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J. While there is very little that can be presented in a work of this kind that is really new. his esteemed professor in Semitic studies in general. in connection with his teaching program. The textual basis of this grammar is Kittel's Biblia Hebraica. The basic structure of this grammar is that of the "Baltimore school. For many years several excellent and comprehensive grammars of Biblical Aramaic written in the German language have been in existence. The recent appearance of a good Aramaic grammar written in the English language has not been a deterrent to the completion of the project.his teacher of Biblical Aramaic. Whenever some grammatical term or usage common to both languages is usually covered thoroughly in a study of Hebrew grammar. In this connection. their full value has not been readily accessible to those seminary students who are more facile in the classical languages than in the modern languages. for the two works are quite dilTerent in approach.. the essential elements of Biblical Aramaic. the author freely acknowledges his indebtedness.. the student is introduced to actual Biblical passages in the exercises. the methodology of approach has been simplified to better fulfill the purpose of meeting the needs of the seminary classroom. however. modified t o some extent by the . first. the author has been preparing this grammar in the English language to help meet the needs of such students. S.PREFACE The purpose of this grammar is to cover adequately. to Professor Joseph Fitzmyer." However. In addition. and secondly. t o William Foxwell Albright. and frequent comparisons are drawn between the two languages. the eighth edition (based on the third edition). It is almost an invariable rule that seminary students learn Hebrew before they begin a study of Biblical Aramaic. However. For the last few years. The vocabulary is progressively built u p by the use of simple exercises. To reach this goal the grammar is concentrated on Biblical Aramaic. yet as concisely as possible. This grammar was written on the basis of that assumption. As soon as possible. The goal has been to meet the needs of the typical theological seminary student. the general framework of comparative Semitic studies has been utilized where it could aid in the understanding of Biblical Aramaic. yet the methodology of approach can vary greatly in different grammars. only touching lightly the vast areas of other Aramaic languages and dialects. only a short resume or explanation is given in this grammar for the sake of brevity.

It is an honor to be the first in a series entitled Andrews University Monographs. The second printing has presented an opportunity for correcting the misprints present in the original work as well as for making a few minor changes to clarify the text. this second edition has given opportunity for numerous minor corrections and a few major ones to be made. Running for their helpful suggestions and painstaking care in reading the proofs. However. In this connection the author wishes to express his deepest appreciation to his colleagues Dr. The demand for the first edition of this grammar was greater than either the author or the Andrews University Publications Committee anticipated and so the supply has been exhausted several years before we expected. The examples illustrating the grammar have been chosen with special care to fall within the scope of the student's progressive understanding. 1971 . 1962. The first limited printing of this grammar was exhausted much more quickly than anticipated. Attention is focused on those forms which actually occur in Biblical Aramaic. 1965. H o w could the books written partially in Aramaic occupy quite as high a spot in the canon as others written entirely in the " s a c r e d " language.VI vocabulary available at t h a t stage of study. It is our sincere hope that these improvements will help this grammar to fulfill more adequately its original purpose. Horn and D r . although the author suspects the possibility (difficult to prove) that the earliest Masoretes or pre-Masoretic scribes were not quite as careful with the Aramaic portions of the Bible as with the Hebrew portions. Leona G. It seemed advisable to issue the second printing in regular book form with cloth covers rather than to use once again an electro-photostatic process for printing and cardboard covers for binding. Special thanks are due to the administration and board of Andrews University for their willingness to underwrite the additional outlay that this second printing entails. December. A continuing demand at the present level can be met by the second edition for many years to come. Hebrew? December. Siegfried H. November.

5. 4. . 6. 6. LESSON I.Vll TABLE O F C O N T E N T S PREFACE TABLE O F C O N T E N T S I N T R O D U C T I O N T O BIBLICAL A R A M A I C 1. N O U N S A N D ADJECTIVES 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 Gender Number State Adjectival Modification The Construct Chain Uses of •? The Direct Object and n . 9. 7. 4. 5. . 1. 5 5 6 7 8 8 The Development of Proto-Semitic Consonants Selected Phonetic Rules for Vowels Selected Phonetic Rules for Consonants Vocabulary Exercises LESSON II. . Vocabulary Exercises . P H O N O L O G Y O F BIBLICAL A R A M A I C . 4. 8. 2. . Biblical Occurrences 2. T h e Name Distribution of Semitic Languages Classification of Aramaic Languages and Dialects The Alphabet The Script The Tone The Vocabulary V vii 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 . 3. . 3. 1. . 5. . 3. 2. . 7. 8.

. 5. ETC 1. 6. . Conjugation of the Imperfect Uses of the Imperfect The Infinitive The Imperative The Participles Uses of the Active Participle Uses of the Passive Participle 23 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 . 3. The Conjugations Development of the Conjugations Stative Forms Conjugation of the Perfect Uses of the Perfect Vocabulary Exercises . 2. 3. 5.Vlll LESSON in. INDEPENDENT PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND 12 12 12 13 14 14 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 SUFFIXES ON NOUNS 1. 7. 6. 5. . . 4. T H E VERBAL S Y S T E M : T H E P E R F E C T 1. 4. 3. Independent Personal Pronouns Uses of the Independent Personal Pronouns Pronominal Suffixes on Nouns Uses of the Pronominal Suffixes Vocabulary Exercises . 2. T H E INFINITIVE. LESSON IV. 3. 6. 2. 2. 4. 7. 7. . 5. 4. Demonstrative Pronouns The Pronoun n Independent Possessive Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns Vocabulary Exercises LESSON V. 6. O T H E R P R O N O U N S 1. T H E VERBAL SYSTEM: T H E I M P E R F E C T . 19 19 19 20 20 21 22 22 LESSON VI.

Principal Parts Regular and Irregular Verbs The Pael The Haphel The Aphel The Shaphel Vocabulary Exercises .IX 8. 2. Ayin Laryngeal Verbs 41 41 41 42 . T H E PASSIVE A N D REFLEXIVE C O N J U G A T I O N S 1. 6. 6. 4. 4. 5. 9. 7. . 7. T H E D E R I V E D ACTIVE C O N J U G A T I O N S 1. 8. Systems of Classification Inflection of the First Nine Classes Nouns of Unique Formation Vocabulary Exercises 28 28 28 29 31 31 LESSON Vlll. L A R Y N G E A L VERBS 1. The Passive Conjugations The Reflexive Conjugations The Hithpeel The Hithpaal The Hishtaphal Vocabulary Exercises 37 37 38 38 39 40 40 40 LESSON X. 32 32 33 33 34 35 35 36 36 LESSON IX. . Laryngeal Verbs 2. 3. 3. . Pe Laryngeal Verbs 3. CLASSES O F N O U N S 1. 26 26 27 27 LESSON Vll. . Active Verb Forms With Passive Meanings The Copula Vocabulary Exercises . 5. 2. . . 11. 2. 3. 4. 5. 10.

7. 2. 5. 4. 10. Pe N u n Verbs Verbs Pe N u n and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe N u n and Lamedh Laryngeal Pe Yodh Verbs (Including Pe Waw) The Shaphel and Saphel Conjugations Verbs Pe Yodh and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh Laryngeal P e A l e p h Verbs Verbs Pe Aleph and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh Laryngeal Vocabulary Exercises . Geminate (or Ayin Ayin) Verbs 2. 11. 47 47 48 48 48 49 50 50 51 52 52 52 52 LESSON XII. . G E M I N A T E VERBS 1. 6. 7. PE N U N . 8. Lamedh Laryngeal Verbs The Ithpeel Conjugation Verbs Doubly Laryngeal Vocabulary Exercises 43 44 45 45 45 LESSON XI. 3. A N D PE A L E P H VERBS 1. The Hollow Verbs Ayin Waw Verbs The Polel and Hithpolel Conjugations The Hithaphel (Hittaphel) Conjugation Ayin Y o d h Verbs Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Hollow Verbs Lamedh Laryngeal and Hollow Verbs Pe N u n and Hollow Vocabulary Exercises 54 54 54 55 . 8. 12. The Shaphel and Hishtaphal Conjugations 3. 2. 5 6 56 57 57 57 57 58 . . 4. The Hithpoel (Ithpoel) Conjugation 59 59 60 60 . LESSON XIII. H O L L O W VERBS 1. 6.4. . 8. 10. . 5. PE Y O D H . 3. 9. 6. . 7. . 5. . 9.


4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Geminate Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Geminate Verbs Pe Nun and Geminate Vocabulary Exercises

60 61 62 62 62

LESSON XIV. L A M E D H H E VERBS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The Development of the Lamedh He Formations The Derived Conjugations of the Lamedh He Class Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh He Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Lamedh He Verbs Pe N u n and Lamedh He Vocabulary Exercises . . . . .

63 63 64 65 66 67 67 68

LESSON VERBS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.





IRREGULAR 69 69 69 69 70 70 70 72 73 73

Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh H e The Haphel Passive Conjugation Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh He Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal Pseudo-Geminate Verbs Other Irregular Verbs Vocabulary Exercises





LESSONXVI. VERBAL SUFFIXES: WITH T H E PERFECT 1. Verbal Suffixes 2. Formation of Suffixes on the Perfect 3. Table of Suffixes on the Perfect 4. The Suffixes on '•n-S 5. Vocabulary 6. Exercises



74 74 74 75 76 76 76


LESSON XVII. VERBAL S U F F I X E S : W I T H T H E I M P E R F E C T , THE INFINITIVE, ETC 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Formation of Suffixes on the Imperfect Table of Suffixes on the Imperfect Table of Suffixes on the Infinitive Table of Suffixes on the Imperative Suffixes on the Participle Vocabulary Exercises 77 77 77 78 79 79 79 79

LESSON XVIII. N O U N TYPES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Definition of Noun Types Recognition of Noun Types Table of N o u n Types Occurring in BA Vocabulary Exercises

80 80 80 81 83 83

LESSON XIX. S I M I L A R N O U N CLASSES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Confusion of Similar Noun Classes Nouns Belonging to Class 1 Nouns Belonging to Class 2 Distinguishing Between Similar Noun Classes Similar Noun Classes in the Plural Vocabulary Exercises

84 84 84 85 85 85 86 86 87 87 87 88 88 89 89 90 96





LESSON XX, T H E N U M E R A L S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Cardinal Numerals Uses of the Cardinal Numerals Standard Numerical Formulas The Ordinal Numerals Vocabulary Exercises


I N T R O D U C T I O N T O BIBLICAL A R A M A I C 1. Biblical Occurrences: In the Old Testament, Biblical Aramaic is found in five passages: Gen. 31:47; Jer. 10:11; Ezra 4:8 to 6:18; Ezra 7:12-26; and Dan. 2:4b to 7:28. 2. The Name: The name of the language " A r a m a i c , " is derived from the Hebrew word J T ' O ' i K (Ezra 4:7 and D a n . 2:4a). It was, of course, originally spoken by various Aramaean tribes for centuries before the time of the oldest inscriptions in "Old A r a m a i c " (which date to about the 10th century B . C . ) . As the Aramaeans moved into Assyria and Babylonia, their language gradually superseded Accadian as the lingua franca of the region, eventually becoming the official language of the Persian Empire. In this period it is spoken of as Reichsaramdisch or "Imperial A r a m a i c . " The Elephantine papyri, for example, are in Reichsaramdisch. Biblical Aramaic (hereafter abbreviated BA) is often also so classified, for the Achaemenid documents of Ezra are in Reichsaramdisch, and the language of the book of Daniel is closely related to it. Grammariansof the previous century called BA " C h a l d e e " or " C h a l d a e a n . " One reason for this is probably that excavations in Babylonia in that century focused attention on the Chaldaean (Neo-Babylonian) empire, and since the setting of the book of Daniel is at the height of that empire, it would be natural to use the name " C h a l d e e " or " C h a l d a e a n " for the non-Hebrew language of the book [cf. Dan. 1:4and 2:26 in the LXX]. However, this designation is no longer used, but only the name " A r a m a i c , " for after all, the language originated with the Aramaeans rather t h a n with the Chaldaeans.

3. I

Distribution of Semitic Languages: 11 Northeast Semitic (A) Accadian (1) Assyrian (2) Babylonian

Northwest Semitic (A) (B) Aramaic Canaanite (I) Ugaritic (2) Phoenician (3) Hebrew, etc.

Classification of Aramaic Languages and Dialects: Ancient Aramaic includes "Old Aramaic. The latter two are classified by most authorities under "West A r a m a i c . etc.] IV Southeast Semitic (A) South Arabic (1) Qataban (Qatabanian) (2) Saba' (Sabaean) (3) M a ' i n (Minaean) (4) H a d r a m a u t [Modern] (5) Mahri (6) Soqotri (Soqotrian) (7) Sehauri.I l l Southwest Semitic (A) Hejaz (B) Nejd (C) Qays (D) Yemen [Of these." Reichsaramdisch. based on the writings of M o h a m m e d . and BA. (B) Ethiopic [classical-Ge'ez] (1) Tigre (2) Tigriila (3) Amharic (official) (4) Gurage (5) H a r a r i . Modern Arabic has innumerable spoken dialects. etc. Later Aramaic is usually classified as follows: I West Aramaic (A) Palestinian Jewish (1) Targumic (2) Jerusalem Talmudic Palestinian Christian Samaritan (Aramaic) Palmyrene Nabataean II East Aramaic (A) N o r t h (1) Syriac (a) East Syriac (Nestorian) (b) West Syriac (Jacobite) [Modern] (c) T o r a n i (d) Fellihi (2) [Some authorities place BA here] (B) South (1) Talmudic (Babylonian Talmud) (B) (Q (D) (E) . it is best not to make an east-west division at this early time. 4. " However. (A) prevailed as classical (North) Arabic.

the accent will not usually be marked in the vocabulary. with but minor exceptions. 7. 6. The number in parentheses following . The names of the letters are the same as in Hebrew. The Script: The script employed for BA is the same as t h a t used for BH. and already by the beginning of the Christian era was in common use for copying the Scriptures. BA uses a final form of the following letters SBaJD making them appear as a t the end of words. the three root letters alone will be given. This script was taken over from Aramaic. this script is of Aramaic origin. This is carried out in BA as well as B H .(F) (G) (H) [Modern] Ma'lula Bah'a Jubba'din (2) Mandaean (a) M a n d a ' (b) Yada' (c) Gnostic 5. The Vocabulary: It will be recognized at once that with such a limited body of literature. BA has a comparatively small vocabulary. but they do include BA as well as BH. the third person masculine singular of the perfect of the simplest form of the verb will be used for the vocabulary form of verbs. The Masoretes employed the same vowels for the BA portions of the OT as for the BH portions. There are only a few examples of this. The M T has the same accent markings in the BA portions as in the B H portions. Actually. BA and BH have the same fundamental rules of pronunciation. As in most grammars of BH. like that of Biblical Hebrew (hereafter abbreviated BH). without any vowels. The Tone: The tone or accent in BA generally follows the rules of accentuation of BH. but in existence for B H are also a few examples of Palestinian vocalization and Yemenite vocalization. and also for all verbs of the derived conjugations. A n alternate system is known as Babylonian vocalization. F o r purposes of simplification. Like Hebrew. is composed of 22 consonants. just as it had long since been employed as the usual script for ordinary correspondence or other writing. The commonly used vowel system for the Masoretic text is the Tiberian vocalization. The Alphabet: Tiie alphabet of BA. except in those cases where one of the root letters would thus be eliminated. for the so-called " s q u a r e " letters employed in the Hebrew scriptures were developed from the Old Aramaic and not the Old Hebrew script. In such cases. 8. N o t in BA. Consequently.

establish nXB? — rest. > temple (10) 1 3 — field (3) — — ns — b a t h . etc. Those who have learned BH will find many words in BA identical to common BH words. concerning D » — people. big. every . spirit (4) n ' t ? — t o place. that acn — s h e . nor necessarily so in the construct form. by (means of) — D''? — house. all. over.]) DS? — (along) with Dlf — to rise. nought inb — therefore [Heb. about whole. than n m p — (grain) offering (7) IV — u n t o . so the vowels in question have been omitted in the vocabularies (e.) "n — living. (so) V — t o . make. [also 10 in pi. nation (5. city (10) PI? — horn (1) 3 T — great.g. and are either identical or virtually identical in their meanings. (for. However. (pi.). The following vocabulary is a representative (but by no means complete) list of common words which are identical to BH in the singular absolute form.right. t h a t 1 — a n d . 5) — — also S73-JK — four n n x — lion (10) — 3 — i n . [as a noun] nothing. council (of judgment) (4) n — interrogative particle — he. lay. j u d g m e n t . sign of direct object N"? — n o t . s t a n d . a r m y (1) wisdom (7) Dbnn — magician (5) dew (5) p — t h u s . remainder (4) nr — day (4. In a few instances it is impossible to determine with certainty the original form of the absolute state of certain nouns. out of. until rV— e y e ( l ) — ( u p ) o n . pi. endure n^P — village.) life (5) s t r e n g t h . town. besides a host of others with but minor differences. against. then.the nouns or adjectives represents the noun class (which will be discussed in a subsequent lesson).] na — w h a t ? that which — king (1) p — from. according t o . p i .a s . they are by no means identical to BH in the plural.10) n n — wind. [also 7 in pi. — stone (1) — not — these — n s N — cubit (7. Tjnan' niVS/ etc.]) ? . for. alive. > a liquid measure (5) r'! . chief (5. justice.

Aramaic. This development can best be understood by comparing specific consonants in several of the principal Semitic languages.] This development. ^ (or $ ["thorn"] or d). yet in a few of the consonants there occurred important divergencies. F o r "shin t w o " BH has ift?» and BA has ^ft?5? F o r "shin t h r e e " BH has pa?"? and BA has IB*"?.S z Heb. F o r "zayin o n e " BH has anj while BA has ari'T. Hebrew. Accadian. 6 (or 5). 1X6^ etc.g s s 0 0 s s s s s § a" s s s s d 9. and Ethiopic as follows: PS 6. ? . and s when so pronounced become t. d z Eth. Thus t . z z t h h s ?! S2 ?3 t s s s § t t § t t n ft? n n ft? t § t s § s s ?. d . $ (or S) and §. as generally held by grammarians. Aram. The use of specific examples in comparison of BH and BA cognates may best illustrate these developments.ir\\ etc. z . The Development of Proto-Semitic Consonants: Although the consonants of BA and BH developed generally along the same lines from their common Proto-Semitic origin. Arabic. z z Arab. is from Proto-Semitic to Ugaritic. i J Ug. For "shin o n ^ " BH has iriVe*.LESSON I P H O N O L O G Y O F BIBLICAL A R A M A I C 1. while BA has nVri. ^ ( o r $ o r ^ ) . [Note t h a t a consonant is "velarized" or "glottalizcd" when there is a glottal catch at the same time the consonant is pronounced. 1 T Acc.6 In BA 0 andft?were often used interchangeably. . d . F o r "zayin t w o " BH has S ^ T a n d BA has S7*it. and both became s i n Syriac.

heth. (BH tbilK. All short vowels become p a t h a h before final resh.) The diphthong aw always becomes 6 in BA. Though fallen together. B — C D E F — — — — G H — — . a p . (BH ni^. -— After the laryngeals he. The first three of the following rules represent especially important differences between BA and BH. Vpj?. Short a in a closed. If two unaccented. VDJ^. Short i in a closed. the pretonic vowel is completely syncopated (becoming silent shewa). etc. " S a d e t h r e e " became j? in early Aramaic. unless a doubled consonant follows.F o r " j a d e o n e " BH has pfes while BA has i D p . BA aaa^p. a reduced vowel is always a hateph (usually a hateph pathah). aiD. After a laryngeal. heth. 2. accented syllable is either retained or becomes sere (this latter §ere is changed to seghol before a maqqeph). the correct pronunciation is h. although there are also some similarities. unaccented syllable is retained next to a laryngeal.) Short a in closed. unaccented syllable is either retained or becomes qames hatuph. BA B^IN. accented syllable becomes holem in nouns. s and S7"1K. accented final syllables remains short and is not lengthened as it often is in B H : *kataba > 3 P 3 . Thus BH has while BA has » 8 [from »»] and for the BH f "^K. F o r "§ade t w o " BH and BA b o t h have »aSK. Otherwise it is usually retained. Likewise in b o t h BA and BH n represents Proto-Semitic h and h . etc. and 'ayin at the end of an unaccented. A pathah furtive is inserted between a heterogeneous long vowel and final h e t h or 'ayin. Selected Phonetic Rules for Vowels: I n the treatment of vowels BA and BH developed along somewhat divergent lines. unaccented syllable becomes seghol before a laryngeal. open. BA T\y^. etc. BA has b o t h p l . and 'ayin. A — Short vowels in a pretonic open syllable become shewa. etc. and are not lengthened as they often a r e i n B H : *kataba > a n s . Otherwise it frequently becomes /. and later became ». etc. I n BA as in BH Proto-Semitic ghayin and 'ayin have fallen together and are written ». Short « in a closed. (BH aaa^. short vowels precede the tone or accent. Short /• in a closed. I J K L M N — — — — — Short « in a closed.) The early Hebrew shift of a t o d under the accent or tone does not occur in BA. etc.

the doubling of a consonant is sometimes resolved by a i followed by the consonant in question. 0 P — — In Tiberian vocalization there was an occasional pausal lengthening of a short vowel. Laryngeals and resh are not doubled in BA. references to the rules for consonants (I 2). The diphthong % develops as follows: a.. often before 'ayin. In compensation the preceding vowel may be lengthened as follows: a.medial syllable. always before aleph and resh. never before heth (doubling is implicit). c. However. (I C). c. (I 7). 6 7 — — 8 — In subsequent lessons references to these phonetic rules in Lesson 1 will be abbreviated as follows: references to the rules for vowels. 2 3 4 5 — — — — A 1 is often assimilated t o a following consonant (even a laryngeal). Conversely. (I A). once in BA before he. (I Q). b. . corresponding t o the preceding vowel.for N_ and for Initial i becomes •'. with the compensative lengthening of the preceding vowel: H_ > N_ and x _ > «_ [also written rt. etc. in a medial open syllable it is retained or becomes In B A t h e gentilic ending is v (rather than •>_ as in BH). Final s quiesces. Selected Phonetic Rules for — Consonants: Q 3. This aspirantization is retained even when the vowel which caused it is dropped. d. in a closed primary-accented syllable it becomes b. in a final open syllable it becomes d. then the doubling is usually retained before the shewa also (by paradigmatic analogy). 1 — The n S S l U letters become spirants after a vowel. Doubled consonants before a shewa are simplified and the shewa is eliminated. in a closed secondary-accented syllable it becomes "•_. if the doubled consonant occurs before a full vowel in other forms of the word. Final doubled consonants are simplified t o single consonants. a hateph is inserted. etc.

sound (4) year (8. claw (2) an. Exercises: Write out the corresponding BH cognates of the words found in the vocabulary. mankind (4) wood. 4) t o return ox. finger (2. remote time (3) ten to kill voice. dwell priest (3) r|03 — silver (1) — a3B*a — ifai — -ini — 1?? - •Vy — Vijj? — njf— ain — nin — nV^ — nan — tongue. Vocabulary: man. miracle (4) ann — gold (2) generation. lifetime (4) xni — grass(1) VD^n — palace. pi. . > descendants (1) a p — good (4) I B p — (finger) nail.' — t o sit.8) s?1>< — e a r t h (1) nx — sign. pi. t o e . temple (3) »•)! — seed.bull(4) three there shekel (1) 5. Point out the divergencies in the development of the consonants wherever this has occurred. language (4) bed (3) prophet (10) river (2) t o give eternity. Also for each word in the vocabulary list the letter or number of the phonetic rule or rules as given above which apply to that word.4. beam (4) digit.

As in BH. masculine and feminine. absolute state construct state emphatic state king king of the king masc. BA K3"p». There is actually no formal distinction between nouns and adjectives in BA. The first two function like their BH counterparts and need little discussion. as in BH. the qattil and q^til types are generally used for adjectives. 2. The dual ending is somewhat similar to t h a t of BH. some feminine nouns have masculine form. Number: Three numbers occur in BA: singular. namely. 3. or i. pi. Nouns and adjectives are declined as follows: masc. being (sometimes contracted to ]•>_)• Occurrences of the dual are rare in BA. and emphatic. T " h a n d . It corresponds to the BH noun (in the absolute state) with the definite article. pi. and like BH. Some grammarians prefer to state the matter in another way. and plural.. sg. State: In BA there are three states of the n o u n : absolute.g. animals nvn T T " animals of the animals .LESSON II N O U N S A N D ADJECTIVES 1. that whereas the BH article is prepositive. e. sg. " F r o m these examples it will be noted t h a t in BA.V . animal animal of the animal fem. the BA definite article is postpositive: e. Gender: In BA nouns and adjectives have two genders. However. absolute state construct state emphatic state kings kings of the kings fem. Masculine nouns have no particular ending. parts of the body which come in pairs are feminine.g. " " e y e . The emphatic state always denotes determination in BA. but feminine nouns generally end in H . dual. lacking a specific feminine ending. are almost entirely confined to natural pairs. "the k i n g " : BH ^iVan. construct.

but all except the last must be in the construct state. Adjectival Modification: I n BA. or (3) when the nomen rectum is a proper name.). t h e first element can only remain indeterminate by employing a circumlocution. I n BA. as in B H . D a n . etc. (2) when the nomen rectum is made determinate by a pronominal suffix. no matter how long the construct chain might be. NsVa r f ? " t h e house of the k i n g " (Ezra 6:4).g. or even more). The original postpositive article tt is sometimes spelled n. 2:29. The Construct Chain: This is a combination of nouns peculiar t o Semitic. a proper name). and conversely. There are three constructions in which a construct chain is definite or determinate: (1) when the nomen rectum is in the emphatic state. upVa '^^9 " t h e king of the k i n g s " (Ezra 7:12) [usually rendered by the English idiom. with pronominal suflBx. Uses of V: When t h e last element of a genitive construction is determinate in one of the three ways discussed above (emphatic state. 5. 6. " Thus the predicate adjective will agree with the noun it modifies in number and gender. Because the emphatic state is determinate or definite it is used to indicate the vocative: KSVa may be " O k i n g " as well as " t h e k i n g " (e.10 Note that the feminine plural construct ending n_ corresponds t o the BH ni_ (see I C). the preposition V is used for this purpose: an Vx^ftr"? 'qV? " a great king of Israel" (Ezra 5:11). the predicate adjective is always in the absolute state. as in B H . 4. a predicate adjective may occur either before or after the noun it modifies. sna nrn " t h e animal(s) [collective] of the field" (Dan. in which the first noun {nomen regens) is p u t in the construct state and the second (nomen rectum) is found in BA either in the absolute or in the emphatic state. The state of the nomen rectum indicates the determination or indetermination of the whole construct chain. "king of k i n g s " ] . Thus o'lB"':}^? " t h e king of Persia" (Ezra 4:24). etc. 4:9. but not necessarily in state of determination. The determination or indetermination of the last noun (nomen rectum) governs all the nouns of the construct chain. It also agrees with the noun in number and gender [actual grammatical gender and not form] and in state of determination.). A construct chain may be more t h a n two nouns (three. (see I Q ) end in rather than K»_ in the emphatic state plural. 31. However. This is true whether it is used with some form of the verb " t o b e " or whether it occurs without the verb " t o b e . 2:38. N o u n s with the gentilic ending i_. . the adjective follows as closely as possible the noun it modifies. Also. the feminine ending n is sometimes spelled K .

the ethical dative. 6. the one occurrence of the particle n. Vocabulary: father (10) god. sec. prevail sign of the direct object n » 3 — how! a a * ? . 3). chief (10) D ^ — name (10) 8^18^ — r o o t (1) rinri — under VnB — IT-ip. bronze (4) V s i . power (3) S ? T — to know by — to be able. Exercises: Translate the following: n x p — hundred • angel (3) naVa — queen (7) (pm — copper.t o fall (down) i s p — book (1) ^ 3 » — t o d o . and direction. In this connection.heart (5) night (3) why? for what purpose? > lest 9. as well as being indicated by the use of the preposition "? (see sec. purpose. used as the sign of the direct object should be mentioned (cf the usage of BH m). make atos? — herbs. is attached directly t o the third person masculine plural pronominal suffix p r t . In this one passage (Daniel 3:12). in addition t o retaining the common uses for b (also found in BH) t o express the indirect object. 7. The Direct Object and n \ In BA the direct object is often expressed by the noun (or pronoun) alone. image (1) DV?bird (3) holy (4) I P S I — head.(see III.psVa (1) Nni-n nnair? xnas X ? T (4) NyiK*? nVx na» (e) "?» siax "jBi nipa (8) pnxa pnin (11) f B'?X (10) xaify ninn xnaa sin nij'? (13) an-] xa^s B>sn (3) Nn?'7a aH s w a n Vsa (5) Vn^ N f i x aaVi itoa S T (7) KjV^Va nNjaiVp^Cs) Kp-Bs"? n:a"? saVa nia (12) . animal (7) T •• a ^ s n — wise (4) T — h a n d . The student of BA must determine syntactically by the context whether •? is expressing a direct object or an indirect object. lord (1) itoa — flesh (2) ")?? — man (1) n r n — beast. grass (1) iron (3) s t a t u e .11 It is extremely important t o note that BA uses the preposition *? t o indicate the direct object. > G o d (4) thousand (1) ni? — to build Vsja — owner. above). 8.

'•nnas i a n S j m s " w e are H i s servants" (Ezra 5:11).) they (masc. there are instances where the Masoretic tradition has modified that which was actually " w r i t t e n " (a'ris) in t h e consonantal text so t h a t it was t o be pronounced or " r e a d " (sij?) with a different vocalization. t h e first person plural occurs with the variant ending r i . 2:38)..ian p3S Plural we you (masc. b u t pas is found in both books.) N o t e t h a t there is n o occurrence of t h e second person feminine singular in BA. 2:47). 2:8) and also pn?S s n v p33T " y o u are buying [part. Those which d o occur in BA are as follows: Singular rm nWN Nin S-'H I you (masc. and the others may occur in variant forms. either for nouns or for other personal p r o n o u n s : pn"?S nVs Sin psnVs " y o u r G o d is a G o d of g o d s " (Dan. 2.) [Kethib] you (masc.]ian . T h e first person singular occurs with t h e variant ending s _ . as in BH.) [Qere] he she Person 1 2 3 3 vxmvi pniN p i s . (A) Uses of the Independent Personal Pronouns: The independent personal pronoun can be used as the subject of a verb or sentence n i s S?T " I know [participle]" (Dan. N o t e that one important grammatical case of Kethib-Qere occurs in the second person masculine singular of t h e independent personal pronouns. In BA. (B) . and conversely.] t h e t i m e " (idiomatic for "you are trying to gain t i m e " ) . The third person of the independent pronoun can function as a copula.12 LESSON III I N D E P E N D E N T P E R S O N A L P R O N O U N S A N D S U F F I X E S ON N O U N S 1. n^S"! S i n . or n o t at all. Independent Personal Pronouns: In BA some of the independent personal pronouns occur infrequently.n ^ l S " y o u are the h e a d " ( D a n .) they (fem. The form ian occurs only in Ezra and p a n only in Daniel.

pi. pi. "iSHDia: T 3 i a n a n ' " H e gave them i n t o t h e power of N e b u c h a d n e z z a r " (Ezra 5:12).) his day "^nvn nrii"'n Niaipsai" pnav |nar her day our day your day (masc. even 1" or " a n d as for me. There is also n o occurrence of some of the other forms attached t o feminine nouns. (D) Occasionally the independent personal pronoun is used similarly t o an article in giving determination t o a noun. N o u n s in the Plural Masculine ••ai'' Feminine "•rirn •qnvn my animals your animals (masc. 3. pi.) nr^n Kinrn pariDTl pnprn plivn my animal your animal (masc. sing. pi.sing. but it comes before the noun rather t h a n after: x a b s Kin "//le s t a t u e " or " / / / a / s t a t u e " (Dan. pi. b u t these are included in t h e paradigms for the sake of completeness. pi. 3:22). 2:32). on singular and plural nouns both. hence they are omitted in the paradigms below.) their day (masc.) his animal her animal o u r animal your animal (masc.) their day (fem.and Dh_ for p 3 _ and pn_.) their animal (masc.) my days your days [Kethib] (masc.) Also occurring are the alternate endings D D . even m e " (Ezra 7:21). Pronominal Suffixes on Nouns: In BA there is n o occurrence of either feminine singular or feminine plural of t h e second person pronominal suffixes. sing. sing. (E) The third person plural is used t o express t h e object of a verb as well as the subject since there is no third person plural in BA for pronominal suffixes attached t o verbs: p a n bisp_ " i t killed t h e m " ( D a n .) their animal (fem. N o u n s in t h e Singular Masculine 'ar (C) Feminine 'nrn •!]av nar nar my day your day (masc.13 The independent personal pronoun can be used t o emphasize a preceding suffix: njx •'lai " a n d I.) your days [Qere] his days her days [Kethib] her days [Qere] ••niai'' n^ai"nni- nnrn nrrn his animals her animals .

) The Qere forms of the suffixes on t h e masculine plural nouns are best explained as analogical extensions from those on the singular noun. It anticipates. D a n . 8. as it were.) their animals (masc. in Daniel"] ( D a n .) their days (fem. 4. for. etc. is their use in a demonstrative sense. (C) (E) Closely related t o t h e usages of the suffixes discussed in B and D above. 3:7. a phrase introduced by n which explains i t : ''riinjV is? X a > nVx-n " w e are t h e servants of the G o d of heaven" [lit. but other genitive relationships can also be expressed in this way. etc. pi. in order t h a t . 3:6.] you [masc. The retrospective pronominal suffix is often found in a relative clause introduced by t o indicate case: nistpa nVehT'a '•n bxn&r nVxl? " t o t h e G o d of Israel wAoje abode is at Jerusalem" [lit.pl. (B) They are attached directly t o prepositions. c) conjunction: that. those [fem. those [ m a s c ] pj^ — arilS — pBSK — 13 — p^l — they.).pl. Vocabulary: 5. sing. W i t h a feminine noun. " H i s »B servants" of t h e G o d of heaven"] (Ezra 5:11). etc. aiK-l fan — they.] you [masc. aa is used rather than aa: " a t that hour (moment)" or " i n t h e same h o u r ( m o m e n t ) " (Dan. Uses of the Pronominal Suffixes: (A) They are most commonly used with nouns t o denote possession.14 Kj^ar tdsv fD'ar ]in''ai'' Masculine (continued) o u r days [Kethib] o u r days [Qere] your days (masc. den (5) "•'I— a) sign of the genitive: of. . because.pl. This usage is frequent in expressions of t i m e : " a t t h a t t i m e " or " a t t h e same t i m e " (Ezra 5 : 3 .) their animals (fem. that.pl.). etc. with the meaning " t h a t " or " t h e s a m e " : Vxrina aa " i n that D a n i e l " or " i n the same Daniel" [lit.) Feminine (continued) our animals pDnrn pnnrn ]nnvn your animals (masc. " w h o in Jerusalem His a b o d e " ] (Ezra 7:15). "in him. etc.) their days (masc. as in BH.pl.pl. (D) The prospective pronominal suffix is common in BA. so t h a t .] son [singular only] (3) sons [used in t h e plural] (4) as — p i t . b) relative pronoun: which. 5:12).

> year (4) nv(pael) to kill t o t h r o w .15 ian — they [masc. sky (4) X\T(^ pn-'ia pjx nan xninx aiVi (i) arnaxKpD-jnaiVBj? (2) Vsnr-V -la xin nwx (3) "niB^i"? Vpn Niqa an^ (4) K31 vmti aV^ 1 3 » niN (5) xaVa 'la pan loniK K»l^Tjp_'^pjS (6) •Vi^iTa n.] p a n — they [masc] ]3T — t o buy an^ — t o give nin^ — Jew. Jewish ]3(?a — abode (3) 6. xnia^ n x w a i ian pnix (7) (8) a-iaV X33t?^a wn x n a 1 3 1 (9) I-'PVX *f?^ pVpn a"? ari''a'? xa"-?!! a n n xiTsa (10) ana"? 1 3 1 3 T x n v as (11) . Exercises: Translate the following: women [plural] (10) servant (1) t i m e . place. impose na"! — (a tax) heaven.

n T ? xnip?-''l xVl " a n d there is none who can stay His p o w e r " ( D a n . 6:17). As a compound relative. 2. As a simple relative it means " w h o . 4:32 [35]). " etc." " w h a t . It can be used as a relative pronoun. There is also one occurrence of t h e alternate fpH for fbVi." "whatever. " etc. Because it does n o t denote case. F o r example. •'•'I is an uninflected form that has a variety of uses in BA. The following demonstrative pronouns are always used adjectivally in BA: Masculine Singular rw that Common Singular P'l that Feminine Singular •q"! that Common Plural r\bvi those In addition t o these demonstrative pronouns in BA. sec. n^-nbe nniN -"l r]n'?K " y o u r G o d whom you serve [participle]" ( D a n ." " t h a t . it has a function both in t h e main clause and in t h e subordinate clause. it may be used with a retrospective pronominal suffix: ni?l?a D|?BhT3 n VxniT TibHb " t o t h e G o d of Israel wAoic abode is a t Jerusalem" (Ezra 7:15).16 LESSON IV OTHER PRONOUNS 1." . this must be expressed either by a subsequent word or by t h e context. Demonstrative Pronouns: In BA t h e following demonstrative pronouns may also be used substantivally or adjectivally: Masculine Singular nn this Common Plural nVx (n)"?N pVx these these these Feminine Singular NT this N o t e t h e Kethib-Qere situation in the sole occurrence of bvi. " "whoever. 2 D ) . the independent personal p r o n o u n s may be used as demonstratives (see III. " "which. " " h e w h o . and means " w h o . The Pronoun •''i: Related t o t h e Arabic i ( " t h a t of" or "possessor o f " ) .

17 It can also be used to express the genitive (see the vocabulary. " " a s soon a s . sometimes alone.this (is) [ m a s c ] 6. it often has the force of a subordinate conjunction.). In this last function it is usually compounded with ''l-'pi "whoever" or "whosoever. It is also compounded with the preposition s : " w h e n . Indefinite Pronouns: Besides the indefinite relative pronouns discussed above. 2:43). (these) m i 3 j — might T . Independent Possessive Pronouns: In BA there are no separate independent possessive pronouns.] t h a t [fem. Lesson III): nnni ''T xn"?N"n''3 •'isa " t h e vessels of gold and silver of the T e m p l e " [liV.D » n n " w i t h one a n o t h e r " (Dan.] n n . it means " a l l . Interrogative Pronouns: In BA there are two interrogative pronouns. " XBppi 3. Standing alone. 4. existence. it means "every.] ^1that [masc] 1 ? 1 . whose exact meaning must be gathered from the context (see the vocabulary. " Vocabulary: this [fem." (2) Before an indeterminate singular noun. but they may be formed by using the relative pronoun •"T followed by a pronominal suffix attached directly to the preposition "?: X-'n-n"? •'1 Krni3M xnaDn "wisdom and might are His" (Dan." " W h a t e v e r " is less frequently expressed in BA by either na or n alone." and •"ina "whatever. it means " a l l . "house of G o d " ] (Ezra 6:5. It is often found in compound conjunctions. there is (are) these fVx — these those. but usually as a compound (indefinite) relative pronoun. there are other indefinite pronouns in BA: (A) The idea of " o n e a n o t h e r " is expressed in BA by the repetition of the demonstrative: n n . 2:20). -JO " w h o ? " and n a " w h a t ? " The interrogative pronoun is sometimes used as a relative. The interrogative n a is also frequently compounded with various prepositions: n a ? " h o w ! " na"? "for what p u r p o s e ? " " w h y ? " and na-Vx? "wherefore?" " w h y ? " 5." (3) Before a plural noun. Lesson III). (B) In BA the indefinite pronoun "73 or -Vs [from kull: see I G and I] is most frequently used adjectivally with the following meanings: (1) Before a determinate singular noun.that [com. " " t h e whole.

Exercises: Translate the following: p — n-ja — na-"7» — nVe — who? whoever why ? wherefore ? t o serve.| a i aa fB^Tj? faVx-nn (i) '•aVi? ufs nsx^pVa aattf-n "7N«3^ xjai?* aVx nV? (2) Niaa*? a n xixai s i . prevent.N W N (5) ^V x n a s (7) Nia N»a»"!n an p i 'rxy'r (9) •jx N n n p a axa »3"IH! fIBB^JP ••ri''N (10) . as soon as ]«a — vessel (4) xna — (pael) t o check.x n r n xaVa ani aaV xjaDnn a n (3) ]iaa nVri f x n a a xrisi "733 NNn-NT xVa X3"?a'apn (4) (e) • j snniai n NB"?? s i a . stay 7.1*73 — when. worship (God) VV3 •"I a"?N N i a .

however. and the Participle(s).pn In BA most of the conjugations have the Perfect.g. Development of the Conjugations: T h e development of t h e original Proto-Semitic conjugations into their BA forms is generally considered t o have occurred as follows: Peal: [Stative] Pael: •Vpp>Vpp (see I A and •'7Bp> Vpp (see I A and (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > "rpp. t h e Imperative. (analogical extension of t h e characteristic vowel of t h e imperfect to t h e perfect) > "7Bp_ (see I H ) . the verbal system of BA is basically similar t o that of B H . I n spite of these differences. t h e Imperfect. B). or occur only extremely infrequently. (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > Vpp. Reflexive Hithpeel Hithpaal H o p h a l Vppn Hishtaphal Vppritfri Vppnn Vpp.19 LESSON V T H E VERBAL S Y S T E M : T H E P E R F E C T 1. btJjrn "jajptf: VppE* Peil Passive V^'Op. the Infinitive. Other conjugations (not o n the above chart) will be discussed in subsequent chapters. •'?ppn> 'rppn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > Vppn (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of t h e imperfect to t h e perfect) > "pppg (see I H ) . Niphal. Haphel: Aphel: *'?pp> "?pp (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > Vsp. The Conjugations: In the verbal system of BA are found some conjugations which are either n o t used in BH. Active Simple System "Intensive" System Causative System Peal [Stative Pael Haphel Aphel Shaphel Voj? "rppj Vpp. Pual) d o n o t occur in BA. Others found in B H (e. B). 2. . •'?BpN> VpjPX (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > VppjN (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect t o the perfect) > VpplS.

H o p h a l : *VBi?n > Vppn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > bppn (seeIG). " h e will pay homage ( t o ) . Conjugation of the Perfect: I n BA most grammarians have found it convenient t o use ana for t h e paradigms. Peil: \>''0p (no original Proto-Semitic conjugation." although the usual non-stative u also occurs. " These forms are called "stative" because they usually denote a state or condition. these are distinguished from the active forms in t h e simple conjugation. Complete assimilation of n t o a following initial dental would also be expected in BA. " 4. rather t h a n using the earlier bvt or t h e later VDJ? of BH grammarians. and t h e i is doubled. in BA they are restricted to the qatil type in t h e perfect. a p p r o a c h . tip'. the so-called "statives" (which are such in form a t least) d o n o t necessarily present uniform correspondence between BA and B H (or other Semitic languages) as t o this characteristic vowel in t h e perfect: BA an^ " t o s i t . there occurs in certain of the derived conjugations the transposition of a n with a succeeding sibilant. Hishtaphal: bpppnn > Vop^nn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > '?pj?riir'n (metathesis of t and n). This qatil type occurs with either _ or _ in the final syllable (see I H ) : i j p " t o pay homage ( t o ) . but simply the use of the Peal Passive Participle as a finite verb with personal endings added to it). t h e r may partially assimilate to a D. " The characteristic vowel of the imperfect of the stative verbs is usually a: Vf^b". However.20 •Vpj?^ > "rpj?^ (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > bppv (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect t o the perfect). t h o u g h there are no certain occurrences. In BA. If the sibilant is a T . If the sibilant is s .'' Hithpeel: •Vopnri > Vppnn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > VBpnn (see I A and B) > Vpjrnn (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect t o the perfect) > 'jBpnn (see I H ) . 3. as in BH. " anpj " t o draw near. " b u t BH a^. t h e assimilation is complete. Stative Forms: I n BA. with no occurrences of the qatul type. This transposition is usually called " m e t a t h e s i s . T h e Peal Perfect of the regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows: Shaphel: . " t o s i t . H i t h p a a l : *b^p_r\rf > "?B|?nri (shift of accent and loss of final vowel). as in BH. " The Hishtaphal furnishes a good example of metathesis and it also occurs normally in t h e Hithpeel and Hithpaal of roots beginning with sibilants. However. " h e will be clothed.

t h e perfect can be used in a variety of relationships to the element of time.) 2 (masc. 5:22). Present perfect: njn-ba Vap'Va -qaaV ^btvT\ xV nsxB^'pa n n s nn?Nl n s T " b u t you. Examples of the most common uses of the perfect are listed below: (A) (B) (C) Historical perfect: Vaa-Tiba nsnaiai r a ian an^ " H e gave them into the power of Nebuchadnezzar.21 Singular Active ana nans nana nana he wrote she wrote you wrote I wrote Person 3 (masc.) lanj? nanj? iwanj? Niani? they approached they approached you approached we approached anp Stative he approached na"]i? she approached nanp nanj? you approached I approached The second person masculine singular also has the variant forms nnana and n a n a . as in BH. Present: '^3 pirip.) 1 (com. 5. Future: nsb T^TTi": Kjatp-Va ninn niaVa n sniani wpV^i nniaVai pi'Vy " a n d the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under all the heavens will be given t o t h e people of the saints of the Most H i g h " ( D a n .) 2 (masc.) 1 (com. (D) (E) . 4:6[9]). his son. the king of Babylon" (Ezra 5:12). pnVx rn'T''7 n S T njx "1 know t h a t the spirit of the holy gods is in y o u " (Dan. although you have known all t h i s " (Dan. Pluperfect: "la pBin i s n a w ? n x E p a i narji •'i snV^-n^a-n xjixa aVirnT'a "T xVa^n " t h e vessels of gold and silver of the house of G o d " which Nebuchadnezzar had taken out of the Temple which is at Jerusalem" (Ezra 5:14). have not humbled your heart.) Plural lana nana jinana Xiana they wrote they wrote you wrote we wrote 3 (masc. and hence it may be translated by several different English tenses.) 3 (fem.) 3 (fem. The same variant endings may be found in the derived conjugations. Uses of the Perfect: In BA. O Belshazzar. 7:27).

because t o draw near.'p->Va ribpi (6) xabs •?» pN nan (s) N. Exercises: Translate the following: n^aniat (1) nn-jiaia nVa: (4) s. document.air* nVx Kan snVH xifip (10) NBpai Nani Nian^ (3) Nynx'rsnan^ (5) N^N""?? fnVPi? (7) KVyn ]a ppi Nina (9) . Vocabulary: T-i^ — then because. B>aV — wear wVa — kingship. although ana — t o write a n a .writing. reign. humiliate 7.since t o go out pDl — (haphel) to take (out) nip — to pay homage t o the Most High (4) before.22 6. kingdom (9) p-«-r? . approach greatness (9) lan — dominion (4) (haphel and aphel) to humble. inscription (4) t o be clothed w i t h .

T H E I N F I N I T I V E .) 2 (masc. However. . sec.) Plural Stative he will approach she will approach you will approach I will approach you will write I will write pana? they will write they will write 3 (masc.b a a tjVtt?n •'•7 "which will rule over the whole e a r t h " (Dan.) 3 (fem.) 1 (com. However. and He gives it to whomever He wishes'" (Dan. in both languages its use is not confined to these meanings only.) 1 (com.23 LESSON VI T H E VERBAL SYSTEM: T H E I M P E R F E C T . E T C .) 2 (masc. The Peal Imperfect of the regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows: Singular Active he will write she will write anan anai? Person 3 (masc.i N . panan you will write we will write The first person singular may also have the variant form 2.' Present: au?^ N a s ^ V l ^ V i NB'JN maVaa N'Vv ti'Viy-n "until you know that the Most High is ruler [mighty] in the kingdom of men.) 3 (fem. L Conjugation of the Imperfect: The so-called "characteristic vowel" [the vowel after the second r o o t consonant] of the imperfect is usually u. 4:22[25]). the imperfect is used ordinarily with a present or future meaning. 3). as in BH. the stative verbs have a more frequently than u as this characteristic vowel (see V. 2:39). Uses of the Imperfect: In BA.) panpn they will approach they will approach you will approach we will approach aripK. Some of the most common uses of the imperfect in BA are as follows: (A) (B) F u t u r e : s y .

sing.) "-ana (fem. " l e t them perish" (Jer. However. 6). presumably corresponding t o the jussive rather than t o the imperfect. 4:13[16]). " t h e house of the treasures of the king"] (Ezra 7:20). sec. sing. but does follow the feminine in having forms ending in r i . sec. a!? ari'n. 4:17[20]). 1). The Imperative: In the simple conjugation the imperative has the same characteristic vowel as t h e imperfect (see above). (D) Jussive.) ana (masc. Thus t h e Peal Infinitive of the regular (strong) verb is aripa " t o w r i t e . Optative. However. 10:11) [some prefer here the rendering. In usage. etc. The Infinitive: In BA only one form of the infinitive is found in the Peal conjugation. The endings are short. However.(see VIII." but occurs either with or without the attached w a w ] : N^DIPV xpa? nipni 1j?ni na"l 'T "which grew (up) and became strong and whose height reached t o the heavens" ( D a n . The object of the infinitive may come either before or after the infinitive itself. the jussive of the third person masculine plural may be indicated in weak verbs by the elision of the final n u n : nax. the BA infinitive follows closely its BH counterpart. and thus BA does not have in this conjugation the distinction between the infinitive absolute and the infinitive construct found in BH. and usually has •? as t h e sign of the direct object (see II. Cohortative (volitive ideas): saVs "T n"'3-ja |nw "U "give [it] from the king's treasury" [lit. in a few instances there are occurrences of a Peal Infinitive in a weak verb without this preformative m e m : siaV " t o b u i l d " (Ezra 5:3.) (C) .' nvn aa"?1 " a n d let the heart of an animal be given t o h i m " ( D a n .is found on the infinitive construct forms t o which suflSxes are added. Occasionally this latter form of the infinitive occurring without a suflSx is used in place of t h e usual infinitive construct form ending in n_.for t h e infinitive construct.pl.). This ending is n o t a true feminine ending.24 Past: this use usually follows a perfect t o indicate simultaneous action [it has no relationship t o the BH "waw consecutive. " However. The Peal Imperative forms occurring in BA are as follows (there is no attestation in BA of a feminine plural imperative): ana (masc. 4. In t h e simple conjugation the infinitive is regularly distinguished by a preformative mem (the infinitives of the derived conjugations will be discussed subsequently). in these derived conjugations t h e ending n i .. this distinction is maintained in the derived conjugations. 3. In most cases the form of the jussive is identical t o that of the imperfect. "they will perish"]. in which the infinitives have the apparently feminine ending r i .

killed" (Dan. The participle is commonly used for the following: (A) F u t u r e : (alone.) (fem. Vpj? mn xas Nin-n "whom he wished. Uses of the Active Participle: The most common verbal use of the participle in BA is t o express present time.'n Vna " a r e you really a b l e ? " ( D a n . or with the perfect of 7\'\T\): NaVsJ n a i ' . pi. cannot be used with a negative. and like its counterpart in BH. Past: (alone.pl. The negative imperative is expressed by the use of "?s with the jussive (or with the ordinary imperfect if there is n o distinctly jussive form): n3inri"'?K V33 •'a-'Sn'? not destroy the wise men of Babylon" (Dan. with the context determining the specific point of time.25 In BA the imperative has the normal uses found in BH. and it even filtered into post-Biblical Hebrew.) nsns The passive participle of the simple conjugation is the qatil type. The Peal Active Participle of the regular (strong) verb of BA is declined as follows: (3ri3)3ri3 (masc. "your G o d whom you serve" ( D a n .) f?'''^? jTriS (masc.p T]T Nnn. Thus the use of the participle instead of'the imperfect is commonly found in all the Aramaic languages and dialects. As a noun or adjective the participle is timeless.fi'A p i "and you will be driven ow/ from m a n k i n d " [lit. 2:24). sing. 6:17). The Peal Passive Participle of the regular (strong) verb of BA is declined as follows: TTO HTriS (masc. However. q&til. the active participle is used to express virtually all of the same points of time as the imperfect. this usage can be made emphatic by the addition of •'TpV. as a verb. which appears with either _ or _ in the final syllable (see I H). pi. the participles are used both verbally and nominally.) (fem. (C) .) 6.? nxifl^a ppVa-Vy " t h a t town from days of old has risen up against kings" (Ezra 4:19). as in BH.) (fem. or often with the imperfect of n i n ) : X"TfXi "qb V.sing.: "^''Trv. The Participles: In BA. sing. 2:26). 4:29[32]). sing. 5. 5:19). They may be declined as any other noun or adjective. "(they) will drive you o u t " ] (Dan. pi.) psns ]3n3 (masc. (B) Present: aV-nVs r\xm •'T -^Thv. In BA the active participle of the simple conjugation is an adjective type.) (fem.

6:17[16]).. although a singular subject may occasionally be used. the impersonal subject " t h e y " can be either expressed (as in finite verbs) or implied (as in participles). The passive participle also may be used with the perfect of nin to express the pluperfect: n n Nin-n "which had been built" (Ezra 5:11). p a w i l S ? "they answered [peal perfect] and said" (Dan... 6. "they will give . Uses of the Passive Participle: In B A t h e passive participle is frequently used as a predicate adjective (sometimes as an adjective of quality). niia "tribute . Active Verb Forms With Passive Meanings: In BA a passive may be expressed by a sort of impersonal or indefinite subject with an active verb form.. The Copula: I n BA there are several ways in which the copula may be expressed. (A) The finite verb: the use of a finite verb in the third person masculine plural is the most common method of expressing this type of passive: pinr . 7. (E) Its use (is) very common in the expression "answered and s a i d " or "answered. 2:22). Usually. the participle is plural. but with the infinitive it must of necessity be implied: V D V rrjainV *1BN1 Vaa ''a"'ari " a n d he commanded t h a t all the wise men of Babylon be destroyed" [lit. will be paid" [hithpeel] (Ezra 4:20). This circumlocution for the passive is much more frequent in BA than in BH. c f an^na .. 8.. " with an active verb form. the indefinite or impersonal subject is expressed (or implied) in the plural. I t is most frequently expressed either by juxtaposition of the subject . but the impersonal or indefinite subject " t h e y " is n o t expressed by a separate pronoun (see above.... will be paid" [lit. The object of the active verb is then actually the subject. as " t h e y . waV njT Nri"?N-rT'a "this house of God be built" [lit. " t o build this house of G o d " ] (Ezra 5:13). Occasionally it may be used t o express the active participle: N"iir is properly translated "dwelling" or "dwells" ( D a n . saying" (usually both verbs are participles. "let (them) make (it) known t o you"] (Ezra 7:24).tribute"] (Ezra 4:13). 2:12).26 (D) Jussive: fSl\r\1? Qbb^ " a n d let it be known to y o u " [lit. (B) The active participle: when this type of passive is expressed by an active participle. (C) 9. 6:14[13]). examples A and D ) . sec. nia "tribute . and the verb should be translated as a passive.. The infinitive: as mentioned above. " a n d he commanded (them) t o destroy all the wise men of Babylon"] ( D a n . A study of the examples will clarify this peculiarity of BA grammar. but not necessarily so): naxi NaVa n?» " t h e king answered and said" ( D a n .

be paid to be able tax. or by the use of some form of the verb nin. highest. tribute [also nn3a](7) to reach. like n a n . happen.to desire. it is allowed (4) nnip — to loosen. have power over B-'V^ — mighty. 10. Vocabulary: to perish (haphel) t o destroy. become great Dl-l — height (4) Pb^ — to rule. Also rather common is the use of a third person independent personal pronoun as a copula (see III.t o grow ( u p ) . come u p o n . 2 B). In such a case t h e statement is usually considered more emphatic than the other three methods of expressing the copula (cf sec. slay to say. 6 B above). Exercises: Vaa wani ' a D n n VepaV l a x xaVa (i) xy'iK-'ja vbf: K'Vs (2) pnaja Nnr-ix nniai nDpn (3) N%i5> "?'na nav nin xas nirjai (4) xaqi n na^'T nniK Na^a laxi nia "?N»?T[ p i x (5) niD"? N a n a sn^a o n na*^ (e) ania ninri ra Ntoai Np'Vi? (7) Njaonn NNriT TipaV sa-'an Vna (8) xVea p a x xa^K-Va (9) Njaf aVx n-a-p saVa pTip? (10) . sec. become strong N(W — (hithpaal) — — — — niO — — IIP — — an' — — — Npa — 11.27 and predicate. officer. t h e Most High (10) njs? — to answer n a V . happen t o Translate the following: t o rise u p against — superior. communicate (hithpeel) t o be given. In addition t o these methods of expressing the copula. wish. > t o dwell to be strong. 4). a t t a i n . sec. it may be expressed by using •'n'R (see XVI. exist mountain (4) to drive away (haphel) to make k n o w n . command treasure (1) to b e .

and with unchanging vowels. state. and (5) with a heavy suffix. N o u n s with a doubled final consonant (which usually appears as a single consonant in the absolute s t a t e . Infiection of the First Nine Classes: For the sake of illustration one or more examples of the first nine classes will be shown in both singular and plural as follows: (1) the absolute s t a t e . Obviously. (10) N o u n s of unique formation. (2) the construct state.). which indicate the way that nouns are formed from the triconsonantal roots (types such as qatl. Nouns with unchanging vowels and a single final consonant. However. . qatal. (3) the emphatic state. The numbers of the above classes are the numbers found in parentheses after the nouns and adjectives in the vocabularies at the end of each lesson in this grammar. Nouns with one changing vowel in the ultima and a single final consonant.and with changing vowels. etc. Non-segholate nouns with two changing vowels and a single final consonant. (4) with a light suffix. 2. It is t o be noted t h a t these so-called classes are not to be confused with the types of nouns. Systems of Classification: Any division of nouns and adjectives into classes is quite arbitrarv. in the limited literature of BA all of these forms do not occur in the words chosen as examples. Feminine nouns ending in H. qattal. but are restored from their occurrences in other words.28 LESSON VII CLASSES O F N O U N S 1. see I 4). Feminine nouns ending in ri. to set up such classes is simply a matter of convenience for the purpose of learning the inflections. A convenient system for this purpose is a ten-fold classification as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Segholate nouns. N o u n s ending in r i . and pronominal suffix).. Feminine nouns ending in and i_. because they are governed by the various phonetic laws given in Lesson I in their inflection (for number.

3. isVa pilN T •• N-ini nrii Pis'? nna pa-Vp-a on nn pn aa 'aa nin nia "n J^rn nrn T •• san pn -an paan pa-an pan ai T^ xaa N»aa xnn -aa [plural with suff. sg. pi. sg. (7) (8) (9) sg. (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) sgpi. heavy suff. P?Va i?4 J- npp npp Tia*??? panpp p?9 There also occur the variant forms KVn •'V'Tl and psV'O. paVa-n (see I 1). pi. pi. sg.'n is also found in the plurals of this class. sg. sg. pi.] -ninn n n " t o build"] psprn -nvn pajni-n pann^N -nnn -niaVa 'niaVa N^ia [the Peal Active Participle of nnax max T: • xrinas xnnas snia-) Nnia'ja T : - niaT pannn paniaVa pan3a"7a niaVa niaVi? Nrii?'?? Note the application of the rule that the noanaa letters retain their spirant pronunciation after a vowel even when the vowel which caused it is dropped: pa^rn. This usage of both -'n and . sg. pi. sg. sg. -ISO ISO construct emphatic xaVa T light suff. Nouns of Unique Formation: Grouped together in this tenth class are various nouns (and adjectives) which have inflectional peculiarities that prevent them from being classified with t h e more regular classes of n o u n formation. pi.29 absolute (1) sg. For the sake of clarity. sg. pi. sg. only those forms of the word which are actually found . pi.

[emphatic state] B^K-) " h e a d " [the singular is Class 4 ] . (plural) -iTtl o r " d a y " has the [construct] plural mv besides the regular plural par •nja "colleague" (plural) nnija yinnija Npna "seat. (masculine plural) pa"]ai (feminine plural) lanan xranan [These plurals are formed by reduplication." The n o u n xna " l o r d " can properly be included in Class 3 in spite of the peculiar appearance of t h e form (with suffix) -Kia [a Kethib-Qere variation]. gift" (plural) ^ r . (plural) .30 in BA will be listed. (plural) -"ja -niia lin-n *^i "interior.] •pE*! " w o m e n " (plural) pn-?*! [The singular does not occur in BA.n u N . not emphatic] niJ ni? *vri " v i s i o n " Nim -ITn m m .a T a J •N-a? " p r o p h e t " [emphatic state] nx'ai. (plural) NPin? n n j ? " t o w n " s r i n i ? . (plural or collective singular) n n p . presumably it would be *nri3K. but masculine in the plural. The following list is not complete but represents the great majority of BA nouns having irregularities.] " h o u s e " [the singular is like b'n in Class 1]. (plural) jiD-ria [This is probably an anomalous non-spirantization of the T\.] 13*7 " m y r i a d " (plural) pan [a Kethib-Qere variation] t3^ " n a m e " aaB*. (plural) pB^Ni afi'^N*! [an apparent Hebraism] an " g r e a t " [the singular is Class 5 ] . n a t i o n " [the singular is Class 5]. there is a group of words which are regularly feminine in the singular [some do not occur in the singular in BA]. These include •nax " c u b i t " nax " n a t i o n " •nWH " w h e a t " *nia " w i n d o w " nV? " w o r d . t h r o n e " a-ipia. with the exception of the supposed singular absolute state of t h e noun (this being indicated by an asterisk). (plural) x. m a t t e r " and "year. from a different root. (plural) Njaas •nnp " g o v e r n o r " n n s . m i d s t " xij [construct. (plural) rj-nx n!*iK " l i o n " (plural) x n i n x H^K "fire" [It is difficult to determine as to whether this is a simple feminine or possibly the emphatic state of the masculine tPX of Class 5. the Most H i g h " [emphatic state] N-Vs? [a Kethib-Qere variation] DV "people. .«!a3 [Both occur with Kethib-Qere variations.] "13 " s o n " ana. and thus _ is n o t pronounced as a qames hatuph.n n a x •qrinai? wn^3^? • n x " b r o t h e r " [presumably resembling 3N in the singular]. •3N " f a t h e r " -nN -qiaN .] • ' V y "highest. (plural) pona naT33 "present. (plural) nnai^ Besides these.

affair (7. Vocabulary: letter (8) ni? — window ( 7 . pi. T • pi. pi. 5) lord (3) n3T33 — present. Exercises: Translate the following: (1) "mnvib nx»3J anp n xnnaxa xriVp na-na xptt^ x-iaV pnVs pan ian "?aaa nin xnan xnaVa xo"ia xapinV pTPX 'nia'-ari •'itrj x»ax nns"? napri XB^ xiia ian. 5) T \ xa*^ — fire. midst (10) nin — breast (6) im — apparition. vision.ap xnai naraia xiiaxV xjpin ]nu « l p a ' n n n a» ann-'T n?*x-i xaVs xin (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) x-Vs? xn"?^ nniaia Vaa ma^aa papn? nniiai "rx-in do) . 5) colleague (10) seat.31 4. great multitude (10) nnjN — nx — brother (10) nax — nation ( 7 . appearance (10) wheat (7.x. 4) ntsin — 5. matter. throne (10) word. gift (10) nns — governor (10) T V myriad. > fire-offering (10) ia — interior. pi.

but the / may as frequently be retained (see I H ) . As might be expected. 2). Principal Parts: Although not all of the following principal parts of the active conjugations occur in BA.- ana: an?N nanax an?n nan?n anana anpnp an?^ nan?^ anpB^a ana^p anaa anaa a-na In any of the second root consonants with an / vowel. except that the final vowel is _ rather than _ : (e. which is just like the active. The infinitives of all the derived conjugations may be formed by taking the third person masculine singular of the perfect of the desired conjugation. Part an? aria: ana aripa an? Stative Pael an? ariaan? nana anaa ana? Haphel anan an??- Aphel anax Shaphel ana?* an?B*..> anaa.g. Thus the stative nip " t o pay homage ( t o ) " . the appearance of an / vowel is generally regarded as an analogical extension from the imperfect (see Lesson V. the Haphel Perfect an?n. the Pael Perfect an?.g. sec. Because the characteristic vowel in this position in Proto-Semitic is usually an a in the perfect. changing the final vowel t o and adding the ending n-: (e. the infinitive also occurs with the usual orthographic variation of x_ for n_. for the sake of convenience they are included in t h e diagram below: Peal Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Act. Pass. a sere is frequently found. Part. the Pael) ana... the Pael) anaa. the Pael) ana > an? > nan?. In the derived active conjugations the active participle may be formed from the third person masculine singular of the imperfect by simply changing the yodh to a m e m : (e.g.32 L E S S O N VIII T H E D E R I V E D ACTIVE C O N J U G A T I O N S 1. etc. . In these same conjugations there is sometimes a passive participle. The characteristic vowel of the second root consonant of the imperfect of derived conjugations in Proto-Semitic is an /.

) The Pael Participles are [note that. the direct object may (or may not) be introduced by the preposition b. The names used for these irregular (weak) verbs in BA are generally the same as those used in BH. context alone determines whether the participle is active or passive]: . As noted previously. (9) Geminate (or Ayin Ayin).) 2 (masc. or strong verbs.33 2.) ian? (masc. based on the original grammatical paradigm word VsD (the three root consonants of any verb being named in order. (7) Ayin W a w (including Ayin Yodh). (const. I n other words. Actually. Lamedh Waw. except where another phonetic development dominates them t o change the form slightly (see Lesson I). A verb which has more than one subject may be either singular or plural (whether it precedes or whether it follows its subjects). verbs are divided into regular. (2) Ayin Laryngeal (including resh). pi. the Ayin letter.) 1 (com. it may be found either preceding or following either its subject o r its object. These irregular verbs will be considered in subsequent lessons. All other verbs in BA are classified as regular (or strong) verbs.) -an? (fem. sing. except for the masculine singular. (with suffix) nian? The Pael Imperative i s : ana ( m a s c sing. T h e following classification of irregular (weak) verbs may be considered as inclusive: (1) Pe Laryngeal. or weak verbs.) Perfect Plural Imperfect para- an? nari? nan? nan? anaana?i anari an?N lana nan? pnana rianan an?i wan? The Pael Infinitive is nana.) nana.) 3 (fem. 3. and irregular. and (10) verbs doubly weak (of all classes). and Lamedh Y o d h ) . as in BH and other Semitic languages. all the so-called "irregular" classes of verbs are basically conjugated according t o the pattern of the regular verbs. (4) Pe N u n . and the Lamedh letter). Regular and Irregular Verbs: In BA. (3) Lamedh Laryngeal (including resh). In BA the verb may come in almost any position in the sentence. The Pael: the Pael: The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows in Singular Perfect Imperfect Person 3 (masc. (6) Pe Yodh (including Pe Waw). (5) Pe Aleph. the Pe letter. (8) the so-called "Lamedh H e " (including Lamedh Aleph.

pi. sg. active or passive) ]an?a (f.) 2 (masc.) 3 (fem. pi. sing. (const. passive) (f. active or passive) janana (f. The Haphel Imperative i s : anan (masc. sing. (with suflix) nianan. sing. active or passive) pariD!? (m.) n a n a n . sing.) "-anan (fem.) 1 (com. One example of each of the forms occurring is listed below: .— second person masculine plural pVapn Infinitive —x'?Ba [note x for n] Participle—masculine plural (passive) pnsaa 4.) Perfect lanan Imperfect awnanann ananri Imperfect panam nanan pnanan Nianan panann anpni nanan 3^|^^^t In the perfect there are also the variant forms nanan and nanan for the third person feminine singular and first person common singular respectively. One example each of those forms which do occur is listed below for convenience: Perfect—third person masculine singular "jap [and VapJ — third person masculine plural iVaa Imperfect — third person masculine plural pVap.) lanan (masc. sg.34 ansa anaa nanaa (masc. the Haphel likewise has only a few actual occurrences in the regular (strong) verbs of BA. The Haphel: in the Haphel: Singular Perfect 3?sn rianan The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows Plural Person 3 (masc. sing.) The Haphel Participles a r e : anana anana nanana (masc. pi. passive) (f. active) (masc. active or passive) panana (m. active or passive) As was true with the Pael. active) ( m a s c sing. pi. The Haphel Infinitive is n a n a n . pi. active or passive) Only a few forms of the Pael paradigm as given above are actually found in any of the regular (strong) verbs of BA.

The few occurrences of the Shaphel may be regarded as remnants of a n older conjugation. this is not true for the Imperfect and the Participles. for the root VSE? appears elsewhere in the Haphel.) panpn ana? Plural In the regular (strong) verbs of BA. However. passive) (f sg. It is a Participle — masculine singular active: V-Bt^a [with the variant VsiPa].) 1 (com. the Shaphel. and the Aphel is an aleph causative conjugation. The Aphel Imperfect of the regular (strong) verbs is therefore given as follows: Singular Person an?: ari?n anan anax The Aphel Participles a r e : anaio anaa nanaa (masc. . The Aphel: In BA. the Haphel is a he causative conjugation. the Infinitive. active or passive) l?n?9 (f. rather than in the Aphel. and the Imperative of the Aphel can be formed uniformly by substituting an aleph for a he. Even so. sing. for a universal rule for the formation of the Shaphel is to substitute a shin for the he of t h e Haphel. N o paradigms need be listed here. active or passive) 3 (masc. the paradigm of the Perfect. there is only one example of the Aphel (the Aphel occurs more frequently among the weak verbs). The Shaphel: Far more rare in BA than either the Haphel or the Aphel is the shin causative. active) (masc.active or passive) panaa (m.P'. sing. Thus. the example is somewhat doubtful.) — second-person masculine singular — third person masculine plural Imperfect Infinitive — third person masculine singular — nVsiPn cbtn nVst^n Itnn VpEJn'' npbpn Imperative — masculine singular 5.) 2 (masc.35 Perfect—third person masculine singular (with suff. 6.) 3 (fem. pi.

command. there are no examples of the Shaphel. report (1) now (pael) t o bind.a ? ? aip. request. oVirn •qnV^ n-a ]nbs}? rj"? f an:ria""'i K?Kai (2) "^ Niann K"? Nnnj?! "qVs s n a j xVpa^ D»p la-fe' i»a (3) aniiai "^"yv^b nnsaV -lax nV-na n V-n-naj p a i ^ i Vaa-q"?!? T .I 3 J . deliver (completely) DJ7B — 8.36 In t h e regular (strong) verbs of BA. make m — angry (haphel) to complete. turn (2) in — one nm — to see. Those occurrences in t h e weak classes of verbs will be considered in subsequent lessons. (i) D"?Bh-i. perceive -dream (1) Exercises: Translate the following: ••D"Tp-p pVap.ri 13121 patai paripr) 7\'^tp^ naVn jni sense. Vocabulary: behold! (pael) to stop nia — (hithpeel) to be built nya — to seek. 7. advice. tie nsa — (divine) service -IB^D — interpretation (1) (pael) t o receive before (haphel) to irritate. a ian an^ xjair^ aVs^ ao ann ne^Nii ^C!?? '•'HlI ""T '73p""?a (5) DV^ IV^JI x-'p-'Va D/'PI nm Vaa sna (e) NaVa> nynin'? xntt^pi nV-jnii jay •T xaVa-ia nsa Vs'jni (7) ' .(mighty) m a n . warrior if. finish. whether t i m e . be on the point of. run great risk .

it is the Peal Passive Participle.) Peil wna Hophal lanan nanpn na^ipn (H)ria-n3 rianan na-na T . Both of the passive conjugations. [Some have conjectured a Hophal Imperfect of nni in Ezra 6:5.) 1 (com. this is not certain. For the sake of convenience in syntactic classification it may be assumed that when it is accompanied by a separate subject (either n o u n or pronoun). and otherwise.rather than the Haphel in retaining it. Peil and Hophal. It is possible that the few forms so labeled are remnants of such a conjugation which was at home in BA. However. it would be expected t o follow the Aphel in dropping the n. They occur only in the Perfect and n o t in all of its forms. Peil and Hophal. The Peil also occurs in Imperial Aramaic. The Hophal is considered by some to be a Hebraism in BA. While there is no occurrence of a Hophal Imperfect in BA.) 2 (masc. 77ie Passive Conjugations: In BA there are two passive conjugations.] The Perfect of the passive conjugations of the regular (strong) verb of BA is as follows: Perfect Singular Peil Hophal aron . it is the Peil Perfect. qatil.37 LESSON IX T H E PASSIVE A N D R E F L E X I V E C O N J U G A T I O N S 1. which has been introduced into the verbal system and adapted for use as a passive participle. This participle itself is an adjectival type. It is apparently nothing more nor less than the Peal Passive Participle to which finite endings have been added. .) 3 (fem. This would accord with the Hophal Imperfect of BH. pna-na Nja-na pnanan Nianan n?"'n? nanan It is frequently difficult to determine whether a-na is the masculine singular of the Peal Passive Participle or is the third person masculine singular of the Peil Perfect. have a very limited use in BA. T Plural Person 3 (masc.

Hithpeel. It is important t o note that these "reflexive" conjugations may often have a true passive meaning. for the sake of convenience they are included below: Hithpeel Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Participle a?3na Hithpaal ari??in arisnansnn Hishtaphal aripnfn anariifJn nanawn anariB^ N o t e t h a t in the imperfect the prefixed n is completely elided. rather than being retained as in the Haphel. etc.38 Only a few forms of either the Peil or the Hophal occur in any of the regular (strong) verbs of BA.) 3 (fem. This n can be replaced by an K [cf Haphel and Aphel]. thus occurs the Ithpeel for Hithpeel. Hithpaal. In each case the n which precedes the n seems t o be an analogical extension of the initial consonant of the causative system. there are the reflexive stems in t. just as in the Aphel. orbf third person feminine singular nV-tJj? second person masculine singular NpVpn [for nV'pri] third person masculine plural inD? [for W M ] third person feminine singular Wj?rn 2. and Shaphel. 3. 2)]: Singular Perfect ariann rariann Plural Imperfect araii: Person 3 (masc.) Perfect larann Imperfect panan? lanan? apann nanapn . The Reflexive Conjugations: Corresponding t o the Peal. and Hishtaphal. The Hithpeel: The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows in the Hithpeel [note that metathesis of n with a following sibilant regularly occurs in verbs with an initial sibilant (see V. sec. —a phenomenon occurring also in other Semitic languages. Although n o t all of the following principal parts of the reflexive conjugations occur in BA. One example each of those forms which are found is listed below (all are in the Perfect): Peil — • Hophal — third person masculine singular. Pael. as well as their expected reflexive meaning.

) 3 (fem.) The Hlthpee'Infinitive is n a n a M . sing.) lanann The Hithpeel Participles a r e : anara nanana (masc. sing.) .) lanann (masc.) nanann.) nanann. The Hithpeel Imperative is: anann (masc. The Hithpaal Imperative is: anann (masc. sing.) -anann nanann is found for the third person nianann. One example of each of the forms which do occur is listed below: Perfect Imperfect Infinitive Participle — second person masculine plural pniantn [a Kethib-Qere variation—possibly pniam — or a Hithpaal] — third person feminine singular — nVopnn — masculine plural pVPp. sing.riP paniPn [note the metathesis] 4. pi.) (fem. sing. (const.) 1 (com.) -anann (fem.) 2 (masc. pi. (withsuffix) (fem. (const.) panana ]anana (masc. sing. (masc. pi. pi. The Hithpaal: in the Hithpaal: Singular Perfect anann nanann nanann nanann The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows Plural Person 3 (masc.) (fem. only a few of the above forms are actually found in the regular (strong) verbs of BA. (withsuffix) nianann.39 Singular nansnn napsnn ansrir) ananK 2 (masc.) 1 (com.) Perfect lanann nanann pnanann Nianann Imperfect panan? l?naripanann anan? Imperfect anananann anann ananx The Hithpaal Infinitive is nanann.) pnanpriri wanann Plural pansnn anani In the perfect the variant form feminine singular.) Once again.

p n-r mm do) » " aj .) f3?iana (masc.40 The Hithpaal Participles a r e : arisra nanana (masc. decide — (hithpaal) t o assemble B^a I B — fire (4) *ia» — the opposite bank (1) — (peil) t o be killed — (hithpeel) t o be killed — (hithpaal) t o be killed 6. [adverb] very (4) Vafe — (hithpaal) t o consider paB> — (hithpeel) to be left. the actual occurrences will be discussed subsequently in connection with the class of weak verbs involved. occurs extremely rarely in BA. many. The Hishtaphal: The Hishtaphal. command. 7. T law (4) — (hithpeel or hithpaal) to agree.na x B > ri x a V a . Exercises: Translate the following: xni-n nV-pp is n^piK n t n (i) (3) nan — (hithpeel) to be thrown — great. sing.p i (2) xnVa nVanft^nV i i a i T n i iB^iann xnai nan V-pni •"nita n-aV asp? xa"?? nb<6 (4) n"?ppnn sVi nipnn •'nia^io-Vsi (5) N-a^ nani Nsnx xiia fr^ xa-an nm (6) (8) x p i ^ nVx " n "TIT ian nnni na»a n xas-Va (7) >n xnii-xia"p xann: xaVs"? lip^i b& x V . Rather than giving a reconstructed paradigm for the Hishtaphal. and n o t at all in the regular (strong) verbs. like the Shaphel. Vocabulary: — tree (4) m — decree.-? ]»a i » i n s .i . These forms a r e : Participle — masculine singular Vn ^ [note the metathesis] af a e — masculine plural ppjana 5.) l???ria In the regular (strong) verbs of BA the only forms of the Hithpaal which occur are participles (there are other forms in the weak verbs).) (fem. pi. pass on t o n^tt? — t o send — (peil) t o be finished Vpn — (peil) t o be weighed ipn — (hophal) t o be reestablished wb^ xVi jqara nn. pi. much.p i paVsj*? pantfn ao q " xniaVai (9) h? pVDp. sing.) (fem. order.

) 13S? rinas nna?. 2. Pe N u n and Lamedh Laryngeal. and n o t t o verbs which are doubly weak. rather than being dissimilated t o an / (I E).or _ : (sing. they exhibit relatively minor irregularities from t h e pattern of the regular (strong) verb of BA.g. rather than reconstructing hypothetical paradigms for the weak classes of verbs. etc. in place of retaining its shewa]. etc. A short / before this first consonant usually becomes a seghol (I F ) . The laryngeals and resh prefer a vowels.or fn^vn [here the laryngeal adopts t h e vowel of the prefix. consideration will be given to underlying principles and phonetic rules applicable t o each class. Laryngeal Verbs: In this lesson t h e three classes of laryngeal verbs will be discussed. t h e laryngeals and resh cannot be doubled. (A) Peal: the above rules have specific applications as follows [some examples are given as illustrations]: Perfect: where the Pe letter of the regular verb has — or _ t h e laryngeal has . A n original a is usually retained under this first consonant. (plural) n 3 » Imperfect: t h e prefix retains t h e original _ instead of having _ [but becomes _ when t h e verb is also Lamedh H e ] : (plural) peVn. Pe Laryngeal Verbs: T o this class belong those verbs whose first consonant is r\> or ». In this and subsequent lessons. and there will be a listing of specific examples which actually occur in BA. Obviously a laryngeal can occur in verbs t h a t have more than one weakness (e. Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Aleph.41 LESSON X L A R Y N G E A L VERBS 1. Usually t h e vocal shewa under this first consonant is composite (I M ) . Infinitive: t h e mem has _ instead of _ : i s s a . As a group.). Such verbs that are doubly weak will be discussed subsequently. refers t o verbs with only one weak root consonant (and that a laryngeal). It is important t o note t h a t this lesson deals primarily with verbs t h a t are weak in one root consonant only. Any statement as to the occurrences of verbsin this lesson. The variations which d o occur are a result of some phonetic development that dominates them t o change t h e form slightly. A short a before this first consonant is usually retained (as in t h e Peal Imperfect).

and is quite regular in form: (plural) yapni Participles: the actual occurrences of the participles in Pe Laryngeal verbs are quite regular in both the Haphel and the Aphel. Infinitive. the Pe Laryngeal verbs have no irregularities in the Pael. which will be considered in a later lesson). Besides the general rules for the laryngeals given above.) i:ivm H i t h p a a l : the same use of _ i s found in the regular verb as in the Pael. rather than the Haphel. Imperfect.[and npyn-] Participle: (sing. note especially that in compensation for the lack of doubling the preceding vowel may be lengthened under certain circumstances (see I 8). unusual with laryngeals. V or l . Haphel (and Aphel): the development of the Haphel from the original Proto-Semitic to BA seems to have been more complicated. having _^ where the regular verb has _ : Imperfect: ( s i n g . (A) Peal: the above rules for Ayin Laryngeal verbs have specific applications as follows [some examples are given as illustrations]: Perfect. Hithpeel: this is very similar to the Peal. ) n a r n . Ayin Laryngeal Verbs: T o this class belong verbs whose second root consonant is N. involving several phonetic rules: it appears to have taken place as follows: * 3 p r i n > ipnn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > ]pnn (the so-called " q a t q a t . and Imperative: all occurrences happen to be regular (with the exception of a verb with verbal suffixes. cf I E]) > Jpnn (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect to the perfect) > ]pnn (short / before a laryngeal becomes a seghol [see I F ] ) > jDnn (insertion of a hateph [see I N]). (D) Passive conjugations: there are no occurrences of Peil or Hophal in verbs strictly Pe Laryngeal [occurrences in verbs doubly weak (Pe Laryngeal plus some other factor) will be discussed subsequently]. consequently t h e P e Laryngeal verbs have no irregularities in the Hithpaal. .q i t q a t " dissimilation [however. (C) (E) (F) 3. n. like the laryngeals. Perfect: (plural) y p m Imperfect: here the only occurrence is in the Aphel.42 Participles: the active participle is regular. Resh is included in this class primarily because it. the passive participle has _ for _ : (plural) pn-B^n (B) Pael: since the Pe letter of the regular (strong) verb uniformly has _ in the Pael and this is also what the laryngeals prefer. cannot be doubled. n.

n. Perfect: all the occurrences are with resh. only one form actually occurs as given below). Participles: the active singular has _ for _ . with the inability of t h e laryngeal t o be doubled. Lamedh Laryngeal Verbs: T o this class belong verbs whose last consonant is n. (plural) pnVs the passive participle has t h e pathahi furtive: (sing. and Hithpeel: there are only a few forms of these conjugations which occur in verbs strictly Ayin Laryngeal.43 Participles: the masculine active singular and the passive participles. Besides the general rules above. the lack of doubling produces some irregularity (however. Also. Imperfect: here there is found _ for _ before t h e last consonant. a p a t h a h furtive appears after a heterogeneous long vowel (I K). t h e Lamedh Laryngeal class is regular in t h e Peal Perfect. a shewa before the last consonant is retained. the feminine active singular and both active plural participles have _ for _ : (plural) f VnS(B) Pael: as might be expected.) "qna n ? 1 3 Imperfect: (sing.) "qiati.) anpn. » or i [this a is a he proper. t h e plural is regular: (sing. t h e same as in the regular (strong) verb: (sing. n. Participle: here is the one instance of t h e vowel before a he being lengthened in compensation for the lack of doubling (see I 8 ) : (sing. or » (I J). Peil.) nbl^. and this is w h a t t h e laryngeals also prefer. and all of these occurrences happen t o be regular. Hithpaal: as in the Pael. indicated by a mappiq. the Ayin Laryngeal verbs exhibit their greatest irregularities in the Pael (see 1 8). (plural) f"T5?oa Haphel. remember t h a t short vowels become pathah before final n. (plural) pnbD: Infinitive: t h e Lamedh Laryngeal infinitive is regular in t h e Peal.) n'?B.) n*"^ . (plural) pas?»Participles: (sing. and not a he t h a t is just one of the matres lectionis for t h e long vowel d — all of t h e latter verbs are included in the so-called " L a m e d h H e " class of verbs]. so t h e preceding vowel is lengthened in compensation for the lack of doubling: (sing.pass.) (C) (D) Vnarta 4. (A) Peal: the above rules for Lamedh Laryngeal verbs have specific applications as follows [some examples are given as illustrations]: Perfect: because t h e regular (strong) verb has a p a t h a h before t h e last consonant. singular and plural. are formed regularly.

44 (B) Pael: here the preference of t h e laryngeals and resh for the a-vowel is regularly exhibited. The Ithpeel Conjugation: As was mentioned previously (Lesson IX. the formations with a n suflRx [third person feminine. sec. Imperative: the same _ is found as in the perfect: (plural) i T i a Participles: because _ is found in the active participle for it becomes identical with the passive participle in form and the context must be used to differentiate between t h e m .o r _ : (sing. (plural) pnVsa (D) (E) Peil: t h e sole occurrence of this conjugation is quite regular.n [the latter appears in the form of a true laryngeal segholate]. Participles: the occurrences actually found in BA of the Lamedh Laryngeal class are in t h e Aphel rather than in the H a p h e l .) nVsM. . 2).) nnai^. (plural) nairni Infinitive: t h e Lamedh Laryngeal infinitive is regular in the Haphel.) nariB'n —third person feminine singular: in this class of verbs particularly. and first person common] tend t o be formed somewhat on an analogy with a segholate [cf the Peal Imperfect of the Pe Laryngeal above ]na??ri > pnasn]: thus n i t a n n and nriar«?. the plural participles are regular: (sing.) mtr\T). second person masculine. Hithpeel: the same occurrence of _ for _ as found in the Pael is found in the Hithpeel. in BA there occurs a reflexive conjugation basically identical to (F) 5.) n ^ s n n n a ^ n [first person — for this peculiar formation see t h e discussion under the Hithpeel Perfect below]. the singular has _ for _ in the active participle (see the Pael Participles above). Perfect: note that metathesis occurs quite regularly in case of an initial sibilant: (sing.) i|?aInfinitive: the Lamedh Laryngeal infinitive is regular in the Pael. H i t h p a a l : all occurrences of this conjugation in verbs strictly Lamedh Laryngeal are regular. Perfect: (sing. (plural) i n a ^ Imperfect: the same _ is found as in the perfect: (sing. (plural) inaiPn Njnatf^n Imperfect: (sing. the plural is regular: (sing. Perfect: here _ i s found for . —second person masculine singular: easy to confuse with the above: nnariE^a [the final n is n o t aspirantized].) i B ^ D p n a e ' D (C) Haphel (and Aphel): the same occurrences of _ for _ and _ as found in the Pael are found in t h e Haphel.

turned i n t o . Verbs Doubly Laryngeal: In BA there occur some verbs with two different laryngeals (or resh). Extending this parallel into the perfect of the Ithpeel. which has _ (the first person singular is a r i a n x ) . give t o eat 8. The prefixes of the Hithpeel Imperfect all have _ except the x . pass by jon — (haphel and aphel) t o occupy. > respect DBD — (pael) t o feed.altar (3) • (pael) t o help. the form a n a n x is found for the perfect. as well as the form a n a n x . where the Haphel begins with a n and the Aphel with an x . 6. there is another analogical influence on the Ithpeel which apparently comes from the Hithpeel Imperfect. rather than with a n . Exercises: Translate the following: nafa nas nir^B nVs anp nas^ natt> ny6 . investigate •qna — (pael) t o bless nn — (hithpeel and ithpeel) t o be cut o u t . break off »]"?n — t o pass (over). be perplexed npa — (pael) to seek. scatter Vna — (hithpaal) t o be frightened. In either case. besides those with a laryngeal and another type of irregularity or weakness (which will be discussed subsequently). However. be done (pael) t o interpret (haphel and aphel) t o (cause to) prosper. possess a^n — t o consider. fare well. extended into the reflexives so that there is a form anariX corresponding to the form ansnn. or consider specific examples. except it begins with an K in the Perfect. make progress (pael) t o offer (pael) t o praise (haphel) t o find (hithpeel) t o be found ra-B^nxVaxB-iK-anj-Vai ( i ) aVifiTa •'•7 oanVN n-a ""r nna-ra-Vs ian anp^ni (2) TinV r-i»09 snVs-n x w a i jinaxn (3) . making it unnecessary t o list paradigms. aid (hithpeel) t o be m a d e .45 the Hithpeel. This appears to be on an analogy with the causatives. In the Lamedh Laryngeal verbs there is one occurrence of an Ithpeel: nnfanx corresponding t o nnfann [see above — Hithpeel]. Thus some verbs are both Pe Laryngeal and Ayin Laryngeal. 7. and others are both Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal. application of all the above rules for laryngeals or resh involved in each individual verb is all that is needed. Vocabulary: m a — (pael) t o disperse.

^ xaVs •'n'?i na-ia x-Vs?'?'! (8) p»5?».ai ovp o-i? ""lai (5) aVa-n Niaa -nWi Tia!i "jnana x-ato sa'pa p-rx (e) xniaVa ]pt^i n -ni"??? psVa: piiv s^aiNi (7) nna.-nm"-] (10) aVs n-a"? nayn? Nwa l a s .i " ' ? ? (11) aiaa a-na-pi ana Vaaa nani|?ni (12) .•q'? pnina xai^vi (9) nxjai -"ari "ava pn^sai pia v.sri-iJK inpB^ni iip.

> ps]. no irregularities are caused by a nun that is initial (the first consonant in a word or syllable).JW. Infinitive: the nun may be retained. or it may be assimilated.(imperfect) > ana (imperative) then p B .47 LESSON XI PE N U N . even to a laryngeal (I 2). PE Y O D H . the Pe N u n verbs exhibit a decided preference for an / (see Lesson VI. Perfect and Imperfect: those occurrences in verbs strictly Pe N u n are regular. (C) Haphel (and Aphel): the assimilation or non-assimilation of the nun seems to occur indiscriminately here also. hence there are no irregularities in the Peil. (A) Peal: the Pe Nun verbs exhibit more irregularities in the Peal than in the derived conjugations [possibly because there are more occurrences in the Peal]. or it may be assimilated. as in "jsa [an Aphel form]. especially in the Haphel. Pe Nun Verbs: Most of the irregularities in this class of verbs occur because a nun at the end of a syllabic is often assimilated to the consonant beginning the following syllable. the assimilation or non-assimilation of the nun seems to be indiscriminate: (sing. as innVsn. A N D PE A L E P H VERBS 1. this is not universal.jriiri. (B) Pael: the sole occurrence happens to be an infinitive. Imperfect: although the characteristic vowel of the imperfect is usually u (with a i n the stative verbs). so there are no irregularities. 1). However. . for the nun may also be retained. (D) Peil: the initial nun is not assimilated. Participles: the nun may be retained. the nun is initial. Participles: as in the perfect. and with an initial nun there is no irregularity. (plural) pVpn pjrir Infinitive: the sole occurrence happens to be regular: ]n3!p Imperative: the nun is dropped completely: (plural) ips [apparently on an analogy with the imperfect and imperative of the regular verb: if nnp. sec. Naturally. Perfect: no irregularities are caused by the initial nun in the perfect.) Vp.

nVa? Imperfect: this is usually conjugated as though the verb belonged to the Pe N u n class. Hithpaal: in the hithpaal conjugation the Pe letter never comes at the end of a syllable. because the laryngeal is a n. t h e yodh is elided as a consonant. Pe Yodh Verbs {Including Pe Waw): These are really two distinct classes. (A) Peal: the only irregularities attested occur in the imperfect and the imperative. Haphel (and Aphel): t h e only verb with this kind of double weakness comes from t h e root nm. hence no irregularities occur in the Pe N u n verbs.) Va^Van [Qere: t h e K e t h i b form "raw and . with t h e initial consonant assimilated t o the second conson a n t (see above): (sing. Irregularities occur when the yodh (or waw) comes a t the end of a syllable. but the laryngeal cannot be doubled as a result of the assimilation. b u t are distinguishable from each other only in the Haphel. The two main ones are (1) the possible assimilation of the nun. Verbs Pe Nun and Ayin Laryngeal: All the phonetic rules of both classes apply t o this class of doubly weak verbs. Imperfect: (sing. Verbs Pe Nun and Lamedh Laryngeal: Once again.) ap. (A) (B) Peal and H o p h a l : the sole attested form in each of these conjugations happens t o be regular. when the perfect occurs with the conjunction i. then those few occurrences of verbs in this class are amply explained. all the rules of both of these particular classes apply t o this class of doubly weak verbs.) nnn [an Aphel form] Imperative: (sing) nns [an Aphel form] Participle: (plural) pnnna [a Haphel form] 3. there is no lengthening of the vowel in compensation (see I 8). in t h e Haphel (or Aphel) the nun is assimilated. and becomes part of t h e long vowel (as in B H ) : lami Perfect: quite regular: (sing. In this connection it should be remembered that an initial waw becomes a yodh (see I 6). Especially irregular are formations analogous t o the Pe N u n class where the initial consonant is assimilated [only apparently] to the following consonant. If it is noted t h a t a nun may (or may not) be assimilated. with one important exception. and that all short vowels become pathah before a final laryngeal (see I J).48 (E) (F) Hithpeel: there are no occurrences in verbs strictly Pe N u n . and (2) the impossibility of doubling the laryngeal (I 8). 2. 4.

49 the form V D V ( D a n .) aori Participles: all are regular: (sing. see the verbs both Pe Yodh and Ayin Laryngeal below]. others consider them t o be genuine examples of an old BA Huphal (Hophal) conjugation] however. hence it can be listed in BA as a Pe Yodh only for convenience.) Participle: (sing. Perfect: (sing. However.) "jD. (E) Hophal: there is only one occurrence. the Shaphel of ezebu. in one instance. 6). which is cognate t o the B H aw. 1) as well as the Haphel and the Aphel. which has in instead of the regular im- perfect: third person feminine singular: nepin (F) Hithpeel and H i t h p a a l : there are no occurrences in verbs strictly Pe Yodh. t h e occurrences are n o t common (see Lesson VIII. Haphel: here there is a distinction between true Pe Yodh verbs and those originally Pe W a w . and becomes in in the Haphel (see I D ) .) apBto . sec. for it comes from the Accadian sUzubu — usezib. for the Pe letter does not come a t the end of a syllable [for examples of Pe Yodh.) a p ^ Infinitive: (with an attached suffix) 'qniartt^ (etc. the true Pe Yodh verbs become ••n in t h e Haphel (see I P). sec. Perfect: (sing. 5. unless preceded by the conjunction 1 (see above). but no irregularities need have been expected anyway. and joins a preceding long vowel (see I P ) : (sing.) a r * Imperfect: (sing. (plural) pan. and therefore is regular. like the peal perfect. (A) Shaphel: the sole occurrence in the Pe Yodh verbs is more apparent than real.) anin Va-n Infinitive: nVa-n (D) Peil: this conjugation. has a shewa under the initial consonant. t h e yodh is eliminated as a consonant instead. 2:10) are considered as Peals incorrectly written like Hophals.. All of the occurrences of the Shaphel in BA are closely related t o (if n o t borrowed from) t h e Shaphel of Accadian (common in that language). t h e Shaphel (see Lesson V.n"??. The Shaphel and Saphel Conjugations: As was noted previously. in the latter t h e yodh reverts t o its original waw. not ar. there occurs a shin causative conjugation. (B) (C) Pael: the sole occurrence (infinitive) of a verb strictly Pe Yodh is regular.

in the Peal and Haphel conjugations.an-nn. Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh Laryngeal: Most of the irregularities which occur in both the Pe Yodh class and in the Lamedh Laryngeal class occur in this class of doubly weak verbs.) an Participle: the only irregularity is that the laryngeal takes a composite shewa: (sing. and the infinitive does not occur. Perfect: regular. the Shaphel of {w)abdlu (even though in the Haphel of BA by is treated as a true Pe Yodh). Imperfect: (sing. as in verbs Pe Yodh only).) s?:rin V71N. Imperfect: the outstanding characteristic of the imperfect is its analogy to the Pe N u n class. except when found with the conjunction i. alternatively. which is here shown by the actual presence of a nun (rather than by doubling the second consonant. This is true in spite of the fact that this class is limited in BA t o the root v i . (plural) psnr . if it is maintained that the yodh is assimilated to the second consonant. Perfect: (plural) lB»-nx 7.) an-^. except when it occurs with the conjunction ^: (sing.) an-pa nan-iia. (B) Peil: uniformly regular.— the initial consonant is dropped completely: (sing. (A) Peal: the perfect is quite regular. for it comes from the Accadian subulu.50 (B) Saphel: t h e one occurrence of a Saphel in BA is undoubtedly from an original Pe Waw conjugation (cf. possibly reflects an Assyrian rather than a Babylonian pronunciation of the Accadian in this instance. Verbs Pe Yodh and Ayin Laryngeal: All the rules of both classes apply t o this class of doubly weak verbs.) an-n.) an. instead of the usual ^ of the Shaphel. More of the attested irregularities occur because of the laryngeal than because of the yodh (even if there is no Pael attested). (A) Peal: there are no occurrences in the imperfect or in the infinitive.nan-.—all irregularities that occur are on account of the laryngeal. (plural) ]-an::na (D) Ithpaal: the sole attested form is irregular because the laryngeal cannot be doubled and the preceding vowel is lengthened in compensation for the lack of doubling by the » (see I 8 b). (plural) ian-i Imperative: this is conjugated as though it belonged to the Pe N u n class. T h e use of o. (plural) ]-an. Participle: (plural) pVaioa 6. BH). this nun could be considered as a resolution of that doubled second consonant (see I 3): (sing. (plural) pan-n? Participles: (sing. (C) Hithpeel: the yodh causes no irregularities.

n a (C) Hophal: the sole attested form is also analogous t o t h e Pe W a w . Pe Aleph Verbs: In general t h e aleph quiesces whenever it does not have its own vowel.) r T . X-_ instead of t h e usual sere yodh ">—). (plural) I V I N Klbw Imperfect: the aleph quiesces.) -bjv.) nam (D) Pael. and the vowel of the prefix is lengthened in compensation (see I 5): (sing. the preceding vowel is often lengthened (see I 5).51 Imperative: also analogous t o t h e Pe N u n class: (sing.) V T N . including a hateph seghol under t h e aleph. 8. rather than the usual hateph pathah (see the doubly weak verb nax below): (sing. (B) Haphel: the Pe Aleph verbs have a formation analogous t o t h e Pe Yodh (and Pe Waw) class in the Haphel.) nainri. there is apparently no reason why one verb is formed like a Pe Waw and another like a Pe Y o d h . . ""VsN Participles: the active participles are all regular (there is no occurrence of the passive participle). Otherwise. and all t h e forms are only irregular in accordance with the normal pattern for a Pe Waw Haphel. (plural) p s T j (passive) v . and also in those places where having a Lamedh Laryngeal affects t h e vocalization.) p-n Imperfect: the verb nan is analogous t o a Pe W a w : (sing. To compensate for this quiescence a t t h e end of a syllable.) VI Participles: (sing. Perfect: the verb pN is analogous t o a Pe Y o d h : (sing. Other t h a n a possible early o r t h o graphic waw-yodh confusion. (plural) jnanInfinitive: nnain Participle: the sole occurrence is a passive participle: (sing. and t h e Reflexive Conjugations: there are no occurrences in BA of these conjugations in the Pe Aleph class. Perfect: (sing.g.T [note the p a t h a h furtive] (B) Haphel: t h e occurrences in t h e Haphel show that was an original Pe Waw verb.) p . However. Perfect: (sing. (plural) n a x : [jussive] Infinitive: see the doubly weak verb naK below. Imperative: here is exhibited a variety of formations. the Pe Aleph class is very similar t o t h e Pe Laryngeal class (which see). Peil.) bo»r\. the aleph was retained in writing by historical orthography (e. (A) Peal: the shewa under an initial aleph is usually a hateph pathah (see I M ) .

bring. the original _ is retained instead of _ (see the discussion of the peal perfect of the Pe Laryngeal verbs in Lesson X ) ] . Vocabulary: — (ithpaal) to take counsel together — (haphel) to settle. n n a x [for a discussion of the apparent segholate ending.52 9. cause to dwell — province. see the discussion of the hithpeel perfect of the Lamedh Laryngeal verbs in Lesson X ] . n"iaN [as in the Pe Laryngeal verbs. (plural) p-iax 11. lay. The Peal of nax is formed as follows: Perfect:the aleph takes the hateph p a t h a h and the laryngeal prefers the a-vowel: (sing. r[<m-b^'\ •^•'bv n nai (2) nV nppin nx-Jto naani nnVxa p'n Vs!n (3) .) l a s . I t exhibits the weaknesses of the two classes respectively t o which it belongs.) i a ^ Participles: the laryngeal of the singular influences the preceding vowel. (plural) piaxri Infinitive: the aleph quiesces as usual. > preserve — heap of stones (1) a?: — to be pleasing — (hophal) t o be added Exercises: annria nm b^ aw 12. deliver — witness. —first person. town. and t h a t in the Peal. testimony (9) — t o rescue — — — • ^ ^ ^ jax — — — bT bT — (hophal) t o be destroyed to go (to or away) to eat (haphel) t o trust in earth (1) (haphel) t o bring (saphel) t o offer.) l a N . but there is also an unusual orthographic variation where the aleph is not written: l a x a and l a a Imperative: the hateph seghol is found here instead of the usual hateph p a t h a h : (sing. city (7) — (haphel and aphel) t o deposit — (haphel and aphel) to rescue. Translate the following: nVsra n-a laim Knrn iVax (i) ]na»n nas^V ap-".. (plural) n a s Imperfect: the aleph quiesces: (sing. Verbs Pe Aleph and Ayin Laryngeal: does n o t happen t o be found in BA.) l a x —third person feminine. This class of doubly weak verbs 10. Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh Laryngeal: Only one verb is attested in BA. the plural is regular: (sing.

nx pDt^ n nnpa ian anini ^Vx xjax Va-n xan xa"?? lax xiara wni xan xnVx n-a"? xninp nin-V xiVm D'?BhTa n s'^a-n? xjixa nnx-^jx nV •la^?1 x»nx?i xjatfa f n x n a y i "jsai arw? xini xynxa nax! nas? x^ x p n x i x-aB^-'T xjnVx oinV pnpxn nna (Jer. 10:11) nVx (Genesis 31:47) xnnrjto Tl^ (4) (5) (e) (?) (8) (9) (lo) K»aw ninn-]ai .53 Uniar^V Kn»'?ia •'»''3n Vb wv.

In some verbs these letters in the middle position are true consonants. and to this long stem. Dip and np^. 2)J. Thus. or even to group t h e m together in one class (see Lesson VIII. Dp. Very possibly this confusion of forms has resulted largely from an earlier orthographic waw-yodh confusion. of course. This long vowel (qames)in the perfect has the accent. the regular perfect endings have been added. in BA there is almost invariably the long variety of the stem (Dip and Dp). and such verbs do not belong t o the " h o l l o w " verbs. Ayin Waw Verbs: As indicated above. The Ayin Waw verbs are verbs fundamentally biconsonantal with the i as a vowel predominating over the • in the Peal imperfect. 2. a term. and DpJ. I n b o t h BH and BA there is some confusion between forms written with waw and those written with yodh. B o t h classes also have another c o m m o n characteristic. and is therefore reduced t o a seghol. verbs with waw as a co/uona/j/ for the Ayin letter d o n o t belong t o this class of verbs. the usual reduction of the pretonic vowel to shewa in the prefixes of the imperfect and in the Haphel perfect. which is used to designate the " e m p t i n e s s " or "weakness" in the middle consonant of these two classes. even if some forms are not written plene. borrowed from Arabic. is present only when the waw or yodh is a vowel. Whereas in BH there is much fluctuation between the use of short and long varieties of difl'erently vocalized stems (e. « (A) Peal: the general rules given above have their application as follows: .g. Those verbs in which waw predominates in the imperfect are classed as Ayin Waw verbs and those verbs in which yodh predominates in the imperfect are classed as Ayin Y o d h verbs. This weakness. Consequently. However. therefore it has been somewhat diflScult to determine which verbs are properly Ayin Waw and which are Ayin Yodh. It is probably best to consider the hollow verbs as basically biconsonantal.54 LESSON XII H O L L O W VERBS 1. The Hollow Verbs: Ayin Waw verbs and Ayin Yodh verbs are also called " h o l l o w " verbs. it is i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t in BA b o t h classes have qames in the perfect [which makes it convenient t o consider them together in one lesson. sec. the §ere in the first person singular does n o t have the accent. they are most probably to be regarded as long vowels.

but the Qere reads i for x [even in the Ayin Waw class]: (sing. Perfect: the only occurrences are both third person feminine singular (B) na''pri and napn (F) Hithpeel: see the Hithaphel (Hittaphel) conjugation below. (plural) paip.or _ . the middle letter treated as a consonant. and Hithpolel over Hithpael]. being doubled (it is a yodh rather than the waw expected [cf.) D''p. (plural) l a p Imperfect: the pretonic vowel is reduced to shewa under the prefixes: (sing. and becomes a hateph seghol: (sing. (plural) ]•'a^tp [Kethib] pa'i? [Qere] Pael: with so few attested formations of this class in BA.r! (and D-'pn) na-'px [Aphel-with suffix] napH na"'!?.) -"aip Participles: in the hollow verbs the Peal active participle is a triconsonantal formation. except for an apparently anomalous perfect of m"i: (sing. the Aphel. the vowel of the preformative is _ : nitn Participles: the vowel of the preformative n is _ .?] na-'pn. (E) Hophal: the preformative n has the reduced vowel _ . Polal over Pual. in the third person feminine singular the vowel of the n is propretonic.) mpi a w . 3. which are so common in BH among the . without the prefix: (sing. (plural) w p n Imperfect: in the singular the vowel of the preformative n is .) D x p . Perfect: the vowel under the preformative n or x is usually a hateph pathah (see I M ) . usually the latter: (sing.Imperative: similar t o the imperfect. occurrences of Pael and of Polel (which see below) are equal. becomes x. Peal participles above]): na»p (C) Haphel (and Aphel): the pretonic vowel is reduced here. [Aphel] D''pri [Aphel] but rjipn [Aphel] and D'pm [Haphel] Infinitive: this is formed as though the root were truly biconsonantal. as in the Peal imperfect. without a preformative s has this _ under the a: (sing. in the plural the x has a hateph pathah in the Kethib.) D p D"l n p o . in which the waw or yodh coming between _ and a full vowel.) D'-p'.) D ^ n a [Haphel] a n a [Aphel] (D) Peil: see the Peil of the Ayin Yodh class below. The Polel and Hithpolel Conjugations: In BA there are only a few forms of these derived conjugations. — one example each [unlike BH which has a preponderance of Polel over Piel.55 Perfect: the perfect has the accented qames. the prefix has _ or _ . Infinitive: here again appears a triconsonantal formation.

Perfect: the sole occurrence is a perfect: (sing.) Dfena 5. these conjugations are formed in BA by the reduplication of the final root consonant. however.56 hollow verbs. the Hithpeel. so the aleph causative conjugation. and the vowel is Imperfect: (sing. the Shaphel. the preformative x is assimilated by the n. these formations preserve the o-vowel. (A) Polel: this conjugation parallels in meaning and usage the Pael of the regular (strong) verb. the o-vowel under the doubled taw is reduced to a shewa. The Hithaphel (Hittaphel) Conjugation: The so-called "Hithpeel" forms of hollow verbs are really Hithaphel forms. (A) Ayin Waw: whereas the preservation of the waw as an a-vowel might be expected here (see the Ayin Yodh forms below). one an Ayin Waw verb. the Hithaphel. Finally. the Hishtaphal (see Lesson V. the formations of the two classes are almost identical. the Aphel.) ptfi(B) Ayin Y o d h : conversely. However. either _ or _ : Imperfect: (sing.) DDilD (B) Hithpolel: this conjugation parallels in meaning and usage either the Hithpeel or the Hithpaal of the regular (strong) verb. It must be noted. As in BH. Ayin Yodh Verbs: Verbs of this class are far less frequent in BA than Ayin Waw verbs. which in turn is doubled. In BA there are two roots with a Hithaphel (Hittaphel) conjugation. and are limited to the hollow verbs. that although the verbs are to be explained as /-reflexive formations of the Aphel. their meaning is often the same as that of the /-reflexive of the Peal. the yodh of the Aphel seems t o dominate.) D ^ n ^ (plural) pafen? Participle: (sing. yn and one an Ayin Yodh verb. (A) Peal: in the Peal conjugation diflferences between Ayin Yodh and Ayin Waw verbs would be expected in the imperfect as well as the imperative. but there is n o certain occurrence of the imperfect. As was mentioned previously. has a /-reflexive. Perfect: the same as Ayin W a w : (sing. 1). oris. and the same general rules discussed above apply here. so the Hithaphel appears as Hittaphel. sec.) riaainnr' 4. has a /-reflexive. Just as the shin causative conjugation. Participle: the sole occurrence is a participle: (sing. Thus they are often called "Hithpeel" verbs.) Dto r i n ^ (and ^aw) r a ^ Imperative: here (and in the imperfect) the true distinction between the two classes is readily apparent: (plural) la''?? .

57 Participle: only t h e passive is attested, and possibly it is a third person masculine of t h e Peil perfect: (sing.) Peil: the occurrence of a w-vowel here is difficult t o explain; possibly it is a Hebraism (on an analogy with the Qal passive participle of B H ) ; possibly it is a result of an earlier orthographic waw-yodh confusion, later lost [this form is n o t plene, however], but preserved in oral tradition to Masoretic times. Perfect: (sing.) w^il) [see the Peal participle above] n a ^ [feminine]


6. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Hollow: It is difficult t o determine whether the sole example of this class of verbs is an Aphel from t h e r o o t Bin, or either a Peal or an Aphel from the root D T I . Because of the cognate Arabic t h e author prefers the root yn, and because of the p a t h a h under the prefix (with the variant qames), the author prefers t o consider it an Aphel [cf t h e Aphel form r\''PFi above]. Neither conclusion is by any means conclusive. The form i s : Imperfect: (plural) itjin; 7. Verbs Lamedh Laryngeal and Hollow: Those few hollow verbs which have a laryngeal as the Lamedh letter, do not happen t o have any additional irregularities because of the presence of the laryngeal in t h e attested forms. They all belong t o the Ayin Waw class of hollow verbs, and so can be considered in that section of this lesson and need no further discussion here. 8. Verbs Pe Nun and Hollow: As in the class above, it so happens t h a t the presence of a nun does not add t o the irregularities already present in the two classes of hollow verbs. In fact, since there is no strong consonant in t h e p o sition of the Ayin letter t o which t h e nun (as t h e Pe letter) can assimilate in the imperfect, the nun is retained. T h e only attested form is in t h e Peal, as follows: Imperfect: (sing.) niri 9. Vocabulary: •'P'IBX — a title of officials -DnonDN — a title of officials • . . • . r TT 1 •nsiN — an inhabitant of Uruk •'Vaa - Babylonian S i m — which is; that is Kjrn — judges; . [ t r a d i t . — a proper name] niT — (haphel) t o act presumptuously PT — (hithaphel) t o live ' . . . •. , s (on); subsist (on) _ (^p^ei) t o j o i n t o gether; (repair, lay, officials or inspect)

"V * ? — ^ " ?? *

Kai3 — thus Dip — (hophal) to be set up

— t o flee *]10 — t o be fulfilled — (aphel) t o p u t an end to, annihilate —clerk; secretary; scribe (3) — Elamite Dip — (pael) t o set u p , establish Dip — (haphel and aphel) t o set u p , found, appoint, establish 10. Exercises: Ezra 4:8, 9.

— t o rise; be high, be haughty D l l — (aphel) t o raise; heighten D1-I — (polel) to praise; (exalt) D l l — (hithpolel) to rise up (against) D'tr — (hithaphel) t o be p u t ; > be made — an inhabitant of Susa; Susanian

Translate the following sentences,

and also translate nVx D^N (i)

xnipa-Vs ptn^ aaai in

xaqii N s p ? \n'7NV raaiii nnnni ppaiinn xps? sia-Vsi (2) rtio'Ts Vs Dferin i s n s i a i i nsp snVa (3) yoba ipni yobia D'pri n"?x rniaj (4) na-pn x y i ^ Vvi rVpai r a n Hrm nim (5) ni xVi Vnann xVi \>«m bppnb avp na»pV sniaVa "Bp-in-Va i»»;nx (e)


LESSON XIII G E M I N A T E VERBS 1. Gemmate (or Ayin Ayin) Verbs: I n this class, where t h e Ayin letter and t h e Lamedh letter (second and third consonants) are alike, there is a combination of forms which can only be adequately explained by assuming that some are fundamentally biconsonantal while others are triconsonantal. In other words, sometimes there is either gemination of the identical consonants or some compensation for it, b u t elsewhere there is none. If t h e expected gemination or doubling of t h e Ayin letter (second consonant) does n o t occur, there is usually doubling of the Pe letter (first consonant), especially in t h e imperfect and other forms with preformatives. Or, where this cannot take place because of a laryngeal or resh, there is either a compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel or t h e resolving of t h e doubling by a n u n (see I 3). Peal: most of the occurrences in t h e Peal are with verbs t h a t have another weakness in addition t o being Geminate (see t h e classes of verbs b o t h Geminate and also laryngeal or Pe N u n below). Perfect: the sole attested form of t h e Peal perfect is plural where gemination could most easily be seen, b u t it does n o t occur; rather, t h e verb is formed like a member of t h e Ayin W a w class, and hence is probably fundamentally biconsonantal: (plural) Imperative: t h e sole attested form here is also plural, and it has gemination, hence is fundamentally triconsonantal: (plural) (B) Pael: t h e Pael is uniformly like t h e regular (strong) verb, (VVg, VVg^, VVaa, etc.) with one exception-the feminine singular participle, which appears as follows: nVVaa (C) Haphel (and Aphel): only one occurrence is attested as being formed regularly, t h e Aphel imperfect of t h e verb W e (which see below); otherwise, in compensation for t h e lack of doubling of t h e identical second and third consonants, t h e first consonant is doubled instead (unless it is a laryngeal; cf. t h e classes of verbs b o t h Geminate and also laryngeal below). Perfect: (sing.) rtpnn [feminine]; (plural) ip^g Imperfect: (sing.) p^n [Aphel], b u t also VV^Ji [a regular Aphel formation] (A)

properly speaking. a n d so is subject t o the usual rules of metathesis as follows: Perfect: (sing. I t comes from the root ontl. sec. as though it were t h e Shaphel of t h e regular (strong) verb. is an Ithpoel. However. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Geminate: I n some of t h e conjugations. (D) (E) (F) (G) 2. As a result. however. sec. the only occurrences are as follows: Perfect: (sing. and both of t h e identical consonants (second and third) are retained. as well as its /-reflexive conjugation. In the Geminate class of verbs there occurs another example of the Shaphel conjugation. there is one important distinction. but t h e proper distinction can be made by referring t o the basic verb r o o t .) aVVai? [with suffix]. which in turn becomes Hishtaphal by metathesis. Hithpeel: this conjugation does n o t occur in this class of verbs in BA. 5). The Hithpolel belongs t o the Ayin Waw (Ayin Yodh) class. p^rnp [Haphel] np^ra and nplig [both Aphel] Peil: there is no occurrence of a Peil in the Geminate verbs in BA. its place is taken. see Lesson IX). and Lesson X I . H o p h a l : see below t h e occurrences in the doubly weak verbs which are both Geminate and Pe Laryngeal. Hithpaal: this conjugation of the Geminate class of verbs is regularly formed like the Hithpaal of the regular (strong) verb (cf the Pael above). verbs of the Geminate class which also have a laryngeal for t h e Pe letter.60 Participles: (sing). t h e Hishtaphal (for a discussion of the reflexive conjugations in general and of the Hishtaphal conjugation in particular. t h e final formations of the Hithpolel and Hithpoel look the same. Imperfect: in BA the sole occurrence of the Hishtaphal conjugation in any class of verbs is in this class: (plural) pVVsnB^ 3. and is formed by a reduplication of the final consonant. The sole occurrence of this conjugation in BA happens t o be with preformative x rather than n.) Daintf^ 4. contain . (plural) •\b'^yii Infinitive: nVV?B> (B) Hishtaphal: t h e Hishtaphal is formed regularly by adding the reflexive preformative hith. The Hithpoel (Ithpoel) Conjugation: Closely related t o the Hithpolel conjugation (see Lesson X I I . and thus. The Shaphel and Hishtaphal Conjugations: T h e Shaphel conjugation has already been considered (see Lesson VIII. (A) Shaphel: in BA the Shaphel of t h e Geminate verbs is formed quite regularly. but the Hithpoel belongs to the Geminate class.t o the Shaphel (Hithshaphal). 3) is t h e Hithpoel. by the Hithpoel conjugation (which see below).

) Vrn. Perfect: (sing. » » i [§ade three—BH f S l ] . (plural) iVsn (D) Hithpaal: like the Pael of verbs Geminate only. sec. but in this class. however. the resh is n o t doubled. its second consonant (ayin) is a laryngeal. so the previous vowel is lengthened in compensation.) y'ln . Perfect: (sing. that in the Peal. only t h e infinitive shows any difference from verbs that are simply Geminate without any other weakness. which is also Pe Laryngeal as well as Geminate. Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Geminate: It may be maintained t h a t the only root of this class which occurs in BA. However. thus the hypothetical Geminate formation *?»!] becomes bpiTi. (A) Peal: the long o in the sole occurrence is generally considered as a Hebraism.) Vsin Infinitive: aVwn but also nVyn (C) H o p h a l : the Hophal does not occur in verbs Geminate only. then. the Hithpaal of this class of doubly weak verbs is quite regular. the laryngeal does n o t double. is actually triply weak. thus t h e hypothetical Geminate formation snn becomes shn: (sing. In such cases the doubling is either resolved by a nun. and thus there occurs an additional irregularity. Perfect: (sing. 5. the sole attested form has so many apparent irregularities. hence. in t h e Peal of this class. and besides all this. Its first consonant (resh) cannot be doubled. etc.61 no additional irregularities because of the presence of the laryngeal. Little wonder. 1). or even quadruply weak. the verb is Geminate. its third consonant (ayin) is a laryngeal.) VvnV? [Qere] nV^B [Kethib] Infinitive: ]na Participle: (plural) p V V [Qere] f"?!?¥ [Kethib] (B) Haphel: verbs Geminate only double the Pe letter in t h e Haphel. Imperfect: in Geminate verbs the Peal imperfect would normally have the doubling of t h e first consonant as does t h e Haphel (see above. but what would be expected in that class of verbs is what is actually found in this class of doubly weak verbs. in this class. t h e doubling is usually (but not always) resolved by a nun (see I 3). t h e laryngeal is usually t h e initial consonant. or the previous vowel is lengthened in compensation. and is formed according t o t h e pattern of the regular (strong) verb. (A) Peal: because there are n o occurrences of the Peal imperfect in this class of doubly weak verbs. in those conjugations of the Geminate class which require doubling of t h e Pe letter (first consonant).

This Peal form i s : Perfect: (sing. Vocabulary: — foundation (5) — (hishtaphal) t o be finished n w 3 — and now — (pael) t o speak VVs — t o go in. xanni xep? vam NVne nnn? ipn pixai xaVs Vwn nn ^xVa (i) pan ]naV aVp'ria Vaa ••a'-an aa VVa xaVa pix (2) K-ia nvr^ WV">N n l (3) (4) nrn VVtpn •'ninhn VVa^ Q V B ^ T V K j i r j a an V» vnni pnn I J T laVa rVx-Va ssnp-^n sVneai (5) n9ini?^Ni xaVa Va-'^a Vsn bv. but rather both Ayin Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal.) n i ? 7. the n u n is the initial consonant. and as such. > t o m a k e a nest difficult. Participle: (sing. enter bbv — (haphel) t o bring in — (hophal) t o be brought in — copy (1) — t o crush — (pael) t o crush — wall (4) D»8^ — (ithpoel) t o be appalled mi — t o cut d o w n nVi — (haphel) — — ]in — — Tp. Therefore. honorable (4) (shaphel) t o finish Exercises: Translate t h e following sentences. just as though the verb were not Geminate.^! p i g (e) KjaB> D V K D^a pVVantt^ a!^Nj tqann •q-t x n n p (7) .— — 8.) vvyi 6.62 (B) Pael: the sole occurrence in the Pael of this class of verbs is a triconsonantal formation. t o take i n t o exile t o crush (haphel and aphel) t o crush t o show mercy (to) (aphel) t o seek shade. Verbs Pe Nun and Geminate: I n BA the sole attested form of this class occurs in the Peal perfect. I I . there is n o additional irregularity other than what normally occurs in verbs Geminate only (which see above). and also translate Ezra 4:10.

also w i t h t h e variant of final n for final x ] > 113 > 113 orthographic . BA usually has the active a-vowel in all forms of the Peal perfect of this class.—^^33 or x i a > 13 [with t h e loss of intervocalic • or x . Therefore. — rni or n x i a > M a or n x i a [the loss of final vowel] > n'la o r n'la [I 5] > n'la or m:i [I A ] 3 masc. will be disregarded in the outline of development below. sing. it may be well to consider in some detail the probable development of the Lamedh H e verbs in the Peal conjugation [the change from the original non-aspirantized forms of the n O D n n letters to their aspirantized BA forms. Perfect: whereas BH has a constant mixing of the active a-vowel and the stative j-vowel in the formations of the Qal perfect of the Lamedh H e class. sing. the two > short vowels together. except in t h e first person singular. > With these basic developments in mind. it occurred somewhere along the line of development]. pi.']3 > n^]3 [I A ] 1 sing.] 2 masc. namely those whose final consonant was originally either N. it is possible t o trace the changing course of the various formations of this class of verbs with some degree of probability. The greatest variations from the regular formations of the strong verb are exhibited in the Peal conjugation. or ''. — n ^ S or rXJS > n i a [loss of intervocalic • or x ] n i a > [I A . which has the stative j-vowel. became t h e long vowel a] > ja [I A ] > n}3 or X13 [the existing n or x being merely a mater lectionis for long d] 3 fem. i. These all appear as final So the existing forms are t o be regarded as either final x or final • formations. t h e > n _ ending also has the orthographic variants n x _ and n X . 3 masc. In BA there is no trace remaining of the forms with final i. sing. —n. aa.63 LESSON XIV L A M E D H H E VERBS L The Development of the Lamedh He Formations: The so-called "Lamedh H e " class of verbs is actually a mixture of three classes of verbs in BA. —!p}3 or 1X13 > l i a [loss of intervocalic • or x ] > [I D ] > iia [ I ' A ] 1 p l u r a l — x i ^ i a > xi*ga [I P ] > x r i 3 [I A .

will be disregarded in the outline of development below.sing—. with emphasis on actual occurrences in the Lamedh H e class of verbs.—.— i.|3ari > ^lan [loss of final vowel] > s i a n [I P] 3 masc. p i . the passive participle is n o t a qatil type (as in a'na). hence. Active Participles: t h e masculine singular is formed with s . > -faT [I D ] > 3 fem.) N?3 n. but is r a t h e r a qatal type: •'ia> N13 [ I P ] > N13 [I A : here t h e final N.J3. (plural) v''3a or w i a > r i 3 [loss of intervocalic • or s ] > Via > r i a [I A] > 2. with the orthographic variants ""is and ""la]. n'laa. The derived conjugations will be considered below. 3 masc. the • appears as the final consonant. t h e infinitive also occurs w i t h o u t the mem. On the other > h a n d . conjugation by conjugation. 1) [for the sake of convenience the change from the original prefix ya. Nia. [loss of final vowel] > p n ? [I A] Jussive: the third person masculine plural of the jussive is without the final nun of the imperfect.ia.> p i a . sing.to yi. or ''. and is formed as follows: (sing. the N appears regularly in the imperfect of the derived conjugations and in the other forms which are based on it.|?a^> "^iT [loss of final vowel] > niT [I P .) -"ig > •'13 > ""IS [ 1 A . and these difier as to the use of or K (see below t h e class of verbs b o t h Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh He and the class b o t h Pe N u n and Lamedh He). (plural) p i a p n Passive Participles: in the Lamedh H e class of verbs. . or long. is merely a mater lectionis] Peil: On the other hand. [loss of intervocalic • or K] > p i a . or p x i a . the Peil conjugation of the Lamedh He class of verbs is a qatil type (as in 3''ria). The Derived Conjugations of the Lamedh He Class: In the perfect of the derived conjugations. 1. all the others are formed with •>: (sing. This is true regardless of whether the original r o o t was N. However. sec. [loss of final vowel] > •pi?. Infinitive: t h e regular BA formation •'Jaa> Niaa [I P . — i r i a ' or JINia: > fnT.pl. o r its orthographic variant n. the first forms listed are not to be regarded as true Proto-Semitic].64 Imperfect: in E A the imperfect of the Lamedh He class has quite uniformly the characteristic a-vowel of t h e stative (see Lesson VI. there are only two Peal imperatives in the singular. Imperative: in all of the Lamedh H e classes of verbs together. with s as a mater lectionis] 3 fem. it should be noted that the x in the final position here is merely used as a mater lectionis. with 8 as a mater lectionis].

(C) (D) Hithpeel: again quite uniformly the same endings are found as in the Pael. and in addition there is usually a composite shewa under the laryngeal. (plural) pannn Participle: (sing.) 'aa m a . (A) Peal: the endings of the Peal of the Lamedh H e verbs are found. however. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs.) 'Vanri Imperfect: (sing.a??B. (plural) iinpn'tn Imperfect: the verb mn substitutes "? for • wherever the latter occurs » in the personal prefixes of t h e imperfect. Perfect: (sing.) N33na (E) Hithpaal (Ithpaal): once again the same endings are found as in the Pael [note the occurrence of metathesis]. Perfect: (sing. (plural) rac* Imperfect: (sing.) Na"i. singular and plural.) fQFtfy. in one verb there is a most unusual development in the imperfect (which see). (plural) pacr Imperative: the sole occurrence has • where K might be expected (cf > the imperfect). Perfect: (sing. and also has _ instead of _ under the first consonant: (sing.o? Niann.) 'antPN [Qere] Imperfect: the imperfect also has a final n for the mater lectionis instead of N in one occurrence: (sing. F o r t h e sake of illustration. (plural) jiantf*: iariET' Oussive] 3.65 (A) Pael: the endings found in the Peal are also found in the Pael.) niri (and xin) nin (and nirj) n^inn-'irj. in addition t o the irregularities of t h e Lamedh H e class. Perfect: (sing.) Nltrna Hophal: in BA there is no attestation of the Hophal conjugation in the Lamedh He class of verbs. Perfect: (sing. with the other conjugations which occur mentioned briefly.) Imperfect: (sing. 2). (plural) pVsa (B) Haphel: quite uniformly the same endings are found here as occur in the Pael.) NV?nn. sec. the Peal will be discussed in full. with but few changes in vocalization. any of the irregularities of the Pe Laryngeal class may occur (see Lesson X.) 'aa Participles: (sing.) xaipn' Infinitive: matt^n Participle: (sing. masculine .) v^T.

» for there are only two occurrences. has the usual •<. the usual endings of the derived conjugations of the Lamedh He verbs. and the class of verbs b o t h Pe N u n and Lamedh He (which see below). liprus): (sing. (A) Peal: practically all of the formations are identical to those of verbs Lamedh H e only. so this class has no additional irregularities in the Pael compared to verbs Lamedh He only. has a formation with x: (sing. it is impossible to tell whether final N or final • is dominant. Both the perfect and imperfect of the Peal conjugation are thus used with the participles of other verbs.) xna (C) 4. sec. the form is written as a m o n o c o n s o n a n t a l : (sing.) N I ^ V (and nw^) Minn (and n i i l ? ) .) «n.) xsa? Infinitive: S»3B Participles: b o t h active and passive participles are just like those of the Lamedh H e class (and also occur with n for s as a mater lectionis). (B) Pael: the regular (strong) verb and the Pe Laryngeal class both use pathah under the Pe letter in the Pael.66 and feminine. with a seghol under the preformative n in the perfect. (plural) iin (and iin) Active Participles: (sing. Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Lamedh He: The phonetic rules of both classes involved apply in this class of doubly weak verbs. and the other conjugations will be mentioned briefly. etc.) Kjn As has been noted previously (see Lesson VI. (plural) pfn Passive Participle: (sing. Haphel (and Aphel): all the formations are quite normal. mn is frequently used in BA as an auxiliary verb.) Ktn (and nay). if the K is considered as a mater lectionis.. Perfect: (sing. with one exception as follows: Participle: the Aphel participle of rrn is completely anomalous (probably an e r r o r ) . (plural) pilVl^wV Infinitive: Ntna Imperative: in the masculine singular of the Peal imperative of all Lamedh He verbs. xaa^ W'sa . (plural) i»a Imperfect: (sing. 6). the sole other doubly weak verb of this class with the imperfect attested. this classhas a formation with ' . Here also the Peal will be considered for the sake of illustration of these rules. a composite shewa under the laryngealin the imperfect. the use of V is now generally considered t o have been derived from the Accadian (cf Acc.) n»a.

sec. with few formations.) nnsriN [Ithpeel] (C) 5. and in compensation.). > treasury. xna. The sole occurrence of the other root of this class is found in the Hithpeel perfect (third person masculine singular). t h e previous vowel may or may not be lengthened in accordance with the rules given in I 8 (e. [eventually? positively?] — t o come B^xa — b a d (4) nVa — (pael) t o wear o u t iVa . Verbs Pe Nun and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs. Vocabulary: DhBX — store-house. The root xiM invariably retains its s in those formations which have ^ or n in other classes of Lamedh H e verbs.67 (B) Pael and Hithpaal: in these conjugations the Ayin letter. there are only two attested roots. it is listed here as follows: (sing.) xfel Imperative: it is impossible t o tell if this form is normative in the use of x (on analogy with the imperfect). tax (4) n. because of its paradigmatic importance.) xto (B) Hithpaal: the x is retained in the feminine participle.) nxfeino 6. — toll. This is true of both the simple and the derived conjugations.g. the only other Peal imperative singular in any Lamedh H e class has the " (see verbs both Pe Laryngeal and > Lamedh He above). where all other Lamedh H e classes have the Participle: (sing.tax (10) ^Vr. in other respects. (A) Peal: the two occurrences of xtol in the Peal are as follows: Perfect: (sing. cannot be doubled. t h e nun is here dropped completely (cf Lesson X I . restore t o life m a . with xVa — (hithpeel) t o be (with) ma — (pael) t o appoint — rebellious (4) filled . beside.— (ithpeel) t o be distressed — near. being a laryngeal. Hithpeel (Ithpeel): quite uniformly the same as in the attested formation of verbs Lamedh He only. and is formed just as verbs Lamedh H e only.n —• t o live rrn — (aphel) t o let live. 1): (sing. t h e Pael of this class is almost identical to the Pael of verbs Lamedh H e only. Perfect: in this class of verbs occurs the only attested third person feminine singular perfect of any of the classes of Lamedh H e verbs.

> violate niB* — (haphel) t o alter. 13. ( i ) NniaVa •-B^N"! Naaa mn xas nirj-ni ma n n Nas mn-n. niB^ — (pael) to change. Exercises: 4:12. Translate the following sentences and also translate Ezra xVai ypba •'^TpVi nni f i a t xjtfn. > violate niB* — (hithpaal and ithpaal) to be changed p"?p — t o go (come) u p nVs — (pael) t o pray 7.i (2) n n •'ima Vnana niNr-ii^a i i a Vx^n n i x ' nnans (3) naan 'Vann Niqa aa"? p N a (4) NaVa n n 'jna^n Vx faV»V '^n xaVa bvm nax (5) Njaa? nVx"? 'Vsi '•nii^v ""i^ N?*?? nVa (e) .68 ptl — (haphel) t o damage X^—to take. lift u p carry away.

as in t h e infinitive. sec.)nnx [active] ntX [passive] (B) Haphel: this conjugation is formed on an analogy with the Pe Yodh class. Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs.n 2.) nriN (and uriN). where it is merely a mater lectionis.69 L E S S O N XV O T H E R D O U B L Y W E A K A N D I R R E G U L A R VERBS 1. (A) Haphel (and Aphel): the only occurrences are two forms of the participle of n r . 3. The Shaphel is a true Pe Yodh. (plural) ins Infinitive: Nna KTa Imperative: (plural) i n x Participles: (sing.) Knina [Haphel] vrrta [Aphel] w n . These unique formations are as follows: third person feminine singular perfect n^n^n (and the variant n^n^n). The endings are all in accordance with the corresponding formations of the Lamedh H e class. there are only a few verbs in this doubly weak class. The Haphel Passive Conjugation: In the class of verbs b o t h Pe Aleph and Lamedh He there occurs something unique in BA. Both verbs follow the normal patterns of their respective classes (see Lesson XI). and the Haphel (Aphel) is an original Pe Waw. Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs are found only two verbs.n. b u t nowhere else are found other passive forms. and the endings are all in accordance with t h e corresponding formations of the Lamedh He class. an obviously passive conjugation of the Haphel. like verbs Pe Aleph only (see Lesson X I . sec. (plural) Infinitive: n. This is n o t a H o p h a l . and may even be omitted entirely. Participles: (sing. Perfect: (sing. 1). unless there was an early orthographic waw-yodh confusion. Perfect: (sing.) "nrn. However. In BA it is common t o find passive participles in the derived active conjugations (see Lesson VIII. third person plural perfect r n ' n (and t h e variant rn'n). 8). (A) Peal: the aleph prefers t h e composite shewa. t h e initial consonant follows the rules of t h e Pe Aleph class.

sec. Pseudo-Geminate Verbs: In BA there are some verbs exhibiting irregularities. the previous vowel is lengthened (see Lesson X). However. it is somewhat curious that all three have V as either the second or the third consonant. 5. In fact. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal: There are very few verbs in this class of doubly weak verbs. these verbs might be termed the "Weak Lamedh" class. 2). Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Ayin Laryngeal: There are very few attestations of verbs in this class of doubly weak verbs. although seemingly unrelated t o the casual observer. for t h e lamedh apparently disappears or is assimilated. nevertheless can be grouped together under one common characteristic. there is no attestation of the Hophal conjugation.G e m i n a t e " class of verbs. 5. are analogous t o the corresponding formations of the Geminate class of verbs. sec. Therefore. The result is t h e same. In all cases the Ayin letter is resh rather t h a n being a true laryngeal. which seem rather t o belong t o " V as follows: (imperfect) •qn. it cannot be doubled. There are two other forms which have been traditionally attributed t o the hypothetical root '. which. the sole occurrence of the Hophal in this class of doubly weak verbs is here listed. for t h e sake of completeness. T h e three verbs will be considered individually below. However. in verbs Ayin Laryngeal only. It is the third person feminine singular perfect of a i n : nannn. but instead t h e r o o t VtK is used. t h e Shaphel of (w)asu). In BA t h e r o o t •qVn is n o t used in t h e Peal perfect or Peal imperative. and even fewer irregularities (some formations are identical t o their strong verb counterparts). There is one occurrence of a composite shewa under t h e initial laryngeal in place of a simple shewa. The other three attested forms are quite regular. This characteristic is t h a t some of t h e formations of the verbs in question (though n o t all).) S'S'^ [Kethib] "Sl* [Qere] 4. this one is also related to the Accadian (susQ—usesi.)in. These verbs are n o t Geminate. and in compensation. for in the Pael and Hithpaal conjugations. and three occurrences of a pathah before t h e final laryngeal instead of a sere or hireq (see Lesson X ) . and (infinitive) -qna. and Lesson XIII. but could be classified as a so-called " P s e u d o . more pronounced t h a n this behavior of the lamedh are their various analogies to the Geminate class. Although t h e three verbs involved do n o t have identical second and third consonants. Perfect: t h e perfect of NS"' has a Kethib-Qere variation: (sing. It would be qn . 6.70 (B) Shaphel: like t h e other occurrences of this conjugation in BA (see Lesson X I .

Actually. The Peal attestations are perfectly regular. but n o t in the Peal. pVo. on the other hand. jna. -qVn is quite regular in the Pael conjugation. had there occurred forms of "^pn in the Peal without preformatives (perfect. However. but would have been formed regularly. as follows: Perfect: (sing.) Ttpbo. the participle f pVna. rather than analogous t o t h e Geminate class as in BA. presumably they t o o would have . it should be noted that these occurrences are uniformly without a preformative. the loss of the Ayinletter is explained. This accounts for the forms -qri' and 'sjrip (cf. (plural) ip"?? Participle: (plural) ipbo On the surface.If this emendation is correct. sec. Presumably. especially in the imperfect a n d other forms with the preformatives (see Lesson X l l l . and so n o t formed on an analogy with the Geminate class. imperative. 4). not omitted. but this t o o could be considered to be on an analogy with the Geminate class. pDVnp. this seems t o differ from •ijVn in the Peal. N o t e that both forms in question (imperfect and infinitive) have preformatives. Turning t o t h e derived conjugations. On the other hand. they prefer to revocalize it as a Pael participle. sec. If not. but formed on an analogy with the Geminate class.71 difficult to classify an imperfect of this formation as either an Ayin W a w or an Ayin Yodh verb. Rememberthat in the Geminate class. Peal infinitive of ]in. or participle) they would not have been formed on an analogy with the Geminate class. The one occurrence of -qbri in the Aphel conjugation. In BH these alternate formations are so widespread that most Hebrew grammarians postulate the existence of a root T)"?'. if it is assumed t h a t " V ! q? is the root. It should be kept in mind that •qVn exhibits weakness in B H . for this class is also regularly formed in t h e Pael. as well as in BA. 1). and the n cannot be doubled. t h e observations in the above paragraph apply. H a d there occurred formations of rjVn in t h e perfect or participle. Instead. The second verb. is considered by some authorities as incorrectly so written.there is frequently gemination or doubling in the first consonant. •qVn is also Pe Laryngeal. exhibits formations analogous t o the Geminate class in the derived conjugations. for the imperfect is precisely where the i or ^ would be found in these classes. Lesson XIII. there is no comparable verb both Pe Laryngeal and Geminate in the Aphel conjugation with which to make an analogical comparison. only there it has some formations analogous t o t h e Pe Yodh (Pe Waw) class.

because its sole occurrence is in the Poel conjugation. 5). which is strictly from the " H o l l o w " class of verbs. The writer prefers t o class this formation in question as a Saphel of t h e Pe Y o d h (Pe Waw) root (see Lesson X I . the entire matter is doubtful. The V is completely elided. t h e final consonant being reduplicated. The attested forms are as follows: Haphel perfect: (plural) ipon Haphel infinitive: niroin [13] Hophal perfect: (sing. in order. they may well be called verbs of t h e "Pseudo-Geminate" class. the Poel conjugation is not to be confused with the Polel conjugation. and invariably its formations are analogous t o the Geminate class. Without any attempt at classification. they are listed below individually. can be considered analogous to the Geminate class. the initial consonant. the "? is assimilated to the previous consonant. . The form of the Poel in question here is as follows: Passive participle: (plural) pVaiOKi Perhaps with so few examples. it is n o t really wise t o set u p a so-called "class. the second consonant. In the derived conjugations. Although t h e two are identical in form.) pon The third verb. On t h e other hand. it t o o might have been formed o n an analogy with t h e Geminate class. And in BA. it is undoubtedly a Poel. Other Irregular Verbs: In addition to the verbs above. 7. The formation in question is as follows: rriB^N." But with these verbs exhibiting some tendencies to formations analogous with the Geminate class.72 been regular (see above). pVo does have preformatives. This is n o t found in other forms of the Peal conjugation. and the third consonant (the last two being identical in true Geminate verbs). it is difficult t o determine whether this is an isolated phenomenon. and yet n o t being true Geminate verbs. the Poel is strictly a Geminate class conjugation. sec. The verb nntf has a prosthetic K in the Peal perfect. as in BH. or would normally occur in all forms of the Peal perfect. Should the root actually prove to be Vao instead. or this doubling is resolved by a n u n (see I 3). a holem (usually with waw). Vao. having present. Stated another way. and in compensation the initial consonant is doubled. However. Since the verb is attested only in the third person plural. there are a few other verbs in BA that exhibit other minor irregularities in form or in usage. had pbo occurred in the Peal imperfect or infinitive (and thus with a preformative).

na nVgV xjina an x-iia nini n n nn. is also used in the participles. and the participles. becoming (4) revolt (4) (haphel) to bring record (book) (4) to go [tradit. > reach (pael) t o walk about (aphel) to walk about (hophal) to be laid waste (haphel and aphel) to praise (shaphel) to finish. 8. and ]ni being used in the imperfect and the infinitive.] to g o .p xas-Va n D»p o'lp 'aa (7) . a parallel verb. The use of a r r and ]n3 is completely complementary with an"' being used in the perfect. be finished nna^ — to drink 9. ^aa? oVipn''"? ^na"? 'niinai Vsnftr. the imperative. Vns. Although the verb V a i occurs in the perfect. lay. > preserve "lip — to shut pVo — (haphel) t o take u p pVo — (hophal) to be lifted up n n s — nakedness. and also t r a n s l a t e Ezra 4:14. the imperfect. Vocabulary: T-: T'JN — nns — n?n - ann — to light.a x'S'tih ( i ) nan •^iVnp nini Nnins aia bm-f? nia xaVa (2) Naa-p bm-i ppni x a r p npoinV nax bmib^ (3) pVaioa 'niniOi aVirn-'a NnV^-n'aV nx-a^ nana n^nmi (4) niiaa i^^J??^ T^l?*? ^"^^ "^l^ ^"V^ ^5) Naaxi NS7S nVtna NB^ni -nVnV inaa^i xsoai s a m 'iNa la vnu^N (e) rjn. > be under obligation of loyalty nVa — salt (1) •?30 . Exercises: Translate t h e following sentences. The complementary use of rjVn and VtX has already been discussed in the preceding section of this lesson. shame (7) to finish. heat fitting. be finished nVp — to eat salt.73 In its sole occurrence.(poel) t o bring. 15. and the participles.x a y . the Peal perfect of "ijo is found as nip instead of the expected i j p .

Instead.74 L E S S O N XVI VERBAL SUFFIXES: WITH THE PERFECT 1. These may be added either to a finite form or to the infinitive. The one exception to this rule is that the suffix of the third person plural does not appear in BA. Thus. 2.) T (following a consonant) (following a vowel) (following a consonant) 2 (masc.) T Singular (following a consonant) (following a vowel imperative) and with the 2 (masc. 2 E). Verbal Suffixes: In BA pronominal direct objects are usually expressed by suffixes. as follows: Person 1 (com. which forms. sec. in t u r n .) (following a vowel) (following a consonant) (following a vowel) 3 (fem. They are n o t used in a reflexive sense.) (following a consonant) T 3 (masc.) These suffixes may be modified slightly when attached to verbs of the Lamedh H e class. The forms of the verbal suffixes are basically the same (except the first person singular) as the pronominal suffixes on nouns. were modified according to the rules of BA phonology. the independent personal p r o n o u n is used (see Lesson III.) (following a consonant) Plural 1 (com. Formation of Suffixes on the Perfect: It can be maintained that most of the suffixes were added to forms resembling closely the Proto-Semitic. .

The suffix n-~. for example. a result of Proto-Semitic qatala plus the Proto-Semitic third person masculine suffix hu.75 the Proto-Semitic Vpj? plus the suffix •rj > "^Vtsp. plural) xinsiia haphel wn'ria haphel .) ijyiin haphel r]pVB>n haphel 3 (masc.53 peal 1 (com. in BA a greater extent of analogical formation must be postulated than in most of the other Semitic languages. However. it is practically impossible t o formulate universal rules to cover the development of the attested forms. Form of the Verb Suffix 1 (com.) •'iny'Tin haphel 1 (com.) 2 (masc. this basic assumption cannot be universally true.N aphel aVVs^ shaphel ••nW peal -aiaipa haphel 3 (fem. Obviously. (see I L). for such conjugations do not have a direct object.) 'nja peal anno peal anfe peal aa-i?a haphel apVtt^a haphel a»''f'. Table of Suffixes on the Perfect: The following table is a complete list of attested forms in BA of pronominal suffixes on the perfect. in considering the entire picture. is illustrative of this type of analogical development. suffixes will not be found on the passive or reflexive conjugations. Thus.) 3 (plural) 'JlVan pael 2 (masc.) 3 (masc.) nana peal aaVtf^a haphel an. for it is almost impossible t o consider the attested form nVpp. It must have originated in noun forms and spread t o the verb. 3. Hence.

76 4. The Suffixes on 'rfN: Alone, •'n'S indicates existence, and means "there i s " or "there a r e " (see Lesson IV, sec. 6). With the negative it means "there is n o t " or "there are n o t . " However, when it is used with a sufiix, this does n o t hold true. In such a case, it is used as a copula (which, if found at all, is usually expressed by the third person independent p r o n o u n ; cf. Lesson III, sec. 2 B). As a copula, with the suffix usually expresses additional force or emphasis (see Lesson VI, sec. 6 B, and sec. 9). A complete listing of the occurrences in BA of •'n'tt with the various pronominal suffixes is given below as follows: •q;ri''N [Kethib] •!]n"'S [Qere] 'nTri"'N XJin-N [Kethib] Nir'N [Qere] pD'n-'N

5. 1Vocabulary: — — — — Van — — — — arm, force (4) hurry (9) injury; damage (8) (warned); > cautious (4) h u r t ; damage (4) a share in (4) rebellion (1) decree; official document (4) Translate Ezra 4:16-23. — (pael) to separate — word, decree (4) Nip — (peil) to be read; (be shouted) — to grow great — negligence (9) — welfare; [as a salutation] hail (4) — strong, mighty (4) TP?




LESSON XVII VERBAL S U F F I X E S : W I T H T H E I M P E R F E C T , T H E I N F I N I T I V E , E T C . 1. Formation of Suffixes on the Imperfect: In BA most of the attestations of the imperfect with a suffix occur in the so-called " E n e r g i c " form of the imperfect. In the singular the Energic imperfect of BA ends in -inn (the nn is reduced t o n when it is vowelless), and in the plural the Energic imperfect ends in -unn (sometimes written with a long m). However, two examples are found of suffixes on forms other than the Energic imperfect (in b o t h cases, in the Pael conjugation). These two examples seem t o be attached t o the jussive forms of the imperfect (see Lesson VI, sec. 2). Some grammarians call the Energic imperfect the " L o n g " or " C o m p l e t e " imperfect, which is found only with suffixes. Then the " S h o r t " imperfect is that used in modal expressions. However the latter is usually identical in form with the ordinary imperfect, and is " s h o r t " in only a few forms. 2. Table of Suffixes on the Imperfect: The table below represents a complete listing of attested forms in BA of the pronominal suffixes on the imperfect.

Singular Form of the Verb Plural (all masc.) [the person of the verb is in brackets] [3] [3] [2] 'aVny pael ••asJ"Tin; haphel ""asJ-Tinn haphel


3 (masc.)

3 (fem.)

i (com.)

1 (com.)

'a>nT pael ••ain? pael -aviin; haphel

[2} •'aiSJ-Tinn haphel [2] 2 (masc.) pael •qiar^ shaphel [3] '•ainnn haphel ^iVfja; pael

78 Singular Suffix 3 (masc.) (3 fem.) Form of the Verb Plural (all masc.) 1 (com.) aJVlifiN haphel 3 (masc.) [the person of the verb is in brackets] [."] [3] [3] [3] 3 (fem.) auri; peal Tiivr pael 2 (masc. plural) aiBhTR peal aJjP.'iri aphel aaVna; pael nwVria; pael ana»tt; pael naitt^B^ pael

v^f?«0: peal pDjantJ; shaphel

3. Table of Suffixes on the Infinitive: When the suffixes are a d d c t o the Peal infinitive, the final short vowel is i u .;ed t o a shewa (see T A ) . In the derived conjugations, the suffixes a n ded t o the constru orm of the infinitive, ending in tV\— (see Lesson ^ i, sec. 3). T h e table below lists all of the forms attested in BA. Suffix Infinitive Suffix Inli.

1 (com. singular)

'inW'lin haphel '^S-iin haphel

3 (uusc.) si • ;ular

aiira ; .i a^asa peal

2 (masc. singular)

^frtSfin haphel •qniana haphel "^riViVp shaphel

aa-ifja pe^i ariVsa haphel ariaj??! haphel a n i a n ? shaphel

1 (com. plural)

Kiniajntf shaphel

) •'I'pSJn haphel ••linn haphel 3 (masc. the participle can be used as a noun or as a verb. 5 : 1 . The sole occurrence in BA has a KethibQere variation as follows: 'q. without any helping vowel.si6? [Kethib]. . plural) 1 (com.] W-ISON Voa to cease. toil. be discontinued. as in other Semitic languages. "^v.79 4. The suffixes are added directly to the imperative. answer f n n n — two [fem. sg.1 1 . act as a prophet 7. [tradit. formerly (7) a(P — h o a r y .) ••niVan pael 5. singular) Imperative (2 masc. service (7) n a i p — former t i m e . The suffixes are added to the participle as they are added t o nouns. " b e a m " ? ] n T a » — work. 6. Vocabulary: exactly. administration."^ [Qere]. > require 7ra — (pael) to begin ain — (haphel and aphel) t o give back. Suffixes on the Participle: In BA. deliver. sg. [plural] elders (4) VXB^ — t o ask. stop building (4) squared (stones) (4) VnaKai wall (1) (hithpaal) to prophesy. eagerly a title of officials wall. Table of Suffixes on the Imperative: In BA there are only three occurrences of the imperative with suffixes. Exercises: Translate Ezra 4 : 24. as follows: Suffix Imperative (2 masc.

a knowledge of other Semitic cognates of the word under discussion is quite helpful. Definition of Noun Types: Although the same word. Also it should be noted that no formal distinction will be made in the discussion between nouns. a few noun types are listed below. In considering the noun types of BA. Recognition of Noun Types: It is essential t h a t the student have some knowledge of the phonology of the language involved in order to recognize n o u n types (see Lesson I). In addition. Since nouns in the various Semitic languages are generally triconsonantal. the more accurate can be the classification into n o u n types. is not employed by all grammarians to describe the distinction in formation of Semitic nouns. These cultural loan words occur more frequently in nouns than in verbs. it may be well to use this designation for this particular feature. it is possible to classify nouns according to the modifications (both consonantal and vocalic) which they undergo. With this background in mind. F o r the sake of illustration. Careful distinction should be made between the Aramaic type and the Proto-Semitic type. especially in recognizing the meanings that some of these types have. Accadian. Borrowings from Greek are certain only in the field of music. The latter is the basic type.80 LESSON XVIII N O U N TYPES 1. participles. due recognition must be given to the rich heritage which that language possesses. There are some advantages in classifying nouns in this maimer. 2. or other noun formations. Borrowings from Accadian and Persian are most frequently connected with governmental or political administration. Borrowings from Hebrew are especially frequent in relation to religion or other Jewish institutions. it should be noted that this lesson dealing with n o u n types will be confined to those which are Semitic in origin (or at least have had a long history of Semitic usage). The greater the number of Semitic languages in which such cognates occur. In addition to the various Hebrew. and Persian proper names of persons and localities found in BA. although many words so considered may actually go back to a common Proto-Semitic source. adjectives. . it abounds in other words from these and other languages. having definite patterns of vocalization of the same basic root. although other possible occurrences have been suggested. type.

there is a reconstructed Proto-Semitic form of the noun in question. It actually makes no diflerence whether the feminine sufiix is present or not in BA. this is the form usually meant by t h e term type. Conceivably. yet they may be considered rather certain due to their occurrence in Ugaritic. It should also be noted that some of these hypothetical Proto-Semitic forms are very similar to extant Arabic forms.aN Type Biconsonantal Nouns qal qil Common Use{s) nxa . Although these forms are hypothetically reconstructed.) noun is given. By definition. Example{s) niB>. t h e basic type is listed without it. some of the types happen to have no other examples in BA except feminine nouns. Finally. then the type is given. but it has a pathah due t o the i (see 1 J). and finally a common or general usage in BA (if any) is listed.81 Aramaic noun Vya -Ipp BT'Ti? Xia (owner) (book) (holy) (building) Aramaic type Vtsj? Vpp V'pp. In t h e third column is given the basic Proto-Semitic type of the noun in question. in the fourth column. any of t h e types below could have feminine nouns as well as masculine nouns. One or two BA words are listed as examples of the type in question.etc. In t h e second column t h e basic consonants are used (VtJp from t h e standard paradigm) and the vocalization is that of t h e regular (or normal) Aramaic form of t h a t type. and does not refer t o types strictly BA unless specifically so indicated. As a matter of fact. Hence Vpp is the Aramaic type of npp. where the Ugaritic forms are often identical with the so-called Proto-Semitic forms. Vpp Proto-Semitic type Proto-Semitic noun qatl qitl qattil qatil ba'Iu sipru qaddishu baniyu The few nouns given above are merely random examples. A similar procedure could be used for any Semitic language. In t h e first column the BA (or Hebrew or Accadian. 3. the third column above). Table of Noun Types Occurring in BA: The table below lists the basic Proto-Semitic types (cf.

active participle of the strong verb {not a P-S type. passive participle of the strong verb) (feminine abstract noun) qitai trag DVS? T ari3.82 Example{s) Type Common Use(s) Biconsonantal Nouns (continued) 30 T qal qil qui Geminate Nouns qall qill qull naxjaj Triconsonantal Nouns •7573 IBD "in? naVs T \ : qatl qitl qutl qatal qatil qital qutul qatal qatil qatul (abstract noun) (passive participle of Lamedh He Class (adjective) [doubtful. nomen agentis) (the Pael infinitive of the strong verb) (the most common adjective type in BA) Nouns With More Than Three Consonants VV aa ]???1 "IBIDIP qalqal qatalal qataltal [reduplication of a biconsonantal stem] [reduplication of the final consonant of a triconsonantal stem] [reduplication of the final two consonants of a triconsonantal stem] . very likely a Hebrew loan word] (abstract noun) (adjective.3n3 Tin? ne*?! IBS n3r)? qutal qatal qatil qatol qattal qittul qattal qattil (adjective.

. b u t . yet inV- nVsa — scroll. 1 and 2.breadth (4) will. fortress nTa (7) npa — (hithpaal) t o be investigated m ? — yet. but nan — to sacrifice nan — sacrifice (of slain animals) (1) — record (4) 5. 4. the BA gentilic ending (""Vaa).g. Nouns Formed With Prefixes nariDN nVron ]3BJa nan?^ inn 'aqtal haqtal miqtal shaqtal (the Aphel infinitive of the strong verb) (the Haphel infinitive of the strong verb) (the Peal infinitive of the strong verb) (the Shaphel infinitive of the strong verb) [a noun formed by adding prefix / t o the verbal root *dawara] Nouns Formed With Suffixes These suffixes include the suffix n u n (pia). BA has a few other types involving diphthongs. trace (2) — fortified place. Db~}n. DV. see I D ) . which will not be discussed here (e. etc. roll (7) M e d i a . the ending holem with waw (iVa). class 9).83 True quadriliterals include such words as rans. Mede(s) nnp — to demolish ^ns . sees. Vocabulary: — place. Exercises: am — (peil) t o be given Chaldaean -except. 6:1-3. etc. In addition t o the above types. and the feminine suffixes -ith and -Hth (see Lesson VII. decision (9) pri8^ — sixty Translate Ezra 5:12-17. .

qatl. The absolute (also the construct) form is developed from the stem by the insertion of a secondary (helping) vowel between the two final consonants. The term class. refers to the basic Proto-Semitic stem. Being monosyllabic in formation. sec. they are often called the nouns of shortest formation. the former belongs to Class 1 and the latter to Class 2 (Lesson VII. where the presence of the seghol is common). but when a laryngeal or resh is present it becomes _ (see I J). so the singular will be discussed in greater detail below. i p p and i n i have identical formations in the singular of the absolute state. The confusion between these two classes of nouns is largely confined to the singular rather than the plural. Confusion of Similar Noun Classes: In order to prevent confusion between nouns that have many similar forms. sec. In such cases the original noun type determines to which noun class the word in question belongs. and the form of the same noun in BA may differ considerably from the original. a clear distinction must be made between noun types (see Lesson XVIIl) and noun classes (see Lesson VII). 2.84 LESSON X I X S I M I L A R N O U N CLASSES 1. qitl. Classes 1 and 2 of nouns (see Lesson Vll) may be rather easily confused. 3). The nouns of this class are of the three types. 2 below). 2). Class 1 of nouns includes all BA nouns belonging to three basic types (see sec. For example. and qutl. Nouns Belonging to Class 1: In this class are grouped all the nouns of the so-called "segholate" formation (the name is derived from the BH noun class. for the emphatic singular is formed by adding the BA determinate ending N_. However.. Hence. for they have several forms which are similar or even identical to each other. Because nouns having certain similarities in their modifications due to declension are rather arbitrarily grouped together in a class. The emphatic state usually reveals clearly the Proto-Semitic type. F o r example. This vowel is usually an e written _. on the other hand. the former is a q i t l type and the latter a qatal type (Lesson XVIII. This . The designation type. it is possible t h a t one noun class in BA may include two or even more types of nouns. is simply one of several groups so designated simply for convenience in learning the declension of BA nouns.to the type stem.

A single example will suffice to illustrate these two main developments. sec. qitil. F o r this reason. however. Even then.85 secondary vowel attracts the accent t o it. A few examples will serve t o show this development. xnni is formed exactly like sVya in the emphatic state singular. xVya l a y > nay > nay [I A and M ] . xipp 3. nni plus N _ > « n r i 3 > N"i?t3 [I L] > xnri? [i M] 4. snay • i B p > -IDO [I J] > nap [I A ] . As a matter of fact. if there are only a few cognates. qutal. t h e results are quite uncertain. for the latter resemble t h e former in t h e emphatic state as well as in the absolute state. The development of these types of noun differs in the singular of the emphatic state. qutul. Here. etymology is t h e only real solution t o the problem. -in3> ini [I A ] . or an / changed to an a where necessary in the presence of a laryngeal). This means t h a t though the roots of the singular and of the plural . and the pretonic syllable is subsequently reduced t o shewa (see 1 A). and so it becomes a shewa (see I L). the accented second vowel is retained (either an original a. As was pointed o u t previously. however. Nouns Belonging to Class 2: The nouns grouped together in Class 2 are dissyllabic. qitul. 5. as long as the student keeps in mind t h a t the plural stem of the "segholate" nouns is metaplastic. the original types include qatal. F o r example. qatil. The student must become acquainted with t h e cognate forms in other Semitic languages in order t o be able t o distinguish correctly between these two classes. 3). Even this. qital. of nine possible types: qatal. Distinguishing Between Similar Noun Classes: When a form like -ipp is compared with one like nni it is easy t o see how they can be confused as to noun class. however. However. but the pretonic vowel is reduced t o shewa. and qital (see Lesson XVIII. t h e emphatic state of nouns belonging t o Class 1 will indicate the noun type t o which they belong. in BA only forms with a in the final syllable occur with certainty. does n o t help in distinguishing between nouns of Class 1 and nouns of Class 2. VV? > "7»3 > Vra [I A ] . or n o cognates at all. In t h e absolute (also the construct) form. qatul. is pretonic. however. qatil (in BA all occurrences have a due to a final laryngeal or resh). The plural of these nouns causes no particular difficulty. Similar Noun Classes in the Plural: The above discussion has been confined to t h e singular. however. qutil. not the first. the second vowel.

. the similar formation of t h e nouns of these two classes leads t o analogous forms when t h e suflBxes are a d d e d : e. 2). t h e stem of the plural is dissyllabic.g. but t h e plural stem is sipar.expense (7) (haphel) t o bring near. This is true in B H as well as in B A : e. Consequently. > offer p'llT — far (4) t o leave (behind) niVsj — burnt-offering (4) 7.. . but the plural stem is malak. ]i3*ini which is here treated as though its stem were nahr (on a n analogy with t h e segholates). Exercises: Translate Ezra 6:4-11. t h e singular stem is malk. sec. t h e singular stem is sipr. The stem of t h e singular is monosyllabic.g. ruin(s) (9) riches (2) nimi — incense (4) nw — (hithpeel) t o be pulled out np?? .86 contain t h e same three basic consonants.refuse-heap. the stems are different types. the final forms of t h e plural of nouns belonging to Class 1 are indistinguishable from t h e plural of those belonging t o Class 2. Likewise. Vocabulary: 6. order (3) «nB — (hithpeel) t o be impaled (on a stake) — (anointing) oil (1) tjail — layer (of stones or wood) (')iVii . •IBS — lamb (3) IDf — r a m (2) »)pT — t o impale ran — new *1Bn — wine (1) nntf^n — need (7) — w o r d . instead of mhar as it really is (see Lesson VII.

The Cardinal Numerals: Although the limited a m o u n t of BA literature leaves many gaps in the attested forms of the numerical systems.87 LESSON X X THE NUMERALS 1. 2.000. also have the apparently ." " a myriad. the entire system of cardinal numerals can be reconstructed with some degree of certainty by analogy with those forms which do occur. " A thousand t h o u s a n d " is ppVs fjVs [the M T has the Hebraism—final mem for final nun]. " T e n thousand times ten t h o u s a n d " is pan i3"i. ssnx ntf 37317 6 7 nnir^ nsaa* [120] p a w i nN!? [etc.in the absolute state. there is so-called "chiastic concord" in the numerals from three t o ten.] The word i 3 .n nnVn n»a"|S "in nVn T : 20 30 60 [62] 100 200 400 1000 nxa » 3 n « T I I - rn?^ nxa T . Conversely.| " a large multitude.] 10 mfes? [12] n t o . the numerals apparently masculine in form are used with feminine nouns. That means that the numerals which are apparently feminine in form (with the usual feminine ending n—) are used with masculine nouns. The table of numerals below will be confined t o the absolute state of numbers actually occurring in BA. Masculine Feminine Common 1 2 3 4 nn p.n n [etc." is used for 10. as in B H . Uses of the Cardinal Numerals: In BA. Presumably the feminine pnnn also h a d a construct state formed analogously. The masculine numbers ending in n . The masculine number " t w o " occurs in the construct s t a t e : n n .

•>_." "altogether. The standard formula used t o express t h e age of a person is as follows: prinni pna^ \<X0 1 3 ( 3 ) "(approximately) 62 years o l d " [lit. in such cases being used with the pronominal suffixes: jinriVri " t h e t h r e e of t h e m " ( D a n . The numbers are usually used with nouns adjectivally. as well as adjectivally: pma in " o n e of t h e m " or " t h e first of t h e m " ( D a n . Standard Numerical Formulas: The formula for dating events by the reign of a king employs t h e following p a t t e r n : niDVaV pr)"iri ny0 " t h e second year of the reign of x " (Ezra 4:24). 3:19). 3:23)." or "completely": nitn? (Dan.88 feminine construct ending ri— in the construct state. t h a t is used for gentilic nouns (see Lesson II. 6:3[2]). sec. The formula used for indicating the day of the m o n t h is as follows: H T V nnVri DV " t h e third day of the month x " (Ezra 6:15). 3. " T h o u s a n d " also occurs in the emphatic state: NsVx. T h e n u m b e r " o n e " is used as a noun. It is used with t h e preposition D t o mean "together. In t h e former case t h e noun is in the singular. nnn njp'Vn njva-i . The fraction "one-half" is indicated by t h e use of t h e noun SVB [lit. either preceding or following t h e nouns they modify. "(as) a son of 62 ye'ars"] (DanV 6:i[5:31]). 3 below). 2:35). 4. I t is used t o stress or emphasize t h e indetermination of a noun (see Lesson II. " a division"] (Dan. 3). Masculine first second third fourth pin -p-'Vn •'S'an Feminine ma-rp. 3). The formula used t o express multiplication is as follows: nyat£>"nn "seven times" ( D a n . I t is debatable whether or n o t other fractions actually occur in BA. t h e n o u n is in t h e plural. in t h e latter. " T h o u s a n d " occurs in the construct s t a t e : The construct state of the numbers occurs only infrequently in BA. 7:25). It is also used t o express multiplication (see sec. sec. the numbers can be used with pronouns instead of nouns. The Ordinal Numerals: I n BA t h e ordinal numbers (except "second") are formed with t h e same ending. Also.

The apparent feminine construct ending ni_ on the number "second" is actually an adverbial ending: mi^in " a g a i n " or "for the second t i m e " (Dan. division (of Levites) (8) Translate! Ezra 6:12-18. 5. as well as the absolute state. Exercises: . sying (7) tS — goat (5) > prophe- niVs — division (of priests) (7) T B S — — — npVr"? — month (1) Levite (pael) to overthrow course. Vocabulary: T — exile (9) damage joy (7) — number (3) Van — (pael) to hurt. destroy. 2:7).89 The ordinal numbers occur in the emphatic state. — he-goat (4) oatf^ — tribe (1) pa? — (pael) t o cause to dwell m — six — two [ m a s c ] 6. nnn nxpn — sin-offering naan — dedication (7) T : V nsna — prophecy.

pi. anan anan anas pan?. 3 f. ana. ian?p. pi. The Regular (Strong) Verb: Perfect Person 3 m. anann anann ananx pappn. anan. pa??. 1 c. sg. 2 m. sg. anann anann an^n^? panan. pi. sg. 3 f. sg. sg. panann an?ni pa^an anai panan anaj papann anam panan anai panpnn anan? Infinitive anai? nana nan?D nanaK nanann nanann . anan anan anas anan. sg. 1 c. 3 m . 2 m. pi. 1 c. anan. anan anan ana. 3 f. pi. 3 f. panpn. pi. 3 m. 1 c. sg. pi. anann anann ananx i V pana. l???n? ana. ian?p. sg. 2 m.90 PARADIGMS 1. pi. Peal Pael Haphel Aphel Hithpeel Hithpaal ana nan? nana nana nana !iana nana pnana «??na nana lana nana pnana xiana anan nanpn panan nanan lanan nanan pnanan Nianan anps nanpK nanaN anann nanppn panpnn nappnn lanapn nanpnn anann nappnn nanann nanann lanann nanapn nanpx lanax nanpK pngnas pnanpnn pnananri xjanas xjawnn xjanpnn Imperfect 3 m. 2 m.

Peil a'na na'pa na'pa naTi la'na na'na fina'na sjyna Hophal anan ngnpn nanan nanan lana^i nanan pnanari Shaphel ana^ nan?^ n?naB> Hishtaphal anane^ nanar«f?n nanantf^ nana^ lana^ nanaef pnana^ Kianat? nanant^ii ian?nfn nan?ni?^n pnanane^ mm The Shaphel imperfect is a r i a ^ . sg. sg. f. pi. m. etc. 3 m. m. sg. pi. pi. The Hishtaphal imperfect is an^ritt^.91 Imperative Person m.sg. f. 1 c. pi. . f. 3 f. 2 m. ana nana fana nanaa pnaa l?naa ananxj nanan!? r???n? lananp anaa nappa r?naa !?naa anana nanana rananp lanana anana nananip panana lanana )m a^na Passive Participle m. sg. sg. sg.pl. etc. pi. 3 f. sg.] Perfect Person 3 m. anaa anana anaa na^na pyna lyna [In t h e derived conjugations t h e feminine singular and b o t h t h e masculine and t h e feminine plural of the passive participle are the same as in t h e active participle. f.pl. sg. f. sg. pi. m. pi. Peal ana '?na lana Pael ana "ana lana Haphel anan 'anan lanan Aphel anaN -anax Hithpeel anann "•anapn lanann Hithpaal anann ••anann lanann lanaK Active Participle [Reflexive Participle in Hithpeel and Hithpaal] m. 1 c. 2 m.

sg. D-^jpn D'fen etc. pa'ir pa'pai l»'pa: pa^yn pa'pqn a?™ m\ riaipn •ipi Infinitive °pa Dfea naain n^ai-inn njtnn . mp^? riaip.q . 3 f. Peal OR nap. Peal Haphel a'pn Polel nan Hithpolel nainpn etc. p i . 3 f. sg. 3 f. p i . pL 1 c. andPe Aleph Verbs: See Lesson XL Hollow Verbs: Ayin Waw and Ayin Yodh [for other forms see Lesson XII]. pi.nap pnipj? «3ap pnxj'pn Imperfect 3 m. «p. sg. 3 m. na'pn na'pn etc. Dipn Dipn • t a'P-Ol D'pnn Q'pnn naiT oainn. 2 m. etc. 3 f. Perfect Person 3 m. sg. p i . naainnn etc. 3. 1 c. etc. Laryngeal Verbs: See Lesson X . 2 m. sg. 4. p i . pi. 2 m.92 2. 1 c. sg. etc. Pe Nun. sg. sg. pi. 2 m. lav. 1 c. Pe Yodh. etc. 3 m . mp. n!?P.

sg. Haphel Vwri etc. nVy etc. Peal t3ip pip < Peal Haphel D'pri Polel nan Hithpolel Danpn etc. m. f sg. sg. 3 f.na Peal •?» Haphel pnn npnn etc. pi. 3 f pi. 2 m. 2 m. pi. Imperfect 3 m.sg. 5. m. Geminate Verbs: Or Ayin Ayin Verbs [for other forms see Lesson XIII]. sg. pi. sg. Perfect Person 3 m. etc. 3 m. Hophal "?»n . . VS7K i"?» Ipnn Passive Active n-'pna nana etc. f. f pi. sg.93 Imperative Person m. 1 c. p i . 1 c. sg. iVin . 1 c. sg. Hithaphel m etc. P'pn la-pri etc. sg. Wip Participles Active m. sg.\ nW etc. pi. 2 m. na't? na'pna raT.\ Ithpoel Dain(?st etc. aanna etc. pnnn pnnn etc. 3 f sg. etc.

pi. 3 m. pi. sg. 1 c. f-sg. 3 f. sg.:i . Infinitive Peal Haphel Haphel Imperative m.94 Person 3 m.i Peal nn Pael -53 Haphel •"jan n!?an n-ian Hithpeel -lann n!)3ni:» rfnpn n'lapi. sg. m. pi. 6. pl. sg.! rnnn nriann Hithpaal "Jann n!ia nngn? n'nnn n^ann i^anq n. sg. pi. pi. m. 3 f. 3 f. pi.33 n'jan nan' iw'ian K?^aD r^iann w^>n. Active Participle m. and Lamedh Yodh [for other forms see Lesson XIV]. 2 m. pi. 2 m.sg.i3nn iwrjanji m rria Ua nn jvria Kris n-ja r?a n. p i . sg. >?» nV» pVy pina npjna rpnna Vsina etc. f. Perfect Person 3 m. -Vs. pi. Lamedh He Verbs: Original Lamedh Aleph. Lamedh Waw. 1 c. 2 m. 1 c.

sg. 3 f sg.3apn mnnn Imperative m. 3 m. 2 m. pi. saann xnnn xaanx ]iaar. sg. Hithpeel wana misna Hithpaal KHanp ri? m m m ":??na rsana T:»oa n. sg. pi. f. sg. pi. - n.33na r3??9 riana .95 Imperfect Person Peal Pael Haphel Hithpeel Knm xasnn Nisnn KnnK Hithpaal xnn. pa? itiaa ^3?nKl?n Nianri xnnri i<l!?^ wans linn. jiiann |ii?nn papn N3?fl3 f<3ani ^nam Infinitive mn TT - n-nn TT . 1 c. 1 c. 3 f pi. f sg. f. sg. pi. m. 2 m. 3 m.sg. pi. m.pl. -n -?? iaa -ian -?an iaan Participle Active Peal ]Passive Peal Active Pael Active Haphel Nian!? Person m.

The abbreviations h/aph. is used where it is extremely uncertain as to whether the attested formation is Hithpeel or Hithpaal. The verbs are given without vocalization. eagerly Vnv. force xntx promulgated. In a few instances of extreme uncertainty the consonants are left without any vocalization in this glossary. However. or both the Hithpaal and the Ithpaal respectively. it may be restored with certainty.t o trust in l a x t o say. indicate that the verbs in question occur in both the Haphel and the Aphel.. (these) iVx thousand nax* cubit nax nation p x h a p h e l . in some instances there is some degree of uncertainty. The verbs without a designation as to conjugation are in the Peal (including statives). except in the case of stative formations of the Peal conjugation. there is (are) •rax t o eat Vx n o t aVx Vx* these G o d .. h e a t VTX t o go ( t o or away) nx* brother nrnt?* riddle -inx* after n n x * end ax* ax* nax — — ]M nnJX pnx ]snwnx* yV'X ina-'X* •'ri"'X another satrap tree terrible existence. but gentilic nouns are given. both the Hithpeel and the Ithpeel. The abbreviation hithp. a r m . N o proper names of persons or places are here listed. father fruit t o perish haphel—to destroy. those [ m a s c ] . or h/ithpa. h/ithpe. slay hophal—to be destroyed stone letter then T l x * threshing floor '^!^^^* counselor x n m x with zeal. All the other conjugations are designated.96 GLOSSARY In most instances where the singular of the absolute state of a noun is not attested in BA. In these formations the characteristic vowel of the perfect (the vowel under the second consonant) is given. command l a x * Iamb nnx pnx another (at) last nix I px they. [or] gone nrx t o light. god nVx these iVx behold! fVx these •riVx those. The asterisic indicates that the exact form listed is unattested.

r u n great risk •qnS n33ns* npiK iVs ni3 — p3* pl3* 033 n5?3 "•pis* a n i n h a b i t a n t S?ns* e a r t h "•ViN* bottom earth pnS* S^N «]B*N pB^K* nnriB^K B>N* f o u n d a t i o n fire. master t ] 1 8 * face triN man.3* •73 n'73 to spend the night house.-beam??] revolt 1»3* petition.t o bring (in) furnace place. fetter exactly. be d i s c o n t i n u e d . by (means of) E^'SS* b a d trS3 t o be displeasing t o t o trouble.] y o u [masc. stop pael—to stop between. pi. t o e . fortress nTa* fortified ^ 3 n. length of Uruk becoming > treasury. eagerly prohibition wood. knee duration. be perplexed t o cease. among p o s i t i v e l y ?] finger discernment place. request. vg-ps* f o u r pnK* purple n s behold! way lion fitting. [eventually ? S?3SN* d i g i t .] IIDS «l-lSpN "IDS »N (]K b o n d . > to hurry fright- — hithpaal—to be •"pIBK* a t i t l e o f o f f i c i a l s •"ponsN* a t i t l e o f o f f i c i a l s "•pnonpN* a t i t l e o f o f f i c i a l s DhBN storehouse. oppress. those [fem. m i r a c l e nns — pns nns to come h a p h e l . mankind y o u [masc. scatter nnis •"VpS* nns iVng '?n3 — hithpeel —(to be perplexed). trace nVi?3* npa — hithpaal-to be investigated son field na -la* . prayer Vys owner. > fire-offering — p a e l — t o search (eagerly). — p3 nrs VP3 ened. sing. > heart. also beam nnS3 after Babylonian pael-to hurry pael-to frighten disperse. lord plain pael—to seek. b e o n t h e p o i n t o f . > temple mind ms* nns p a e l . investigate nx* s i g n .97 NiriiN pjN D3K we they. call u p o n enchanter wall.t o wear out tax to build hithpeel—to be built sons [plural] building to become angry t o seek.[tradit.] 3 in.

(so) that gold a i * side.—a proper name]. lifetime arm »nn* decree. that is t o dwell Bhn to tread down m n n * [tradit. etc. break off decree. complete W treasure wing ons* bone 0 8 ^ * body ai which is. determination m aphel—to stir u p TS* plaster wheel nVa t o reveal h a p h e l . back pit. nn T law grass «nn* n a n ^ * judge n Kn an this [fem. table. den nniai* might man 13? na?* (mighty) m a n .—to crush in generation. order. judgment. perfume. judges t h a t [fem.] ram linan* record record (book) pVn t o burn nan t o resemble n n this (is) [masc] Pi?n t o crush h/aph.—musical instrument] . that. etc.t o bless knee D"13 yet. t h a t [masc] t h a t [com. > a liquid measure nan to sacrifice n a n * sacrifice (of slain animals) pan to stick together ni31 ann «inn mn m a t t e r . food. council (of judgment) judge [tradit. 14] n t o judge n in* "T • right. command.] bear . warrior treasurer nns to cut down interior.] V. frighten .98 rjia •qia — •q-ia* t o kneel t o bless p a e l .1 of. ? ? t o fear Vnn pael—to make afraid. but n^a flesh n a * b a t h .—to be cut o u t . [see p . midst nil pride 131?* treasurer -ITS t o determine (destiny > by astrology) h/ithpe. concubine.t o take into exile iVs* exile squared (stones) nas t o finish. justice.

alive. (for. that t o b e . decide (pi. damage hurt. mn mn 1 a n d . perish hurt. singer or. exist to go [tradit. make k n o w n h/aph.] she.. > com- ngnn« h i g h r o y a l official nnn* •nn xin mn •qin x'n Vs-'n ^Vn musical instrument naj* m u s i c i a n . pearance vision.99 n n Nn ns-Kn interrogative behold! e v e n as member pael-to he. > shriek descendants impale kind nVian Van — hurtful act. then. ap- pt to buy "ViJ]* ( w a r n e d ) . destroy. damage pael-to damage hithpaal—to be destroyed. Tit pt snt haphel—to tuously act nirq* T\^n* sight sin-oflfering sin living. etc.] ifinn* nVnann in mrj* rrpn joy new pael—to show. T>VT» pVT «]pT »nT small to wail. t o see. crime. majesty particle T>j* b r i g h t n e s s . perceive apparition. tax glorify glory. music turn for strings.) — r ntn > cautious presumplive (on). to seed. damage fantasy (in a dream) hurry gift nan* nnan* companion companion one breast [fem. ian •qiian* VJ •"ID they they [masc] [masc] necklace if.—to interpret white make known.that palace. plexion) OT pt pt nap innocence hithp. (pi. temple to go. h a p p e n . whether either.-to time..) life to live hithaphel-to subsist to tremble (on) 'yq* •«n mn . or injury. |T* sort. > reach pael—to walk about aphel—to walk about toll. agree.

. power h / a p h . lay. bodyguard niB mountain aKc preserve land. hungri(ly) pD* (wet) clay. claw npp* nnts to drive away 'Vsnp* a class of officials nip — h a p h e l . report (finger)nail. Jewish nim* or day aD' to be pleasing to be able.t o praise nr to know — h a p h e l . give to eat D5?P sense. communicate a m to give — p e i l .t o be given.t o feed.t o finish.to occupy. restore t o life beast.t o seek shade. .t o bring. possess might molded clay hfaphel—to be harsh hophal—to be laid waste magician h i t h p a a l . prevail sea rjp-. > be glad a? good nap* executioner.t o bring s a p h e l . or inspect) strength. wanting h/aph. > n n * hip aa^n to consider. pass by a share in fury wine wheat dedication to show mercy (to) hithpaal—to implore. (repair.t o be given — h i t h p e e l . animal a p h e l . be paid Jew.t o be added t o advise ithpaal—to take counsel together s h a p h e l . advice.t o be singed fasting(ly).t o make known. command.100 n-n nrn en V?? can na?n oVn iVn P"?n ton nwn* nsin* T\-: pn mpn pn non «)sn ann Dfann •qnn aphel —to let live. make supplication deficient. be finished a s . lay. h o p h a l . > earth heap of stones h a n d . > respec ^TB^n* darkness nB^n t o be in need of nnttfn* need inB^n* need Vafn t o grind o n n t o seal P to be g o o d . > to make a nest p a e l . (earthenware) Vp dew a p h e l .t o join together. army wise wisdom dream to pass (over).pael—to make certain n^a:* dry — .

nothing A V * heart A A V * heart B#IAV* garment vflib t o be clothed with. all. wear — h a p h e l . > language as. a dry measure n^^'O* cap.101 well-established.t o assemble n j a * colleague silver 19? now niya and now nsa peil—to be bound ? a nxa ]TSB* naxa ]Na* nVia hundred balance word. yet JO^ therefore [Heb. > meal. document. beside.t o be finished naa how! [exclamation] t h u s . order vessel scroll. scription Vna wall Tn. exceedingly •p t o .t o be distressed herald na KOna h a p h e l . h a t ma lina* i t h p e e l . with ANV (bread). feast N J N V concubine '<Yi* night NAV why? for what purpose? > lest yf?* tongue. tie n b * k o r . every because of VVa shaphel—to finish h i s h t a p h a l . cause t o dwell — pael—to bind. about nan? lie when. honorable dignity. reliable. true to burn burning. extraordinary. roll . dwell haphel—to settle. sign of t h e accusative k V n o t . honor month (the upper p a r t of the) thigh sign of the accusative t o sit. according t o . as soon as na here Vna to be able priest nja* window naa* talent whole.t o proclaim seat.t o clothe (with) |JIV except. (so) F Naia thus t2^a to assemble h i t h p a a l . > firebrand T p ! * difficult. firm. b u t . for. throne i-iji^a Chaldaean in- an' ana t o write ana writing.] •NV* Levite N I V * near.

> on account of light light illumination (of mind) river t o flee . matter. t o w n . deed nya* belly (going. city ' n a what ? that which nia death ]iTa food Hna t o smite p a e l . > banquet nina* gift hithpaal-to prophesy. act as a prophet nsiai* prophecy. tribute understanding nia t o number pael—to appoint nnia (grain) offering nana* pljp number nas?a* work. happen t o to fill sVa hithpeel-tobefilled(with) angel nV)? word. entering). Mede(s) nj-n!?* province. come u p o n .t o offer willingly. out of. > prophesying natai present. tribute nna • i n a * dwelling Media.t o check. [with " s u n " ] > sunset tna lord m a * rebellious TT nna rebellion ana p e i l . lamp (stand) nil t o flow nil towards.102 pael—to overthrow altar tax. kingdom VVa pael—to speak who? ' T I P whoever from. prevent. stay hithpeel—to be impaled (on a stake) course. a t t a i n . reign. than since mina nnja tax. flute xriB?a* drinking. bestow. > be under obligation of loyalty nVa salt king counsel na>a' queen laViS kingship. be willing layer (of stones or wood) t o flee nni nni nini* Trii* iTni "ini mi xai (sheath > body). division (of npVna* Levites) «»a t o reach. affair nVa to eat salt. gift N-ai* prophet nir^nai* candlestick.t o be plucked out n^a (anointing) oil aaap* bed psto* abode •'i?in?'a* pipe. in the direction of nil* brightness ana h i t h p a a l .

(one nv nns? "QTtpi* d e c r e e .t o take away still. > year depart h a p h e l . bronze to come down h/aph. service the opposite bank u n t o . hardness distinguish t^io p"?D — — nVD be lifted pael—to help. turned servant into. leopard h i t h p e e l . vulture official d o c u m e n t servant. aid secretary. be done to knock together t o take.t o be lifted u p t o keep nimi* i n c e n s e riches panther. scribe •jjDl* l i b a t i o n nap* npp Vanp* •!]np* nno nno naSJ* nsi Vsi Xpi B^pl Niw hithpaal-to oneself h/aph. up — h i t h p a a l . m a k e h i t h p e e l . annihilate end to go (come) take up up up haphel-to hophal—to clerk. > preserve h o p h a l — t o be deposed t o lift u p peil . ruin(s) fire to come to grief haphel-to damage nao niD ]lp» niD n.103 WiVll TU pn — B?m nm — — bvi — nw DDI* naj noi •!|D1 "7D3 pDl — npDl* refuse-heap. pni* ]n3 nni sanctuary who t o give is g i v e n ) nis? tjis? a p h e l . deliver nas? lift to d o .t o be made. pass a w a y . ofi"er t o fall ( d o w n ) to go out haphel—to take (out) expense firmness. time.t o rise u p a g a i n s t nras?* work. yet iniquity bird •pm* w o m e n [ p l u r a l ] naitfl* na^l breath ( o f life) eagle.t o p o u r o u t . carry a w a y . book a garment. until t o g o . lay.t o be pulled o u t p a e l . [cloak? sers?] h i g h official to demolish pael-to hide troubring.-to pure rescue.iSp1D r\^0 — copper.-to deposit Vao poel-to to intend to pay homage to governor t o shut bagpipe(?) t o be fulfilled aphel—to put an end to.t o shake o f f . administration. toil.

nation ay (along) with p'ay* deep nay wool lUS t o answer niy* miserable. [tradit. advice eye Tiy» wild ass niny* nakedness.104 chaff TV* goat npW* signet-ring nos? counsel. worship (God) (divine) service OS m o u t h o p a part of the h a n d . ancient TV (awake).-halfmina] -D-JB* Persia.y r o o t i y * adversary ana p a e l . against.t o mix — h i t h p a a l . poor ]iy* cloud «]iy» bough. over.t o mingle n n s * governor i n ? potter arpB* a garment. [palm? back? all below wrist?] stringed instrument V n ? iron C I S peil—to be divided o n p half-shekel.to bring in — hophal—to be brought in oVy eternity. be opened breadth . the Most "y High ••Vy* roof-chamber frba* t h e Most High V?a t o go in. [coat? trou- sers?] t o divide half division (of priests) t o serve. concerning na-Vs? why ? wherefore ? above. branch B^jy fine [a legal term] ' p y * foliage a'Sy sad ip» i thpeel . Persian(s) t o c o m m u t e . over pretext. > angel (up)on. > watcher. remote time ••aVy* Elamite vbv* rib oy people. ground for acT • cusation burnt-offering • V * superior.to be plucked o u t ip. highest. decree nnB t o open JVB peil—to be open. remove pael—to separate copy t o interpret pael—to interpret interpretation •jnp word. grass nfey ten ptoy ne^S? Tny* p'py twenty peil—to intend ready (to) old. enter — haphel . shame a^y herbs.

wish. — to (cause to) prosprogress s t a t u e .105 Djj? nns US S3S — ns to desire. wish. formerly ^np* Dij*p . read peil-to be read. greatness fourth lords. > righteousness neck pael-to per. become Dip t o rise. appoint. former tt^xn head. an] grandees. city horn piece truth nip t]Sp «]Sp I'Sp nsp xnp — xns* T np-fS nsis* mVs nVs nes* anp nnp* pp pael-to receive before.t o kill h i t h p e e l . an nan — to chief (up).t o cut off e n d .t o bring near. endure p a e l — t o set up. m a k e angry Pip. t h i n g . make h/aph. curse v o i c e . part t o call ( o u t ) .t o be killed h i t h p a a l .a i P * first. t o w n . b i g .t o be set u p t o kill p e i l . establish h o p h a l . establish h / a p h . nobles. offer war village. chief grow great p a e l — t o make g r e a t . found. sound to buy t o be(come) furious wrath p a e l . joint. because holy before former t i m e . (be shouted) hithpeel-to be called t o draw near. approach > p a e l — t o offer h a p h e l . image bird T B S * he-goat J wet h i t h p a a l — t o be wet onmp Vp Vp enduring. task summer statute > difl&cult great. (sure) zither insolence. s t a n d . — t o set up.t o irritate.t o be killed p a e l . m rage foot Vjn* . desire pael—to side true (right-doing). heighten myriad. like matter. DVS pray — anp — — fare well. [plural o f great multitude Vtjp ian ian "•yan* fia"^an» m h a p h e l .t o be killed knot.

Susanian mP t o spoil sr?* t o rescue N'S'tJ t o finish.t o find — hithpeel—to be found VVaa? [see'7'73] t o dwell — l"?^ pael—to cause to dwell negligence n"?(^ ( t o be) at ease.t o praise.#* t o ask. [plural] elders KD3t* stringed i n s t r u m e n t . inscribe VNE^ nbvm* -)XB# nyo D3i. (triangular.t o rise u p (against) height secret hithaphel —to be p u t . m a n y . impose (a tax) peil .t o praise tribe flame seven p3ir^ t o leave (behind) h i t h p e e l . heighten p o l e l .t o raise.to be thrown hithpeel—to be thrown will. be haughty a p h e l . decision thought flourishing t o crush pael—to crush t o tread down t o write. > require question. place. be high. make. requirement rest. be finished nSB? h a p h e l . much. (storm in) n * appearance n n wind. (exalt) h i t h p o l e l .t o consider unVpB^ insight WiP t o hate 1VV hair — n p'>ni* far flpni compassion(s) h i t h p e e l . remainder p a e l . > be made VsiP h i t h p a a l . pass on to tr*31£> hithpaal—to be perplexed nbit* concubine 11^ hithpaal—to strive niltf — — t o be like pael —to make like hithpaal —to be made (like) wall — — — !|S?n* •fcai* yiVl VVI — OB") Oftil -^if^* h o a r y . testimony ipfc side D "! t o place. [adverb] very n n ^ * witness. 4 strings) ^afe t o grow great K^iiD great. spirit o n to rise.106 tr*n haphel—to throng i n . es" !? tablish an inhabitant of Susa.t o be left. lay.t o trust in smell to t h r o w . carefree niVB>* prosperity .

magistrate Tp??* s t r o n g . officer. answer m n t o be amazed. [as a salutation] hail name Tot h a p h e l .—a r o o t ing o u t ] r\t six nnt t o drink fFit sixty nan to break T i n * (encircling. am t o r e t u r n duration).to alter.t o obey Vhit p a e l . [tradit.t o destroy.nDn* police officer. humiliate Vptf low. (short space of time) DDB> t o judge T B t t > fair.t o be appalled s?atf t o hear — h i t h p a a l .—to humble.t o serve Vtpt* sun ift* t o o t h ot pt* nit — — leg t o loosen. [lit. again •. [with a] continually h/aphel—to give back.—to be changed rat* year niB^* sleep nvt moment. annihilate ]?aB>» heaven. have power over haphel—to make ruler over dominion IbVi?* high official mighty. deliver (completely) welfare. it is allowed peil—to be finished haphel-to complete. finish. bull nin* ninn u n d e r sVn snow ••niVri* t h i r d n V n three Nn"?n nitt* t o be changed. humble IBt t o please. be different — pael—to change . beautiful bot h/aph. deliver. > violate — h/ithpa. seem good l ^ n B a ^ * dawn third p a r t . sky oat i t h p o e l .t o begin hithpaal—to be loosened.107 to send t o rule. > violate — haphel .—third in rank] thirty there n a n * wonder second nan nii^in a second time. > shake ttt* r o o t ytit b a n i s h m e n t . > dwell p a e l . mighty Vpn peil—to b e weighed Vpn shekel . be frightened ox.

108 pn tjppi — hophal—to be reestablished to be strong.] . enforce *]pri strength r^pri* s t r e n g t h p"iri* two [ m a s c ] VIFi* doorkeeper »nri d o o r . gate prinn two [fem. become strong pael—to make stringent. m o u t h .

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