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. only touching lightly the vast areas of other Aramaic languages and dialects.PREFACE The purpose of this grammar is to cover adequately. the student is introduced to actual Biblical passages in the exercises. and frequent comparisons are drawn between the two languages. In this connection. Whenever some grammatical term or usage common to both languages is usually covered thoroughly in a study of Hebrew grammar. The basic structure of this grammar is that of the "Baltimore school. S. only a short resume or explanation is given in this grammar for the sake of brevity.his teacher of Biblical Aramaic.. The vocabulary is progressively built u p by the use of simple exercises. in connection with his teaching program. In addition. to Professor Joseph Fitzmyer. modified t o some extent by the . The goal has been to meet the needs of the typical theological seminary student. the general framework of comparative Semitic studies has been utilized where it could aid in the understanding of Biblical Aramaic. It is almost an invariable rule that seminary students learn Hebrew before they begin a study of Biblical Aramaic. For many years several excellent and comprehensive grammars of Biblical Aramaic written in the German language have been in existence. the eighth edition (based on the third edition). their full value has not been readily accessible to those seminary students who are more facile in the classical languages than in the modern languages. t o William Foxwell Albright. yet the methodology of approach can vary greatly in different grammars. the essential elements of Biblical Aramaic. the author freely acknowledges his indebtedness. yet as concisely as possible. As soon as possible. While there is very little that can be presented in a work of this kind that is really new. The textual basis of this grammar is Kittel's Biblia Hebraica. first. for the two works are quite dilTerent in approach. and secondly. However. For the last few years. This grammar was written on the basis of that assumption. his esteemed professor in Semitic studies in general. the author has been preparing this grammar in the English language to help meet the needs of such students." However. To reach this goal the grammar is concentrated on Biblical Aramaic. however. the methodology of approach has been simplified to better fulfill the purpose of meeting the needs of the seminary classroom.J. The recent appearance of a good Aramaic grammar written in the English language has not been a deterrent to the completion of the project.

1962. H o w could the books written partially in Aramaic occupy quite as high a spot in the canon as others written entirely in the " s a c r e d " language. It seemed advisable to issue the second printing in regular book form with cloth covers rather than to use once again an electro-photostatic process for printing and cardboard covers for binding. It is our sincere hope that these improvements will help this grammar to fulfill more adequately its original purpose. The examples illustrating the grammar have been chosen with special care to fall within the scope of the student's progressive understanding. The first limited printing of this grammar was exhausted much more quickly than anticipated. 1965. December. It is an honor to be the first in a series entitled Andrews University Monographs. The second printing has presented an opportunity for correcting the misprints present in the original work as well as for making a few minor changes to clarify the text. 1971 . Running for their helpful suggestions and painstaking care in reading the proofs. Siegfried H. Special thanks are due to the administration and board of Andrews University for their willingness to underwrite the additional outlay that this second printing entails. this second edition has given opportunity for numerous minor corrections and a few major ones to be made. Hebrew? December. The demand for the first edition of this grammar was greater than either the author or the Andrews University Publications Committee anticipated and so the supply has been exhausted several years before we expected. Horn and D r . November. A continuing demand at the present level can be met by the second edition for many years to come. although the author suspects the possibility (difficult to prove) that the earliest Masoretes or pre-Masoretic scribes were not quite as careful with the Aramaic portions of the Bible as with the Hebrew portions. Leona G.VI vocabulary available at t h a t stage of study. In this connection the author wishes to express his deepest appreciation to his colleagues Dr. Attention is focused on those forms which actually occur in Biblical Aramaic. However.

4. 4. . P H O N O L O G Y O F BIBLICAL A R A M A I C . 2. 6. LESSON I. 8. 8. 7. 3. N O U N S A N D ADJECTIVES 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 Gender Number State Adjectival Modification The Construct Chain Uses of •? The Direct Object and n . 6. . . 5. 4. 3. 5 5 6 7 8 8 The Development of Proto-Semitic Consonants Selected Phonetic Rules for Vowels Selected Phonetic Rules for Consonants Vocabulary Exercises LESSON II. 7. 5. . 1. . 5.Vll TABLE O F C O N T E N T S PREFACE TABLE O F C O N T E N T S I N T R O D U C T I O N T O BIBLICAL A R A M A I C 1. 9. . Vocabulary Exercises . T h e Name Distribution of Semitic Languages Classification of Aramaic Languages and Dialects The Alphabet The Script The Tone The Vocabulary V vii 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 . 3. Biblical Occurrences 2. 1. 2. . .

. 2. 4. 7. 2. ETC 1. T H E INFINITIVE. 3. T H E VERBAL SYSTEM: T H E I M P E R F E C T . 3. 2. 5. 7. 5. 5. 19 19 19 20 20 21 22 22 LESSON VI. . 6. 5. INDEPENDENT PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND 12 12 12 13 14 14 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 SUFFIXES ON NOUNS 1. LESSON IV. Independent Personal Pronouns Uses of the Independent Personal Pronouns Pronominal Suffixes on Nouns Uses of the Pronominal Suffixes Vocabulary Exercises . O T H E R P R O N O U N S 1. 4. 4. 3. . 6. 7. T H E VERBAL S Y S T E M : T H E P E R F E C T 1. . Conjugation of the Imperfect Uses of the Imperfect The Infinitive The Imperative The Participles Uses of the Active Participle Uses of the Passive Participle 23 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 . Demonstrative Pronouns The Pronoun n Independent Possessive Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns Vocabulary Exercises LESSON V. 3.Vlll LESSON in. . The Conjugations Development of the Conjugations Stative Forms Conjugation of the Perfect Uses of the Perfect Vocabulary Exercises . 6. 4. 2. 6.

Active Verb Forms With Passive Meanings The Copula Vocabulary Exercises . 4. . 3. 2. 3. 6. .IX 8. . 5. 3. . Pe Laryngeal Verbs 3. 10. Principal Parts Regular and Irregular Verbs The Pael The Haphel The Aphel The Shaphel Vocabulary Exercises . 2. L A R Y N G E A L VERBS 1. Laryngeal Verbs 2. 26 26 27 27 LESSON Vll. 7. . 2. 4. . 32 32 33 33 34 35 35 36 36 LESSON IX. 6. 5. 4. Systems of Classification Inflection of the First Nine Classes Nouns of Unique Formation Vocabulary Exercises 28 28 28 29 31 31 LESSON Vlll. Ayin Laryngeal Verbs 41 41 41 42 . 11. 7. CLASSES O F N O U N S 1. 9. 5. 8. The Passive Conjugations The Reflexive Conjugations The Hithpeel The Hithpaal The Hishtaphal Vocabulary Exercises 37 37 38 38 39 40 40 40 LESSON X. T H E D E R I V E D ACTIVE C O N J U G A T I O N S 1. T H E PASSIVE A N D REFLEXIVE C O N J U G A T I O N S 1.

Pe N u n Verbs Verbs Pe N u n and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe N u n and Lamedh Laryngeal Pe Yodh Verbs (Including Pe Waw) The Shaphel and Saphel Conjugations Verbs Pe Yodh and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh Laryngeal P e A l e p h Verbs Verbs Pe Aleph and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh Laryngeal Vocabulary Exercises . 9. . 7. 6. . 3. . Geminate (or Ayin Ayin) Verbs 2. 7. 8. 2. 10. 4. 5. The Hithpoel (Ithpoel) Conjugation 59 59 60 60 . H O L L O W VERBS 1. 4. 9.4. A N D PE A L E P H VERBS 1. . 5. 12. 8. 7. . 3. . 11. 2. 5. Lamedh Laryngeal Verbs The Ithpeel Conjugation Verbs Doubly Laryngeal Vocabulary Exercises 43 44 45 45 45 LESSON XI. 6. . The Hollow Verbs Ayin Waw Verbs The Polel and Hithpolel Conjugations The Hithaphel (Hittaphel) Conjugation Ayin Y o d h Verbs Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Hollow Verbs Lamedh Laryngeal and Hollow Verbs Pe N u n and Hollow Vocabulary Exercises 54 54 54 55 . 5 6 56 57 57 57 57 58 . 47 47 48 48 48 49 50 50 51 52 52 52 52 LESSON XII. PE Y O D H . PE N U N . 10. 6. LESSON XIII. 8. The Shaphel and Hishtaphal Conjugations 3. G E M I N A T E VERBS 1.


4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Geminate Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Geminate Verbs Pe Nun and Geminate Vocabulary Exercises

60 61 62 62 62

LESSON XIV. L A M E D H H E VERBS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The Development of the Lamedh He Formations The Derived Conjugations of the Lamedh He Class Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh He Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Lamedh He Verbs Pe N u n and Lamedh He Vocabulary Exercises . . . . .

63 63 64 65 66 67 67 68

LESSON VERBS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.





IRREGULAR 69 69 69 69 70 70 70 72 73 73

Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh H e The Haphel Passive Conjugation Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh He Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal Pseudo-Geminate Verbs Other Irregular Verbs Vocabulary Exercises





LESSONXVI. VERBAL SUFFIXES: WITH T H E PERFECT 1. Verbal Suffixes 2. Formation of Suffixes on the Perfect 3. Table of Suffixes on the Perfect 4. The Suffixes on '•n-S 5. Vocabulary 6. Exercises



74 74 74 75 76 76 76


LESSON XVII. VERBAL S U F F I X E S : W I T H T H E I M P E R F E C T , THE INFINITIVE, ETC 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Formation of Suffixes on the Imperfect Table of Suffixes on the Imperfect Table of Suffixes on the Infinitive Table of Suffixes on the Imperative Suffixes on the Participle Vocabulary Exercises 77 77 77 78 79 79 79 79

LESSON XVIII. N O U N TYPES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Definition of Noun Types Recognition of Noun Types Table of N o u n Types Occurring in BA Vocabulary Exercises

80 80 80 81 83 83

LESSON XIX. S I M I L A R N O U N CLASSES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Confusion of Similar Noun Classes Nouns Belonging to Class 1 Nouns Belonging to Class 2 Distinguishing Between Similar Noun Classes Similar Noun Classes in the Plural Vocabulary Exercises

84 84 84 85 85 85 86 86 87 87 87 88 88 89 89 90 96





LESSON XX, T H E N U M E R A L S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Cardinal Numerals Uses of the Cardinal Numerals Standard Numerical Formulas The Ordinal Numerals Vocabulary Exercises


I N T R O D U C T I O N T O BIBLICAL A R A M A I C 1. Biblical Occurrences: In the Old Testament, Biblical Aramaic is found in five passages: Gen. 31:47; Jer. 10:11; Ezra 4:8 to 6:18; Ezra 7:12-26; and Dan. 2:4b to 7:28. 2. The Name: The name of the language " A r a m a i c , " is derived from the Hebrew word J T ' O ' i K (Ezra 4:7 and D a n . 2:4a). It was, of course, originally spoken by various Aramaean tribes for centuries before the time of the oldest inscriptions in "Old A r a m a i c " (which date to about the 10th century B . C . ) . As the Aramaeans moved into Assyria and Babylonia, their language gradually superseded Accadian as the lingua franca of the region, eventually becoming the official language of the Persian Empire. In this period it is spoken of as Reichsaramdisch or "Imperial A r a m a i c . " The Elephantine papyri, for example, are in Reichsaramdisch. Biblical Aramaic (hereafter abbreviated BA) is often also so classified, for the Achaemenid documents of Ezra are in Reichsaramdisch, and the language of the book of Daniel is closely related to it. Grammariansof the previous century called BA " C h a l d e e " or " C h a l d a e a n . " One reason for this is probably that excavations in Babylonia in that century focused attention on the Chaldaean (Neo-Babylonian) empire, and since the setting of the book of Daniel is at the height of that empire, it would be natural to use the name " C h a l d e e " or " C h a l d a e a n " for the non-Hebrew language of the book [cf. Dan. 1:4and 2:26 in the LXX]. However, this designation is no longer used, but only the name " A r a m a i c , " for after all, the language originated with the Aramaeans rather t h a n with the Chaldaeans.

3. I

Distribution of Semitic Languages: 11 Northeast Semitic (A) Accadian (1) Assyrian (2) Babylonian

Northwest Semitic (A) (B) Aramaic Canaanite (I) Ugaritic (2) Phoenician (3) Hebrew, etc.

] IV Southeast Semitic (A) South Arabic (1) Qataban (Qatabanian) (2) Saba' (Sabaean) (3) M a ' i n (Minaean) (4) H a d r a m a u t [Modern] (5) Mahri (6) Soqotri (Soqotrian) (7) Sehauri. 4. Later Aramaic is usually classified as follows: I West Aramaic (A) Palestinian Jewish (1) Targumic (2) Jerusalem Talmudic Palestinian Christian Samaritan (Aramaic) Palmyrene Nabataean II East Aramaic (A) N o r t h (1) Syriac (a) East Syriac (Nestorian) (b) West Syriac (Jacobite) [Modern] (c) T o r a n i (d) Fellihi (2) [Some authorities place BA here] (B) South (1) Talmudic (Babylonian Talmud) (B) (Q (D) (E) .I l l Southwest Semitic (A) Hejaz (B) Nejd (C) Qays (D) Yemen [Of these. and BA. Classification of Aramaic Languages and Dialects: Ancient Aramaic includes "Old Aramaic. etc." Reichsaramdisch. The latter two are classified by most authorities under "West A r a m a i c . based on the writings of M o h a m m e d . (A) prevailed as classical (North) Arabic. it is best not to make an east-west division at this early time. " However. etc. Modern Arabic has innumerable spoken dialects. (B) Ethiopic [classical-Ge'ez] (1) Tigre (2) Tigriila (3) Amharic (official) (4) Gurage (5) H a r a r i .

The Masoretes employed the same vowels for the BA portions of the OT as for the BH portions. this script is of Aramaic origin. This is carried out in BA as well as B H . F o r purposes of simplification. Actually. for the so-called " s q u a r e " letters employed in the Hebrew scriptures were developed from the Old Aramaic and not the Old Hebrew script. 8. except in those cases where one of the root letters would thus be eliminated. BA and BH have the same fundamental rules of pronunciation. 7. A n alternate system is known as Babylonian vocalization. The Script: The script employed for BA is the same as t h a t used for BH.(F) (G) (H) [Modern] Ma'lula Bah'a Jubba'din (2) Mandaean (a) M a n d a ' (b) Yada' (c) Gnostic 5. without any vowels. This script was taken over from Aramaic. just as it had long since been employed as the usual script for ordinary correspondence or other writing. As in most grammars of BH. is composed of 22 consonants. the third person masculine singular of the perfect of the simplest form of the verb will be used for the vocabulary form of verbs. and also for all verbs of the derived conjugations. The number in parentheses following . and already by the beginning of the Christian era was in common use for copying the Scriptures. BA uses a final form of the following letters SBaJD making them appear as a t the end of words. N o t in BA. There are only a few examples of this. Like Hebrew. The M T has the same accent markings in the BA portions as in the B H portions. In such cases. but they do include BA as well as BH. like that of Biblical Hebrew (hereafter abbreviated BH). with but minor exceptions. the three root letters alone will be given. but in existence for B H are also a few examples of Palestinian vocalization and Yemenite vocalization. The Vocabulary: It will be recognized at once that with such a limited body of literature. the accent will not usually be marked in the vocabulary. The Alphabet: Tiie alphabet of BA. The commonly used vowel system for the Masoretic text is the Tiberian vocalization. The Tone: The tone or accent in BA generally follows the rules of accentuation of BH. The names of the letters are the same as in Hebrew. Consequently. 6. BA has a comparatively small vocabulary.

nor necessarily so in the construct form. according t o . so the vowels in question have been omitted in the vocabularies (e. spirit (4) n ' t ? — t o place. However. than n m p — (grain) offering (7) IV — u n t o . chief (5. t h a t 1 — a n d .the nouns or adjectives represents the noun class (which will be discussed in a subsequent lesson). make. council (of judgment) (4) n — interrogative particle — he.). s t a n d . for.] na — w h a t ? that which — king (1) p — from.]) ? .g. [as a noun] nothing. pi. The following vocabulary is a representative (but by no means complete) list of common words which are identical to BH in the singular absolute form.10) n n — wind.right. justice. besides a host of others with but minor differences. that acn — s h e . city (10) PI? — horn (1) 3 T — great. against. until rV— e y e ( l ) — ( u p ) o n . — stone (1) — not — these — n s N — cubit (7.) "n — living. nought inb — therefore [Heb.a s . Tjnan' niVS/ etc. > temple (10) 1 3 — field (3) — — ns — b a t h . establish nXB? — rest. about whole.]) DS? — (along) with Dlf — to rise. a r m y (1) wisdom (7) Dbnn — magician (5) dew (5) p — t h u s . big. remainder (4) nr — day (4. then. all. by (means of) — D''? — house. 5) — — also S73-JK — four n n x — lion (10) — 3 — i n . every . sign of direct object N"? — n o t . concerning D » — people. they are by no means identical to BH in the plural. town. over. lay. and are either identical or virtually identical in their meanings. etc. (for. endure n^P — village. j u d g m e n t . [also 7 in pi. nation (5. out of. Those who have learned BH will find many words in BA identical to common BH words. [also 10 in pi.) life (5) s t r e n g t h . p i . alive. > a liquid measure (5) r'! . (so) V — t o . In a few instances it is impossible to determine with certainty the original form of the absolute state of certain nouns. (pi.

Aramaic. . z . Hebrew. yet in a few of the consonants there occurred important divergencies. ? .] This development. The use of specific examples in comparison of BH and BA cognates may best illustrate these developments. The Development of Proto-Semitic Consonants: Although the consonants of BA and BH developed generally along the same lines from their common Proto-Semitic origin. d . This development can best be understood by comparing specific consonants in several of the principal Semitic languages.LESSON I P H O N O L O G Y O F BIBLICAL A R A M A I C 1. z z Arab. $ (or S) and §. 1X6^ etc. d z Eth. F o r "shin t w o " BH has ift?» and BA has ^ft?5? F o r "shin t h r e e " BH has pa?"? and BA has IB*"?. and s when so pronounced become t.6 In BA 0 andft?were often used interchangeably. while BA has nVri. is from Proto-Semitic to Ugaritic. F o r "zayin t w o " BH has S ^ T a n d BA has S7*it. Arabic. Accadian. 1 T Acc. as generally held by grammarians. Aram. [Note t h a t a consonant is "velarized" or "glottalizcd" when there is a glottal catch at the same time the consonant is pronounced.S z Heb. ^ ( o r $ o r ^ ) . d .g s s 0 0 s s s s s § a" s s s s d 9. z z t h h s ?! S2 ?3 t s s s § t t § t t n ft? n n ft? t § t s § s s ?. and both became s i n Syriac. ^ (or $ ["thorn"] or d). For "shin o n ^ " BH has iriVe*.ir\\ etc. i J Ug. Thus t . and Ethiopic as follows: PS 6. 6 (or 5). F o r "zayin o n e " BH has anj while BA has ari'T.

s and S7"1K.) The early Hebrew shift of a t o d under the accent or tone does not occur in BA. Thus BH has while BA has » 8 [from »»] and for the BH f "^K. If two unaccented.) The diphthong aw always becomes 6 in BA. aiD. and later became ». Short i in a closed. although there are also some similarities. All short vowels become p a t h a h before final resh. Short a in a closed. and 'ayin at the end of an unaccented. Though fallen together. and are not lengthened as they often a r e i n B H : *kataba > a n s . Likewise in b o t h BA and BH n represents Proto-Semitic h and h .) Short a in closed. BA has b o t h p l . accented final syllables remains short and is not lengthened as it often is in B H : *kataba > 3 P 3 . a reduced vowel is always a hateph (usually a hateph pathah). etc. 2. the pretonic vowel is completely syncopated (becoming silent shewa). VDJ^. F o r "§ade t w o " BH and BA b o t h have »aSK. Selected Phonetic Rules for Vowels: I n the treatment of vowels BA and BH developed along somewhat divergent lines. I J K L M N — — — — — Short « in a closed. Otherwise it is usually retained. etc. After a laryngeal. a p . The first three of the following rules represent especially important differences between BA and BH. -— After the laryngeals he. Short /• in a closed. A pathah furtive is inserted between a heterogeneous long vowel and final h e t h or 'ayin. heth. BA B^IN. unaccented syllable is retained next to a laryngeal. accented syllable is either retained or becomes sere (this latter §ere is changed to seghol before a maqqeph). open. heth. etc. (BH aaa^. etc. (BH ni^. unaccented syllable becomes seghol before a laryngeal. Short « in a closed. BA T\y^. Otherwise it frequently becomes /. A — Short vowels in a pretonic open syllable become shewa. unless a doubled consonant follows. " S a d e t h r e e " became j? in early Aramaic. I n BA as in BH Proto-Semitic ghayin and 'ayin have fallen together and are written ». and 'ayin. short vowels precede the tone or accent. Vpj?. B — C D E F — — — — G H — — . etc. unaccented syllable is either retained or becomes qames hatuph. (BH tbilK. BA aaa^p. the correct pronunciation is h. accented syllable becomes holem in nouns.F o r " j a d e o n e " BH has pfes while BA has i D p . etc.

corresponding t o the preceding vowel. Selected Phonetic Rules for — Consonants: Q 3. .for N_ and for Initial i becomes •'. in a closed secondary-accented syllable it becomes "•_. 1 — The n S S l U letters become spirants after a vowel. b. often before 'ayin. However. Final doubled consonants are simplified t o single consonants. 2 3 4 5 — — — — A 1 is often assimilated t o a following consonant (even a laryngeal). etc. This aspirantization is retained even when the vowel which caused it is dropped. with the compensative lengthening of the preceding vowel: H_ > N_ and x _ > «_ [also written rt. d. Conversely. c. Laryngeals and resh are not doubled in BA. in a medial open syllable it is retained or becomes In B A t h e gentilic ending is v (rather than •>_ as in BH). The diphthong % develops as follows: a. In compensation the preceding vowel may be lengthened as follows: a. (I A). (I 7). a hateph is inserted. (I Q). references to the rules for consonants (I 2).medial syllable. 0 P — — In Tiberian vocalization there was an occasional pausal lengthening of a short vowel. Final s quiesces. if the doubled consonant occurs before a full vowel in other forms of the word. 6 7 — — 8 — In subsequent lessons references to these phonetic rules in Lesson 1 will be abbreviated as follows: references to the rules for vowels. etc. the doubling of a consonant is sometimes resolved by a i followed by the consonant in question. never before heth (doubling is implicit). in a closed primary-accented syllable it becomes b. in a final open syllable it becomes d. (I C). always before aleph and resh. once in BA before he. Doubled consonants before a shewa are simplified and the shewa is eliminated. then the doubling is usually retained before the shewa also (by paradigmatic analogy). c..

pi. Vocabulary: man.' — t o sit. miracle (4) ann — gold (2) generation. Also for each word in the vocabulary list the letter or number of the phonetic rule or rules as given above which apply to that word. temple (3) »•)! — seed. t o e . pi. language (4) bed (3) prophet (10) river (2) t o give eternity. Exercises: Write out the corresponding BH cognates of the words found in the vocabulary.4.bull(4) three there shekel (1) 5. beam (4) digit. claw (2) an. sound (4) year (8. dwell priest (3) r|03 — silver (1) — a3B*a — ifai — -ini — 1?? - •Vy — Vijj? — njf— ain — nin — nV^ — nan — tongue. lifetime (4) xni — grass(1) VD^n — palace. remote time (3) ten to kill voice. 4) t o return ox. Point out the divergencies in the development of the consonants wherever this has occurred. mankind (4) wood. > descendants (1) a p — good (4) I B p — (finger) nail. . finger (2.8) s?1>< — e a r t h (1) nx — sign.

g. Masculine nouns have no particular ending. or i. absolute state construct state emphatic state kings kings of the kings fem. T " h a n d . The emphatic state always denotes determination in BA. the BA definite article is postpositive: e. pi. Nouns and adjectives are declined as follows: masc. some feminine nouns have masculine form. " " e y e . and like BH. Number: Three numbers occur in BA: singular. State: In BA there are three states of the n o u n : absolute. BA K3"p». but feminine nouns generally end in H . Gender: In BA nouns and adjectives have two genders. masculine and feminine. As in BH. are almost entirely confined to natural pairs. sg. "the k i n g " : BH ^iVan. It corresponds to the BH noun (in the absolute state) with the definite article. and plural. lacking a specific feminine ending.V . construct. 2. sg. absolute state construct state emphatic state king king of the king masc. animals nvn T T " animals of the animals . namely. as in BH. the qattil and q^til types are generally used for adjectives. being (sometimes contracted to ]•>_)• Occurrences of the dual are rare in BA. However. and emphatic. There is actually no formal distinction between nouns and adjectives in BA. e. parts of the body which come in pairs are feminine. Some grammarians prefer to state the matter in another way. The dual ending is somewhat similar to t h a t of BH. that whereas the BH article is prepositive. dual.. 3. animal animal of the animal fem. " F r o m these examples it will be noted t h a t in BA. The first two function like their BH counterparts and need little discussion.LESSON II N O U N S A N D ADJECTIVES 1.g. pi.

6. or even more). as in B H . the preposition V is used for this purpose: an Vx^ftr"? 'qV? " a great king of Israel" (Ezra 5:11). or (3) when the nomen rectum is a proper name. D a n . "king of k i n g s " ] . no matter how long the construct chain might be. The determination or indetermination of the last noun (nomen rectum) governs all the nouns of the construct chain. This is true whether it is used with some form of the verb " t o b e " or whether it occurs without the verb " t o b e . Because the emphatic state is determinate or definite it is used to indicate the vocative: KSVa may be " O k i n g " as well as " t h e k i n g " (e. It also agrees with the noun in number and gender [actual grammatical gender and not form] and in state of determination. a proper name). 4. but not necessarily in state of determination. 5. However. with pronominal suflBx. I n BA. " Thus the predicate adjective will agree with the noun it modifies in number and gender. 2:29. NsVa r f ? " t h e house of the k i n g " (Ezra 6:4). Uses of V: When t h e last element of a genitive construction is determinate in one of the three ways discussed above (emphatic state. upVa '^^9 " t h e king of the k i n g s " (Ezra 7:12) [usually rendered by the English idiom. in which the first noun {nomen regens) is p u t in the construct state and the second (nomen rectum) is found in BA either in the absolute or in the emphatic state. The original postpositive article tt is sometimes spelled n. A construct chain may be more t h a n two nouns (three. and conversely. t h e first element can only remain indeterminate by employing a circumlocution. the predicate adjective is always in the absolute state.).g. a predicate adjective may occur either before or after the noun it modifies. . The state of the nomen rectum indicates the determination or indetermination of the whole construct chain. 31. Adjectival Modification: I n BA. as in B H . There are three constructions in which a construct chain is definite or determinate: (1) when the nomen rectum is in the emphatic state. (see I Q ) end in rather than K»_ in the emphatic state plural. sna nrn " t h e animal(s) [collective] of the field" (Dan. The Construct Chain: This is a combination of nouns peculiar t o Semitic. 4:9. Thus o'lB"':}^? " t h e king of Persia" (Ezra 4:24). Also. 2:38. the feminine ending n is sometimes spelled K . N o u n s with the gentilic ending i_. (2) when the nomen rectum is made determinate by a pronominal suffix.10 Note that the feminine plural construct ending n_ corresponds t o the BH ni_ (see I C). but all except the last must be in the construct state.). etc. the adjective follows as closely as possible the noun it modifies. etc.

used as the sign of the direct object should be mentioned (cf the usage of BH m). Exercises: Translate the following: n x p — hundred • angel (3) naVa — queen (7) (pm — copper. The Direct Object and n \ In BA the direct object is often expressed by the noun (or pronoun) alone.(see III. 8. power (3) S ? T — to know by — to be able. > G o d (4) thousand (1) ni? — to build Vsja — owner. In this one passage (Daniel 3:12). Vocabulary: father (10) god. above). as well as being indicated by the use of the preposition "? (see sec.t o fall (down) i s p — book (1) ^ 3 » — t o d o .heart (5) night (3) why? for what purpose? > lest 9. in addition t o retaining the common uses for b (also found in BH) t o express the indirect object. sec.11 It is extremely important t o note that BA uses the preposition *? t o indicate the direct object. 6. animal (7) T •• a ^ s n — wise (4) T — h a n d . 3). is attached directly t o the third person masculine plural pronominal suffix p r t . In this connection. the one occurrence of the particle n.psVa (1) Nni-n nnair? xnas X ? T (4) NyiK*? nVx na» (e) "?» siax "jBi nipa (8) pnxa pnin (11) f B'?X (10) xaify ninn xnaa sin nij'? (13) an-] xa^s B>sn (3) Nn?'7a aH s w a n Vsa (5) Vn^ N f i x aaVi itoa S T (7) KjV^Va nNjaiVp^Cs) Kp-Bs"? n:a"? saVa nia (12) . prevail sign of the direct object n » 3 — how! a a * ? . chief (10) D ^ — name (10) 8^18^ — r o o t (1) rinri — under VnB — IT-ip. and direction. make atos? — herbs. bronze (4) V s i . lord (1) itoa — flesh (2) ")?? — man (1) n r n — beast. the ethical dative. purpose. grass (1) iron (3) s t a t u e . The student of BA must determine syntactically by the context whether •? is expressing a direct object or an indirect object. image (1) DV?bird (3) holy (4) I P S I — head. 7.

) [Qere] he she Person 1 2 3 3 vxmvi pniN p i s . The third person of the independent pronoun can function as a copula. t h e first person plural occurs with the variant ending r i . either for nouns or for other personal p r o n o u n s : pn"?S nVs Sin psnVs " y o u r G o d is a G o d of g o d s " (Dan. N o t e that one important grammatical case of Kethib-Qere occurs in the second person masculine singular of t h e independent personal pronouns.]ian . b u t pas is found in both books.) they (fem. and the others may occur in variant forms. there are instances where the Masoretic tradition has modified that which was actually " w r i t t e n " (a'ris) in t h e consonantal text so t h a t it was t o be pronounced or " r e a d " (sij?) with a different vocalization. Independent Personal Pronouns: In BA some of the independent personal pronouns occur infrequently. Those which d o occur in BA are as follows: Singular rm nWN Nin S-'H I you (masc. or n o t at all. and conversely.) [Kethib] you (masc. 2:47). 2.n ^ l S " y o u are the h e a d " ( D a n . (A) Uses of the Independent Personal Pronouns: The independent personal pronoun can be used as the subject of a verb or sentence n i s S?T " I know [participle]" (Dan. 2:38).] t h e t i m e " (idiomatic for "you are trying to gain t i m e " ) . 2:8) and also pn?S s n v p33T " y o u are buying [part.) N o t e t h a t there is n o occurrence of t h e second person feminine singular in BA. as in BH. n^S"! S i n .ian p3S Plural we you (masc. (B) .12 LESSON III I N D E P E N D E N T P E R S O N A L P R O N O U N S A N D S U F F I X E S ON N O U N S 1. '•nnas i a n S j m s " w e are H i s servants" (Ezra 5:11). T h e first person singular occurs with t h e variant ending s _ . The form ian occurs only in Ezra and p a n only in Daniel. In BA..) they (masc.

pi.sing.) their day (fem. N o u n s in t h e Singular Masculine 'ar (C) Feminine 'nrn •!]av nar nar my day your day (masc.) my days your days [Kethib] (masc. even 1" or " a n d as for me. Pronominal Suffixes on Nouns: In BA there is n o occurrence of either feminine singular or feminine plural of t h e second person pronominal suffixes.) his day "^nvn nrii"'n Niaipsai" pnav |nar her day our day your day (masc. sing. hence they are omitted in the paradigms below. (D) Occasionally the independent personal pronoun is used similarly t o an article in giving determination t o a noun. but it comes before the noun rather t h a n after: x a b s Kin "//le s t a t u e " or " / / / a / s t a t u e " (Dan. pi.) Also occurring are the alternate endings D D . pi. sing. pi. sing.13 The independent personal pronoun can be used t o emphasize a preceding suffix: njx •'lai " a n d I. on singular and plural nouns both.) their day (masc. pi. even m e " (Ezra 7:21). N o u n s in the Plural Masculine ••ai'' Feminine "•rirn •qnvn my animals your animals (masc.) nr^n Kinrn pariDTl pnprn plivn my animal your animal (masc. pi.) his animal her animal o u r animal your animal (masc. b u t these are included in t h e paradigms for the sake of completeness. (E) The third person plural is used t o express t h e object of a verb as well as the subject since there is no third person plural in BA for pronominal suffixes attached t o verbs: p a n bisp_ " i t killed t h e m " ( D a n . 3:22). 2:32). 3.) their animal (masc.) your days [Qere] his days her days [Kethib] her days [Qere] ••niai'' n^ai"nni- nnrn nrrn his animals her animals .and Dh_ for p 3 _ and pn_. "iSHDia: T 3 i a n a n ' " H e gave them i n t o t h e power of N e b u c h a d n e z z a r " (Ezra 5:12). There is also n o occurrence of some of the other forms attached t o feminine nouns.) their animal (fem.

pl. This usage is frequent in expressions of t i m e : " a t t h a t t i m e " or " a t t h e same t i m e " (Ezra 5 : 3 . with the meaning " t h a t " or " t h e s a m e " : Vxrina aa " i n that D a n i e l " or " i n the same Daniel" [lit. c) conjunction: that. . " H i s »B servants" of t h e G o d of heaven"] (Ezra 5:11).) their animals (fem. W i t h a feminine noun.pl.] you [masc. etc. for.pl. 4. in order t h a t . (B) They are attached directly t o prepositions. Vocabulary: 5. den (5) "•'I— a) sign of the genitive: of.) The Qere forms of the suffixes on t h e masculine plural nouns are best explained as analogical extensions from those on the singular noun. in Daniel"] ( D a n .). 5:12). but other genitive relationships can also be expressed in this way.) Feminine (continued) our animals pDnrn pnnrn ]nnvn your animals (masc. is their use in a demonstrative sense. etc.) their days (fem.) their days (masc. D a n .pl. It anticipates. as it were. because. aiK-l fan — they. those [ m a s c ] pj^ — arilS — pBSK — 13 — p^l — they. sing. " w h o in Jerusalem His a b o d e " ] (Ezra 7:15). b) relative pronoun: which. Uses of the Pronominal Suffixes: (A) They are most commonly used with nouns t o denote possession. aa is used rather than aa: " a t that hour (moment)" or " i n t h e same h o u r ( m o m e n t ) " (Dan.). The retrospective pronominal suffix is often found in a relative clause introduced by t o indicate case: nistpa nVehT'a '•n bxn&r nVxl? " t o t h e G o d of Israel wAoje abode is at Jerusalem" [lit.] son [singular only] (3) sons [used in t h e plural] (4) as — p i t . "in him. 3:6. so t h a t .pl. (C) (E) Closely related t o t h e usages of the suffixes discussed in B and D above.14 Kj^ar tdsv fD'ar ]in''ai'' Masculine (continued) o u r days [Kethib] o u r days [Qere] your days (masc. those [fem.) their animals (masc. pi. etc.pl. that. (D) The prospective pronominal suffix is common in BA. as in BH. a phrase introduced by n which explains i t : ''riinjV is? X a > nVx-n " w e are t h e servants of the G o d of heaven" [lit. etc. 3:7. etc. 8.] you [masc.

] p a n — they [masc] ]3T — t o buy an^ — t o give nin^ — Jew. Exercises: Translate the following: women [plural] (10) servant (1) t i m e . place. Jewish ]3(?a — abode (3) 6. > year (4) nv(pael) to kill t o t h r o w . sky (4) X\T(^ pn-'ia pjx nan xninx aiVi (i) arnaxKpD-jnaiVBj? (2) Vsnr-V -la xin nwx (3) "niB^i"? Vpn Niqa an^ (4) K31 vmti aV^ 1 3 » niN (5) xaVa 'la pan loniK K»l^Tjp_'^pjS (6) •Vi^iTa n.15 ian — they [masc. xnia^ n x w a i ian pnix (7) (8) a-iaV X33t?^a wn x n a 1 3 1 (9) I-'PVX *f?^ pVpn a"? ari''a'? xa"-?!! a n n xiTsa (10) ana"? 1 3 1 3 T x n v as (11) . impose na"! — (a tax) heaven.

" " t h a t ." " w h a t . this must be expressed either by a subsequent word or by t h e context. " etc. As a compound relative. n^-nbe nniN -"l r]n'?K " y o u r G o d whom you serve [participle]" ( D a n . the independent personal p r o n o u n s may be used as demonstratives (see III. " " h e w h o . Because it does n o t denote case. 2. and means " w h o . 4:32 [35]). " "which. it may be used with a retrospective pronominal suffix: ni?l?a D|?BhT3 n VxniT TibHb " t o t h e G o d of Israel wAoic abode is a t Jerusalem" (Ezra 7:15). " etc. The following demonstrative pronouns are always used adjectivally in BA: Masculine Singular rw that Common Singular P'l that Feminine Singular •q"! that Common Plural r\bvi those In addition t o these demonstrative pronouns in BA. it has a function both in t h e main clause and in t h e subordinate clause. F o r example. 2 D ) . It can be used as a relative pronoun. n T ? xnip?-''l xVl " a n d there is none who can stay His p o w e r " ( D a n . There is also one occurrence of t h e alternate fpH for fbVi. Demonstrative Pronouns: In BA t h e following demonstrative pronouns may also be used substantivally or adjectivally: Masculine Singular nn this Common Plural nVx (n)"?N pVx these these these Feminine Singular NT this N o t e t h e Kethib-Qere situation in the sole occurrence of bvi. 6:17). •'•'I is an uninflected form that has a variety of uses in BA. The Pronoun •''i: Related t o t h e Arabic i ( " t h a t of" or "possessor o f " ) . " "whoever. As a simple relative it means " w h o . sec.16 LESSON IV OTHER PRONOUNS 1." ." "whatever.

" " t h e whole." " W h a t e v e r " is less frequently expressed in BA by either na or n alone. 2:43). but they may be formed by using the relative pronoun •"T followed by a pronominal suffix attached directly to the preposition "?: X-'n-n"? •'1 Krni3M xnaDn "wisdom and might are His" (Dan." (3) Before a plural noun. (B) In BA the indefinite pronoun "73 or -Vs [from kull: see I G and I] is most frequently used adjectivally with the following meanings: (1) Before a determinate singular noun.17 It can also be used to express the genitive (see the vocabulary. existence. It is often found in compound conjunctions. Indefinite Pronouns: Besides the indefinite relative pronouns discussed above. it often has the force of a subordinate conjunction.that [com. " " a s soon a s .] ^1that [masc] 1 ? 1 . Lesson III): nnni ''T xn"?N"n''3 •'isa " t h e vessels of gold and silver of the T e m p l e " [liV. whose exact meaning must be gathered from the context (see the vocabulary." (2) Before an indeterminate singular noun. there are other indefinite pronouns in BA: (A) The idea of " o n e a n o t h e r " is expressed in BA by the repetition of the demonstrative: n n . there is (are) these fVx — these those." and •"ina "whatever. it means " a l l . In this last function it is usually compounded with ''l-'pi "whoever" or "whosoever.D » n n " w i t h one a n o t h e r " (Dan. Standing alone. but usually as a compound (indefinite) relative pronoun. It is also compounded with the preposition s : " w h e n .). Interrogative Pronouns: In BA there are two interrogative pronouns. Independent Possessive Pronouns: In BA there are no separate independent possessive pronouns. " XBppi 3. it means " a l l .] t h a t [fem. Lesson III). 2:20). " Vocabulary: this [fem. sometimes alone. (these) m i 3 j — might T . 4. it means "every. The interrogative n a is also frequently compounded with various prepositions: n a ? " h o w ! " na"? "for what p u r p o s e ? " " w h y ? " and na-Vx? "wherefore?" " w h y ? " 5. "house of G o d " ] (Ezra 6:5.this (is) [ m a s c ] 6. -JO " w h o ? " and n a " w h a t ? " The interrogative pronoun is sometimes used as a relative.] n n .

N W N (5) ^V x n a s (7) Nia N»a»"!n an p i 'rxy'r (9) •jx N n n p a axa »3"IH! fIBB^JP ••ri''N (10) . worship (God) VV3 •"I a"?N N i a .| a i aa fB^Tj? faVx-nn (i) '•aVi? ufs nsx^pVa aattf-n "7N«3^ xjai?* aVx nV? (2) Niaa*? a n xixai s i . prevent. stay 7. as soon as ]«a — vessel (4) xna — (pael) t o check.1*73 — when. Exercises: Translate the following: p — n-ja — na-"7» — nVe — who? whoever why ? wherefore ? t o serve.x n r n xaVa ani aaV xjaDnn a n (3) ]iaa nVri f x n a a xrisi "733 NNn-NT xVa X3"?a'apn (4) (e) • j snniai n NB"?? s i a .

. B). or occur only extremely infrequently.pn In BA most of the conjugations have the Perfect. The Conjugations: In the verbal system of BA are found some conjugations which are either n o t used in BH. •'?BpN> VpjPX (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > VppjN (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect t o the perfect) > VpplS. 2. Active Simple System "Intensive" System Causative System Peal [Stative Pael Haphel Aphel Shaphel Voj? "rppj Vpp.19 LESSON V T H E VERBAL S Y S T E M : T H E P E R F E C T 1. the verbal system of BA is basically similar t o that of B H . (analogical extension of t h e characteristic vowel of t h e imperfect to t h e perfect) > "7Bp_ (see I H ) . I n spite of these differences. Other conjugations (not o n the above chart) will be discussed in subsequent chapters. t h e Imperfect. Others found in B H (e. Reflexive Hithpeel Hithpaal H o p h a l Vppn Hishtaphal Vppritfri Vppnn Vpp. B). btJjrn "jajptf: VppE* Peil Passive V^'Op. however.g. Development of the Conjugations: T h e development of t h e original Proto-Semitic conjugations into their BA forms is generally considered t o have occurred as follows: Peal: [Stative] Pael: •Vpp>Vpp (see I A and •'7Bp> Vpp (see I A and (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > "rpp. Pual) d o n o t occur in BA. Niphal. t h e Imperative. •'?ppn> 'rppn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > Vppn (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of t h e imperfect to t h e perfect) > "pppg (see I H ) . the Infinitive. (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > Vpp. and the Participle(s). Haphel: Aphel: *'?pp> "?pp (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > Vsp.

Complete assimilation of n t o a following initial dental would also be expected in BA. " These forms are called "stative" because they usually denote a state or condition. " anpj " t o draw near. If the sibilant is a T ." although the usual non-stative u also occurs. This transposition is usually called " m e t a t h e s i s . H o p h a l : *VBi?n > Vppn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > bppn (seeIG). with no occurrences of the qatul type. t h e assimilation is complete.'' Hithpeel: •Vopnri > Vppnn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > VBpnn (see I A and B) > Vpjrnn (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect t o the perfect) > 'jBpnn (see I H ) . a p p r o a c h . H i t h p a a l : *b^p_r\rf > "?B|?nri (shift of accent and loss of final vowel). but simply the use of the Peal Passive Participle as a finite verb with personal endings added to it). 3. In BA. Stative Forms: I n BA. " 4. t h e r may partially assimilate to a D. Conjugation of the Perfect: I n BA most grammarians have found it convenient t o use ana for t h e paradigms. However. However. This qatil type occurs with either _ or _ in the final syllable (see I H ) : i j p " t o pay homage ( t o ) . tip'. as in BH. the so-called "statives" (which are such in form a t least) d o n o t necessarily present uniform correspondence between BA and B H (or other Semitic languages) as t o this characteristic vowel in t h e perfect: BA an^ " t o s i t . rather t h a n using the earlier bvt or t h e later VDJ? of BH grammarians. Hishtaphal: bpppnn > Vop^nn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > '?pj?riir'n (metathesis of t and n). as in BH. " The characteristic vowel of the imperfect of the stative verbs is usually a: Vf^b". " h e will pay homage ( t o ) .20 •Vpj?^ > "rpj?^ (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > bppv (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect t o the perfect). If the sibilant is s . " t o s i t . " h e will be clothed. there occurs in certain of the derived conjugations the transposition of a n with a succeeding sibilant. these are distinguished from the active forms in t h e simple conjugation. " The Hishtaphal furnishes a good example of metathesis and it also occurs normally in t h e Hithpeel and Hithpaal of roots beginning with sibilants. T h e Peal Perfect of the regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows: Shaphel: . Peil: \>''0p (no original Proto-Semitic conjugation. " b u t BH a^. and t h e i is doubled. in BA they are restricted to the qatil type in t h e perfect. t h o u g h there are no certain occurrences.

5:22). 7:27). although you have known all t h i s " (Dan. The same variant endings may be found in the derived conjugations. the king of Babylon" (Ezra 5:12). Present: '^3 pirip.) 2 (masc. and hence it may be translated by several different English tenses.21 Singular Active ana nans nana nana he wrote she wrote you wrote I wrote Person 3 (masc. Present perfect: njn-ba Vap'Va -qaaV ^btvT\ xV nsxB^'pa n n s nn?Nl n s T " b u t you. Future: nsb T^TTi": Kjatp-Va ninn niaVa n sniani wpV^i nniaVai pi'Vy " a n d the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under all the heavens will be given t o t h e people of the saints of the Most H i g h " ( D a n . Pluperfect: "la pBin i s n a w ? n x E p a i narji •'i snV^-n^a-n xjixa aVirnT'a "T xVa^n " t h e vessels of gold and silver of the house of G o d " which Nebuchadnezzar had taken out of the Temple which is at Jerusalem" (Ezra 5:14). have not humbled your heart. as in BH.) 1 (com. 5. t h e perfect can be used in a variety of relationships to the element of time.) 3 (fem. his son. (D) (E) .) lanj? nanj? iwanj? Niani? they approached they approached you approached we approached anp Stative he approached na"]i? she approached nanp nanj? you approached I approached The second person masculine singular also has the variant forms nnana and n a n a .) Plural lana nana jinana Xiana they wrote they wrote you wrote we wrote 3 (masc.) 3 (fem.) 2 (masc.) 1 (com. Examples of the most common uses of the perfect are listed below: (A) (B) (C) Historical perfect: Vaa-Tiba nsnaiai r a ian an^ " H e gave them into the power of Nebuchadnezzar. Uses of the Perfect: In BA. 4:6[9]). O Belshazzar. pnVx rn'T''7 n S T njx "1 know t h a t the spirit of the holy gods is in y o u " (Dan.

air* nVx Kan snVH xifip (10) NBpai Nani Nian^ (3) Nynx'rsnan^ (5) N^N""?? fnVPi? (7) KVyn ]a ppi Nina (9) .writing.22 6. Vocabulary: T-i^ — then because. document. humiliate 7. because t o draw near. kingdom (9) p-«-r? . approach greatness (9) lan — dominion (4) (haphel and aphel) to humble. B>aV — wear wVa — kingship. Exercises: Translate the following: n^aniat (1) nn-jiaia nVa: (4) s.since t o go out pDl — (haphel) to take (out) nip — to pay homage t o the Most High (4) before. reign.'p->Va ribpi (6) xabs •?» pN nan (s) N. inscription (4) t o be clothed w i t h . although ana — t o write a n a .

The Peal Imperfect of the regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows: Singular Active he will write she will write anan anai? Person 3 (masc. L Conjugation of the Imperfect: The so-called "characteristic vowel" [the vowel after the second r o o t consonant] of the imperfect is usually u. 3).) 3 (fem. as in BH. sec.) 1 (com. the stative verbs have a more frequently than u as this characteristic vowel (see V. Some of the most common uses of the imperfect in BA are as follows: (A) (B) F u t u r e : s y . the imperfect is used ordinarily with a present or future meaning.) 2 (masc.) Plural Stative he will approach she will approach you will approach I will approach you will write I will write pana? they will write they will write 3 (masc. . panan you will write we will write The first person singular may also have the variant form 2.i N . 4:22[25]).) 1 (com. 2:39).' Present: au?^ N a s ^ V l ^ V i NB'JN maVaa N'Vv ti'Viy-n "until you know that the Most High is ruler [mighty] in the kingdom of men. E T C .) 2 (masc.) panpn they will approach they will approach you will approach we will approach aripK.23 LESSON VI T H E VERBAL SYSTEM: T H E I M P E R F E C T . and He gives it to whomever He wishes'" (Dan. T H E I N F I N I T I V E .b a a tjVtt?n •'•7 "which will rule over the whole e a r t h " (Dan. However. Uses of the Imperfect: In BA.) 3 (fem. in both languages its use is not confined to these meanings only. However.

the jussive of the third person masculine plural may be indicated in weak verbs by the elision of the final n u n : nax. "they will perish"].) "-ana (fem. However.pl.24 Past: this use usually follows a perfect t o indicate simultaneous action [it has no relationship t o the BH "waw consecutive. 4.sing. The endings are short. The Imperative: In the simple conjugation the imperative has the same characteristic vowel as t h e imperfect (see above). Occasionally this latter form of the infinitive occurring without a suflSx is used in place of t h e usual infinitive construct form ending in n_.. etc. 10:11) [some prefer here the rendering. in these derived conjugations t h e ending n i . " l e t them perish" (Jer. (D) Jussive. sec. in a few instances there are occurrences of a Peal Infinitive in a weak verb without this preformative m e m : siaV " t o b u i l d " (Ezra 5:3. and thus BA does not have in this conjugation the distinction between the infinitive absolute and the infinitive construct found in BH. The Peal Imperative forms occurring in BA are as follows (there is no attestation in BA of a feminine plural imperative): ana (masc. In usage. the BA infinitive follows closely its BH counterpart. and usually has •? as t h e sign of the direct object (see II.) ana (masc. This ending is n o t a true feminine ending. " However.) (C) . sing. sec.).is found on the infinitive construct forms t o which suflSxes are added. presumably corresponding t o the jussive rather than t o the imperfect. Cohortative (volitive ideas): saVs "T n"'3-ja |nw "U "give [it] from the king's treasury" [lit. Optative. The Infinitive: In BA only one form of the infinitive is found in the Peal conjugation. In most cases the form of the jussive is identical t o that of the imperfect.for t h e infinitive construct. 4:17[20]).(see VIII. 3. a!? ari'n. However. In t h e simple conjugation the infinitive is regularly distinguished by a preformative mem (the infinitives of the derived conjugations will be discussed subsequently). this distinction is maintained in the derived conjugations. However. 6). 4:13[16]). The object of the infinitive may come either before or after the infinitive itself." but occurs either with or without the attached w a w ] : N^DIPV xpa? nipni 1j?ni na"l 'T "which grew (up) and became strong and whose height reached t o the heavens" ( D a n . Thus t h e Peal Infinitive of the regular (strong) verb is aripa " t o w r i t e . " t h e house of the treasures of the king"] (Ezra 7:20). 1).' nvn aa"?1 " a n d let the heart of an animal be given t o h i m " ( D a n . in which the infinitives have the apparently feminine ending r i . but does follow the feminine in having forms ending in r i .

as in BH.p T]T Nnn. They may be declined as any other noun or adjective. or often with the imperfect of n i n ) : X"TfXi "qb V.) (fem. 4:29[32]). The Peal Active Participle of the regular (strong) verb of BA is declined as follows: (3ri3)3ri3 (masc. (B) Present: aV-nVs r\xm •'T -^Thv.) psns ]3n3 (masc. pi. which appears with either _ or _ in the final syllable (see I H). q&til.? nxifl^a ppVa-Vy " t h a t town from days of old has risen up against kings" (Ezra 4:19). Vpj? mn xas Nin-n "whom he wished. with the context determining the specific point of time.sing. and like its counterpart in BH. pi. killed" (Dan. the active participle is used to express virtually all of the same points of time as the imperfect. 6:17). cannot be used with a negative.pl. 5.) (fem. 2:26). As a noun or adjective the participle is timeless.) nsns The passive participle of the simple conjugation is the qatil type. sing. The Participles: In BA. However.fi'A p i "and you will be driven ow/ from m a n k i n d " [lit. as a verb. and it even filtered into post-Biblical Hebrew.25 In BA the imperative has the normal uses found in BH.) f?'''^? jTriS (masc. sing. the participles are used both verbally and nominally. Past: (alone.: "^''Trv. sing. "(they) will drive you o u t " ] (Dan.) (fem. 5:19).'n Vna " a r e you really a b l e ? " ( D a n . this usage can be made emphatic by the addition of •'TpV. 2:24). In BA the active participle of the simple conjugation is an adjective type. Uses of the Active Participle: The most common verbal use of the participle in BA is t o express present time. The Peal Passive Participle of the regular (strong) verb of BA is declined as follows: TTO HTriS (masc. pi. The participle is commonly used for the following: (A) F u t u r e : (alone. or with the perfect of 7\'\T\): NaVsJ n a i ' .) 6. Thus the use of the participle instead of'the imperfect is commonly found in all the Aramaic languages and dialects. (C) . The negative imperative is expressed by the use of "?s with the jussive (or with the ordinary imperfect if there is n o distinctly jussive form): n3inri"'?K V33 •'a-'Sn'? not destroy the wise men of Babylon" (Dan. "your G o d whom you serve" ( D a n .) (fem.

nia "tribute . 6:17[16]). although a singular subject may occasionally be used. The Copula: I n BA there are several ways in which the copula may be expressed. " a n d he commanded (them) t o destroy all the wise men of Babylon"] ( D a n . the participle is plural. Uses of the Passive Participle: In B A t h e passive participle is frequently used as a predicate adjective (sometimes as an adjective of quality). (B) The active participle: when this type of passive is expressed by an active participle. but with the infinitive it must of necessity be implied: V D V rrjainV *1BN1 Vaa ''a"'ari " a n d he commanded t h a t all the wise men of Babylon be destroyed" [lit. I t is most frequently expressed either by juxtaposition of the subject .. will be paid" [hithpeel] (Ezra 4:20). but not necessarily so): naxi NaVa n?» " t h e king answered and said" ( D a n . the indefinite or impersonal subject is expressed (or implied) in the plural.26 (D) Jussive: fSl\r\1? Qbb^ " a n d let it be known to y o u " [lit. 2:22). (C) 9. p a w i l S ? "they answered [peal perfect] and said" (Dan.tribute"] (Ezra 4:13). The passive participle also may be used with the perfect of nin to express the pluperfect: n n Nin-n "which had been built" (Ezra 5:11). The infinitive: as mentioned above.. "they will give .. 2:12). " with an active verb form. 8. "let (them) make (it) known t o you"] (Ezra 7:24). as " t h e y . Active Verb Forms With Passive Meanings: In BA a passive may be expressed by a sort of impersonal or indefinite subject with an active verb form. A study of the examples will clarify this peculiarity of BA grammar. 7.. The object of the active verb is then actually the subject. sec. (E) Its use (is) very common in the expression "answered and s a i d " or "answered. " t o build this house of G o d " ] (Ezra 5:13). niia "tribute . c f an^na .. (A) The finite verb: the use of a finite verb in the third person masculine plural is the most common method of expressing this type of passive: pinr . 6:14[13]).. waV njT Nri"?N-rT'a "this house of God be built" [lit. This circumlocution for the passive is much more frequent in BA than in BH.. saying" (usually both verbs are participles. Usually... but the impersonal or indefinite subject " t h e y " is n o t expressed by a separate pronoun (see above. will be paid" [lit. and the verb should be translated as a passive. Occasionally it may be used t o express the active participle: N"iir is properly translated "dwelling" or "dwells" ( D a n . 6.. examples A and D ) . the impersonal subject " t h e y " can be either expressed (as in finite verbs) or implied (as in participles).

slay to say.27 and predicate. officer. it may be expressed by using •'n'R (see XVI. 2 B). a t t a i n .to desire. communicate (hithpeel) t o be given. command treasure (1) to b e . happen. exist mountain (4) to drive away (haphel) to make k n o w n . become great Dl-l — height (4) Pb^ — to rule. In addition t o these methods of expressing the copula. In such a case t h e statement is usually considered more emphatic than the other three methods of expressing the copula (cf sec. sec. Also rather common is the use of a third person independent personal pronoun as a copula (see III. Exercises: Vaa wani ' a D n n VepaV l a x xaVa (i) xy'iK-'ja vbf: K'Vs (2) pnaja Nnr-ix nniai nDpn (3) N%i5> "?'na nav nin xas nirjai (4) xaqi n na^'T nniK Na^a laxi nia "?N»?T[ p i x (5) niD"? N a n a sn^a o n na*^ (e) ania ninri ra Ntoai Np'Vi? (7) Njaonn NNriT TipaV sa-'an Vna (8) xVea p a x xa^K-Va (9) Njaf aVx n-a-p saVa pTip? (10) . highest. like n a n . happen t o Translate the following: t o rise u p against — superior. t h e Most High (10) njs? — to answer n a V . have power over B-'V^ — mighty. Vocabulary: to perish (haphel) t o destroy. or by the use of some form of the verb nin. sec. 10. 6 B above). be paid to be able tax. 4). wish. > t o dwell to be strong. become strong N(W — (hithpaal) — — — — niO — — IIP — — an' — — — Npa — 11. tribute [also nn3a](7) to reach.t o grow ( u p ) . it is allowed (4) nnip — to loosen. come u p o n .

(3) the emphatic state. qattal. Infiection of the First Nine Classes: For the sake of illustration one or more examples of the first nine classes will be shown in both singular and plural as follows: (1) the absolute s t a t e . Nouns with unchanging vowels and a single final consonant. which indicate the way that nouns are formed from the triconsonantal roots (types such as qatl. see I 4). However. 2. qatal. Obviously. state. Systems of Classification: Any division of nouns and adjectives into classes is quite arbitrarv. to set up such classes is simply a matter of convenience for the purpose of learning the inflections. N o u n s with a doubled final consonant (which usually appears as a single consonant in the absolute s t a t e . A convenient system for this purpose is a ten-fold classification as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Segholate nouns. because they are governed by the various phonetic laws given in Lesson I in their inflection (for number. (2) the construct state.28 LESSON VII CLASSES O F N O U N S 1. Nouns with one changing vowel in the ultima and a single final consonant. etc. Non-segholate nouns with two changing vowels and a single final consonant.and with unchanging vowels. (4) with a light suffix. Feminine nouns ending in and i_. It is t o be noted t h a t these so-called classes are not to be confused with the types of nouns. (10) N o u n s of unique formation. but are restored from their occurrences in other words. . Feminine nouns ending in H. N o u n s ending in r i .).. The numbers of the above classes are the numbers found in parentheses after the nouns and adjectives in the vocabularies at the end of each lesson in this grammar. in the limited literature of BA all of these forms do not occur in the words chosen as examples. and pronominal suffix).and with changing vowels. and (5) with a heavy suffix. Feminine nouns ending in ri.

sg. sg. This usage of both -'n and . only those forms of the word which are actually found . sg.'n is also found in the plurals of this class. pi. heavy suff. sg.29 absolute (1) sg. pi. paVa-n (see I 1). sg. -ISO ISO construct emphatic xaVa T light suff. sg. pi. isVa pilN T •• N-ini nrii Pis'? nna pa-Vp-a on nn pn aa 'aa nin nia "n J^rn nrn T •• san pn -an paan pa-an pan ai T^ xaa N»aa xnn -aa [plural with suff. pi. pi. For the sake of clarity.] -ninn n n " t o build"] psprn -nvn pajni-n pann^N -nnn -niaVa 'niaVa N^ia [the Peal Active Participle of nnax max T: • xrinas xnnas snia-) Nnia'ja T : - niaT pannn paniaVa pan3a"7a niaVa niaVi? Nrii?'?? Note the application of the rule that the noanaa letters retain their spirant pronunciation after a vowel even when the vowel which caused it is dropped: pa^rn. pi. pi. (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) sgpi. pi. sg. sg. P?Va i?4 J- npp npp Tia*??? panpp p?9 There also occur the variant forms KVn •'V'Tl and psV'O. Nouns of Unique Formation: Grouped together in this tenth class are various nouns (and adjectives) which have inflectional peculiarities that prevent them from being classified with t h e more regular classes of n o u n formation. 3. sg. sg. (7) (8) (9) sg.

(plural) rj-nx n!*iK " l i o n " (plural) x n i n x H^K "fire" [It is difficult to determine as to whether this is a simple feminine or possibly the emphatic state of the masculine tPX of Class 5.n n a x •qrinai? wn^3^? • n x " b r o t h e r " [presumably resembling 3N in the singular]. with the exception of the supposed singular absolute state of t h e noun (this being indicated by an asterisk).a T a J •N-a? " p r o p h e t " [emphatic state] nx'ai. presumably it would be *nri3K. not emphatic] niJ ni? *vri " v i s i o n " Nim -ITn m m . m i d s t " xij [construct. •3N " f a t h e r " -nN -qiaN . the Most H i g h " [emphatic state] N-Vs? [a Kethib-Qere variation] DV "people. and thus _ is n o t pronounced as a qames hatuph. [emphatic state] B^K-) " h e a d " [the singular is Class 4 ] . (plural) nnai^ Besides these. there is a group of words which are regularly feminine in the singular [some do not occur in the singular in BA]. (plural) NPin? n n j ? " t o w n " s r i n i ? .] • ' V y "highest.] " h o u s e " [the singular is like b'n in Class 1]. t h r o n e " a-ipia.n u N . m a t t e r " and "year. from a different root. n a t i o n " [the singular is Class 5]. These include •nax " c u b i t " nax " n a t i o n " •nWH " w h e a t " *nia " w i n d o w " nV? " w o r d . (plural or collective singular) n n p . but masculine in the plural. (plural) jiD-ria [This is probably an anomalous non-spirantization of the T\. (plural) Njaas •nnp " g o v e r n o r " n n s .] 13*7 " m y r i a d " (plural) pan [a Kethib-Qere variation] t3^ " n a m e " aaB*. . gift" (plural) ^ r . (plural) -iTtl o r " d a y " has the [construct] plural mv besides the regular plural par •nja "colleague" (plural) nnija yinnija Npna "seat. (plural) x. The following list is not complete but represents the great majority of BA nouns having irregularities." The n o u n xna " l o r d " can properly be included in Class 3 in spite of the peculiar appearance of t h e form (with suffix) -Kia [a Kethib-Qere variation].] •pE*! " w o m e n " (plural) pn-?*! [The singular does not occur in BA. (plural) -"ja -niia lin-n *^i "interior. (plural) pona naT33 "present. (plural) .«!a3 [Both occur with Kethib-Qere variations. (masculine plural) pa"]ai (feminine plural) lanan xranan [These plurals are formed by reduplication.30 in BA will be listed. (plural) pB^Ni afi'^N*! [an apparent Hebraism] an " g r e a t " [the singular is Class 5 ] .] "13 " s o n " ana.

great multitude (10) nnjN — nx — brother (10) nax — nation ( 7 . pi. 5) lord (3) n3T33 — present. > fire-offering (10) ia — interior. 5) colleague (10) seat. pi. throne (10) word. T • pi. affair (7. midst (10) nin — breast (6) im — apparition.x. gift (10) nns — governor (10) T V myriad. pi. 4) ntsin — 5. vision. appearance (10) wheat (7. Exercises: Translate the following: (1) "mnvib nx»3J anp n xnnaxa xriVp na-na xptt^ x-iaV pnVs pan ian "?aaa nin xnan xnaVa xo"ia xapinV pTPX 'nia'-ari •'itrj x»ax nns"? napri XB^ xiia ian. matter.31 4. Vocabulary: letter (8) ni? — window ( 7 .ap xnai naraia xiiaxV xjpin ]nu « l p a ' n n n a» ann-'T n?*x-i xaVs xin (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) x-Vs? xn"?^ nniaia Vaa ma^aa papn? nniiai "rx-in do) . 5) T \ xa*^ — fire.

The characteristic vowel of the second root consonant of the imperfect of derived conjugations in Proto-Semitic is an /. the Haphel Perfect an?n. The infinitives of all the derived conjugations may be formed by taking the third person masculine singular of the perfect of the desired conjugation. In the derived active conjugations the active participle may be formed from the third person masculine singular of the imperfect by simply changing the yodh to a m e m : (e. changing the final vowel t o and adding the ending n-: (e.. Principal Parts: Although not all of the following principal parts of the active conjugations occur in BA.> anaa. but the / may as frequently be retained (see I H ) . a sere is frequently found. In these same conjugations there is sometimes a passive participle. 2). Pass. except that the final vowel is _ rather than _ : (e.. which is just like the active. Part. sec.32 L E S S O N VIII T H E D E R I V E D ACTIVE C O N J U G A T I O N S 1. for the sake of convenience they are included in t h e diagram below: Peal Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Act.g. the Pael) anaa. the Pael Perfect an?. etc. As might be expected. the Pael) ana.g. the Pael) ana > an? > nan?. Thus the stative nip " t o pay homage ( t o ) " . the infinitive also occurs with the usual orthographic variation of x_ for n_.g. . the appearance of an / vowel is generally regarded as an analogical extension from the imperfect (see Lesson V.- ana: an?N nanax an?n nan?n anana anpnp an?^ nan?^ anpB^a ana^p anaa anaa a-na In any of the second root consonants with an / vowel. Part an? aria: ana aripa an? Stative Pael an? ariaan? nana anaa ana? Haphel anan an??- Aphel anax Shaphel ana?* an?B*. Because the characteristic vowel in this position in Proto-Semitic is usually an a in the perfect..

) Perfect Plural Imperfect para- an? nari? nan? nan? anaana?i anari an?N lana nan? pnana rianan an?i wan? The Pael Infinitive is nana. it may be found either preceding or following either its subject o r its object. all the so-called "irregular" classes of verbs are basically conjugated according t o the pattern of the regular verbs. The Pael: the Pael: The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows in Singular Perfect Imperfect Person 3 (masc.) 3 (fem. except where another phonetic development dominates them t o change the form slightly (see Lesson I).) 2 (masc. or strong verbs. Regular and Irregular Verbs: In BA. (7) Ayin W a w (including Ayin Yodh). The names used for these irregular (weak) verbs in BA are generally the same as those used in BH. I n other words.) The Pael Participles are [note that. and (10) verbs doubly weak (of all classes). based on the original grammatical paradigm word VsD (the three root consonants of any verb being named in order. Actually. and the Lamedh letter). pi. and Lamedh Y o d h ) . and irregular. (3) Lamedh Laryngeal (including resh).) -an? (fem. A verb which has more than one subject may be either singular or plural (whether it precedes or whether it follows its subjects). In BA the verb may come in almost any position in the sentence.) 1 (com. (6) Pe Yodh (including Pe Waw). (5) Pe Aleph. (2) Ayin Laryngeal (including resh). T h e following classification of irregular (weak) verbs may be considered as inclusive: (1) Pe Laryngeal. (const. All other verbs in BA are classified as regular (or strong) verbs. context alone determines whether the participle is active or passive]: . the Pe letter. (8) the so-called "Lamedh H e " (including Lamedh Aleph. 3. (4) Pe N u n . (with suffix) nian? The Pael Imperative i s : ana ( m a s c sing. sing. Lamedh Waw. (9) Geminate (or Ayin Ayin). or weak verbs.) ian? (masc.33 2. the direct object may (or may not) be introduced by the preposition b. as in BH and other Semitic languages. verbs are divided into regular.) nana. the Ayin letter. These irregular verbs will be considered in subsequent lessons. As noted previously. except for the masculine singular.

) "-anan (fem. sing.— second person masculine plural pVapn Infinitive —x'?Ba [note x for n] Participle—masculine plural (passive) pnsaa 4. pi. pi. sing. sg.) 3 (fem.) Perfect lanan Imperfect awnanann ananri Imperfect panam nanan pnanan Nianan panann anpni nanan 3^|^^^t In the perfect there are also the variant forms nanan and nanan for the third person feminine singular and first person common singular respectively. pi. active or passive) Only a few forms of the Pael paradigm as given above are actually found in any of the regular (strong) verbs of BA. The Haphel Imperative i s : anan (masc. active or passive) janana (f. sg. pi. sing. active or passive) panana (m. sing. pi. (with suflix) nianan.) 1 (com. passive) (f. active or passive) As was true with the Pael. active) (masc. active or passive) ]an?a (f.) 2 (masc. The Haphel: in the Haphel: Singular Perfect 3?sn rianan The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows Plural Person 3 (masc. (const. The Haphel Infinitive is n a n a n . One example each of those forms which do occur is listed below for convenience: Perfect—third person masculine singular "jap [and VapJ — third person masculine plural iVaa Imperfect — third person masculine plural pVap. One example of each of the forms occurring is listed below: .34 ansa anaa nanaa (masc. passive) (f. the Haphel likewise has only a few actual occurrences in the regular (strong) verbs of BA. sing. active) ( m a s c sing.) lanan (masc. active or passive) pariD!? (m.) The Haphel Participles a r e : anana anana nanana (masc.) n a n a n .

It is a Participle — masculine singular active: V-Bt^a [with the variant VsiPa]. . passive) (f sg. the Haphel is a he causative conjugation.active or passive) panaa (m. sing. Even so.P'. the Shaphel.) 2 (masc. and the Imperative of the Aphel can be formed uniformly by substituting an aleph for a he. the Infinitive. rather than in the Aphel. active or passive) l?n?9 (f. The Shaphel: Far more rare in BA than either the Haphel or the Aphel is the shin causative. the example is somewhat doubtful. for the root VSE? appears elsewhere in the Haphel. active or passive) 3 (masc. there is only one example of the Aphel (the Aphel occurs more frequently among the weak verbs). active) (masc. N o paradigms need be listed here. this is not true for the Imperfect and the Participles.) 3 (fem. sing. The few occurrences of the Shaphel may be regarded as remnants of a n older conjugation. Thus. The Aphel Imperfect of the regular (strong) verbs is therefore given as follows: Singular Person an?: ari?n anan anax The Aphel Participles a r e : anaio anaa nanaa (masc. and the Aphel is an aleph causative conjugation. 6. pi. The Aphel: In BA. for a universal rule for the formation of the Shaphel is to substitute a shin for the he of t h e Haphel. However.) 1 (com.) panpn ana? Plural In the regular (strong) verbs of BA.) — second-person masculine singular — third person masculine plural Imperfect Infinitive — third person masculine singular — nVsiPn cbtn nVst^n Itnn VpEJn'' npbpn Imperative — masculine singular 5.35 Perfect—third person masculine singular (with suff. the paradigm of the Perfect.

7. report (1) now (pael) t o bind. make m — angry (haphel) to complete. whether t i m e . tie nsa — (divine) service -IB^D — interpretation (1) (pael) t o receive before (haphel) to irritate.ri 13121 patai paripr) 7\'^tp^ naVn jni sense. deliver (completely) DJ7B — 8. (i) D"?Bh-i.I 3 J . there are no examples of the Shaphel. run great risk . Vocabulary: behold! (pael) to stop nia — (hithpeel) to be built nya — to seek. Those occurrences in t h e weak classes of verbs will be considered in subsequent lessons. be on the point of. advice.(mighty) m a n . warrior if. turn (2) in — one nm — to see.a ? ? aip.36 In t h e regular (strong) verbs of BA. request. perceive -dream (1) Exercises: Translate the following: ••D"Tp-p pVap. a ian an^ xjair^ aVs^ ao ann ne^Nii ^C!?? '•'HlI ""T '73p""?a (5) DV^ IV^JI x-'p-'Va D/'PI nm Vaa sna (e) NaVa> nynin'? xntt^pi nV-jnii jay •T xaVa-ia nsa Vs'jni (7) ' . command. oVirn •qnV^ n-a ]nbs}? rj"? f an:ria""'i K?Kai (2) "^ Niann K"? Nnnj?! "qVs s n a j xVpa^ D»p la-fe' i»a (3) aniiai "^"yv^b nnsaV -lax nV-na n V-n-naj p a i ^ i Vaa-q"?!? T . finish.

The Hophal is considered by some to be a Hebraism in BA. and otherwise. The Peil also occurs in Imperial Aramaic. . They occur only in the Perfect and n o t in all of its forms.] The Perfect of the passive conjugations of the regular (strong) verb of BA is as follows: Perfect Singular Peil Hophal aron . this is not certain. which has been introduced into the verbal system and adapted for use as a passive participle. This would accord with the Hophal Imperfect of BH. Peil and Hophal. However.37 LESSON IX T H E PASSIVE A N D R E F L E X I V E C O N J U G A T I O N S 1. T Plural Person 3 (masc. qatil. have a very limited use in BA. Both of the passive conjugations.) 1 (com.) 2 (masc.) 3 (fem.rather than the Haphel in retaining it. Peil and Hophal. it is the Peil Perfect. [Some have conjectured a Hophal Imperfect of nni in Ezra 6:5.) Peil wna Hophal lanan nanpn na^ipn (H)ria-n3 rianan na-na T . It is possible that the few forms so labeled are remnants of such a conjugation which was at home in BA. For the sake of convenience in syntactic classification it may be assumed that when it is accompanied by a separate subject (either n o u n or pronoun). pna-na Nja-na pnanan Nianan n?"'n? nanan It is frequently difficult to determine whether a-na is the masculine singular of the Peal Passive Participle or is the third person masculine singular of the Peil Perfect. This participle itself is an adjectival type. it would be expected t o follow the Aphel in dropping the n. It is apparently nothing more nor less than the Peal Passive Participle to which finite endings have been added. it is the Peal Passive Participle. While there is no occurrence of a Hophal Imperfect in BA. 77ie Passive Conjugations: In BA there are two passive conjugations.

The Hithpeel: The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows in the Hithpeel [note that metathesis of n with a following sibilant regularly occurs in verbs with an initial sibilant (see V. 3. This n can be replaced by an K [cf Haphel and Aphel]. 2)]: Singular Perfect ariann rariann Plural Imperfect araii: Person 3 (masc. It is important t o note that these "reflexive" conjugations may often have a true passive meaning. In each case the n which precedes the n seems t o be an analogical extension of the initial consonant of the causative system. as well as their expected reflexive meaning. just as in the Aphel. Hithpaal. thus occurs the Ithpeel for Hithpeel. etc. and Shaphel. One example each of those forms which are found is listed below (all are in the Perfect): Peil — • Hophal — third person masculine singular. for the sake of convenience they are included below: Hithpeel Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Participle a?3na Hithpaal ari??in arisnansnn Hishtaphal aripnfn anariifJn nanawn anariB^ N o t e t h a t in the imperfect the prefixed n is completely elided.) Perfect larann Imperfect panan? lanan? apann nanapn . Pael. sec. The Reflexive Conjugations: Corresponding t o the Peal. Although n o t all of the following principal parts of the reflexive conjugations occur in BA. —a phenomenon occurring also in other Semitic languages.38 Only a few forms of either the Peil or the Hophal occur in any of the regular (strong) verbs of BA. rather than being retained as in the Haphel.) 3 (fem. Hithpeel. and Hishtaphal. orbf third person feminine singular nV-tJj? second person masculine singular NpVpn [for nV'pri] third person masculine plural inD? [for W M ] third person feminine singular Wj?rn 2. there are the reflexive stems in t.

) pnanpriri wanann Plural pansnn anani In the perfect the variant form feminine singular.) Once again. sing. sing. (withsuffix) (fem. One example of each of the forms which do occur is listed below: Perfect Imperfect Infinitive Participle — second person masculine plural pniantn [a Kethib-Qere variation—possibly pniam — or a Hithpaal] — third person feminine singular — nVopnn — masculine plural pVPp.) 3 (fem. The Hithpaal Imperative is: anann (masc.) lanann The Hithpeel Participles a r e : anara nanana (masc.39 Singular nansnn napsnn ansrir) ananK 2 (masc.) 1 (com. (withsuffix) nianann. pi. (const. pi.riP paniPn [note the metathesis] 4.) 2 (masc.) (fem. sing.) -anann (fem. only a few of the above forms are actually found in the regular (strong) verbs of BA.) Perfect lanann nanann pnanann Nianann Imperfect panan? l?naripanann anan? Imperfect anananann anann ananx The Hithpaal Infinitive is nanann. The Hithpaal: in the Hithpaal: Singular Perfect anann nanann nanann nanann The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows Plural Person 3 (masc.) nanann.) .) panana ]anana (masc.) lanann (masc. (masc. sing. sing. The Hithpeel Imperative is: anann (masc. sing. pi. pi.) -anann nanann is found for the third person nianann.) nanann.) (fem.) The Hlthpee'Infinitive is n a n a M .) 1 (com. (const.

p i paVsj*? pantfn ao q " xniaVai (9) h? pVDp.-? ]»a i » i n s . [adverb] very (4) Vafe — (hithpaal) t o consider paB> — (hithpeel) to be left.40 The Hithpaal Participles a r e : arisra nanana (masc. the actual occurrences will be discussed subsequently in connection with the class of weak verbs involved. and n o t at all in the regular (strong) verbs. pi. T law (4) — (hithpeel or hithpaal) to agree.) f3?iana (masc. The Hishtaphal: The Hishtaphal.na x B > ri x a V a . command. sing.) (fem. many.i . decide — (hithpaal) t o assemble B^a I B — fire (4) *ia» — the opposite bank (1) — (peil) t o be killed — (hithpeel) t o be killed — (hithpaal) t o be killed 6. Exercises: Translate the following: xni-n nV-pp is n^piK n t n (i) (3) nan — (hithpeel) to be thrown — great. 7. sing. like the Shaphel. Rather than giving a reconstructed paradigm for the Hishtaphal.p i (2) xnVa nVanft^nV i i a i T n i iB^iann xnai nan V-pni •"nita n-aV asp? xa"?? nb<6 (4) n"?ppnn sVi nipnn •'nia^io-Vsi (5) N-a^ nani Nsnx xiia fr^ xa-an nm (6) (8) x p i ^ nVx " n "TIT ian nnni na»a n xas-Va (7) >n xnii-xia"p xann: xaVs"? lip^i b& x V . much. These forms a r e : Participle — masculine singular Vn ^ [note the metathesis] af a e — masculine plural ppjana 5. occurs extremely rarely in BA. Vocabulary: — tree (4) m — decree.) l???ria In the regular (strong) verbs of BA the only forms of the Hithpaal which occur are participles (there are other forms in the weak verbs). order.) (fem. pi.p n-r mm do) » " aj . pass on t o n^tt? — t o send — (peil) t o be finished Vpn — (peil) t o be weighed ipn — (hophal) t o be reestablished wb^ xVi jqara nn.

A short a before this first consonant is usually retained (as in t h e Peal Imperfect). Any statement as to the occurrences of verbsin this lesson. and n o t t o verbs which are doubly weak. 2.).or _ : (sing. As a group. consideration will be given to underlying principles and phonetic rules applicable t o each class. The variations which d o occur are a result of some phonetic development that dominates them t o change t h e form slightly. Pe N u n and Lamedh Laryngeal.41 LESSON X L A R Y N G E A L VERBS 1. In this and subsequent lessons. refers t o verbs with only one weak root consonant (and that a laryngeal). t h e laryngeals and resh cannot be doubled. Such verbs that are doubly weak will be discussed subsequently. Laryngeal Verbs: In this lesson t h e three classes of laryngeal verbs will be discussed. Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Aleph. It is important t o note t h a t this lesson deals primarily with verbs t h a t are weak in one root consonant only. Obviously a laryngeal can occur in verbs t h a t have more than one weakness (e. The laryngeals and resh prefer a vowels. in place of retaining its shewa]. rather than being dissimilated t o an / (I E). (A) Peal: the above rules have specific applications as follows [some examples are given as illustrations]: Perfect: where the Pe letter of the regular verb has — or _ t h e laryngeal has . etc. Pe Laryngeal Verbs: T o this class belong those verbs whose first consonant is r\> or ». A n original a is usually retained under this first consonant.) 13S? rinas nna?.g. rather than reconstructing hypothetical paradigms for the weak classes of verbs. Infinitive: t h e mem has _ instead of _ : i s s a . they exhibit relatively minor irregularities from t h e pattern of the regular (strong) verb of BA. (plural) n 3 » Imperfect: t h e prefix retains t h e original _ instead of having _ [but becomes _ when t h e verb is also Lamedh H e ] : (plural) peVn.or fn^vn [here the laryngeal adopts t h e vowel of the prefix. and there will be a listing of specific examples which actually occur in BA. Usually t h e vocal shewa under this first consonant is composite (I M ) . etc. A short / before this first consonant usually becomes a seghol (I F ) .

note especially that in compensation for the lack of doubling the preceding vowel may be lengthened under certain circumstances (see I 8). Besides the general rules for the laryngeals given above. Haphel (and Aphel): the development of the Haphel from the original Proto-Semitic to BA seems to have been more complicated. having _^ where the regular verb has _ : Imperfect: ( s i n g .42 Participles: the active participle is regular. consequently t h e P e Laryngeal verbs have no irregularities in the Hithpaal. cf I E]) > Jpnn (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect to the perfect) > ]pnn (short / before a laryngeal becomes a seghol [see I F ] ) > jDnn (insertion of a hateph [see I N]). the passive participle has _ for _ : (plural) pn-B^n (B) Pael: since the Pe letter of the regular (strong) verb uniformly has _ in the Pael and this is also what the laryngeals prefer.q i t q a t " dissimilation [however. and is quite regular in form: (plural) yapni Participles: the actual occurrences of the participles in Pe Laryngeal verbs are quite regular in both the Haphel and the Aphel.[and npyn-] Participle: (sing. .) i:ivm H i t h p a a l : the same use of _ i s found in the regular verb as in the Pael. ) n a r n . like the laryngeals. n. unusual with laryngeals. V or l . cannot be doubled. Perfect: (plural) y p m Imperfect: here the only occurrence is in the Aphel. Ayin Laryngeal Verbs: T o this class belong verbs whose second root consonant is N. Hithpeel: this is very similar to the Peal. and Imperative: all occurrences happen to be regular (with the exception of a verb with verbal suffixes. Resh is included in this class primarily because it. (C) (E) (F) 3. (D) Passive conjugations: there are no occurrences of Peil or Hophal in verbs strictly Pe Laryngeal [occurrences in verbs doubly weak (Pe Laryngeal plus some other factor) will be discussed subsequently]. n. the Pe Laryngeal verbs have no irregularities in the Pael. rather than the Haphel. Infinitive. (A) Peal: the above rules for Ayin Laryngeal verbs have specific applications as follows [some examples are given as illustrations]: Perfect. which will be considered in a later lesson). Imperfect. involving several phonetic rules: it appears to have taken place as follows: * 3 p r i n > ipnn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > ]pnn (the so-called " q a t q a t .

Participle: here is the one instance of t h e vowel before a he being lengthened in compensation for the lack of doubling (see I 8 ) : (sing. only one form actually occurs as given below). Also. singular and plural. (A) Peal: the above rules for Lamedh Laryngeal verbs have specific applications as follows [some examples are given as illustrations]: Perfect: because t h e regular (strong) verb has a p a t h a h before t h e last consonant. t h e Lamedh Laryngeal class is regular in t h e Peal Perfect. the feminine active singular and both active plural participles have _ for _ : (plural) f VnS(B) Pael: as might be expected. with the inability of t h e laryngeal t o be doubled. Participles: the active singular has _ for _ . Perfect: all the occurrences are with resh. (plural) pnbD: Infinitive: t h e Lamedh Laryngeal infinitive is regular in t h e Peal. and this is w h a t t h e laryngeals also prefer. Imperfect: here there is found _ for _ before t h e last consonant. n. and all of these occurrences happen t o be regular.43 Participles: the masculine active singular and the passive participles. the lack of doubling produces some irregularity (however.) n*"^ . t h e plural is regular: (sing. and Hithpeel: there are only a few forms of these conjugations which occur in verbs strictly Ayin Laryngeal. Besides the general rules above.) (C) (D) Vnarta 4. » or i [this a is a he proper. Lamedh Laryngeal Verbs: T o this class belong verbs whose last consonant is n. Peil. are formed regularly.) n'?B.pass. and not a he t h a t is just one of the matres lectionis for t h e long vowel d — all of t h e latter verbs are included in the so-called " L a m e d h H e " class of verbs]. indicated by a mappiq. a p a t h a h furtive appears after a heterogeneous long vowel (I K). (plural) f"T5?oa Haphel. n. (plural) pnVs the passive participle has t h e pathahi furtive: (sing. a shewa before the last consonant is retained. (plural) pas?»Participles: (sing.) anpn.) nbl^. or » (I J).) "qna n ? 1 3 Imperfect: (sing. t h e same as in the regular (strong) verb: (sing.) "qiati. so t h e preceding vowel is lengthened in compensation for the lack of doubling: (sing. remember t h a t short vowels become pathah before final n. Hithpaal: as in the Pael. the Ayin Laryngeal verbs exhibit their greatest irregularities in the Pael (see 1 8).

The Ithpeel Conjugation: As was mentioned previously (Lesson IX.) nariB'n —third person feminine singular: in this class of verbs particularly. sec. —second person masculine singular: easy to confuse with the above: nnariE^a [the final n is n o t aspirantized]. (plural) i n a ^ Imperfect: the same _ is found as in the perfect: (sing.) i|?aInfinitive: the Lamedh Laryngeal infinitive is regular in the Pael. 2).n [the latter appears in the form of a true laryngeal segholate].o r _ : (sing. . second person masculine. in BA there occurs a reflexive conjugation basically identical to (F) 5. (plural) inaiPn Njnatf^n Imperfect: (sing. Perfect: here _ i s found for .) nnai^. H i t h p a a l : all occurrences of this conjugation in verbs strictly Lamedh Laryngeal are regular. Perfect: note that metathesis occurs quite regularly in case of an initial sibilant: (sing. Perfect: (sing. the plural participles are regular: (sing. Hithpeel: the same occurrence of _ for _ as found in the Pael is found in the Hithpeel. (plural) pnVsa (D) (E) Peil: t h e sole occurrence of this conjugation is quite regular.) mtr\T). the plural is regular: (sing.44 (B) Pael: here the preference of t h e laryngeals and resh for the a-vowel is regularly exhibited.) n ^ s n n n a ^ n [first person — for this peculiar formation see t h e discussion under the Hithpeel Perfect below]. the formations with a n suflRx [third person feminine.) nVsM. Participles: the occurrences actually found in BA of the Lamedh Laryngeal class are in t h e Aphel rather than in the H a p h e l . the singular has _ for _ in the active participle (see the Pael Participles above).) i B ^ D p n a e ' D (C) Haphel (and Aphel): the same occurrences of _ for _ and _ as found in the Pael are found in t h e Haphel. and first person common] tend t o be formed somewhat on an analogy with a segholate [cf the Peal Imperfect of the Pe Laryngeal above ]na??ri > pnasn]: thus n i t a n n and nriar«?. Imperative: the same _ is found as in the perfect: (plural) i T i a Participles: because _ is found in the active participle for it becomes identical with the passive participle in form and the context must be used to differentiate between t h e m . (plural) nairni Infinitive: t h e Lamedh Laryngeal infinitive is regular in the Haphel.

make progress (pael) t o offer (pael) t o praise (haphel) t o find (hithpeel) t o be found ra-B^nxVaxB-iK-anj-Vai ( i ) aVifiTa •'•7 oanVN n-a ""r nna-ra-Vs ian anp^ni (2) TinV r-i»09 snVs-n x w a i jinaxn (3) . which has _ (the first person singular is a r i a n x ) . except it begins with an K in the Perfect. extended into the reflexives so that there is a form anariX corresponding to the form ansnn. Vocabulary: m a — (pael) t o disperse. fare well. In the Lamedh Laryngeal verbs there is one occurrence of an Ithpeel: nnfanx corresponding t o nnfann [see above — Hithpeel]. Thus some verbs are both Pe Laryngeal and Ayin Laryngeal. However. pass by jon — (haphel and aphel) t o occupy. or consider specific examples.45 the Hithpeel. turned i n t o . possess a^n — t o consider. rather than with a n . 7. where the Haphel begins with a n and the Aphel with an x . break off »]"?n — t o pass (over). be done (pael) t o interpret (haphel and aphel) t o (cause to) prosper.altar (3) • (pael) t o help. 6. as well as the form a n a n x . application of all the above rules for laryngeals or resh involved in each individual verb is all that is needed. aid (hithpeel) t o be m a d e . investigate •qna — (pael) t o bless nn — (hithpeel and ithpeel) t o be cut o u t . Extending this parallel into the perfect of the Ithpeel. In either case. the form a n a n x is found for the perfect. Exercises: Translate the following: nafa nas nir^B nVs anp nas^ natt> ny6 . scatter Vna — (hithpaal) t o be frightened. and others are both Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal. Verbs Doubly Laryngeal: In BA there occur some verbs with two different laryngeals (or resh). > respect DBD — (pael) t o feed. besides those with a laryngeal and another type of irregularity or weakness (which will be discussed subsequently). This appears to be on an analogy with the causatives. be perplexed npa — (pael) to seek. making it unnecessary t o list paradigms. give t o eat 8. there is another analogical influence on the Ithpeel which apparently comes from the Hithpeel Imperfect. The prefixes of the Hithpeel Imperfect all have _ except the x .

ai ovp o-i? ""lai (5) aVa-n Niaa -nWi Tia!i "jnana x-ato sa'pa p-rx (e) xniaVa ]pt^i n -ni"??? psVa: piiv s^aiNi (7) nna.^ xaVs •'n'?i na-ia x-Vs?'?'! (8) p»5?».-nm"-] (10) aVs n-a"? nayn? Nwa l a s .i " ' ? ? (11) aiaa a-na-pi ana Vaaa nani|?ni (12) .sri-iJK inpB^ni iip.•q'? pnina xai^vi (9) nxjai -"ari "ava pn^sai pia v.

However. (C) Haphel (and Aphel): the assimilation or non-assimilation of the nun seems to occur indiscriminately here also. Naturally.) Vp. sec. PE Y O D H . (A) Peal: the Pe Nun verbs exhibit more irregularities in the Peal than in the derived conjugations [possibly because there are more occurrences in the Peal]. Pe Nun Verbs: Most of the irregularities in this class of verbs occur because a nun at the end of a syllabic is often assimilated to the consonant beginning the following syllable. (D) Peil: the initial nun is not assimilated. A N D PE A L E P H VERBS 1. the Pe N u n verbs exhibit a decided preference for an / (see Lesson VI. especially in the Haphel.> ps]. (plural) pVpn pjrir Infinitive: the sole occurrence happens to be regular: ]n3!p Imperative: the nun is dropped completely: (plural) ips [apparently on an analogy with the imperfect and imperative of the regular verb: if nnp. even to a laryngeal (I 2).jriiri. the assimilation or non-assimilation of the nun seems to be indiscriminate: (sing. this is not universal. (B) Pael: the sole occurrence happens to be an infinitive. no irregularities are caused by a nun that is initial (the first consonant in a word or syllable). as innVsn. Perfect and Imperfect: those occurrences in verbs strictly Pe N u n are regular. or it may be assimilated. Participles: the nun may be retained.47 LESSON XI PE N U N . Imperfect: although the characteristic vowel of the imperfect is usually u (with a i n the stative verbs). . as in "jsa [an Aphel form].(imperfect) > ana (imperative) then p B . Perfect: no irregularities are caused by the initial nun in the perfect. for the nun may also be retained. and with an initial nun there is no irregularity. the nun is initial. so there are no irregularities. hence there are no irregularities in the Peil. or it may be assimilated. Participles: as in the perfect. Infinitive: the nun may be retained. 1).JW.

Hithpaal: in the hithpaal conjugation the Pe letter never comes at the end of a syllable. all the rules of both of these particular classes apply t o this class of doubly weak verbs. then those few occurrences of verbs in this class are amply explained. in t h e Haphel (or Aphel) the nun is assimilated. and that all short vowels become pathah before a final laryngeal (see I J). 4.) Va^Van [Qere: t h e K e t h i b form "raw and . Irregularities occur when the yodh (or waw) comes a t the end of a syllable. Haphel (and Aphel): t h e only verb with this kind of double weakness comes from t h e root nm. but the laryngeal cannot be doubled as a result of the assimilation. Imperfect: (sing. 2.nVa? Imperfect: this is usually conjugated as though the verb belonged to the Pe N u n class. (A) (B) Peal and H o p h a l : the sole attested form in each of these conjugations happens t o be regular. If it is noted t h a t a nun may (or may not) be assimilated. with one important exception. Verbs Pe Nun and Lamedh Laryngeal: Once again. b u t are distinguishable from each other only in the Haphel. Especially irregular are formations analogous t o the Pe N u n class where the initial consonant is assimilated [only apparently] to the following consonant. there is no lengthening of the vowel in compensation (see I 8). hence no irregularities occur in the Pe N u n verbs. and becomes part of t h e long vowel (as in B H ) : lami Perfect: quite regular: (sing. In this connection it should be remembered that an initial waw becomes a yodh (see I 6). The two main ones are (1) the possible assimilation of the nun.) ap. (A) Peal: the only irregularities attested occur in the imperfect and the imperative. because the laryngeal is a n. with t h e initial consonant assimilated t o the second conson a n t (see above): (sing. Pe Yodh Verbs {Including Pe Waw): These are really two distinct classes. t h e yodh is elided as a consonant. Verbs Pe Nun and Ayin Laryngeal: All the phonetic rules of both classes apply t o this class of doubly weak verbs. when the perfect occurs with the conjunction i.48 (E) (F) Hithpeel: there are no occurrences in verbs strictly Pe N u n .) nnn [an Aphel form] Imperative: (sing) nns [an Aphel form] Participle: (plural) pnnna [a Haphel form] 3. and (2) the impossibility of doubling the laryngeal (I 8).

see the verbs both Pe Yodh and Ayin Laryngeal below]. which is cognate t o the B H aw. sec. (plural) pan. but no irregularities need have been expected anyway. for it comes from the Accadian sUzubu — usezib. sec. t h e Shaphel (see Lesson V. unless preceded by the conjunction 1 (see above). and joins a preceding long vowel (see I P ) : (sing. 6).) Participle: (sing. 1) as well as the Haphel and the Aphel. 2:10) are considered as Peals incorrectly written like Hophals.) apBto . Haphel: here there is a distinction between true Pe Yodh verbs and those originally Pe W a w .) "jD. Perfect: (sing. there occurs a shin causative conjugation.49 the form V D V ( D a n . Perfect: (sing. However. for the Pe letter does not come a t the end of a syllable [for examples of Pe Yodh. has a shewa under the initial consonant. t h e yodh is eliminated as a consonant instead. not ar. and therefore is regular. hence it can be listed in BA as a Pe Yodh only for convenience.. the Shaphel of ezebu.n"??. in the latter t h e yodh reverts t o its original waw. the true Pe Yodh verbs become ••n in t h e Haphel (see I P). (E) Hophal: there is only one occurrence.) a p ^ Infinitive: (with an attached suffix) 'qniartt^ (etc. All of the occurrences of the Shaphel in BA are closely related t o (if n o t borrowed from) t h e Shaphel of Accadian (common in that language). like the peal perfect. (B) (C) Pael: the sole occurrence (infinitive) of a verb strictly Pe Yodh is regular.) anin Va-n Infinitive: nVa-n (D) Peil: this conjugation. The Shaphel and Saphel Conjugations: As was noted previously. t h e occurrences are n o t common (see Lesson VIII. (A) Shaphel: the sole occurrence in the Pe Yodh verbs is more apparent than real.) aori Participles: all are regular: (sing. 5. and becomes in in the Haphel (see I D ) .) a r * Imperfect: (sing. others consider them t o be genuine examples of an old BA Huphal (Hophal) conjugation] however. in one instance. which has in instead of the regular im- perfect: third person feminine singular: nepin (F) Hithpeel and H i t h p a a l : there are no occurrences in verbs strictly Pe Yodh.

50 (B) Saphel: t h e one occurrence of a Saphel in BA is undoubtedly from an original Pe Waw conjugation (cf. which is here shown by the actual presence of a nun (rather than by doubling the second consonant. More of the attested irregularities occur because of the laryngeal than because of the yodh (even if there is no Pael attested).an-nn. (plural) ]-an. Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh Laryngeal: Most of the irregularities which occur in both the Pe Yodh class and in the Lamedh Laryngeal class occur in this class of doubly weak verbs. if it is maintained that the yodh is assimilated to the second consonant.in the Peal and Haphel conjugations.—all irregularities that occur are on account of the laryngeal.nan-.) s?:rin V71N. Participle: (plural) pVaioa 6.) an-n. Verbs Pe Yodh and Ayin Laryngeal: All the rules of both classes apply t o this class of doubly weak verbs. (plural) pan-n? Participles: (sing. (A) Peal: the perfect is quite regular. possibly reflects an Assyrian rather than a Babylonian pronunciation of the Accadian in this instance. (plural) ]-an::na (D) Ithpaal: the sole attested form is irregular because the laryngeal cannot be doubled and the preceding vowel is lengthened in compensation for the lack of doubling by the » (see I 8 b). Imperfect: the outstanding characteristic of the imperfect is its analogy to the Pe N u n class. the Shaphel of {w)abdlu (even though in the Haphel of BA by is treated as a true Pe Yodh).) an Participle: the only irregularity is that the laryngeal takes a composite shewa: (sing. (plural) ian-i Imperative: this is conjugated as though it belonged to the Pe N u n class. Imperfect: (sing. Perfect: regular. (C) Hithpeel: the yodh causes no irregularities. except when found with the conjunction i. instead of the usual ^ of the Shaphel. (B) Peil: uniformly regular. as in verbs Pe Yodh only). and the infinitive does not occur.) an-^. This is true in spite of the fact that this class is limited in BA t o the root v i .— the initial consonant is dropped completely: (sing. Perfect: (plural) lB»-nx 7.) an. (A) Peal: there are no occurrences in the imperfect or in the infinitive. for it comes from the Accadian subulu. BH).) an-pa nan-iia. (plural) psnr . this nun could be considered as a resolution of that doubled second consonant (see I 3): (sing. T h e use of o. except when it occurs with the conjunction ^: (sing. alternatively.

(A) Peal: the shewa under an initial aleph is usually a hateph pathah (see I M ) .g. However. including a hateph seghol under t h e aleph.) V T N . the Pe Aleph class is very similar t o t h e Pe Laryngeal class (which see). and t h e Reflexive Conjugations: there are no occurrences in BA of these conjugations in the Pe Aleph class.n a (C) Hophal: the sole attested form is also analogous t o t h e Pe W a w . Perfect: (sing. . Perfect: the verb pN is analogous t o a Pe Y o d h : (sing.51 Imperative: also analogous t o t h e Pe N u n class: (sing. (plural) I V I N Klbw Imperfect: the aleph quiesces. (B) Haphel: the Pe Aleph verbs have a formation analogous t o t h e Pe Yodh (and Pe Waw) class in the Haphel. (plural) jnanInfinitive: nnain Participle: the sole occurrence is a passive participle: (sing. the aleph was retained in writing by historical orthography (e. (plural) n a x : [jussive] Infinitive: see the doubly weak verb naK below.) nainri.) VI Participles: (sing. Peil. Perfect: (sing. and also in those places where having a Lamedh Laryngeal affects t h e vocalization. and the vowel of the prefix is lengthened in compensation (see I 5): (sing.) p-n Imperfect: the verb nan is analogous t o a Pe W a w : (sing. the preceding vowel is often lengthened (see I 5). there is apparently no reason why one verb is formed like a Pe Waw and another like a Pe Y o d h . ""VsN Participles: the active participles are all regular (there is no occurrence of the passive participle).T [note the p a t h a h furtive] (B) Haphel: t h e occurrences in t h e Haphel show that was an original Pe Waw verb.) bo»r\.) p .) r T . Pe Aleph Verbs: In general t h e aleph quiesces whenever it does not have its own vowel. To compensate for this quiescence a t t h e end of a syllable. Other t h a n a possible early o r t h o graphic waw-yodh confusion. and all t h e forms are only irregular in accordance with the normal pattern for a Pe Waw Haphel. rather than the usual hateph pathah (see the doubly weak verb nax below): (sing. Imperative: here is exhibited a variety of formations.) -bjv. 8. Otherwise.) nam (D) Pael. X-_ instead of t h e usual sere yodh ">—). (plural) p s T j (passive) v .

the plural is regular: (sing. This class of doubly weak verbs 10. see the discussion of the hithpeel perfect of the Lamedh Laryngeal verbs in Lesson X ] . lay. n n a x [for a discussion of the apparent segholate ending. n"iaN [as in the Pe Laryngeal verbs. and t h a t in the Peal.) l a x —third person feminine.. —first person. The Peal of nax is formed as follows: Perfect:the aleph takes the hateph p a t h a h and the laryngeal prefers the a-vowel: (sing. city (7) — (haphel and aphel) t o deposit — (haphel and aphel) to rescue.) l a s . Verbs Pe Aleph and Ayin Laryngeal: does n o t happen t o be found in BA. (plural) p-iax 11. > preserve — heap of stones (1) a?: — to be pleasing — (hophal) t o be added Exercises: annria nm b^ aw 12. Translate the following: nVsra n-a laim Knrn iVax (i) ]na»n nas^V ap-". (plural) piaxri Infinitive: the aleph quiesces as usual. testimony (9) — t o rescue — — — • ^ ^ ^ jax — — — bT bT — (hophal) t o be destroyed to go (to or away) to eat (haphel) t o trust in earth (1) (haphel) t o bring (saphel) t o offer. I t exhibits the weaknesses of the two classes respectively t o which it belongs. town. the original _ is retained instead of _ (see the discussion of the peal perfect of the Pe Laryngeal verbs in Lesson X ) ] .) i a ^ Participles: the laryngeal of the singular influences the preceding vowel. deliver — witness. cause to dwell — province. (plural) n a s Imperfect: the aleph quiesces: (sing.52 9.) l a N . bring. Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh Laryngeal: Only one verb is attested in BA. r[<m-b^'\ •^•'bv n nai (2) nV nppin nx-Jto naani nnVxa p'n Vs!n (3) . Vocabulary: — (ithpaal) to take counsel together — (haphel) to settle. but there is also an unusual orthographic variation where the aleph is not written: l a x a and l a a Imperative: the hateph seghol is found here instead of the usual hateph p a t h a h : (sing.

10:11) nVx (Genesis 31:47) xnnrjto Tl^ (4) (5) (e) (?) (8) (9) (lo) K»aw ninn-]ai .53 Uniar^V Kn»'?ia •'»''3n Vb wv.nx pDt^ n nnpa ian anini ^Vx xjax Va-n xan xa"?? lax xiara wni xan xnVx n-a"? xninp nin-V xiVm D'?BhTa n s'^a-n? xjixa nnx-^jx nV •la^?1 x»nx?i xjatfa f n x n a y i "jsai arw? xini xynxa nax! nas? x^ x p n x i x-aB^-'T xjnVx oinV pnpxn nna (Jer.

the usual reduction of the pretonic vowel to shewa in the prefixes of the imperfect and in the Haphel perfect. 2)J. even if some forms are not written plene. Very possibly this confusion of forms has resulted largely from an earlier orthographic waw-yodh confusion. it is i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t in BA b o t h classes have qames in the perfect [which makes it convenient t o consider them together in one lesson.54 LESSON XII H O L L O W VERBS 1. verbs with waw as a co/uona/j/ for the Ayin letter d o n o t belong t o this class of verbs. and such verbs do not belong t o the " h o l l o w " verbs. « (A) Peal: the general rules given above have their application as follows: . in BA there is almost invariably the long variety of the stem (Dip and Dp). Ayin Waw Verbs: As indicated above. and to this long stem.g. Those verbs in which waw predominates in the imperfect are classed as Ayin Waw verbs and those verbs in which yodh predominates in the imperfect are classed as Ayin Y o d h verbs. In some verbs these letters in the middle position are true consonants. However. This long vowel (qames)in the perfect has the accent. which is used to designate the " e m p t i n e s s " or "weakness" in the middle consonant of these two classes. or even to group t h e m together in one class (see Lesson VIII. they are most probably to be regarded as long vowels. B o t h classes also have another c o m m o n characteristic. I n b o t h BH and BA there is some confusion between forms written with waw and those written with yodh. and is therefore reduced t o a seghol. Consequently. Dip and np^. a term. sec. Whereas in BH there is much fluctuation between the use of short and long varieties of difl'erently vocalized stems (e. and DpJ. 2. Thus. The Hollow Verbs: Ayin Waw verbs and Ayin Yodh verbs are also called " h o l l o w " verbs. therefore it has been somewhat diflScult to determine which verbs are properly Ayin Waw and which are Ayin Yodh. borrowed from Arabic. It is probably best to consider the hollow verbs as basically biconsonantal. of course. Dp. This weakness. the regular perfect endings have been added. is present only when the waw or yodh is a vowel. the §ere in the first person singular does n o t have the accent. The Ayin Waw verbs are verbs fundamentally biconsonantal with the i as a vowel predominating over the • in the Peal imperfect.

(plural) w p n Imperfect: in the singular the vowel of the preformative n is . Perfect: the vowel under the preformative n or x is usually a hateph pathah (see I M ) . the middle letter treated as a consonant.) D p D"l n p o . in the plural the x has a hateph pathah in the Kethib. (plural) l a p Imperfect: the pretonic vowel is reduced to shewa under the prefixes: (sing. Infinitive: here again appears a triconsonantal formation. but the Qere reads i for x [even in the Ayin Waw class]: (sing. (plural) ]•'a^tp [Kethib] pa'i? [Qere] Pael: with so few attested formations of this class in BA.) -"aip Participles: in the hollow verbs the Peal active participle is a triconsonantal formation.r! (and D-'pn) na-'px [Aphel-with suffix] napH na"'!?. the Aphel.?] na-'pn. without a preformative s has this _ under the a: (sing.) mpi a w . 3. Peal participles above]): na»p (C) Haphel (and Aphel): the pretonic vowel is reduced here. becomes x. the prefix has _ or _ . except for an apparently anomalous perfect of m"i: (sing. and becomes a hateph seghol: (sing. [Aphel] D''pri [Aphel] but rjipn [Aphel] and D'pm [Haphel] Infinitive: this is formed as though the root were truly biconsonantal.55 Perfect: the perfect has the accented qames. as in the Peal imperfect. — one example each [unlike BH which has a preponderance of Polel over Piel. Perfect: the only occurrences are both third person feminine singular (B) na''pri and napn (F) Hithpeel: see the Hithaphel (Hittaphel) conjugation below. without the prefix: (sing.or _ . in the third person feminine singular the vowel of the n is propretonic. (plural) paip.) D'-p'. usually the latter: (sing. which are so common in BH among the .Imperative: similar t o the imperfect.) D ^ n a [Haphel] a n a [Aphel] (D) Peil: see the Peil of the Ayin Yodh class below. being doubled (it is a yodh rather than the waw expected [cf. Polal over Pual. the vowel of the preformative is _ : nitn Participles: the vowel of the preformative n is _ . and Hithpolel over Hithpael]. The Polel and Hithpolel Conjugations: In BA there are only a few forms of these derived conjugations. occurrences of Pael and of Polel (which see below) are equal. in which the waw or yodh coming between _ and a full vowel.) D''p. (E) Hophal: the preformative n has the reduced vowel _ .) D x p .

the Aphel. As in BH. sec. Perfect: the same as Ayin W a w : (sing. (A) Polel: this conjugation parallels in meaning and usage the Pael of the regular (strong) verb. either _ or _ : Imperfect: (sing. the yodh of the Aphel seems t o dominate. 1). the Hithpeel.) riaainnr' 4.) Dfena 5.56 hollow verbs. Ayin Yodh Verbs: Verbs of this class are far less frequent in BA than Ayin Waw verbs. Participle: the sole occurrence is a participle: (sing. (A) Ayin Waw: whereas the preservation of the waw as an a-vowel might be expected here (see the Ayin Yodh forms below). so the Hithaphel appears as Hittaphel. one an Ayin Waw verb. that although the verbs are to be explained as /-reflexive formations of the Aphel. and the vowel is Imperfect: (sing. and the same general rules discussed above apply here. The Hithaphel (Hittaphel) Conjugation: The so-called "Hithpeel" forms of hollow verbs are really Hithaphel forms. the formations of the two classes are almost identical. As was mentioned previously. however. which in turn is doubled. has a /-reflexive. and are limited to the hollow verbs. yn and one an Ayin Yodh verb.) D ^ n ^ (plural) pafen? Participle: (sing. (A) Peal: in the Peal conjugation diflferences between Ayin Yodh and Ayin Waw verbs would be expected in the imperfect as well as the imperative.) DDilD (B) Hithpolel: this conjugation parallels in meaning and usage either the Hithpeel or the Hithpaal of the regular (strong) verb. the Shaphel. It must be noted. Finally. However. the o-vowel under the doubled taw is reduced to a shewa. the preformative x is assimilated by the n. the Hishtaphal (see Lesson V. Perfect: the sole occurrence is a perfect: (sing. so the aleph causative conjugation.) Dto r i n ^ (and ^aw) r a ^ Imperative: here (and in the imperfect) the true distinction between the two classes is readily apparent: (plural) la''?? . their meaning is often the same as that of the /-reflexive of the Peal. has a /-reflexive.) ptfi(B) Ayin Y o d h : conversely. but there is n o certain occurrence of the imperfect. In BA there are two roots with a Hithaphel (Hittaphel) conjugation. Thus they are often called "Hithpeel" verbs. oris. these conjugations are formed in BA by the reduplication of the final root consonant. Just as the shin causative conjugation. these formations preserve the o-vowel. the Hithaphel.

57 Participle: only t h e passive is attested, and possibly it is a third person masculine of t h e Peil perfect: (sing.) Peil: the occurrence of a w-vowel here is difficult t o explain; possibly it is a Hebraism (on an analogy with the Qal passive participle of B H ) ; possibly it is a result of an earlier orthographic waw-yodh confusion, later lost [this form is n o t plene, however], but preserved in oral tradition to Masoretic times. Perfect: (sing.) w^il) [see the Peal participle above] n a ^ [feminine]


6. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Hollow: It is difficult t o determine whether the sole example of this class of verbs is an Aphel from t h e r o o t Bin, or either a Peal or an Aphel from the root D T I . Because of the cognate Arabic t h e author prefers the root yn, and because of the p a t h a h under the prefix (with the variant qames), the author prefers t o consider it an Aphel [cf t h e Aphel form r\''PFi above]. Neither conclusion is by any means conclusive. The form i s : Imperfect: (plural) itjin; 7. Verbs Lamedh Laryngeal and Hollow: Those few hollow verbs which have a laryngeal as the Lamedh letter, do not happen t o have any additional irregularities because of the presence of the laryngeal in t h e attested forms. They all belong t o the Ayin Waw class of hollow verbs, and so can be considered in that section of this lesson and need no further discussion here. 8. Verbs Pe Nun and Hollow: As in the class above, it so happens t h a t the presence of a nun does not add t o the irregularities already present in the two classes of hollow verbs. In fact, since there is no strong consonant in t h e p o sition of the Ayin letter t o which t h e nun (as t h e Pe letter) can assimilate in the imperfect, the nun is retained. T h e only attested form is in t h e Peal, as follows: Imperfect: (sing.) niri 9. Vocabulary: •'P'IBX — a title of officials -DnonDN — a title of officials • . . • . r TT 1 •nsiN — an inhabitant of Uruk •'Vaa - Babylonian S i m — which is; that is Kjrn — judges; . [ t r a d i t . — a proper name] niT — (haphel) t o act presumptuously PT — (hithaphel) t o live ' . . . •. , s (on); subsist (on) _ (^p^ei) t o j o i n t o gether; (repair, lay, officials or inspect)

"V * ? — ^ " ?? *

Kai3 — thus Dip — (hophal) to be set up

— t o flee *]10 — t o be fulfilled — (aphel) t o p u t an end to, annihilate —clerk; secretary; scribe (3) — Elamite Dip — (pael) t o set u p , establish Dip — (haphel and aphel) t o set u p , found, appoint, establish 10. Exercises: Ezra 4:8, 9.

— t o rise; be high, be haughty D l l — (aphel) t o raise; heighten D1-I — (polel) to praise; (exalt) D l l — (hithpolel) to rise up (against) D'tr — (hithaphel) t o be p u t ; > be made — an inhabitant of Susa; Susanian

Translate the following sentences,

and also translate nVx D^N (i)

xnipa-Vs ptn^ aaai in

xaqii N s p ? \n'7NV raaiii nnnni ppaiinn xps? sia-Vsi (2) rtio'Ts Vs Dferin i s n s i a i i nsp snVa (3) yoba ipni yobia D'pri n"?x rniaj (4) na-pn x y i ^ Vvi rVpai r a n Hrm nim (5) ni xVi Vnann xVi \>«m bppnb avp na»pV sniaVa "Bp-in-Va i»»;nx (e)


LESSON XIII G E M I N A T E VERBS 1. Gemmate (or Ayin Ayin) Verbs: I n this class, where t h e Ayin letter and t h e Lamedh letter (second and third consonants) are alike, there is a combination of forms which can only be adequately explained by assuming that some are fundamentally biconsonantal while others are triconsonantal. In other words, sometimes there is either gemination of the identical consonants or some compensation for it, b u t elsewhere there is none. If t h e expected gemination or doubling of t h e Ayin letter (second consonant) does n o t occur, there is usually doubling of the Pe letter (first consonant), especially in t h e imperfect and other forms with preformatives. Or, where this cannot take place because of a laryngeal or resh, there is either a compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel or t h e resolving of t h e doubling by a n u n (see I 3). Peal: most of the occurrences in t h e Peal are with verbs t h a t have another weakness in addition t o being Geminate (see t h e classes of verbs b o t h Geminate and also laryngeal or Pe N u n below). Perfect: the sole attested form of t h e Peal perfect is plural where gemination could most easily be seen, b u t it does n o t occur; rather, t h e verb is formed like a member of t h e Ayin W a w class, and hence is probably fundamentally biconsonantal: (plural) Imperative: t h e sole attested form here is also plural, and it has gemination, hence is fundamentally triconsonantal: (plural) (B) Pael: t h e Pael is uniformly like t h e regular (strong) verb, (VVg, VVg^, VVaa, etc.) with one exception-the feminine singular participle, which appears as follows: nVVaa (C) Haphel (and Aphel): only one occurrence is attested as being formed regularly, t h e Aphel imperfect of t h e verb W e (which see below); otherwise, in compensation for t h e lack of doubling of t h e identical second and third consonants, t h e first consonant is doubled instead (unless it is a laryngeal; cf. t h e classes of verbs b o t h Geminate and also laryngeal below). Perfect: (sing.) rtpnn [feminine]; (plural) ip^g Imperfect: (sing.) p^n [Aphel], b u t also VV^Ji [a regular Aphel formation] (A)

see Lesson IX). properly speaking. however. contain . p^rnp [Haphel] np^ra and nplig [both Aphel] Peil: there is no occurrence of a Peil in the Geminate verbs in BA. The Hithpolel belongs t o the Ayin Waw (Ayin Yodh) class. the only occurrences are as follows: Perfect: (sing. 3) is t h e Hithpoel. by the Hithpoel conjugation (which see below). Hithpaal: this conjugation of the Geminate class of verbs is regularly formed like the Hithpaal of the regular (strong) verb (cf the Pael above). is an Ithpoel. and is formed by a reduplication of the final consonant. sec. sec. but the Hithpoel belongs to the Geminate class. its place is taken. The sole occurrence of this conjugation in BA happens t o be with preformative x rather than n.) aVVai? [with suffix]. Imperfect: in BA the sole occurrence of the Hishtaphal conjugation in any class of verbs is in this class: (plural) pVVsnB^ 3. The Hithpoel (Ithpoel) Conjugation: Closely related t o the Hithpolel conjugation (see Lesson X I I . 5). However. (D) (E) (F) (G) 2. which in turn becomes Hishtaphal by metathesis. In the Geminate class of verbs there occurs another example of the Shaphel conjugation. The Shaphel and Hishtaphal Conjugations: T h e Shaphel conjugation has already been considered (see Lesson VIII. verbs of the Geminate class which also have a laryngeal for t h e Pe letter. and both of t h e identical consonants (second and third) are retained. t h e final formations of the Hithpolel and Hithpoel look the same. a n d so is subject t o the usual rules of metathesis as follows: Perfect: (sing. H o p h a l : see below t h e occurrences in the doubly weak verbs which are both Geminate and Pe Laryngeal. there is one important distinction. I t comes from the root ontl. t h e Hishtaphal (for a discussion of the reflexive conjugations in general and of the Hishtaphal conjugation in particular. (plural) •\b'^yii Infinitive: nVV?B> (B) Hishtaphal: t h e Hishtaphal is formed regularly by adding the reflexive preformative hith. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Geminate: I n some of t h e conjugations.60 Participles: (sing). as well as its /-reflexive conjugation. As a result. but t h e proper distinction can be made by referring t o the basic verb r o o t .t o the Shaphel (Hithshaphal).) Daintf^ 4. (A) Shaphel: in BA the Shaphel of t h e Geminate verbs is formed quite regularly. and thus. as though it were t h e Shaphel of t h e regular (strong) verb. Hithpeel: this conjugation does n o t occur in this class of verbs in BA. and Lesson X I .

the laryngeal does n o t double. then. 1). thus t h e hypothetical Geminate formation snn becomes shn: (sing. Its first consonant (resh) cannot be doubled. however. Perfect: (sing. that in the Peal. but what would be expected in that class of verbs is what is actually found in this class of doubly weak verbs. so the previous vowel is lengthened in compensation. the resh is n o t doubled. Imperfect: in Geminate verbs the Peal imperfect would normally have the doubling of t h e first consonant as does t h e Haphel (see above. and is formed according t o t h e pattern of the regular (strong) verb. or the previous vowel is lengthened in compensation.) y'ln . In such cases the doubling is either resolved by a nun. (A) Peal: the long o in the sole occurrence is generally considered as a Hebraism. thus the hypothetical Geminate formation *?»!] becomes bpiTi. and besides all this.) Vrn. hence. etc. Perfect: (sing. (plural) iVsn (D) Hithpaal: like the Pael of verbs Geminate only. which is also Pe Laryngeal as well as Geminate. » » i [§ade three—BH f S l ] . and thus there occurs an additional irregularity. the sole attested form has so many apparent irregularities. Little wonder. sec. its third consonant (ayin) is a laryngeal. Perfect: (sing. but in this class.) Vsin Infinitive: aVwn but also nVyn (C) H o p h a l : the Hophal does not occur in verbs Geminate only. However. is actually triply weak. (A) Peal: because there are n o occurrences of the Peal imperfect in this class of doubly weak verbs. the Hithpaal of this class of doubly weak verbs is quite regular.) VvnV? [Qere] nV^B [Kethib] Infinitive: ]na Participle: (plural) p V V [Qere] f"?!?¥ [Kethib] (B) Haphel: verbs Geminate only double the Pe letter in t h e Haphel. only t h e infinitive shows any difference from verbs that are simply Geminate without any other weakness. in this class. t h e laryngeal is usually t h e initial consonant. or even quadruply weak.61 no additional irregularities because of the presence of the laryngeal. in t h e Peal of this class. in those conjugations of the Geminate class which require doubling of t h e Pe letter (first consonant). t h e doubling is usually (but not always) resolved by a nun (see I 3). the verb is Geminate. Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Geminate: It may be maintained t h a t the only root of this class which occurs in BA. its second consonant (ayin) is a laryngeal. 5.

enter bbv — (haphel) t o bring in — (hophal) t o be brought in — copy (1) — t o crush — (pael) t o crush — wall (4) D»8^ — (ithpoel) t o be appalled mi — t o cut d o w n nVi — (haphel) — — ]in — — Tp.62 (B) Pael: the sole occurrence in the Pael of this class of verbs is a triconsonantal formation. the n u n is the initial consonant.) n i ? 7. I I . Vocabulary: — foundation (5) — (hishtaphal) t o be finished n w 3 — and now — (pael) t o speak VVs — t o go in. but rather both Ayin Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal. just as though the verb were not Geminate. honorable (4) (shaphel) t o finish Exercises: Translate t h e following sentences.— — 8. xanni xep? vam NVne nnn? ipn pixai xaVs Vwn nn ^xVa (i) pan ]naV aVp'ria Vaa ••a'-an aa VVa xaVa pix (2) K-ia nvr^ WV">N n l (3) (4) nrn VVtpn •'ninhn VVa^ Q V B ^ T V K j i r j a an V» vnni pnn I J T laVa rVx-Va ssnp-^n sVneai (5) n9ini?^Ni xaVa Va-'^a Vsn bv. Verbs Pe Nun and Geminate: I n BA the sole attested form of this class occurs in the Peal perfect. > t o m a k e a nest difficult.) vvyi 6. This Peal form i s : Perfect: (sing.^! p i g (e) KjaB> D V K D^a pVVantt^ a!^Nj tqann •q-t x n n p (7) . there is n o additional irregularity other than what normally occurs in verbs Geminate only (which see above). Participle: (sing. Therefore. and as such. t o take i n t o exile t o crush (haphel and aphel) t o crush t o show mercy (to) (aphel) t o seek shade. and also translate Ezra 4:10.

pi. also w i t h t h e variant of final n for final x ] > 113 > 113 orthographic . which has the stative j-vowel. sing. aa. Perfect: whereas BH has a constant mixing of the active a-vowel and the stative j-vowel in the formations of the Qal perfect of the Lamedh H e class. t h e > n _ ending also has the orthographic variants n x _ and n X . sing. Therefore. i. except in t h e first person singular.—^^33 or x i a > 13 [with t h e loss of intervocalic • or x . > With these basic developments in mind. the two > short vowels together. will be disregarded in the outline of development below. sing.] 2 masc. namely those whose final consonant was originally either N. The greatest variations from the regular formations of the strong verb are exhibited in the Peal conjugation. 3 masc. BA usually has the active a-vowel in all forms of the Peal perfect of this class. —!p}3 or 1X13 > l i a [loss of intervocalic • or x ] > [I D ] > iia [ I ' A ] 1 p l u r a l — x i ^ i a > xi*ga [I P ] > x r i 3 [I A . These all appear as final So the existing forms are t o be regarded as either final x or final • formations. it is possible t o trace the changing course of the various formations of this class of verbs with some degree of probability. In BA there is no trace remaining of the forms with final i. — n ^ S or rXJS > n i a [loss of intervocalic • or x ] n i a > [I A . it may be well to consider in some detail the probable development of the Lamedh H e verbs in the Peal conjugation [the change from the original non-aspirantized forms of the n O D n n letters to their aspirantized BA forms. or ''. it occurred somewhere along the line of development]. became t h e long vowel a] > ja [I A ] > n}3 or X13 [the existing n or x being merely a mater lectionis for long d] 3 fem.63 LESSON XIV L A M E D H H E VERBS L The Development of the Lamedh He Formations: The so-called "Lamedh H e " class of verbs is actually a mixture of three classes of verbs in BA.']3 > n^]3 [I A ] 1 sing. —n. — rni or n x i a > M a or n x i a [the loss of final vowel] > n'la o r n'la [I 5] > n'la or m:i [I A ] 3 masc.

.to yi. [loss of final vowel] > p n ? [I A] Jussive: the third person masculine plural of the jussive is without the final nun of the imperfect. sing. with 8 as a mater lectionis]. Infinitive: t h e regular BA formation •'Jaa> Niaa [I P . [loss of intervocalic • or K] > p i a .J3. with s as a mater lectionis] 3 fem. Active Participles: t h e masculine singular is formed with s . t h e infinitive also occurs w i t h o u t the mem.> p i a . However. the • appears as the final consonant. or p x i a . conjugation by conjugation. all the others are formed with •>: (sing.|?a^> "^iT [loss of final vowel] > niT [I P . [loss of final vowel] > •pi?. n'laa.—.sing—. sec.will be disregarded in the outline of development below.ia. or long. the Peil conjugation of the Lamedh He class of verbs is a qatil type (as in 3''ria). Imperative: in all of the Lamedh H e classes of verbs together. but is r a t h e r a qatal type: •'ia> N13 [ I P ] > N13 [I A : here t h e final N. is merely a mater lectionis] Peil: On the other hand. p i . This is true regardless of whether the original r o o t was N. with the orthographic variants ""is and ""la]. it should be noted that the x in the final position here is merely used as a mater lectionis. and these difier as to the use of or K (see below t h e class of verbs b o t h Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh He and the class b o t h Pe N u n and Lamedh He). (plural) p i a p n Passive Participles: in the Lamedh H e class of verbs. the first forms listed are not to be regarded as true Proto-Semitic]. — i r i a ' or JINia: > fnT.pl. or ''.— i. > -faT [I D ] > 3 fem. Nia. with emphasis on actual occurrences in the Lamedh H e class of verbs. hence. there are only two Peal imperatives in the singular.) N?3 n. the N appears regularly in the imperfect of the derived conjugations and in the other forms which are based on it. 1.) -"ig > •'13 > ""IS [ 1 A . On the other > h a n d . o r its orthographic variant n.|3ari > ^lan [loss of final vowel] > s i a n [I P] 3 masc. and is formed as follows: (sing. the passive participle is n o t a qatil type (as in a'na). (plural) v''3a or w i a > r i 3 [loss of intervocalic • or s ] > Via > r i a [I A] > 2. 1) [for the sake of convenience the change from the original prefix ya. The derived conjugations will be considered below.64 Imperfect: in E A the imperfect of the Lamedh He class has quite uniformly the characteristic a-vowel of t h e stative (see Lesson VI. 3 masc. The Derived Conjugations of the Lamedh He Class: In the perfect of the derived conjugations.

in addition t o the irregularities of t h e Lamedh H e class.a??B. (plural) pacr Imperative: the sole occurrence has • where K might be expected (cf > the imperfect).o? Niann.) Imperfect: (sing.) NV?nn.) Na"i. Perfect: (sing. any of the irregularities of the Pe Laryngeal class may occur (see Lesson X. F o r t h e sake of illustration. (plural) iinpn'tn Imperfect: the verb mn substitutes "? for • wherever the latter occurs » in the personal prefixes of t h e imperfect. (plural) jiantf*: iariET' Oussive] 3. Perfect: (sing.) niri (and xin) nin (and nirj) n^inn-'irj. (plural) pannn Participle: (sing. (C) (D) Hithpeel: again quite uniformly the same endings are found as in the Pael. Perfect: (sing.) 'aa m a . (plural) pVsa (B) Haphel: quite uniformly the same endings are found here as occur in the Pael.) v^T. (plural) rac* Imperfect: (sing.) fQFtfy. (A) Peal: the endings of the Peal of the Lamedh H e verbs are found.) 'Vanri Imperfect: (sing. Perfect: (sing. with the other conjugations which occur mentioned briefly. with but few changes in vocalization. 2). masculine .) N33na (E) Hithpaal (Ithpaal): once again the same endings are found as in the Pael [note the occurrence of metathesis]. in one verb there is a most unusual development in the imperfect (which see). and also has _ instead of _ under the first consonant: (sing.) 'aa Participles: (sing.65 (A) Pael: the endings found in the Peal are also found in the Pael. however. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs. and in addition there is usually a composite shewa under the laryngeal. the Peal will be discussed in full. Perfect: (sing.) xaipn' Infinitive: matt^n Participle: (sing. sec.) Nltrna Hophal: in BA there is no attestation of the Hophal conjugation in the Lamedh He class of verbs. singular and plural.) 'antPN [Qere] Imperfect: the imperfect also has a final n for the mater lectionis instead of N in one occurrence: (sing.

the use of V is now generally considered t o have been derived from the Accadian (cf Acc. mn is frequently used in BA as an auxiliary verb. and the other conjugations will be mentioned briefly. (plural) pilVl^wV Infinitive: Ntna Imperative: in the masculine singular of the Peal imperative of all Lamedh He verbs.) Ktn (and nay). liprus): (sing.) n»a. Both the perfect and imperfect of the Peal conjugation are thus used with the participles of other verbs. » for there are only two occurrences. Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Lamedh He: The phonetic rules of both classes involved apply in this class of doubly weak verbs. it is impossible to tell whether final N or final • is dominant.66 and feminine. with a seghol under the preformative n in the perfect. and the class of verbs b o t h Pe N u n and Lamedh He (which see below). (plural) i»a Imperfect: (sing. (B) Pael: the regular (strong) verb and the Pe Laryngeal class both use pathah under the Pe letter in the Pael. Here also the Peal will be considered for the sake of illustration of these rules. xaa^ W'sa . etc. so this class has no additional irregularities in the Pael compared to verbs Lamedh He only.) N I ^ V (and nw^) Minn (and n i i l ? ) . has the usual •<. with one exception as follows: Participle: the Aphel participle of rrn is completely anomalous (probably an e r r o r ) . if the K is considered as a mater lectionis. the usual endings of the derived conjugations of the Lamedh He verbs. the form is written as a m o n o c o n s o n a n t a l : (sing. Haphel (and Aphel): all the formations are quite normal. a composite shewa under the laryngealin the imperfect.) «n. sec. has a formation with x: (sing. the sole other doubly weak verb of this class with the imperfect attested. (A) Peal: practically all of the formations are identical to those of verbs Lamedh H e only.) Kjn As has been noted previously (see Lesson VI. (plural) iin (and iin) Active Participles: (sing. 6).) xsa? Infinitive: S»3B Participles: b o t h active and passive participles are just like those of the Lamedh H e class (and also occur with n for s as a mater lectionis). Perfect: (sing.) xna (C) 4.. this classhas a formation with ' . (plural) pfn Passive Participle: (sing.

) nxfeino 6. The root xiM invariably retains its s in those formations which have ^ or n in other classes of Lamedh H e verbs. t h e previous vowel may or may not be lengthened in accordance with the rules given in I 8 (e. cannot be doubled. The sole occurrence of the other root of this class is found in the Hithpeel perfect (third person masculine singular). restore t o life m a . beside.) xfel Imperative: it is impossible t o tell if this form is normative in the use of x (on analogy with the imperfect). 1): (sing.n —• t o live rrn — (aphel) t o let live. Perfect: in this class of verbs occurs the only attested third person feminine singular perfect of any of the classes of Lamedh H e verbs. and in compensation.— (ithpeel) t o be distressed — near. with few formations. — toll.tax (10) ^Vr.g. [eventually? positively?] — t o come B^xa — b a d (4) nVa — (pael) t o wear o u t iVa . Vocabulary: DhBX — store-house. This is true of both the simple and the derived conjugations. > treasury. because of its paradigmatic importance. in other respects. xna. t h e Pael of this class is almost identical to the Pael of verbs Lamedh H e only.67 (B) Pael and Hithpaal: in these conjugations the Ayin letter. it is listed here as follows: (sing. the only other Peal imperative singular in any Lamedh H e class has the " (see verbs both Pe Laryngeal and > Lamedh He above). sec. Hithpeel (Ithpeel): quite uniformly the same as in the attested formation of verbs Lamedh He only. tax (4) n. where all other Lamedh H e classes have the Participle: (sing. there are only two attested roots.).) xto (B) Hithpaal: the x is retained in the feminine participle. and is formed just as verbs Lamedh H e only. (A) Peal: the two occurrences of xtol in the Peal are as follows: Perfect: (sing. Verbs Pe Nun and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs.) nnsriN [Ithpeel] (C) 5. t h e nun is here dropped completely (cf Lesson X I . with xVa — (hithpeel) t o be (with) ma — (pael) t o appoint — rebellious (4) filled . being a laryngeal.

13.i (2) n n •'ima Vnana niNr-ii^a i i a Vx^n n i x ' nnans (3) naan 'Vann Niqa aa"? p N a (4) NaVa n n 'jna^n Vx faV»V '^n xaVa bvm nax (5) Njaa? nVx"? 'Vsi '•nii^v ""i^ N?*?? nVa (e) . > violate niB* — (haphel) t o alter.68 ptl — (haphel) t o damage X^—to take. Translate the following sentences and also translate Ezra xVai ypba •'^TpVi nni f i a t xjtfn. Exercises: 4:12. > violate niB* — (hithpaal and ithpaal) to be changed p"?p — t o go (come) u p nVs — (pael) t o pray 7. lift u p carry away. ( i ) NniaVa •-B^N"! Naaa mn xas nirj-ni ma n n Nas mn-n. niB^ — (pael) to change.

The Shaphel is a true Pe Yodh. Participles: (sing.) Knina [Haphel] vrrta [Aphel] w n . and the endings are all in accordance with t h e corresponding formations of the Lamedh He class.n 2. Perfect: (sing.69 L E S S O N XV O T H E R D O U B L Y W E A K A N D I R R E G U L A R VERBS 1. Both verbs follow the normal patterns of their respective classes (see Lesson XI). (A) Peal: the aleph prefers t h e composite shewa.) nriN (and uriN).n. This is n o t a H o p h a l .) "nrn. 1). (plural) ins Infinitive: Nna KTa Imperative: (plural) i n x Participles: (sing. 3. Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs are found only two verbs. t h e initial consonant follows the rules of t h e Pe Aleph class. an obviously passive conjugation of the Haphel. (plural) Infinitive: n. sec. 8). and may even be omitted entirely. where it is merely a mater lectionis. Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs.)nnx [active] ntX [passive] (B) Haphel: this conjugation is formed on an analogy with the Pe Yodh class. In BA it is common t o find passive participles in the derived active conjugations (see Lesson VIII. as in t h e infinitive. The Haphel Passive Conjugation: In the class of verbs b o t h Pe Aleph and Lamedh He there occurs something unique in BA. unless there was an early orthographic waw-yodh confusion. However. (A) Haphel (and Aphel): the only occurrences are two forms of the participle of n r . Perfect: (sing. third person plural perfect r n ' n (and t h e variant rn'n). like verbs Pe Aleph only (see Lesson X I . b u t nowhere else are found other passive forms. These unique formations are as follows: third person feminine singular perfect n^n^n (and the variant n^n^n). and the Haphel (Aphel) is an original Pe Waw. The endings are all in accordance with the corresponding formations of the Lamedh H e class. sec. there are only a few verbs in this doubly weak class.

and three occurrences of a pathah before t h e final laryngeal instead of a sere or hireq (see Lesson X ) . Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Ayin Laryngeal: There are very few attestations of verbs in this class of doubly weak verbs. 6. sec. these verbs might be termed the "Weak Lamedh" class. T h e three verbs will be considered individually below. This characteristic is t h a t some of t h e formations of the verbs in question (though n o t all). There are two other forms which have been traditionally attributed t o the hypothetical root '. for t h e sake of completeness. which. Pseudo-Geminate Verbs: In BA there are some verbs exhibiting irregularities. but could be classified as a so-called " P s e u d o . this one is also related to the Accadian (susQ—usesi. In fact.)in. In all cases the Ayin letter is resh rather t h a n being a true laryngeal. for t h e lamedh apparently disappears or is assimilated. The result is t h e same. These verbs are n o t Geminate.G e m i n a t e " class of verbs. although seemingly unrelated t o the casual observer. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal: There are very few verbs in this class of doubly weak verbs. and even fewer irregularities (some formations are identical t o their strong verb counterparts). Therefore. 5. and Lesson XIII. t h e Shaphel of (w)asu). it is somewhat curious that all three have V as either the second or the third consonant. There is one occurrence of a composite shewa under t h e initial laryngeal in place of a simple shewa. It would be qn . the sole occurrence of the Hophal in this class of doubly weak verbs is here listed.70 (B) Shaphel: like t h e other occurrences of this conjugation in BA (see Lesson X I . sec. in verbs Ayin Laryngeal only. In BA t h e r o o t •qVn is n o t used in t h e Peal perfect or Peal imperative. the previous vowel is lengthened (see Lesson X). there is no attestation of the Hophal conjugation. Although t h e three verbs involved do n o t have identical second and third consonants. which seem rather t o belong t o " V as follows: (imperfect) •qn. and in compensation. nevertheless can be grouped together under one common characteristic. It is the third person feminine singular perfect of a i n : nannn. However. more pronounced t h a n this behavior of the lamedh are their various analogies to the Geminate class. but instead t h e r o o t VtK is used. 5.) S'S'^ [Kethib] "Sl* [Qere] 4. 2). are analogous t o the corresponding formations of the Geminate class of verbs. The other three attested forms are quite regular. and (infinitive) -qna. for in the Pael and Hithpaal conjugations. Perfect: t h e perfect of NS"' has a Kethib-Qere variation: (sing. it cannot be doubled. However.

Presumably. Turning t o t h e derived conjugations. especially in the imperfect a n d other forms with the preformatives (see Lesson X l l l . only there it has some formations analogous t o t h e Pe Yodh (Pe Waw) class. and the n cannot be doubled. The Peal attestations are perfectly regular. this seems t o differ from •ijVn in the Peal. as well as in BA. The one occurrence of -qbri in the Aphel conjugation. imperative. not omitted. H a d there occurred formations of rjVn in t h e perfect or participle. (plural) ip"?? Participle: (plural) ipbo On the surface. there is no comparable verb both Pe Laryngeal and Geminate in the Aphel conjugation with which to make an analogical comparison. jna. on the other hand. rather than analogous t o t h e Geminate class as in BA. sec. presumably they t o o would have . is considered by some authorities as incorrectly so written. or participle) they would not have been formed on an analogy with the Geminate class.) Ttpbo. as follows: Perfect: (sing. If not. The second verb. if it is assumed t h a t " V ! q? is the root. Actually. sec. Lesson XIII. On the other hand. -qVn is quite regular in the Pael conjugation. the participle f pVna. for this class is also regularly formed in t h e Pael. It should be kept in mind that •qVn exhibits weakness in B H .there is frequently gemination or doubling in the first consonant. and so n o t formed on an analogy with the Geminate class. Peal infinitive of ]in. but would have been formed regularly. Rememberthat in the Geminate class. However. 1). This accounts for the forms -qri' and 'sjrip (cf. it should be noted that these occurrences are uniformly without a preformative. exhibits formations analogous t o the Geminate class in the derived conjugations. In BH these alternate formations are so widespread that most Hebrew grammarians postulate the existence of a root T)"?'. but n o t in the Peal. 4). pDVnp. had there occurred forms of "^pn in the Peal without preformatives (perfect. the loss of the Ayinletter is explained.If this emendation is correct. N o t e that both forms in question (imperfect and infinitive) have preformatives. they prefer to revocalize it as a Pael participle. •qVn is also Pe Laryngeal. but this t o o could be considered to be on an analogy with the Geminate class. pVo. but formed on an analogy with the Geminate class. for the imperfect is precisely where the i or ^ would be found in these classes. Instead. t h e observations in the above paragraph apply.71 difficult to classify an imperfect of this formation as either an Ayin W a w or an Ayin Yodh verb.

Vao. had pbo occurred in the Peal imperfect or infinitive (and thus with a preformative). there are a few other verbs in BA that exhibit other minor irregularities in form or in usage. Without any attempt at classification. the initial consonant.) pon The third verb. pVo does have preformatives. having present. Stated another way.72 been regular (see above). and yet n o t being true Geminate verbs. as in BH. the Poel is strictly a Geminate class conjugation. or this doubling is resolved by a n u n (see I 3). the second consonant. the entire matter is doubtful. it is n o t really wise t o set u p a so-called "class." But with these verbs exhibiting some tendencies to formations analogous with the Geminate class. a holem (usually with waw). it t o o might have been formed o n an analogy with t h e Geminate class. In the derived conjugations. or would normally occur in all forms of the Peal perfect. The formation in question is as follows: rriB^N. they may well be called verbs of t h e "Pseudo-Geminate" class. Since the verb is attested only in the third person plural. Other Irregular Verbs: In addition to the verbs above. On t h e other hand. can be considered analogous to the Geminate class. t h e final consonant being reduplicated. The attested forms are as follows: Haphel perfect: (plural) ipon Haphel infinitive: niroin [13] Hophal perfect: (sing. However. it is undoubtedly a Poel. The writer prefers t o class this formation in question as a Saphel of t h e Pe Y o d h (Pe Waw) root (see Lesson X I . sec. and invariably its formations are analogous t o the Geminate class. and in compensation the initial consonant is doubled. they are listed below individually. The form of the Poel in question here is as follows: Passive participle: (plural) pVaiOKi Perhaps with so few examples. Although t h e two are identical in form. the Poel conjugation is not to be confused with the Polel conjugation. in order. And in BA. and the third consonant (the last two being identical in true Geminate verbs). Should the root actually prove to be Vao instead. which is strictly from the " H o l l o w " class of verbs. because its sole occurrence is in the Poel conjugation. . the "? is assimilated to the previous consonant. This is n o t found in other forms of the Peal conjugation. it is difficult t o determine whether this is an isolated phenomenon. The verb nntf has a prosthetic K in the Peal perfect. 7. The V is completely elided. 5).

(poel) t o bring. > preserve "lip — to shut pVo — (haphel) t o take u p pVo — (hophal) to be lifted up n n s — nakedness. Vns. Exercises: Translate t h e following sentences. and also t r a n s l a t e Ezra 4:14. is also used in the participles. The complementary use of rjVn and VtX has already been discussed in the preceding section of this lesson. 15. Although the verb V a i occurs in the perfect. the imperative.a x'S'tih ( i ) nan •^iVnp nini Nnins aia bm-f? nia xaVa (2) Naa-p bm-i ppni x a r p npoinV nax bmib^ (3) pVaioa 'niniOi aVirn-'a NnV^-n'aV nx-a^ nana n^nmi (4) niiaa i^^J??^ T^l?*? ^"^^ "^l^ ^"V^ ^5) Naaxi NS7S nVtna NB^ni -nVnV inaa^i xsoai s a m 'iNa la vnu^N (e) rjn. a parallel verb. be finished nVp — to eat salt. The use of a r r and ]n3 is completely complementary with an"' being used in the perfect. and ]ni being used in the imperfect and the infinitive. lay. Vocabulary: T-: T'JN — nns — n?n - ann — to light. be finished nna^ — to drink 9. heat fitting. and the participles. 8.] to g o . na nVgV xjina an x-iia nini n n nn. becoming (4) revolt (4) (haphel) to bring record (book) (4) to go [tradit. shame (7) to finish.73 In its sole occurrence. ^aa? oVipn''"? ^na"? 'niinai Vsnftr. > reach (pael) t o walk about (aphel) to walk about (hophal) to be laid waste (haphel and aphel) to praise (shaphel) to finish. the imperfect.x a y .p xas-Va n D»p o'lp 'aa (7) . the Peal perfect of "ijo is found as nip instead of the expected i j p . > be under obligation of loyalty nVa — salt (1) •?30 . and the participles.

in t u r n . They are n o t used in a reflexive sense.) T Singular (following a consonant) (following a vowel imperative) and with the 2 (masc. 2. Formation of Suffixes on the Perfect: It can be maintained that most of the suffixes were added to forms resembling closely the Proto-Semitic.) These suffixes may be modified slightly when attached to verbs of the Lamedh H e class. Verbal Suffixes: In BA pronominal direct objects are usually expressed by suffixes. Instead. The forms of the verbal suffixes are basically the same (except the first person singular) as the pronominal suffixes on nouns.) (following a consonant) Plural 1 (com. The one exception to this rule is that the suffix of the third person plural does not appear in BA. were modified according to the rules of BA phonology.) (following a consonant) T 3 (masc. which forms. as follows: Person 1 (com.) T (following a consonant) (following a vowel) (following a consonant) 2 (masc. Thus. sec. .74 L E S S O N XVI VERBAL SUFFIXES: WITH THE PERFECT 1. 2 E). the independent personal p r o n o u n is used (see Lesson III.) (following a vowel) (following a consonant) (following a vowel) 3 (fem. These may be added either to a finite form or to the infinitive.

) 3 (plural) 'JlVan pael 2 (masc. for it is almost impossible t o consider the attested form nVpp.75 the Proto-Semitic Vpj? plus the suffix •rj > "^Vtsp.) •'iny'Tin haphel 1 (com. in considering the entire picture. The suffix n-~.) ijyiin haphel r]pVB>n haphel 3 (masc. 3. for such conjugations do not have a direct object. Table of Suffixes on the Perfect: The following table is a complete list of attested forms in BA of pronominal suffixes on the perfect. Thus. it is practically impossible t o formulate universal rules to cover the development of the attested forms.53 peal 1 (com.) 3 (masc. It must have originated in noun forms and spread t o the verb. Form of the Verb Suffix 1 (com. a result of Proto-Semitic qatala plus the Proto-Semitic third person masculine suffix hu. this basic assumption cannot be universally true. Obviously. (see I L). is illustrative of this type of analogical development. Hence. plural) xinsiia haphel wn'ria haphel . in BA a greater extent of analogical formation must be postulated than in most of the other Semitic languages. However.N aphel aVVs^ shaphel ••nW peal -aiaipa haphel 3 (fem.) nana peal aaVtf^a haphel an. suffixes will not be found on the passive or reflexive conjugations.) 2 (masc. for example.) 'nja peal anno peal anfe peal aa-i?a haphel apVtt^a haphel a»''f'.

76 4. The Suffixes on 'rfN: Alone, •'n'S indicates existence, and means "there i s " or "there a r e " (see Lesson IV, sec. 6). With the negative it means "there is n o t " or "there are n o t . " However, when it is used with a sufiix, this does n o t hold true. In such a case, it is used as a copula (which, if found at all, is usually expressed by the third person independent p r o n o u n ; cf. Lesson III, sec. 2 B). As a copula, with the suffix usually expresses additional force or emphasis (see Lesson VI, sec. 6 B, and sec. 9). A complete listing of the occurrences in BA of •'n'tt with the various pronominal suffixes is given below as follows: •q;ri''N [Kethib] •!]n"'S [Qere] 'nTri"'N XJin-N [Kethib] Nir'N [Qere] pD'n-'N

5. 1Vocabulary: — — — — Van — — — — arm, force (4) hurry (9) injury; damage (8) (warned); > cautious (4) h u r t ; damage (4) a share in (4) rebellion (1) decree; official document (4) Translate Ezra 4:16-23. — (pael) to separate — word, decree (4) Nip — (peil) to be read; (be shouted) — to grow great — negligence (9) — welfare; [as a salutation] hail (4) — strong, mighty (4) TP?




LESSON XVII VERBAL S U F F I X E S : W I T H T H E I M P E R F E C T , T H E I N F I N I T I V E , E T C . 1. Formation of Suffixes on the Imperfect: In BA most of the attestations of the imperfect with a suffix occur in the so-called " E n e r g i c " form of the imperfect. In the singular the Energic imperfect of BA ends in -inn (the nn is reduced t o n when it is vowelless), and in the plural the Energic imperfect ends in -unn (sometimes written with a long m). However, two examples are found of suffixes on forms other than the Energic imperfect (in b o t h cases, in the Pael conjugation). These two examples seem t o be attached t o the jussive forms of the imperfect (see Lesson VI, sec. 2). Some grammarians call the Energic imperfect the " L o n g " or " C o m p l e t e " imperfect, which is found only with suffixes. Then the " S h o r t " imperfect is that used in modal expressions. However the latter is usually identical in form with the ordinary imperfect, and is " s h o r t " in only a few forms. 2. Table of Suffixes on the Imperfect: The table below represents a complete listing of attested forms in BA of the pronominal suffixes on the imperfect.

Singular Form of the Verb Plural (all masc.) [the person of the verb is in brackets] [3] [3] [2] 'aVny pael ••asJ"Tin; haphel ""asJ-Tinn haphel


3 (masc.)

3 (fem.)

i (com.)

1 (com.)

'a>nT pael ••ain? pael -aviin; haphel

[2} •'aiSJ-Tinn haphel [2] 2 (masc.) pael •qiar^ shaphel [3] '•ainnn haphel ^iVfja; pael

78 Singular Suffix 3 (masc.) (3 fem.) Form of the Verb Plural (all masc.) 1 (com.) aJVlifiN haphel 3 (masc.) [the person of the verb is in brackets] [."] [3] [3] [3] 3 (fem.) auri; peal Tiivr pael 2 (masc. plural) aiBhTR peal aJjP.'iri aphel aaVna; pael nwVria; pael ana»tt; pael naitt^B^ pael

v^f?«0: peal pDjantJ; shaphel

3. Table of Suffixes on the Infinitive: When the suffixes are a d d c t o the Peal infinitive, the final short vowel is i u .;ed t o a shewa (see T A ) . In the derived conjugations, the suffixes a n ded t o the constru orm of the infinitive, ending in tV\— (see Lesson ^ i, sec. 3). T h e table below lists all of the forms attested in BA. Suffix Infinitive Suffix Inli.

1 (com. singular)

'inW'lin haphel '^S-iin haphel

3 (uusc.) si • ;ular

aiira ; .i a^asa peal

2 (masc. singular)

^frtSfin haphel •qniana haphel "^riViVp shaphel

aa-ifja pe^i ariVsa haphel ariaj??! haphel a n i a n ? shaphel

1 (com. plural)

Kiniajntf shaphel

toil. 6. " b e a m " ? ] n T a » — work. as follows: Suffix Imperative (2 masc. deliver. formerly (7) a(P — h o a r y . Exercises: Translate Ezra 4 : 24. sg. plural) 1 (com. The suffixes are added to the participle as they are added t o nouns. the participle can be used as a noun or as a verb. service (7) n a i p — former t i m e . be discontinued. [plural] elders (4) VXB^ — t o ask. eagerly a title of officials wall. [tradit.) •'I'pSJn haphel ••linn haphel 3 (masc. 5 : 1 .1 1 . answer f n n n — two [fem. .] W-ISON Voa to cease. > require 7ra — (pael) to begin ain — (haphel and aphel) t o give back."^ [Qere].) ••niVan pael 5. singular) Imperative (2 masc. as in other Semitic languages.79 4.si6? [Kethib]. sg. Table of Suffixes on the Imperative: In BA there are only three occurrences of the imperative with suffixes. The suffixes are added directly to the imperative. stop building (4) squared (stones) (4) VnaKai wall (1) (hithpaal) to prophesy. Suffixes on the Participle: In BA. Vocabulary: exactly. The sole occurrence in BA has a KethibQere variation as follows: 'q. act as a prophet 7. without any helping vowel. "^v. administration.

although many words so considered may actually go back to a common Proto-Semitic source. Borrowings from Accadian and Persian are most frequently connected with governmental or political administration. type. Careful distinction should be made between the Aramaic type and the Proto-Semitic type. Recognition of Noun Types: It is essential t h a t the student have some knowledge of the phonology of the language involved in order to recognize n o u n types (see Lesson I). having definite patterns of vocalization of the same basic root. Since nouns in the various Semitic languages are generally triconsonantal. due recognition must be given to the rich heritage which that language possesses. . There are some advantages in classifying nouns in this maimer. Accadian. it abounds in other words from these and other languages. it is possible to classify nouns according to the modifications (both consonantal and vocalic) which they undergo. especially in recognizing the meanings that some of these types have. it may be well to use this designation for this particular feature. is not employed by all grammarians to describe the distinction in formation of Semitic nouns. Definition of Noun Types: Although the same word. although other possible occurrences have been suggested. or other noun formations. a knowledge of other Semitic cognates of the word under discussion is quite helpful. In addition to the various Hebrew. The greater the number of Semitic languages in which such cognates occur. Borrowings from Hebrew are especially frequent in relation to religion or other Jewish institutions. In considering the noun types of BA. These cultural loan words occur more frequently in nouns than in verbs. Also it should be noted that no formal distinction will be made in the discussion between nouns. In addition. adjectives. the more accurate can be the classification into n o u n types. a few noun types are listed below. With this background in mind. Borrowings from Greek are certain only in the field of music. The latter is the basic type. and Persian proper names of persons and localities found in BA. 2.80 LESSON XVIII N O U N TYPES 1. it should be noted that this lesson dealing with n o u n types will be confined to those which are Semitic in origin (or at least have had a long history of Semitic usage). participles. F o r the sake of illustration.

but it has a pathah due t o the i (see 1 J). yet they may be considered rather certain due to their occurrence in Ugaritic. and does not refer t o types strictly BA unless specifically so indicated. where the Ugaritic forms are often identical with the so-called Proto-Semitic forms. Although these forms are hypothetically reconstructed. As a matter of fact. Example{s) niB>. In t h e third column is given the basic Proto-Semitic type of the noun in question. It actually makes no diflerence whether the feminine sufiix is present or not in BA. the third column above). A similar procedure could be used for any Semitic language. Hence Vpp is the Aramaic type of npp. Vpp Proto-Semitic type Proto-Semitic noun qatl qitl qattil qatil ba'Iu sipru qaddishu baniyu The few nouns given above are merely random examples. Table of Noun Types Occurring in BA: The table below lists the basic Proto-Semitic types (cf.aN Type Biconsonantal Nouns qal qil Common Use{s) nxa .81 Aramaic noun Vya -Ipp BT'Ti? Xia (owner) (book) (holy) (building) Aramaic type Vtsj? Vpp V'pp. By definition. some of the types happen to have no other examples in BA except feminine nouns. this is the form usually meant by t h e term type. In t h e first column the BA (or Hebrew or Accadian. there is a reconstructed Proto-Semitic form of the noun in question. then the type is given. any of t h e types below could have feminine nouns as well as masculine nouns.) noun is given. It should also be noted that some of these hypothetical Proto-Semitic forms are very similar to extant Arabic forms. in the fourth column. Conceivably. In t h e second column t h e basic consonants are used (VtJp from t h e standard paradigm) and the vocalization is that of t h e regular (or normal) Aramaic form of t h a t type.etc. and finally a common or general usage in BA (if any) is listed. t h e basic type is listed without it. 3. Finally. One or two BA words are listed as examples of the type in question.

nomen agentis) (the Pael infinitive of the strong verb) (the most common adjective type in BA) Nouns With More Than Three Consonants VV aa ]???1 "IBIDIP qalqal qatalal qataltal [reduplication of a biconsonantal stem] [reduplication of the final consonant of a triconsonantal stem] [reduplication of the final two consonants of a triconsonantal stem] .82 Example{s) Type Common Use(s) Biconsonantal Nouns (continued) 30 T qal qil qui Geminate Nouns qall qill qull naxjaj Triconsonantal Nouns •7573 IBD "in? naVs T \ : qatl qitl qutl qatal qatil qital qutul qatal qatil qatul (abstract noun) (passive participle of Lamedh He Class (adjective) [doubtful. passive participle of the strong verb) (feminine abstract noun) qitai trag DVS? T ari3.3n3 Tin? ne*?! IBS n3r)? qutal qatal qatil qatol qattal qittul qattal qattil (adjective. active participle of the strong verb {not a P-S type. very likely a Hebrew loan word] (abstract noun) (adjective.

1 and 2. In addition t o the above types. trace (2) — fortified place.g. and the feminine suffixes -ith and -Hth (see Lesson VII. b u t . Nouns Formed With Prefixes nariDN nVron ]3BJa nan?^ inn 'aqtal haqtal miqtal shaqtal (the Aphel infinitive of the strong verb) (the Haphel infinitive of the strong verb) (the Peal infinitive of the strong verb) (the Shaphel infinitive of the strong verb) [a noun formed by adding prefix / t o the verbal root *dawara] Nouns Formed With Suffixes These suffixes include the suffix n u n (pia). . etc. 4. class 9). Vocabulary: — place. fortress nTa (7) npa — (hithpaal) t o be investigated m ? — yet. the BA gentilic ending (""Vaa). roll (7) M e d i a .. see I D ) . Exercises: am — (peil) t o be given Chaldaean -except. 6:1-3. Db~}n. which will not be discussed here (e. BA has a few other types involving diphthongs. but nan — to sacrifice nan — sacrifice (of slain animals) (1) — record (4) 5. sees. etc. Mede(s) nnp — to demolish ^ns . DV. the ending holem with waw (iVa).83 True quadriliterals include such words as rans. yet inV- nVsa — scroll. decision (9) pri8^ — sixty Translate Ezra 5:12-17.breadth (4) will.

sec. is simply one of several groups so designated simply for convenience in learning the declension of BA nouns. for the emphatic singular is formed by adding the BA determinate ending N_. 2. F o r example. so the singular will be discussed in greater detail below. Confusion of Similar Noun Classes: In order to prevent confusion between nouns that have many similar forms. i p p and i n i have identical formations in the singular of the absolute state. The nouns of this class are of the three types. This vowel is usually an e written _. 2 below). and the form of the same noun in BA may differ considerably from the original. For example. In such cases the original noun type determines to which noun class the word in question belongs. but when a laryngeal or resh is present it becomes _ (see I J). sec. Being monosyllabic in formation. qitl.to the type stem. The confusion between these two classes of nouns is largely confined to the singular rather than the plural. a clear distinction must be made between noun types (see Lesson XVIIl) and noun classes (see Lesson VII).. the former belongs to Class 1 and the latter to Class 2 (Lesson VII. they are often called the nouns of shortest formation. This . qatl. 2). Classes 1 and 2 of nouns (see Lesson Vll) may be rather easily confused. on the other hand. Because nouns having certain similarities in their modifications due to declension are rather arbitrarily grouped together in a class. and qutl. Nouns Belonging to Class 1: In this class are grouped all the nouns of the so-called "segholate" formation (the name is derived from the BH noun class. refers to the basic Proto-Semitic stem. The absolute (also the construct) form is developed from the stem by the insertion of a secondary (helping) vowel between the two final consonants. The term class. for they have several forms which are similar or even identical to each other. the former is a q i t l type and the latter a qatal type (Lesson XVIII. it is possible t h a t one noun class in BA may include two or even more types of nouns. Class 1 of nouns includes all BA nouns belonging to three basic types (see sec. The emphatic state usually reveals clearly the Proto-Semitic type. Hence. The designation type. 3). where the presence of the seghol is common).84 LESSON X I X S I M I L A R N O U N CLASSES 1. However.

In t h e absolute (also the construct) form. of nine possible types: qatal. The plural of these nouns causes no particular difficulty. however. qutal. Even this. xnni is formed exactly like sVya in the emphatic state singular. Even then. as long as the student keeps in mind t h a t the plural stem of the "segholate" nouns is metaplastic. As was pointed o u t previously. qatil (in BA all occurrences have a due to a final laryngeal or resh). etymology is t h e only real solution t o the problem. The development of these types of noun differs in the singular of the emphatic state. As a matter of fact. however. qatil. nni plus N _ > « n r i 3 > N"i?t3 [I L] > xnri? [i M] 4. F o r this reason. qutil. t h e results are quite uncertain.85 secondary vowel attracts the accent t o it. and the pretonic syllable is subsequently reduced t o shewa (see 1 A). if there are only a few cognates. A few examples will serve t o show this development. A single example will suffice to illustrate these two main developments. However. 3). 5. in BA only forms with a in the final syllable occur with certainty. and so it becomes a shewa (see I L). qitil. xipp 3. however. the second vowel. Here. qatul. the original types include qatal. qutul. qitul. F o r example. or an / changed to an a where necessary in the presence of a laryngeal). xVya l a y > nay > nay [I A and M ] . The student must become acquainted with t h e cognate forms in other Semitic languages in order t o be able t o distinguish correctly between these two classes. -in3> ini [I A ] . Nouns Belonging to Class 2: The nouns grouped together in Class 2 are dissyllabic. not the first. snay • i B p > -IDO [I J] > nap [I A ] . does n o t help in distinguishing between nouns of Class 1 and nouns of Class 2. however. the accented second vowel is retained (either an original a. but the pretonic vowel is reduced t o shewa. and qital (see Lesson XVIII. sec. for the latter resemble t h e former in t h e emphatic state as well as in the absolute state. or n o cognates at all. t h e emphatic state of nouns belonging t o Class 1 will indicate the noun type t o which they belong. qital. however. This means t h a t though the roots of the singular and of the plural . is pretonic. Distinguishing Between Similar Noun Classes: When a form like -ipp is compared with one like nni it is easy t o see how they can be confused as to noun class. VV? > "7»3 > Vra [I A ] . Similar Noun Classes in the Plural: The above discussion has been confined to t h e singular.

the final forms of t h e plural of nouns belonging to Class 1 are indistinguishable from t h e plural of those belonging t o Class 2. sec. > offer p'llT — far (4) t o leave (behind) niVsj — burnt-offering (4) 7.expense (7) (haphel) t o bring near. t h e stem of the plural is dissyllabic. Vocabulary: 6. ruin(s) (9) riches (2) nimi — incense (4) nw — (hithpeel) t o be pulled out np?? . ]i3*ini which is here treated as though its stem were nahr (on a n analogy with t h e segholates). but the plural stem is malak.86 contain t h e same three basic consonants.. the stems are different types. This is true in B H as well as in B A : e. instead of mhar as it really is (see Lesson VII. Exercises: Translate Ezra 6:4-11.refuse-heap. The stem of t h e singular is monosyllabic. 2).g. •IBS — lamb (3) IDf — r a m (2) »)pT — t o impale ran — new *1Bn — wine (1) nntf^n — need (7) — w o r d . Consequently. but t h e plural stem is sipar. t h e singular stem is sipr. .. Likewise. t h e singular stem is malk. order (3) «nB — (hithpeel) t o be impaled (on a stake) — (anointing) oil (1) tjail — layer (of stones or wood) (')iVii . the similar formation of t h e nouns of these two classes leads t o analogous forms when t h e suflBxes are a d d e d : e.g.

Conversely." " a myriad.] 10 mfes? [12] n t o . as in B H . there is so-called "chiastic concord" in the numerals from three t o ten.in the absolute state. Uses of the Cardinal Numerals: In BA. also have the apparently . The masculine numbers ending in n . The masculine number " t w o " occurs in the construct s t a t e : n n ." is used for 10.] The word i 3 . Masculine Feminine Common 1 2 3 4 nn p. The table of numerals below will be confined t o the absolute state of numbers actually occurring in BA. the entire system of cardinal numerals can be reconstructed with some degree of certainty by analogy with those forms which do occur.n n [etc. Presumably the feminine pnnn also h a d a construct state formed analogously. 2.n nnVn n»a"|S "in nVn T : 20 30 60 [62] 100 200 400 1000 nxa » 3 n « T I I - rn?^ nxa T . " A thousand t h o u s a n d " is ppVs fjVs [the M T has the Hebraism—final mem for final nun].87 LESSON X X THE NUMERALS 1.000. The Cardinal Numerals: Although the limited a m o u n t of BA literature leaves many gaps in the attested forms of the numerical systems.| " a large multitude. " T e n thousand times ten t h o u s a n d " is pan i3"i. That means that the numerals which are apparently feminine in form (with the usual feminine ending n—) are used with masculine nouns. ssnx ntf 37317 6 7 nnir^ nsaa* [120] p a w i nN!? [etc. the numerals apparently masculine in form are used with feminine nouns.

Also. 6:3[2]). Standard Numerical Formulas: The formula for dating events by the reign of a king employs t h e following p a t t e r n : niDVaV pr)"iri ny0 " t h e second year of the reign of x " (Ezra 4:24). 3)." "altogether. either preceding or following t h e nouns they modify. sec. It is used with t h e preposition D t o mean "together. as well as adjectivally: pma in " o n e of t h e m " or " t h e first of t h e m " ( D a n . 3:23). "(as) a son of 62 ye'ars"] (DanV 6:i[5:31]). I t is used t o stress or emphasize t h e indetermination of a noun (see Lesson II. The formula used t o express multiplication is as follows: nyat£>"nn "seven times" ( D a n . " a division"] (Dan. t h e n o u n is in t h e plural. " T h o u s a n d " occurs in the construct s t a t e : The construct state of the numbers occurs only infrequently in BA. in such cases being used with the pronominal suffixes: jinriVri " t h e t h r e e of t h e m " ( D a n . •>_. The Ordinal Numerals: I n BA t h e ordinal numbers (except "second") are formed with t h e same ending. 7:25). sec.88 feminine construct ending ri— in the construct state. 3. 2:35). the numbers can be used with pronouns instead of nouns. The formula used for indicating the day of the m o n t h is as follows: H T V nnVri DV " t h e third day of the month x " (Ezra 6:15). nnn njp'Vn njva-i . 4. The fraction "one-half" is indicated by t h e use of t h e noun SVB [lit. In t h e former case t h e noun is in the singular. 3 below). T h e n u m b e r " o n e " is used as a noun. 3). It is also used t o express multiplication (see sec." or "completely": nitn? (Dan. 3:19). The numbers are usually used with nouns adjectivally. Masculine first second third fourth pin -p-'Vn •'S'an Feminine ma-rp. " T h o u s a n d " also occurs in the emphatic state: NsVx. I t is debatable whether or n o t other fractions actually occur in BA. in t h e latter. t h a t is used for gentilic nouns (see Lesson II. The standard formula used t o express t h e age of a person is as follows: prinni pna^ \<X0 1 3 ( 3 ) "(approximately) 62 years o l d " [lit.

5. 2:7).89 The ordinal numbers occur in the emphatic state. Exercises: . nnn nxpn — sin-offering naan — dedication (7) T : V nsna — prophecy. — he-goat (4) oatf^ — tribe (1) pa? — (pael) t o cause to dwell m — six — two [ m a s c ] 6. Vocabulary: T — exile (9) damage joy (7) — number (3) Van — (pael) to hurt. as well as the absolute state. The apparent feminine construct ending ni_ on the number "second" is actually an adverbial ending: mi^in " a g a i n " or "for the second t i m e " (Dan. division (of Levites) (8) Translate! Ezra 6:12-18. destroy. sying (7) tS — goat (5) > prophe- niVs — division (of priests) (7) T B S — — — npVr"? — month (1) Levite (pael) to overthrow course.

3 f. pi. pi.90 PARADIGMS 1. anan anan anas anan. The Regular (Strong) Verb: Perfect Person 3 m. sg. pa??. panpn. pi. ian?p. Peal Pael Haphel Aphel Hithpeel Hithpaal ana nan? nana nana nana !iana nana pnana «??na nana lana nana pnana xiana anan nanpn panan nanan lanan nanan pnanan Nianan anps nanpK nanaN anann nanppn panpnn nappnn lanapn nanpnn anann nappnn nanann nanann lanann nanapn nanpx lanax nanpK pngnas pnanpnn pnananri xjanas xjawnn xjanpnn Imperfect 3 m. pi. anann anann an^n^? panan. anan anan ana. pi. pi. 2 m. 1 c. sg. ana. anan. pi. 1 c. sg. sg. 3 f. 1 c. 3 m . anan. sg. panann an?ni pa^an anai panan anaj papann anam panan anai panpnn anan? Infinitive anai? nana nan?D nanaK nanann nanann . sg. 3 m. sg. 3 f. anann anann ananx i V pana. pi. 1 c. anann anann ananx pappn. ian?p. 2 m. l???n? ana. anan anan anas pan?. 2 m. sg. 3 f. 2 m.

pi. f. pi. m. The Hishtaphal imperfect is an^ritt^. sg. sg. f. sg. m.sg. 1 c. sg. f. anaa anana anaa na^na pyna lyna [In t h e derived conjugations t h e feminine singular and b o t h t h e masculine and t h e feminine plural of the passive participle are the same as in t h e active participle. m. pi.91 Imperative Person m.] Perfect Person 3 m. 3 f. etc. pi. sg. 2 m. etc. 2 m. Peal ana '?na lana Pael ana "ana lana Haphel anan 'anan lanan Aphel anaN -anax Hithpeel anann "•anapn lanann Hithpaal anann ••anann lanann lanaK Active Participle [Reflexive Participle in Hithpeel and Hithpaal] m. 1 c. sg. f. 3 m. f. 3 f. sg. pi. . sg. Peil a'na na'pa na'pa naTi la'na na'na fina'na sjyna Hophal anan ngnpn nanan nanan lana^i nanan pnanari Shaphel ana^ nan?^ n?naB> Hishtaphal anane^ nanar«f?n nanantf^ nana^ lana^ nanaef pnana^ Kianat? nanant^ii ian?nfn nan?ni?^n pnanane^ mm The Shaphel imperfect is a r i a ^ . ana nana fana nanaa pnaa l?naa ananxj nanan!? r???n? lananp anaa nappa r?naa !?naa anana nanana rananp lanana anana nananip panana lanana )m a^na Passive Participle m. pi. sg.pl.pl. pi.

Peal Haphel a'pn Polel nan Hithpolel nainpn etc. Pe Nun. 2 m. p i . sg. 3 m. pL 1 c. p i . 3 f. etc. pi. 3 m . pi. etc. etc. 3 f. Dipn Dipn • t a'P-Ol D'pnn Q'pnn naiT oainn. na'pn na'pn etc. mp^? riaip. sg. mp. p i . 2 m. 2 m.nap pnipj? «3ap pnxj'pn Imperfect 3 m. sg. pi. 3. 2 m. Pe Yodh. p i .92 2. lav. andPe Aleph Verbs: See Lesson XL Hollow Verbs: Ayin Waw and Ayin Yodh [for other forms see Lesson XII]. Peal OR nap. sg. n!?P. etc. Perfect Person 3 m. sg. 1 c. sg. 3 f. naainnn etc. Laryngeal Verbs: See Lesson X . 3 f. 4. sg. pa'ir pa'pai l»'pa: pa^yn pa'pqn a?™ m\ riaipn •ipi Infinitive °pa Dfea naain n^ai-inn njtnn . D-^jpn D'fen etc.q . «p. sg. 1 c. 1 c.

2 m. VS7K i"?» Ipnn Passive Active n-'pna nana etc. pnnn pnnn etc. 3 f. Imperfect 3 m.93 Imperative Person m. pi. sg. P'pn la-pri etc. sg.\ nW etc. sg. pi. sg. 1 c. m. sg. 2 m. Wip Participles Active m. p i . m. Hithaphel m etc. Geminate Verbs: Or Ayin Ayin Verbs [for other forms see Lesson XIII]. f. 1 c. etc.\ Ithpoel Dain(?st etc. na't? na'pna raT. aanna etc. 3 f sg. . sg. 5. Perfect Person 3 m.na Peal •?» Haphel pnn npnn etc. sg.sg. 2 m. pi. 3 m. 3 f pi. etc. sg. Hophal "?»n . iVin . 1 c. f sg. pi. nVy etc. f pi. sg. Haphel Vwri etc. Peal t3ip pip < Peal Haphel D'pri Polel nan Hithpolel Danpn etc.

3 f. 2 m. Lamedh Waw. -Vs. 2 m. pi. pi. sg. 3 m. Active Participle m. sg. sg. 3 f. 6.:i . pl. f-sg. Perfect Person 3 m. 1 c. pi. sg. pi. pi. 2 m.94 Person 3 m. Infinitive Peal Haphel Haphel Imperative m.33 n'jan nan' iw'ian K?^aD r^iann w^>n. 3 f. pi. m.sg. f. 1 c.i Peal nn Pael -53 Haphel •"jan n!?an n-ian Hithpeel -lann n!)3ni:» rfnpn n'lapi. pi.! rnnn nriann Hithpaal "Jann n!ia nngn? n'nnn n^ann i^anq n. >?» nV» pVy pina npjna rpnna Vsina etc. p i . sg. pi. m.i3nn iwrjanji m rria Ua nn jvria Kris n-ja r?a n. sg. Lamedh He Verbs: Original Lamedh Aleph. 1 c. and Lamedh Yodh [for other forms see Lesson XIV].

pi. saann xnnn xaanx ]iaar. pi. f. 1 c. -n -?? iaa -ian -?an iaan Participle Active Peal ]Passive Peal Active Pael Active Haphel Nian!? Person m. Hithpeel wana misna Hithpaal KHanp ri? m m m ":??na rsana T:»oa n. pa? itiaa ^3?nKl?n Nianri xnnri i<l!?^ wans linn. sg.3apn mnnn Imperative m. sg. sg.33na r3??9 riana . - n. 3 m. f sg. 2 m. pi. 2 m. 3 f sg. m. jiiann |ii?nn papn N3?fl3 f<3ani ^nam Infinitive mn TT - n-nn TT . sg. m.95 Imperfect Person Peal Pael Haphel Hithpeel Knm xasnn Nisnn KnnK Hithpaal xnn. 3 f pi. 1 c. pi. pi. 3 m.sg. f. sg.pl.

eagerly Vnv. The verbs without a designation as to conjugation are in the Peal (including statives). The abbreviations h/aph. god nVx these iVx behold! fVx these •riVx those. All the other conjugations are designated. those [ m a s c ] . in some instances there is some degree of uncertainty. indicate that the verbs in question occur in both the Haphel and the Aphel.. The abbreviation hithp. In these formations the characteristic vowel of the perfect (the vowel under the second consonant) is given. there is (are) •rax t o eat Vx n o t aVx Vx* these G o d .96 GLOSSARY In most instances where the singular of the absolute state of a noun is not attested in BA. except in the case of stative formations of the Peal conjugation. but gentilic nouns are given. The verbs are given without vocalization. h e a t VTX t o go ( t o or away) nx* brother nrnt?* riddle -inx* after n n x * end ax* ax* nax — — ]M nnJX pnx ]snwnx* yV'X ina-'X* •'ri"'X another satrap tree terrible existence.. In a few instances of extreme uncertainty the consonants are left without any vocalization in this glossary. However. The asterisic indicates that the exact form listed is unattested. [or] gone nrx t o light. or both the Hithpaal and the Ithpaal respectively. it may be restored with certainty. force xntx promulgated. (these) iVx thousand nax* cubit nax nation p x h a p h e l . father fruit t o perish haphel—to destroy.t o trust in l a x t o say. or h/ithpa. a r m . h/ithpe. N o proper names of persons or places are here listed. slay hophal—to be destroyed stone letter then T l x * threshing floor '^!^^^* counselor x n m x with zeal. command l a x * Iamb nnx pnx another (at) last nix I px they. both the Hithpeel and the Ithpeel. is used where it is extremely uncertain as to whether the attested formation is Hithpeel or Hithpaal.

> fire-offering — p a e l — t o search (eagerly). scatter nnis •"VpS* nns iVng '?n3 — hithpeel —(to be perplexed).t o wear out tax to build hithpeel—to be built sons [plural] building to become angry t o seek.[tradit. m i r a c l e nns — pns nns to come h a p h e l . sing. investigate nx* s i g n . b e o n t h e p o i n t o f . r u n great risk •qnS n33ns* npiK iVs ni3 — p3* pl3* 033 n5?3 "•pis* a n i n h a b i t a n t S?ns* e a r t h "•ViN* bottom earth pnS* S^N «]B*N pB^K* nnriB^K B>N* f o u n d a t i o n fire.t o bring (in) furnace place.] 3 in. knee duration. be d i s c o n t i n u e d . mankind y o u [masc. by (means of) E^'SS* b a d trS3 t o be displeasing t o t o trouble. t o e . > temple mind ms* nns p a e l . prayer Vys owner. among p o s i t i v e l y ?] finger discernment place. request. oppress. [eventually ? S?3SN* d i g i t .-beam??] revolt 1»3* petition. also beam nnS3 after Babylonian pael-to hurry pael-to frighten disperse. — p3 nrs VP3 ened. lord plain pael—to seek.3* •73 n'73 to spend the night house. > heart. fetter exactly.97 NiriiN pjN D3K we they. eagerly prohibition wood. those [fem. length of Uruk becoming > treasury. fortress nTa* fortified ^ 3 n. pi. be perplexed t o cease. call u p o n enchanter wall. vg-ps* f o u r pnK* purple n s behold! way lion fitting. > to hurry fright- — hithpaal—to be •"pIBK* a t i t l e o f o f f i c i a l s •"ponsN* a t i t l e o f o f f i c i a l s "•pnonpN* a t i t l e o f o f f i c i a l s DhBN storehouse.] y o u [masc.] IIDS «l-lSpN "IDS »N (]K b o n d . master t ] 1 8 * face triN man. trace nVi?3* npa — hithpaal-to be investigated son field na -la* . stop pael—to stop between.

council (of judgment) judge [tradit. concubine. den nniai* might man 13? na?* (mighty) m a n . [see p . break off decree. table. frighten . that. command. ? ? t o fear Vnn pael—to make afraid.] bear . (so) that gold a i * side. > a liquid measure nan to sacrifice n a n * sacrifice (of slain animals) pan to stick together ni31 ann «inn mn m a t t e r . midst nil pride 131?* treasurer -ITS t o determine (destiny > by astrology) h/ithpe. t h a t [masc] t h a t [com.98 rjia •qia — •q-ia* t o kneel t o bless p a e l . etc. justice. food.1 of. order. complete W treasure wing ons* bone 0 8 ^ * body ai which is. but n^a flesh n a * b a t h .—to be cut o u t . back pit. judges t h a t [fem.] ram linan* record record (book) pVn t o burn nan t o resemble n n this (is) [masc] Pi?n t o crush h/aph. etc. nn T law grass «nn* n a n ^ * judge n Kn an this [fem. that is t o dwell Bhn to tread down m n n * [tradit. 14] n t o judge n in* "T • right. lifetime arm »nn* decree.t o take into exile iVs* exile squared (stones) nas t o finish. perfume.t o bless knee D"13 yet.] V. judgment.—musical instrument] . warrior treasurer nns to cut down interior.—to crush in generation. determination m aphel—to stir u p TS* plaster wheel nVa t o reveal h a p h e l .—a proper name].

(for. damage fantasy (in a dream) hurry gift nan* nnan* companion companion one breast [fem.] ifinn* nVnann in mrj* rrpn joy new pael—to show.—to interpret white make known. whether either. or injury. t o see. Tit pt snt haphel—to tuously act nirq* T\^n* sight sin-oflfering sin living. ian •qiian* VJ •"ID they they [masc] [masc] necklace if.-to time. then.. exist to go [tradit. mn mn 1 a n d . |T* sort. majesty particle T>j* b r i g h t n e s s .) — r ntn > cautious presumplive (on). alive. tax glorify glory. perceive apparition. plexion) OT pt pt nap innocence hithp. crime. make k n o w n h/aph. etc. temple to go. singer or. h a p p e n .that palace. decide (pi.. > reach pael—to walk about aphel—to walk about toll. destroy.) life to live hithaphel-to subsist to tremble (on) 'yq* •«n mn . (pi. > shriek descendants impale kind nVian Van — hurtful act.99 n n Nn ns-Kn interrogative behold! e v e n as member pael-to he.] she. damage hurt. ap- pt to buy "ViJ]* ( w a r n e d ) . > com- ngnn« h i g h r o y a l official nnn* •nn xin mn •qin x'n Vs-'n ^Vn musical instrument naj* m u s i c i a n . pearance vision. music turn for strings. T>VT» pVT «]pT »nT small to wail. to seed. damage pael-to damage hithpaal—to be destroyed. that t o b e . agree. perish hurt.

restore t o life beast. . > be glad a? good nap* executioner. > earth heap of stones h a n d .t o finish. be finished a s . wanting h/aph. > to make a nest p a e l .t o bring s a p h e l . power h / a p h . or inspect) strength. army wise wisdom dream to pass (over).t o be added t o advise ithpaal—to take counsel together s h a p h e l . hungri(ly) pD* (wet) clay. claw npp* nnts to drive away 'Vsnp* a class of officials nip — h a p h e l . command. pass by a share in fury wine wheat dedication to show mercy (to) hithpaal—to implore.t o bring.t o be singed fasting(ly). lay. report (finger)nail.t o feed. > n n * hip aa^n to consider. h o p h a l .to occupy. (earthenware) Vp dew a p h e l . Jewish nim* or day aD' to be pleasing to be able.100 n-n nrn en V?? can na?n oVn iVn P"?n ton nwn* nsin* T\-: pn mpn pn non «)sn ann Dfann •qnn aphel —to let live.t o praise nr to know — h a p h e l . animal a p h e l .t o make known.pael—to make certain n^a:* dry — .t o be given — h i t h p e e l . be paid Jew. (repair.t o join together. lay. prevail sea rjp-. give to eat D5?P sense. make supplication deficient. bodyguard niB mountain aKc preserve land.t o seek shade. > respec ^TB^n* darkness nB^n t o be in need of nnttfn* need inB^n* need Vafn t o grind o n n t o seal P to be g o o d . advice. communicate a m to give — p e i l . . possess might molded clay hfaphel—to be harsh hophal—to be laid waste magician h i t h p a a l .t o be given.

101 well-established. order vessel scroll. according t o . sign of t h e accusative k V n o t . reliable. > meal. wear — h a p h e l . h a t ma lina* i t h p e e l . as soon as na here Vna to be able priest nja* window naa* talent whole. yet JO^ therefore [Heb. tie n b * k o r .t o assemble n j a * colleague silver 19? now niya and now nsa peil—to be bound ? a nxa ]TSB* naxa ]Na* nVia hundred balance word. dwell haphel—to settle. scription Vna wall Tn. a dry measure n^^'O* cap. exceedingly •p t o . cause t o dwell — pael—to bind. > firebrand T p ! * difficult. > language as.t o proclaim seat. (so) F Naia thus t2^a to assemble h i t h p a a l . roll . every because of VVa shaphel—to finish h i s h t a p h a l . extraordinary. honor month (the upper p a r t of the) thigh sign of the accusative t o sit. about nan? lie when.] •NV* Levite N I V * near. nothing A V * heart A A V * heart B#IAV* garment vflib t o be clothed with. document.t o be finished naa how! [exclamation] t h u s .t o be distressed herald na KOna h a p h e l . beside. with ANV (bread). honorable dignity. throne i-iji^a Chaldaean in- an' ana t o write ana writing.t o clothe (with) |JIV except. all. b u t . true to burn burning. for. feast N J N V concubine '<Yi* night NAV why? for what purpose? > lest yf?* tongue. firm.

stay hithpeel—to be impaled (on a stake) course. tribute nna • i n a * dwelling Media. affair nVa to eat salt. come u p o n .102 pael—to overthrow altar tax. Mede(s) nj-n!?* province. act as a prophet nsiai* prophecy. tribute understanding nia t o number pael—to appoint nnia (grain) offering nana* pljp number nas?a* work. reign.t o offer willingly. matter. bestow.t o check. > prophesying natai present. > be under obligation of loyalty nVa salt king counsel na>a' queen laViS kingship. > on account of light light illumination (of mind) river t o flee . in the direction of nil* brightness ana h i t h p a a l . > banquet nina* gift hithpaal-to prophesy. entering). out of. lamp (stand) nil t o flow nil towards. [with " s u n " ] > sunset tna lord m a * rebellious TT nna rebellion ana p e i l . than since mina nnja tax. t o w n . happen t o to fill sVa hithpeel-tobefilled(with) angel nV)? word. prevent. be willing layer (of stones or wood) t o flee nni nni nini* Trii* iTni "ini mi xai (sheath > body). a t t a i n . city ' n a what ? that which nia death ]iTa food Hna t o smite p a e l . deed nya* belly (going. division (of npVna* Levites) «»a t o reach. gift N-ai* prophet nir^nai* candlestick. kingdom VVa pael—to speak who? ' T I P whoever from. flute xriB?a* drinking.t o be plucked out n^a (anointing) oil aaap* bed psto* abode •'i?in?'a* pipe.

[cloak? sers?] h i g h official to demolish pael-to hide troubring. > preserve h o p h a l — t o be deposed t o lift u p peil . scribe •jjDl* l i b a t i o n nap* npp Vanp* •!]np* nno nno naSJ* nsi Vsi Xpi B^pl Niw hithpaal-to oneself h/aph.t o take away still.t o p o u r o u t .t o shake o f f . aid secretary. annihilate end to go (come) take up up up haphel-to hophal—to clerk. hardness distinguish t^io p"?D — — nVD be lifted pael—to help. > year depart h a p h e l .-to pure rescue. carry a w a y . until t o g o . ofi"er t o fall ( d o w n ) to go out haphel—to take (out) expense firmness. be done to knock together t o take. (one nv nns? "QTtpi* d e c r e e . service the opposite bank u n t o . deliver nas? lift to d o . up — h i t h p a a l . leopard h i t h p e e l . m a k e h i t h p e e l . administration. toil. pass a w a y .t o be made. ruin(s) fire to come to grief haphel-to damage nao niD ]lp» niD n.103 WiVll TU pn — B?m nm — — bvi — nw DDI* naj noi •!|D1 "7D3 pDl — npDl* refuse-heap.t o be pulled o u t p a e l .-to deposit Vao poel-to to intend to pay homage to governor t o shut bagpipe(?) t o be fulfilled aphel—to put an end to.t o be lifted u p t o keep nimi* i n c e n s e riches panther. vulture official d o c u m e n t servant. bronze to come down h/aph. book a garment. turned servant into. pni* ]n3 nni sanctuary who t o give is g i v e n ) nis? tjis? a p h e l .t o rise u p a g a i n s t nras?* work. yet iniquity bird •pm* w o m e n [ p l u r a l ] naitfl* na^l breath ( o f life) eagle. lay. time.iSp1D r\^0 — copper.

Persian(s) t o c o m m u t e .y r o o t i y * adversary ana p a e l . > angel (up)on.to be plucked o u t ip. over. advice eye Tiy» wild ass niny* nakedness. worship (God) (divine) service OS m o u t h o p a part of the h a n d .-halfmina] -D-JB* Persia. ancient TV (awake). against. decree nnB t o open JVB peil—to be open.to bring in — hophal—to be brought in oVy eternity. ground for acT • cusation burnt-offering • V * superior. shame a^y herbs. over pretext. remove pael—to separate copy t o interpret pael—to interpret interpretation •jnp word. [tradit. [palm? back? all below wrist?] stringed instrument V n ? iron C I S peil—to be divided o n p half-shekel. be opened breadth .t o mix — h i t h p a a l . enter — haphel .104 chaff TV* goat npW* signet-ring nos? counsel. poor ]iy* cloud «]iy» bough. > watcher. nation ay (along) with p'ay* deep nay wool lUS t o answer niy* miserable. grass nfey ten ptoy ne^S? Tny* p'py twenty peil—to intend ready (to) old. [coat? trou- sers?] t o divide half division (of priests) t o serve. remote time ••aVy* Elamite vbv* rib oy people. concerning na-Vs? why ? wherefore ? above. the Most "y High ••Vy* roof-chamber frba* t h e Most High V?a t o go in.t o mingle n n s * governor i n ? potter arpB* a garment. branch B^jy fine [a legal term] ' p y * foliage a'Sy sad ip» i thpeel . highest.

> righteousness neck pael-to per. m rage foot Vjn* . t o w n . (be shouted) hithpeel-to be called t o draw near.t o irritate. m a k e angry Pip. wish. curse v o i c e . heighten myriad. joint. formerly ^np* Dij*p .t o cut off e n d . — t o set up. establish h / a p h . [plural o f great multitude Vtjp ian ian "•yan* fia"^an» m h a p h e l . city horn piece truth nip t]Sp «]Sp I'Sp nsp xnp — xns* T np-fS nsis* mVs nVs nes* anp nnp* pp pael-to receive before. former tt^xn head. — to (cause to) prosprogress s t a t u e . b i g . an] grandees. image bird T B S * he-goat J wet h i t h p a a l — t o be wet onmp Vp Vp enduring.105 Djj? nns US S3S — ns to desire. sound to buy t o be(come) furious wrath p a e l . become Dip t o rise. (sure) zither insolence. desire pael—to side true (right-doing). endure p a e l — t o set up.t o be killed h i t h p a a l .t o be set u p t o kill p e i l . establish h o p h a l . wish. like matter. make h/aph. DVS pray — anp — — fare well. chief grow great p a e l — t o make g r e a t .t o bring near. found. because holy before former t i m e . greatness fourth lords. t h i n g .t o be killed p a e l . part t o call ( o u t ) . approach > p a e l — t o offer h a p h e l .t o be killed knot. nobles. read peil-to be read.t o kill h i t h p e e l . task summer statute > difl&cult great. an nan — to chief (up). offer war village. appoint. s t a n d .a i P * first.

make. m a n y .t o consider unVpB^ insight WiP t o hate 1VV hair — n p'>ni* far flpni compassion(s) h i t h p e e l . be finished nSB? h a p h e l . be high. spirit o n to rise. es" !? tablish an inhabitant of Susa.t o find — hithpeel—to be found VVaa? [see'7'73] t o dwell — l"?^ pael—to cause to dwell negligence n"?(^ ( t o be) at ease.to be thrown hithpeel—to be thrown will. lay.t o praise. [adverb] very n n ^ * witness.#* t o ask. decision thought flourishing t o crush pael—to crush t o tread down t o write. testimony ipfc side D "! t o place. much. [plural] elders KD3t* stringed i n s t r u m e n t . (storm in) n * appearance n n wind.t o be left. 4 strings) ^afe t o grow great K^iiD great.106 tr*n haphel—to throng i n . impose (a tax) peil . > require question. place. pass on to tr*31£> hithpaal—to be perplexed nbit* concubine 11^ hithpaal—to strive niltf — — t o be like pael —to make like hithpaal —to be made (like) wall — — — !|S?n* •fcai* yiVl VVI — OB") Oftil -^if^* h o a r y . (exalt) h i t h p o l e l . requirement rest.t o praise tribe flame seven p3ir^ t o leave (behind) h i t h p e e l . remainder p a e l . carefree niVB>* prosperity . be haughty a p h e l . heighten p o l e l . (triangular. Susanian mP t o spoil sr?* t o rescue N'S'tJ t o finish.t o raise.t o trust in smell to t h r o w . inscribe VNE^ nbvm* -)XB# nyo D3i. > be made VsiP h i t h p a a l .t o rise u p (against) height secret hithaphel —to be p u t .

[as a salutation] hail name Tot h a p h e l . be different — pael—to change . am t o r e t u r n duration). (short space of time) DDB> t o judge T B t t > fair. answer m n t o be amazed. it is allowed peil—to be finished haphel-to complete. annihilate ]?aB>» heaven. > dwell p a e l . seem good l ^ n B a ^ * dawn third p a r t .t o begin hithpaal—to be loosened. [lit. again •. finish.t o serve Vtpt* sun ift* t o o t h ot pt* nit — — leg t o loosen.to alter.—to humble.—a r o o t ing o u t ] r\t six nnt t o drink fFit sixty nan to break T i n * (encircling. sky oat i t h p o e l . bull nin* ninn u n d e r sVn snow ••niVri* t h i r d n V n three Nn"?n nitt* t o be changed. humiliate Vptf low. deliver (completely) welfare. [tradit. have power over haphel—to make ruler over dominion IbVi?* high official mighty. officer.t o obey Vhit p a e l .—third in rank] thirty there n a n * wonder second nan nii^in a second time. be frightened ox. mighty Vpn peil—to b e weighed Vpn shekel . deliver. > violate — h/ithpa.t o destroy.nDn* police officer.107 to send t o rule. humble IBt t o please.—to be changed rat* year niB^* sleep nvt moment. > shake ttt* r o o t ytit b a n i s h m e n t . [with a] continually h/aphel—to give back. > violate — haphel . beautiful bot h/aph. magistrate Tp??* s t r o n g .t o be appalled s?atf t o hear — h i t h p a a l .

] . gate prinn two [fem. become strong pael—to make stringent.108 pn tjppi — hophal—to be reestablished to be strong. m o u t h . enforce *]pri strength r^pri* s t r e n g t h p"iri* two [ m a s c ] VIFi* doorkeeper »nri d o o r .

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