manufacturing has the experience and manufacturing
capability to provide complete framed fabric expansion
joints. Our designs are in accordance with recognized
standards suchas those published by the Fluid Sealing
Association (FSA). Lortz offers multiple frame styles
and fabric materials specifically engineered for each
application requirement. Factors such as temperature,
media, movements, orientation and pressure affect the
selection process. The illustration below shows a typical
framed expansion joint system.

4 6 7 1 2 3 LEGEND
1: Fabric Belt Material
2: Encased Accumulation
5 Pillow with Attachment Tabs
3: Outboard Standoff Frame
4: Radius Corners
5: Telescoping Liners
6: Belt Attachment Bolting, 1/2”
Diameter on 4” Centers
7: Clamping Bars

LEGEND
A: Outer Cover Fabric G
A
B
C
B: Fiberglass Insulation E
D
F Option A
C: Teflon Gas Seal Membrane
D: Fiberglass Insulation
E: Woven Fiberglass Cloth
A
F: 316 S/S Wire Mesh C
B
D
E
G: Edge Seal F Option B

35
INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS
Receiving Inspection
Visual inspection upon receipt should be performed. The container should
be opened and if the contents have been damaged, they should be
photographed along with the container. Large expansion joint assemblies
may be shipped without a pallet or container of any kind. Under all
circumstances, any shipping damage must be immediately reported to
Cu s t o me r Se rv ic e a t L ortz Manufacturing, 661-587-2020 and the
photographs emailed to customerservice@lortz.com. Lortz will analyze
the damage and provide further instructions.
Storage
Expansion Joints should be stored in a clean and dry environment.
However, as a minimum, expansion joints must be stored so that water
does not penetrate any closed container. Expansion joints shipped on
pallets or shipped without a pallet may be stored out of doors, however
it is extremely important that flow liners be in a downward position.
Expansion joints with overlapping flow liners, regardless of liner weep
holes, should be covered to prevent water from accumulating in the liner
and potentially clogging the weep holes.
Shipping Bars and / or Internal Shipping Restraints
Shipping bars and / or Internal shipping restraints will be painted yellow
and marked “Remove after Installation”.
• DO NOT REMOVE THE SHIPPING BARS OR INTERNAL RESTRAINTS
UNTIL THE EXPANSION JOINT HAS BEEN COMPLETELY INSTALLED.
• Do not use the expansion joint to correct for installation misalignment.
• Do not torque the expansion joint to correct for bolt hole misalignment.
• “Tie Rods”, “Limit Rods” or “Control Rods” are NOT shipping bars,
do not remove nuts or rods.
• Be very careful removing shipping bars so as not to cause weld spatter
or arc strikes or grinding damage to the bellows element. Position a
chloride free fire blanket as required to prevent bellows damage.
All expansion joints are shipped to specified “Pre-set” installation
dimensions and it is important that the expansion joints are installed
accordingly. The “Pre-set” can be Axial (compression or extension), or
Lateral, or Angular, or any combination thereof. Expansion Joints will be
shipped “Pre-set” in accordance with approved drawing requirements. If
the shipping bars are removed prior to completion of installation by bolting
or welding, the expansion joint may “move to a neutral position” and will
not function as designed and can cause premature or immediate
expansion joint failure.
36
INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS (continued)
Installation
Prio r t o in s t a llin g the expansion joint, the opening into which the
expansion joint will be installed must be inspected to verify that the
opening is in accordance with design tolerances. As stated above, the
expansion joint is not designed to accommodate installation misalignment,
u n le s s c le a rly s p e cified as a design requirement. A ll pipe guides
and anchoring must be in accordance with the guidelines of the Standards
of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association for expansion joints to
function properly in a piping or ducting system.
• DO NOT USE THE SHIPPING BARS TO LIFT THE EXPANSION JOINT.
• FOR EXPANSION JOINTS WEIGHING LESS THAN 500 POUNDS WITH
OUT LIFTING LUGS, USE THE MOST APPROPRIATE HANDLING
METHOD TO MOVE INTO INSTALLATION POSITION.
• EXPANSION JOINTS WEIGHING MORE THAN 500 POUNDS WILL BE
FURNISHED WITH LIFTING LUGS AND REQUIRE THE USE OF A
SPREADER BAR TO LIFT TO PREVENT DAMAGE TO THE EXPANSION
JOINT WHEN STANDARD LIFTING PRACTICES ARE EMPLOYED.
SPREADER BARS MUST BE USED SO THAT THE LIFTING FORCES
ARE “STRAIGHT UP” FROM THE LIFTING LUGS. IT IS SUGGESTED
THAT LIFTING OF LARGE EXPANSION JOINTS BE DOCUMENTED
BY PHOTOGRAPHS.
• NEVER USE A CHAIN OR CABLE OVER THE BELLOWS ELEMENT
OR COVER, THEY ARE NOT DESIGNED TO SUPPORT LIFTING AND
THE BELLOWS CAN BE SEVERELY DAMAGED.
Weld End Expansion Joints
1. Make certain that the attachment edges of the piping or ducting are
smooth, clean and parallel.
2. Be cautious of any adjacent objects with sharp edges or protrusions
so that when positioning the expansion joint the thin gage bellows
will not be damaged.
3. When the expansion joint has a liner, make certain that the flow arrow
of the expansion joint is in the system flow direction.
4. Prior to welding, protect the expansion joint with a chloride free fire
blanket to prevent weld spatter or arc strikes on the bellows surface.
5. Remove the shipping bars and / or internal restraints prior to any
testing or operation of the system.

37
INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS (continued)
Fl anged Expansi on J o i n t s
1 . M a k e c e rt a in t h a t the pipe or duct flange opening is in
a c c o rd a n c e wit h specified dimensions.
2 . Wh e n t h e e x p a n s ion joint has a liner, make certain that
t h e f lo w a rro w o f the expansion joint is in the system
f lo w d ire c t io n .
3 . Pro p e rly in s t a ll t he required gaskets and bolt the expansion
jo in t in p la c e b e ing careful not to cause any damage to the
b e llo ws e le me n t .
4 . Ag a in , d o n o t in t roduce torque into the expansion joint by
t ry in g t o ro t a t e t he expansion joint to accommodate an
imp ro p e rly p o s it ioned flange on the pipe or duct end.
5 . M a n y f la n g e d e x pansion joints are designed with a “floating
f la n g e ” ( Va n s t o n e) so that the final flange to be bolted can
b e ro t a t e d .
6 . Re mo v e t h e s h ip ping bars and / or internal restraints prior
t o a n y t e s t in g o r operation of the system.
Ti ed Rods, Cont r ol R o d s a n d L i mi t R o d s
1 . If t h e e x p a n s io n j oint is designed with Tie R ods to restrain
p re s s u re t h ru s t , t he tie rods will be set to the proper
d ime n s io n s p rio r to shipment. D o not adjust the tie rods.
2 . If t h e e x p a n s io n j oint is shipped with “C ontrol R ods”,
t o c o n t ro l t h e a mount of movement between two expansion
jo in t s , f in a l a d ju stment of the rod nuts may be required
d u rin g in s t a lla t io n of the expansion joints. R efer to the
e x p a n s io n jo in t d rawings.
3 . If t h e e x p a n s io n j oint is designed with “Limit R ods”, to limit
t h e a mo u n t o f movement absorbed by the expansion joint,
t h e limit ro d s will be finally adjusted prior to shipment. D o
n o t a d ju s t t h e limit rods. Limit R ods are not designed to
re s t ra in e x p a n s io n joint pressure thrust, during
n o rma l o p e ra t io n .

38
INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS (continued)
Hin g e Ex p a n s io n Joints
1 . CAUTION - Proper orientation of hinged expansion joints in pipe
runs is critical. Refer to piping schematic prior to installation.

Proper lifting technic for expansion joints

Shipping bars are not to removed until


expansion joints are installed

39
Thermal Expansion of Pipe
in Inches for 100 Feet
Temperature Carbon 5CR-Mo Austenitic Alloy’s
Degrees F Steel through Stainless 600
C-Mo 9Cr-Mo Steel 625
3Cr-Mo Steel 18Cr-8NI
-325 -2.37 -2.22 -3.85 -
-300 -2.24 -2.10 -3.63 -
-275 -2.11 -1.98 -3.41 -
-250 -1.98 -1.86 -3.19 -2.30
-225 -1.85 -1.74 -2.96 -2.17
-200 -1.71 -1.62 -2.73 -2.04
-175 -1.58 -1.50 -2.50 -1.87
-150 -1.45 -1.37 -2.27 -1.70
-125 -1.30 -1.23 -2.01 -1.54
-100 -1.15 -1.08 -1.75 -1.37
-75 -1.00 -0.94 -1.50 -1.17
-50 -0.84 -0.79 -1.24 -0.97
-25 -0.68 -0.63 -0.98 -0.76
0 -0.49 -0.46 -0.72 -0.56
25 -0.32 -0.30 -0.46 -0.36
50 -0.14 -0.13 -0.21 -0.16
75 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
100 0.23 0.22 0.34 0.26
125 0.42 0.40 0.62 0.48
150 0.61 0.58 0.90 0.70
175 0.80 0.76 1.18 0.92
200 0.99 0.94 1.46 1.15
225 1.21 1.13 1.75 1.38
250 1.40 1.33 2.03 1.61
275 1.61 1.52 2.32 1.85
300 1.82 1.71 2.61 2.09

40
Thermal Expansion of Pipe
in Inches for 100 Feet
Temperature Carbon 5CR-Mo Austenitic Alloy’s
Degrees F Steel through Stainless 600
C-Mo 9Cr-Mo Steel 625
3Cr-Mo Steel 18Cr-8NI
325 2.04 1.90 2.90 2.32
350 2.26 2.10 3.20 2.56
375 2.48 2.30 3.50 2.80
400 2.70 2.50 3.80 3.05
425 2.93 2.72 4.10 3.29
450 3.16 2.93 4.41 3.53
475 3.39 3.14 4.71 3.78
500 3.62 3.35 5.01 4.02
525 3.86 3.58 5.31 4.27
550 4.11 3.80 5.62 4.52
575 4.35 4.02 5.93 4.77
600 4.60 4.24 6.24 5.02
625 4.86 4.47 6.55 5.27
650 5.11 4.69 6.87 5.53
675 5.37 4.92 7.18 5.79
700 5.63 5.14 7.50 6.05
725 5.90 5.38 7.82 6.31
750 6.16 5.62 8.15 6.57
775 6.43 5.86 8.47 6.84
800 6.70 6.10 8.80 7.10
825 6.97 6.34 9.13 7.38
850 7.25 6.59 9.46 7.67
875 7.53 6.83 9.79 7.95
900 7.81 7.07 10.12 8.23
925 8.08 7.31 10.46 8/.52
950 8.35 7.56 10.80 8.80
975 8.62 7.81 11.14 9.09
1000 8.89 8.06 11.46 9.37
1025 9.17 8.30 11.82 9.66

41
Thermal Expansion of Pipe
in Inches for 100 Feet
Temperature Carbon 5CR-Mo Austenitic Alloy’s
Degrees F Steel through Stainless 600
C-Mo 9Cr-Mo Steel 625
3Cr-Mo Steel 18Cr-8NI
1050 9.46 8.55 12.16 9.94
1075 9.75 8.80 12.50 10.23
1100 10.04 9.05 12.84 10.51
1125 10.31 9.28 13.18 10.80
1150 10.57 9.52 13.52 11.09
1175 10.83 9.76 13.86 11.37
1200 11.10 10.00 14.20 11.66
1225 11.38 10.26 14.54 11.98
1250 11.66 10.53 14.88 12.29
1275 11.94 10.79 15.22 12.61
1300 12.22 11.06 15.56 12.93
1325 12.50 11.30 15.90 13.25
1350 12.78 11.55 16.24 13.56
1375 13.06 11.80 16.48 13.88
1400 13.34 12.05 16.92 14.250
1425 - - 17.30 14.51
1450 - - 17.69 14.83
1475 - - 18.08 15.14
1500 - - 18.47 15.45
1525 - - - 15.77
1550 - - - 16.08
1575 - - - 16.40
1600 - - - 16.71

42
Stream Pressure Table
Temperature Saturated Steam Temperature Saturated Steam
(°F) (°C) (psig) (barg) (°F) (°C) (psig) (barg)
212 100 0.0 0.000 460 238 451.3 31.124
220 104 2.5 0.172 480 249 550.3 37.952
240 116 10.3 0.710 500 260 664.3 45.814
260 127 20.7 1.428 520 271 795.3 54.848
280 138 34.5 2.379 540 282 945.3 65.193
300 149 52.3 3.607 560 293 1115.0 76.897
320 160 74.9 5.166 580 304 1308.0 90.217
340 171 103.3 7.124 600 316 1525.0 105.172
360 182 138.3 9.538 620 327 1768.0 121.931
380 193 180.9 12.476 640 338 2041.0 140.759
400 204 232.4 16.028 660 349 2346.0 161.793
420 216 293.7 20.255 680 360 2705.0 186.552
440 227 366.1 25.248 700 371 3080.0 212.414

Low - Pressure Conversions


1 in. Mercury = 0.4912 psig 1 kPa = 0.145 psig
1 in. Mercury = 13.60 in. of water 1 kPa = 0.01 bar
1 in. Mercury = 0.03386 bar 1 bar 10 N/sq. mm
1 in. Mercury = 3.3864 kPa 1 psig 0.06895 bar

43
DIMENSIONS OF WELDED
AND SEAMLESS PIPE
NOMINAL OUTSIDE SCH SCH 20 SCH STANDARD SCH SCH EXTRA SCH SCH SCH SCH SCH DBL EX
PIPE SIZE DIAMETER 10 30 WEIGHT 40 60 STRONG 80 100 120 140 160 STRONG

1/8 .405 WALL .068 .068 .095 .095


I.D. .269 .269 .215 .215
1/4 .540 WALL .088 .088 .126 .126
I.D. .364 .364 .423 .423
3/8 .675 WALL .091 .126 .126
I.D. .493 .423 .423
1/2 .840 WALL .109 .109 .147 .147 .187 .294
I.D. .622 .622 .546 .546 .466 .252
3/4 1.050 WALL .083 .113 .113 .154 .154 .218 .308
I.D. .884 .824 .824 .742 .742 .614 .434
1 1.315 WALL .109 .133 .133 .179 .179 .250 .358

44
I.D. 1.097 1.049 1.049 .957 .957 .815 .599
1 1/4 1.660 WALL .109 .140 .140 .191 .191 .250 .382
I.D. 1.442 1.380 1.380 1.278 1.278 1.160 .896
1 1/2 1.900 WALL .109 .145 .145 .200 .200 .281 .400
I.D. 1.682 1.610 1.610 1.500 1.500 1.338 1.100
2 2.375 WALL .109 .154 .154 .218 .218 .343 .436
I.D. 2.157 2.067 2.067 1.939 1.939 1.689 1.503
2 1/2 2.875 WALL .120 .203 .203 .276 .276 .375 .552
I.D. 2.635 2.469 2.469 2.323 2.323 2.125 1.771
3 3.500 WALL .120 .216 .216 .300 .300 .438 .600
I.D. 3.260 3.068 3.068 2.900 2.900 2.624 2.300
3 1/2 4.000 WALL .120 .226 .226 .318 .318 .636
I.D. 3.760 3.548 3.548 3.364 3.364 2.728
4 4.500 WALL .120 .237 .237 .337 .337 .438 .531 .674
I.D. 4.260 4.026 4.026 3.826 3.826 3.624 3.438 3.152
NOMINAL OUTSIDE SCH SCH 20 SCH STANDARD SCH SCH EXTRA SCH SCH SCH SCH SCH DBL EX
PIPE SIZE DIAMETER 10 30 WEIGHT 40 60 STRONG 80 100 120 140 160 STRONG

5 5.563 WALL .134 .258 .258 .375 .375 .500 .625 .750
I.D. 5.295 5.047 5.047 4.813 4.813 4.563 4.313 4.063
6 6.625 WALL .134 .280 .280 .432 .432 .562 .718 .864
I.D. 6.357 6.065 6.065 5.761 5.761 5.501 5.189 4.897
8 8.625 WALL .149 .250 .277 .322 .322 .406 .500 .500 .593 .718 .812 .906 .875
I.D. 8.329 8.125 8.071 7.981 7.961 7.813 7.625 7.625 7.439 7.189 7.001 6.813 6.875
10 10.750 WALL .165 .250 .307 .365 .365 .500 .500 .593 .718 .843 1.000 1.125
I.D. 10.420 10.250 10.136 10.020 10.020 9.750 9.750 9.564 9.314 9.064 8.750 8.500
12 12.750 WALL .180 .250 .330 .375 .406 .562 .500 .687 .843 1.000 1.125 1.312
I.D. 12.390 12.250 12.090 12.000 11.938 11.626 11.750 11.376 11.064 10.750 10.500 10.126
14 14.000 WALL .250 .312 .375 .375 .438 .593 .500 .750 .937 1.093 1.25 1.406

45
I.D. 13.500 13.375 13.250 13.250 13.124 12.814 13.000 12.500 12.126 11.814 11.500 11.188
16 16.000 WALL .250 .312 .375 .375 .500 .656 .500 .843 1.031 1.218 1.438 1.593
I.D. 15.500 15.375 15.250 15.250 15.000 14.688 15.000 14.314 13.938 13.564 13.124 12.814
18 18.000 WALL .250 .312 .438 .375 .562 .750 .500 .937 1.156 1.375 1.562 1.781
I.D. 17.500 15.375 17.124 17.250 16.876 16.500 17.000 16.126 15.688 15.250 14.876 14.438
20 20.000 WALL .250 .375 .500 .375 .593 .812 .500 1.031 1.281 1.500 1.750 1.968
I.D. 19.500 19.250 19.000 19.250 18.814 18.376 19.000 17.938 17.438 17.000 16.500 16.064
24 24.000 WALL .250 .375 .562 .375 .687 .968 .500 1.218 1.531 1.812 2.062 2.343
I.D. 23.500 23.250 22.875 23.250 22.626 22.064 23.000 21.564 20.938 20.376 19.876 19.314
30 30.000 WALL .312 .500 .625 .375+ .500 +
I.D. 29.376 29.000 28.750 29.250+ 29.000 +
CONVERSIONS BETWEEN
U.S. CUSTOMARY & SI UNITS
U.S Times
Equals
Quantity Customary Conversion
SI Unit
Unit Factor
ft² 0.0929 m²
Area
in.² 645 mm²
Density
slug / ft³ 515 kg/m³
(mass)
Density lb. / ft³ 157 N / m³
(weight) lb. / in.³ 271 kN / m³
lb 4.45 N
Force
k 4.45 kN
lb / ft 14.6 N/m
Force Per lb / in. 175 N/m
Unit Length k / ft 14.6 kN / m
k / in. 175 kN / m
ft 0.305 m
Length in. 25.4 mm
mi 1.61 km
Mass lb - s² / ft 14.6 kg
psf 47.9 Pa
Pressure psi 6890 Pa
(stress) ksf 47.9 kPa
ksi 6.89 MPa
0.305 m/s
Velocity ft / s 0.0254 m/s
(linear) in. / s 0.447 m/s
1.61 km / h
ft³ 0.0283 m³
in.³ 16.4 x 10-6 m³
Volume in.³ 16.4 cm³
gal. 3.79 L
gal. 0.00379 m³
To convert from SI to USCS units, divide by the conversion factor
5 9
Temperature T º(C) = ─ [ T (ºF) - 32] T (ºF) = ─ T (ºC) + 32
9 5
Conversion
Formulas T (K) = T (ºC) + 273.15 T (R) = T (ºF) + 459.67

46
4042 Patton Way Bakersfield, CA 93308-5030
Phone 661.587.2020 Fax 661.587.2022
Email sales@lortz.com www.lortz.com
METAL EXPANSION JOINT DATA SHEET
Customer x Date x Page

Address: x Phone x Fax x

Design Codes and Standards x Contact x Email Address x


EJMA
ASME Section VIII EJ# or Tag #
ANSI B31.3 Quantity Required x
Nominal Diameter (Inches) x
STYLE – END DESIGNATION
W - Weld End Mat’l / Spec. x
END
F - Flange Rating / Mat’l Spec.
FITTINGS
V - Vanstone Flange
Design (PSIG) x
PRESSURE
Operating (PSIG)
SU-WW INT. / EXT
Test (PSIG)
Design (qF) x
TEMPERATURE
Operating (qF)
INT. / EXT.
Installation (qF)
Media Internal / External x
FLOW MEDIA Flow Velocity (Ft / Sec)
SU-VF Flow Direction

M
Axial Extension (in) x
O Axial Compression (in) x
V
E
DESIGN Lateral (in) x
M Angular (deg) x
E
N Number of Cycles x
SH=HINGE
T Axial Extension (in)
S
Axial Compression (in)
& OPERATING Lateral (in)
C Angular (deg)
Y
C Number of Cycles
L Axial Extension (in)
E
Axial Compression (in)
SG=GIMBAL L INSTALLATION Lateral (in)
I
F Angular (deg)
E
Number of Cycles
Axial (lb / in)
SPRING
Lateral (lb / in)
RATES
Angular (lb / deg)
Overall Length (in)
DIMENSIONS Maximum O.D. (in)
ST=TIE ROD Minimum I.D. (in)
Bellows x
MATERIAL Liner x
SPECIFICATION Cover x
Tie Rods
Bellows Long Seam Weld
QUALITY Bellows Attachment Weld
UT-WW
ASSURANCE Piping Spec - NDE
TIED UNIVERSAL
ASME U-2 Forms
Copyright Lortz Manufacturing Company 2008 x = Mandatory Information

4042 Patton Way Bakersfield, CA 93308-5030
Phone 661.587.2020 Fax 661.587.2022
Email sales@lortz.com www.lortz.com

Notes
4 0 4 2 PAT T O N WAY
BAKERSFIELD, CA 93308-5030
PHONE 661.587.2020
FAX 661.587.2022
EMAIL SALES@LORTZ.COM
WWW.LORTZ.COM
4042 PATTON WAY BAKERSFIELD, CA 93308-5030
PHONE 661.587.2020 | FAX 661.587.2022
EMAIL SALES@LORTZ.COM
WWW.LORTZ.COM