com Website: www. F A X : 269-471-6224 Emai 1: info@andrewsuniversitypress.6 1 3 4 .4 7 1 .andrewsuniversitypress.com All rights reserved. MI 4 9 1 0 4 . Johns Copyright © 1 9 6 6 by A n d r e w s University Copyright © 1 9 7 2 Revised Edition by A n d r e w s University Press A n d r e w s University Press 213 Information Services Building Berrien Springs. Printed in the United States of America 07 06 05 04 03 13 12 11 10 9 ISBN 0-943872-74-X . N o part of this book may be used or reproduced in any m a n n e r without written permission from the publisher except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.1 7 0 0 Telephone: 2 6 9 .Copyright © 1 9 6 3 by Alger F.

This grammar was written on the basis of that assumption. only touching lightly the vast areas of other Aramaic languages and dialects. and frequent comparisons are drawn between the two languages. the author has been preparing this grammar in the English language to help meet the needs of such students.. the general framework of comparative Semitic studies has been utilized where it could aid in the understanding of Biblical Aramaic.. To reach this goal the grammar is concentrated on Biblical Aramaic. The textual basis of this grammar is Kittel's Biblia Hebraica. to Professor Joseph Fitzmyer. For many years several excellent and comprehensive grammars of Biblical Aramaic written in the German language have been in existence. S." However. yet the methodology of approach can vary greatly in different grammars. Whenever some grammatical term or usage common to both languages is usually covered thoroughly in a study of Hebrew grammar. the author freely acknowledges his indebtedness. For the last few years. for the two works are quite dilTerent in approach. only a short resume or explanation is given in this grammar for the sake of brevity.PREFACE The purpose of this grammar is to cover adequately. first. The goal has been to meet the needs of the typical theological seminary student. modified t o some extent by the . the essential elements of Biblical Aramaic. their full value has not been readily accessible to those seminary students who are more facile in the classical languages than in the modern languages. the eighth edition (based on the third edition). The recent appearance of a good Aramaic grammar written in the English language has not been a deterrent to the completion of the project. and secondly. In addition. t o William Foxwell Albright. his esteemed professor in Semitic studies in general. however. It is almost an invariable rule that seminary students learn Hebrew before they begin a study of Biblical Aramaic. The vocabulary is progressively built u p by the use of simple exercises. in connection with his teaching program.J. yet as concisely as possible. the student is introduced to actual Biblical passages in the exercises. the methodology of approach has been simplified to better fulfill the purpose of meeting the needs of the seminary classroom. The basic structure of this grammar is that of the "Baltimore school. However.his teacher of Biblical Aramaic. While there is very little that can be presented in a work of this kind that is really new. As soon as possible. In this connection.

Horn and D r . A continuing demand at the present level can be met by the second edition for many years to come. November. December. Siegfried H. The examples illustrating the grammar have been chosen with special care to fall within the scope of the student's progressive understanding. It seemed advisable to issue the second printing in regular book form with cloth covers rather than to use once again an electro-photostatic process for printing and cardboard covers for binding. 1962. The second printing has presented an opportunity for correcting the misprints present in the original work as well as for making a few minor changes to clarify the text. Special thanks are due to the administration and board of Andrews University for their willingness to underwrite the additional outlay that this second printing entails. Running for their helpful suggestions and painstaking care in reading the proofs. 1965. It is our sincere hope that these improvements will help this grammar to fulfill more adequately its original purpose. Leona G. 1971 . In this connection the author wishes to express his deepest appreciation to his colleagues Dr. H o w could the books written partially in Aramaic occupy quite as high a spot in the canon as others written entirely in the " s a c r e d " language. It is an honor to be the first in a series entitled Andrews University Monographs. The first limited printing of this grammar was exhausted much more quickly than anticipated.VI vocabulary available at t h a t stage of study. Hebrew? December. However. although the author suspects the possibility (difficult to prove) that the earliest Masoretes or pre-Masoretic scribes were not quite as careful with the Aramaic portions of the Bible as with the Hebrew portions. this second edition has given opportunity for numerous minor corrections and a few major ones to be made. The demand for the first edition of this grammar was greater than either the author or the Andrews University Publications Committee anticipated and so the supply has been exhausted several years before we expected. Attention is focused on those forms which actually occur in Biblical Aramaic.

. P H O N O L O G Y O F BIBLICAL A R A M A I C . 6.Vll TABLE O F C O N T E N T S PREFACE TABLE O F C O N T E N T S I N T R O D U C T I O N T O BIBLICAL A R A M A I C 1. 5. 7. LESSON I. 8. 5. T h e Name Distribution of Semitic Languages Classification of Aramaic Languages and Dialects The Alphabet The Script The Tone The Vocabulary V vii 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 . 5. 7. Vocabulary Exercises . . 4. 5 5 6 7 8 8 The Development of Proto-Semitic Consonants Selected Phonetic Rules for Vowels Selected Phonetic Rules for Consonants Vocabulary Exercises LESSON II. 6. 9. 3. 1. . 2. 4. . 8. Biblical Occurrences 2. . . . 3. 3. . 1. 2. N O U N S A N D ADJECTIVES 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 Gender Number State Adjectival Modification The Construct Chain Uses of •? The Direct Object and n . 4.

Independent Personal Pronouns Uses of the Independent Personal Pronouns Pronominal Suffixes on Nouns Uses of the Pronominal Suffixes Vocabulary Exercises . . 3. 4. 3. 5. 7. The Conjugations Development of the Conjugations Stative Forms Conjugation of the Perfect Uses of the Perfect Vocabulary Exercises . 6. 2. INDEPENDENT PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND 12 12 12 13 14 14 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 SUFFIXES ON NOUNS 1. LESSON IV. 6. . 5. . T H E INFINITIVE. T H E VERBAL SYSTEM: T H E I M P E R F E C T . 7. Demonstrative Pronouns The Pronoun n Independent Possessive Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns Vocabulary Exercises LESSON V. Conjugation of the Imperfect Uses of the Imperfect The Infinitive The Imperative The Participles Uses of the Active Participle Uses of the Passive Participle 23 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 . 4. 4. 6. 2. ETC 1. 3. . T H E VERBAL S Y S T E M : T H E P E R F E C T 1. 19 19 19 20 20 21 22 22 LESSON VI. 3. O T H E R P R O N O U N S 1. 7. . 2. 5. 5. 4. 2.Vlll LESSON in. 6.

Pe Laryngeal Verbs 3. 5. Laryngeal Verbs 2. 2. . 3. 5. 7. Active Verb Forms With Passive Meanings The Copula Vocabulary Exercises . 4. T H E D E R I V E D ACTIVE C O N J U G A T I O N S 1. 4. 2. . CLASSES O F N O U N S 1. . . 6. . 7. Ayin Laryngeal Verbs 41 41 41 42 . 8. Systems of Classification Inflection of the First Nine Classes Nouns of Unique Formation Vocabulary Exercises 28 28 28 29 31 31 LESSON Vlll. 3. Principal Parts Regular and Irregular Verbs The Pael The Haphel The Aphel The Shaphel Vocabulary Exercises . 5. 4. T H E PASSIVE A N D REFLEXIVE C O N J U G A T I O N S 1.IX 8. . The Passive Conjugations The Reflexive Conjugations The Hithpeel The Hithpaal The Hishtaphal Vocabulary Exercises 37 37 38 38 39 40 40 40 LESSON X. 32 32 33 33 34 35 35 36 36 LESSON IX. 6. 11. 2. 3. 9. 26 26 27 27 LESSON Vll. 10. L A R Y N G E A L VERBS 1.

. PE Y O D H . 6.4. 6. 5. 4. 8. PE N U N . 8. . 7. 12. 5. The Hithpoel (Ithpoel) Conjugation 59 59 60 60 . 10. G E M I N A T E VERBS 1. 5. . Lamedh Laryngeal Verbs The Ithpeel Conjugation Verbs Doubly Laryngeal Vocabulary Exercises 43 44 45 45 45 LESSON XI. 3. Geminate (or Ayin Ayin) Verbs 2. . 8. 3. H O L L O W VERBS 1. 9. 2. 6. The Shaphel and Hishtaphal Conjugations 3. . 11. . 7. 47 47 48 48 48 49 50 50 51 52 52 52 52 LESSON XII. 5 6 56 57 57 57 57 58 . 10. Pe N u n Verbs Verbs Pe N u n and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe N u n and Lamedh Laryngeal Pe Yodh Verbs (Including Pe Waw) The Shaphel and Saphel Conjugations Verbs Pe Yodh and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh Laryngeal P e A l e p h Verbs Verbs Pe Aleph and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh Laryngeal Vocabulary Exercises . LESSON XIII. A N D PE A L E P H VERBS 1. 9. . 2. The Hollow Verbs Ayin Waw Verbs The Polel and Hithpolel Conjugations The Hithaphel (Hittaphel) Conjugation Ayin Y o d h Verbs Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Hollow Verbs Lamedh Laryngeal and Hollow Verbs Pe N u n and Hollow Vocabulary Exercises 54 54 54 55 . 7. 4.


4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Geminate Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Geminate Verbs Pe Nun and Geminate Vocabulary Exercises

60 61 62 62 62

LESSON XIV. L A M E D H H E VERBS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The Development of the Lamedh He Formations The Derived Conjugations of the Lamedh He Class Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh He Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Lamedh He Verbs Pe N u n and Lamedh He Vocabulary Exercises . . . . .

63 63 64 65 66 67 67 68

LESSON VERBS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.





IRREGULAR 69 69 69 69 70 70 70 72 73 73

Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh H e The Haphel Passive Conjugation Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh He Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal Pseudo-Geminate Verbs Other Irregular Verbs Vocabulary Exercises





LESSONXVI. VERBAL SUFFIXES: WITH T H E PERFECT 1. Verbal Suffixes 2. Formation of Suffixes on the Perfect 3. Table of Suffixes on the Perfect 4. The Suffixes on '•n-S 5. Vocabulary 6. Exercises



74 74 74 75 76 76 76


LESSON XVII. VERBAL S U F F I X E S : W I T H T H E I M P E R F E C T , THE INFINITIVE, ETC 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Formation of Suffixes on the Imperfect Table of Suffixes on the Imperfect Table of Suffixes on the Infinitive Table of Suffixes on the Imperative Suffixes on the Participle Vocabulary Exercises 77 77 77 78 79 79 79 79

LESSON XVIII. N O U N TYPES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Definition of Noun Types Recognition of Noun Types Table of N o u n Types Occurring in BA Vocabulary Exercises

80 80 80 81 83 83

LESSON XIX. S I M I L A R N O U N CLASSES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Confusion of Similar Noun Classes Nouns Belonging to Class 1 Nouns Belonging to Class 2 Distinguishing Between Similar Noun Classes Similar Noun Classes in the Plural Vocabulary Exercises

84 84 84 85 85 85 86 86 87 87 87 88 88 89 89 90 96





LESSON XX, T H E N U M E R A L S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Cardinal Numerals Uses of the Cardinal Numerals Standard Numerical Formulas The Ordinal Numerals Vocabulary Exercises


I N T R O D U C T I O N T O BIBLICAL A R A M A I C 1. Biblical Occurrences: In the Old Testament, Biblical Aramaic is found in five passages: Gen. 31:47; Jer. 10:11; Ezra 4:8 to 6:18; Ezra 7:12-26; and Dan. 2:4b to 7:28. 2. The Name: The name of the language " A r a m a i c , " is derived from the Hebrew word J T ' O ' i K (Ezra 4:7 and D a n . 2:4a). It was, of course, originally spoken by various Aramaean tribes for centuries before the time of the oldest inscriptions in "Old A r a m a i c " (which date to about the 10th century B . C . ) . As the Aramaeans moved into Assyria and Babylonia, their language gradually superseded Accadian as the lingua franca of the region, eventually becoming the official language of the Persian Empire. In this period it is spoken of as Reichsaramdisch or "Imperial A r a m a i c . " The Elephantine papyri, for example, are in Reichsaramdisch. Biblical Aramaic (hereafter abbreviated BA) is often also so classified, for the Achaemenid documents of Ezra are in Reichsaramdisch, and the language of the book of Daniel is closely related to it. Grammariansof the previous century called BA " C h a l d e e " or " C h a l d a e a n . " One reason for this is probably that excavations in Babylonia in that century focused attention on the Chaldaean (Neo-Babylonian) empire, and since the setting of the book of Daniel is at the height of that empire, it would be natural to use the name " C h a l d e e " or " C h a l d a e a n " for the non-Hebrew language of the book [cf. Dan. 1:4and 2:26 in the LXX]. However, this designation is no longer used, but only the name " A r a m a i c , " for after all, the language originated with the Aramaeans rather t h a n with the Chaldaeans.

3. I

Distribution of Semitic Languages: 11 Northeast Semitic (A) Accadian (1) Assyrian (2) Babylonian

Northwest Semitic (A) (B) Aramaic Canaanite (I) Ugaritic (2) Phoenician (3) Hebrew, etc.

Later Aramaic is usually classified as follows: I West Aramaic (A) Palestinian Jewish (1) Targumic (2) Jerusalem Talmudic Palestinian Christian Samaritan (Aramaic) Palmyrene Nabataean II East Aramaic (A) N o r t h (1) Syriac (a) East Syriac (Nestorian) (b) West Syriac (Jacobite) [Modern] (c) T o r a n i (d) Fellihi (2) [Some authorities place BA here] (B) South (1) Talmudic (Babylonian Talmud) (B) (Q (D) (E) .] IV Southeast Semitic (A) South Arabic (1) Qataban (Qatabanian) (2) Saba' (Sabaean) (3) M a ' i n (Minaean) (4) H a d r a m a u t [Modern] (5) Mahri (6) Soqotri (Soqotrian) (7) Sehauri. 4. " However. Modern Arabic has innumerable spoken dialects. Classification of Aramaic Languages and Dialects: Ancient Aramaic includes "Old Aramaic.I l l Southwest Semitic (A) Hejaz (B) Nejd (C) Qays (D) Yemen [Of these. (A) prevailed as classical (North) Arabic. The latter two are classified by most authorities under "West A r a m a i c . (B) Ethiopic [classical-Ge'ez] (1) Tigre (2) Tigriila (3) Amharic (official) (4) Gurage (5) H a r a r i . it is best not to make an east-west division at this early time." Reichsaramdisch. and BA. based on the writings of M o h a m m e d . etc. etc.

BA uses a final form of the following letters SBaJD making them appear as a t the end of words. As in most grammars of BH. 8. but they do include BA as well as BH. 7. The number in parentheses following . Consequently. The Alphabet: Tiie alphabet of BA. N o t in BA. the accent will not usually be marked in the vocabulary.(F) (G) (H) [Modern] Ma'lula Bah'a Jubba'din (2) Mandaean (a) M a n d a ' (b) Yada' (c) Gnostic 5. is composed of 22 consonants. for the so-called " s q u a r e " letters employed in the Hebrew scriptures were developed from the Old Aramaic and not the Old Hebrew script. the third person masculine singular of the perfect of the simplest form of the verb will be used for the vocabulary form of verbs. The Masoretes employed the same vowels for the BA portions of the OT as for the BH portions. There are only a few examples of this. A n alternate system is known as Babylonian vocalization. The names of the letters are the same as in Hebrew. BA and BH have the same fundamental rules of pronunciation. except in those cases where one of the root letters would thus be eliminated. this script is of Aramaic origin. The Tone: The tone or accent in BA generally follows the rules of accentuation of BH. just as it had long since been employed as the usual script for ordinary correspondence or other writing. Actually. In such cases. without any vowels. This script was taken over from Aramaic. and already by the beginning of the Christian era was in common use for copying the Scriptures. but in existence for B H are also a few examples of Palestinian vocalization and Yemenite vocalization. F o r purposes of simplification. with but minor exceptions. 6. Like Hebrew. BA has a comparatively small vocabulary. the three root letters alone will be given. and also for all verbs of the derived conjugations. The M T has the same accent markings in the BA portions as in the B H portions. like that of Biblical Hebrew (hereafter abbreviated BH). The Vocabulary: It will be recognized at once that with such a limited body of literature. The commonly used vowel system for the Masoretic text is the Tiberian vocalization. The Script: The script employed for BA is the same as t h a t used for BH. This is carried out in BA as well as B H .

according t o . out of. > a liquid measure (5) r'! . and are either identical or virtually identical in their meanings. every . (for. nought inb — therefore [Heb. against. over. nation (5. s t a n d . remainder (4) nr — day (4. nor necessarily so in the construct form. town. pi. about whole. sign of direct object N"? — n o t . > temple (10) 1 3 — field (3) — — ns — b a t h . etc. Tjnan' niVS/ etc.] na — w h a t ? that which — king (1) p — from.). then.right. by (means of) — D''? — house. a r m y (1) wisdom (7) Dbnn — magician (5) dew (5) p — t h u s . council (of judgment) (4) n — interrogative particle — he.) "n — living. city (10) PI? — horn (1) 3 T — great. establish nXB? — rest. — stone (1) — not — these — n s N — cubit (7. besides a host of others with but minor differences.the nouns or adjectives represents the noun class (which will be discussed in a subsequent lesson). until rV— e y e ( l ) — ( u p ) o n . lay. p i . they are by no means identical to BH in the plural. spirit (4) n ' t ? — t o place. justice.]) ? .g. alive. all. so the vowels in question have been omitted in the vocabularies (e. [as a noun] nothing. j u d g m e n t . big. that acn — s h e .) life (5) s t r e n g t h . for. [also 7 in pi. (pi. The following vocabulary is a representative (but by no means complete) list of common words which are identical to BH in the singular absolute form.a s . make. In a few instances it is impossible to determine with certainty the original form of the absolute state of certain nouns. However. chief (5.]) DS? — (along) with Dlf — to rise. (so) V — t o .10) n n — wind. [also 10 in pi. concerning D » — people. 5) — — also S73-JK — four n n x — lion (10) — 3 — i n . Those who have learned BH will find many words in BA identical to common BH words. than n m p — (grain) offering (7) IV — u n t o . endure n^P — village. t h a t 1 — a n d .

1 T Acc. i J Ug. Aram. ^ ( o r $ o r ^ ) . Accadian. . For "shin o n ^ " BH has iriVe*. z z Arab. as generally held by grammarians. Aramaic. This development can best be understood by comparing specific consonants in several of the principal Semitic languages. The Development of Proto-Semitic Consonants: Although the consonants of BA and BH developed generally along the same lines from their common Proto-Semitic origin. and Ethiopic as follows: PS 6. 6 (or 5). F o r "zayin o n e " BH has anj while BA has ari'T.LESSON I P H O N O L O G Y O F BIBLICAL A R A M A I C 1. while BA has nVri. and s when so pronounced become t.6 In BA 0 andft?were often used interchangeably. [Note t h a t a consonant is "velarized" or "glottalizcd" when there is a glottal catch at the same time the consonant is pronounced. d .] This development. ^ (or $ ["thorn"] or d). d z Eth.ir\\ etc.g s s 0 0 s s s s s § a" s s s s d 9.S z Heb. F o r "shin t w o " BH has ift?» and BA has ^ft?5? F o r "shin t h r e e " BH has pa?"? and BA has IB*"?. ? . yet in a few of the consonants there occurred important divergencies. d . Hebrew. Arabic. and both became s i n Syriac. Thus t . z z t h h s ?! S2 ?3 t s s s § t t § t t n ft? n n ft? t § t s § s s ?. is from Proto-Semitic to Ugaritic. z . The use of specific examples in comparison of BH and BA cognates may best illustrate these developments. 1X6^ etc. F o r "zayin t w o " BH has S ^ T a n d BA has S7*it. $ (or S) and §.

A pathah furtive is inserted between a heterogeneous long vowel and final h e t h or 'ayin.F o r " j a d e o n e " BH has pfes while BA has i D p . accented final syllables remains short and is not lengthened as it often is in B H : *kataba > 3 P 3 . A — Short vowels in a pretonic open syllable become shewa. B — C D E F — — — — G H — — . F o r "§ade t w o " BH and BA b o t h have »aSK. etc. After a laryngeal. (BH ni^. Vpj?. etc. Otherwise it is usually retained. unaccented syllable becomes seghol before a laryngeal. although there are also some similarities. If two unaccented. Otherwise it frequently becomes /. Though fallen together. I J K L M N — — — — — Short « in a closed. unaccented syllable is retained next to a laryngeal. accented syllable is either retained or becomes sere (this latter §ere is changed to seghol before a maqqeph). BA B^IN. etc. Short « in a closed. and are not lengthened as they often a r e i n B H : *kataba > a n s . etc. open. -— After the laryngeals he. and 'ayin at the end of an unaccented.) Short a in closed. heth. a p . Likewise in b o t h BA and BH n represents Proto-Semitic h and h . Short i in a closed. 2. Short a in a closed. (BH aaa^. Selected Phonetic Rules for Vowels: I n the treatment of vowels BA and BH developed along somewhat divergent lines.) The diphthong aw always becomes 6 in BA. " S a d e t h r e e " became j? in early Aramaic. etc. and 'ayin. Thus BH has while BA has » 8 [from »»] and for the BH f "^K. aiD. All short vowels become p a t h a h before final resh. and later became ». (BH tbilK. VDJ^. heth. the pretonic vowel is completely syncopated (becoming silent shewa). short vowels precede the tone or accent. the correct pronunciation is h. accented syllable becomes holem in nouns. etc. unless a doubled consonant follows. a reduced vowel is always a hateph (usually a hateph pathah). I n BA as in BH Proto-Semitic ghayin and 'ayin have fallen together and are written ».) The early Hebrew shift of a t o d under the accent or tone does not occur in BA. BA T\y^. Short /• in a closed. The first three of the following rules represent especially important differences between BA and BH. unaccented syllable is either retained or becomes qames hatuph. s and S7"1K. BA has b o t h p l . BA aaa^p.

the doubling of a consonant is sometimes resolved by a i followed by the consonant in question. etc.medial syllable. (I C). Doubled consonants before a shewa are simplified and the shewa is eliminated. if the doubled consonant occurs before a full vowel in other forms of the word. (I A). 1 — The n S S l U letters become spirants after a vowel. . 0 P — — In Tiberian vocalization there was an occasional pausal lengthening of a short vowel. b. never before heth (doubling is implicit). 2 3 4 5 — — — — A 1 is often assimilated t o a following consonant (even a laryngeal). always before aleph and resh. Selected Phonetic Rules for — Consonants: Q 3.for N_ and for Initial i becomes •'. in a final open syllable it becomes d. (I Q). once in BA before he. with the compensative lengthening of the preceding vowel: H_ > N_ and x _ > «_ [also written rt. (I 7).. corresponding t o the preceding vowel. 6 7 — — 8 — In subsequent lessons references to these phonetic rules in Lesson 1 will be abbreviated as follows: references to the rules for vowels. The diphthong % develops as follows: a. then the doubling is usually retained before the shewa also (by paradigmatic analogy). This aspirantization is retained even when the vowel which caused it is dropped. c. a hateph is inserted. Final doubled consonants are simplified t o single consonants. in a medial open syllable it is retained or becomes In B A t h e gentilic ending is v (rather than •>_ as in BH). d. in a closed primary-accented syllable it becomes b. in a closed secondary-accented syllable it becomes "•_. In compensation the preceding vowel may be lengthened as follows: a. Final s quiesces. Conversely. often before 'ayin. references to the rules for consonants (I 2). Laryngeals and resh are not doubled in BA. However. etc. c.

beam (4) digit. 4) t o return ox. Also for each word in the vocabulary list the letter or number of the phonetic rule or rules as given above which apply to that word.8) s?1>< — e a r t h (1) nx — sign. finger (2. pi. t o e . language (4) bed (3) prophet (10) river (2) t o give eternity. claw (2) an.bull(4) three there shekel (1) 5. sound (4) year (8. Vocabulary: man. miracle (4) ann — gold (2) generation. . remote time (3) ten to kill voice. mankind (4) wood. pi. lifetime (4) xni — grass(1) VD^n — palace. > descendants (1) a p — good (4) I B p — (finger) nail. dwell priest (3) r|03 — silver (1) — a3B*a — ifai — -ini — 1?? - •Vy — Vijj? — njf— ain — nin — nV^ — nan — tongue. temple (3) »•)! — seed.4. Point out the divergencies in the development of the consonants wherever this has occurred. Exercises: Write out the corresponding BH cognates of the words found in the vocabulary.' — t o sit.

State: In BA there are three states of the n o u n : absolute. pi. It corresponds to the BH noun (in the absolute state) with the definite article.LESSON II N O U N S A N D ADJECTIVES 1. dual. and like BH. construct. as in BH.. " F r o m these examples it will be noted t h a t in BA. but feminine nouns generally end in H . namely. and emphatic. absolute state construct state emphatic state king king of the king masc. pi. "the k i n g " : BH ^iVan. BA K3"p». that whereas the BH article is prepositive. Some grammarians prefer to state the matter in another way. some feminine nouns have masculine form. Gender: In BA nouns and adjectives have two genders.g. e. being (sometimes contracted to ]•>_)• Occurrences of the dual are rare in BA. are almost entirely confined to natural pairs. 3. " " e y e . The first two function like their BH counterparts and need little discussion. and plural. animal animal of the animal fem. However. the BA definite article is postpositive: e. Masculine nouns have no particular ending. The emphatic state always denotes determination in BA. 2. parts of the body which come in pairs are feminine. or i. sg. sg. the qattil and q^til types are generally used for adjectives. There is actually no formal distinction between nouns and adjectives in BA. masculine and feminine. The dual ending is somewhat similar to t h a t of BH. Nouns and adjectives are declined as follows: masc. As in BH.g.V . Number: Three numbers occur in BA: singular. absolute state construct state emphatic state kings kings of the kings fem. animals nvn T T " animals of the animals . lacking a specific feminine ending. T " h a n d .

etc. or even more). 2:29. the predicate adjective is always in the absolute state. and conversely.). a predicate adjective may occur either before or after the noun it modifies. as in B H . It also agrees with the noun in number and gender [actual grammatical gender and not form] and in state of determination. " Thus the predicate adjective will agree with the noun it modifies in number and gender. 5. However. 4.10 Note that the feminine plural construct ending n_ corresponds t o the BH ni_ (see I C). sna nrn " t h e animal(s) [collective] of the field" (Dan. A construct chain may be more t h a n two nouns (three. no matter how long the construct chain might be. . Because the emphatic state is determinate or definite it is used to indicate the vocative: KSVa may be " O k i n g " as well as " t h e k i n g " (e. D a n . or (3) when the nomen rectum is a proper name. Thus o'lB"':}^? " t h e king of Persia" (Ezra 4:24). (see I Q ) end in rather than K»_ in the emphatic state plural. Uses of V: When t h e last element of a genitive construction is determinate in one of the three ways discussed above (emphatic state. I n BA. the feminine ending n is sometimes spelled K .g. The original postpositive article tt is sometimes spelled n. the preposition V is used for this purpose: an Vx^ftr"? 'qV? " a great king of Israel" (Ezra 5:11). 2:38. 6.). but not necessarily in state of determination. a proper name). The Construct Chain: This is a combination of nouns peculiar t o Semitic. N o u n s with the gentilic ending i_. There are three constructions in which a construct chain is definite or determinate: (1) when the nomen rectum is in the emphatic state. Adjectival Modification: I n BA. etc. in which the first noun {nomen regens) is p u t in the construct state and the second (nomen rectum) is found in BA either in the absolute or in the emphatic state. The determination or indetermination of the last noun (nomen rectum) governs all the nouns of the construct chain. "king of k i n g s " ] . NsVa r f ? " t h e house of the k i n g " (Ezra 6:4). t h e first element can only remain indeterminate by employing a circumlocution. (2) when the nomen rectum is made determinate by a pronominal suffix. the adjective follows as closely as possible the noun it modifies. but all except the last must be in the construct state. 31. This is true whether it is used with some form of the verb " t o b e " or whether it occurs without the verb " t o b e . The state of the nomen rectum indicates the determination or indetermination of the whole construct chain. 4:9. upVa '^^9 " t h e king of the k i n g s " (Ezra 7:12) [usually rendered by the English idiom. with pronominal suflBx. Also. as in B H .

11 It is extremely important t o note that BA uses the preposition *? t o indicate the direct object. is attached directly t o the third person masculine plural pronominal suffix p r t . 6. The student of BA must determine syntactically by the context whether •? is expressing a direct object or an indirect object. purpose. In this one passage (Daniel 3:12). the one occurrence of the particle n. grass (1) iron (3) s t a t u e . make atos? — herbs. In this connection.heart (5) night (3) why? for what purpose? > lest 9.(see III.t o fall (down) i s p — book (1) ^ 3 » — t o d o . Vocabulary: father (10) god. used as the sign of the direct object should be mentioned (cf the usage of BH m). 8. chief (10) D ^ — name (10) 8^18^ — r o o t (1) rinri — under VnB — IT-ip. animal (7) T •• a ^ s n — wise (4) T — h a n d . prevail sign of the direct object n » 3 — how! a a * ? . Exercises: Translate the following: n x p — hundred • angel (3) naVa — queen (7) (pm — copper. in addition t o retaining the common uses for b (also found in BH) t o express the indirect object. above). 7. bronze (4) V s i . as well as being indicated by the use of the preposition "? (see sec. power (3) S ? T — to know by — to be able. > G o d (4) thousand (1) ni? — to build Vsja — owner. 3). The Direct Object and n \ In BA the direct object is often expressed by the noun (or pronoun) alone. sec. the ethical dative. lord (1) itoa — flesh (2) ")?? — man (1) n r n — beast. image (1) DV?bird (3) holy (4) I P S I — head. and direction.psVa (1) Nni-n nnair? xnas X ? T (4) NyiK*? nVx na» (e) "?» siax "jBi nipa (8) pnxa pnin (11) f B'?X (10) xaify ninn xnaa sin nij'? (13) an-] xa^s B>sn (3) Nn?'7a aH s w a n Vsa (5) Vn^ N f i x aaVi itoa S T (7) KjV^Va nNjaiVp^Cs) Kp-Bs"? n:a"? saVa nia (12) .

and conversely.] t h e t i m e " (idiomatic for "you are trying to gain t i m e " ) .) they (masc. n^S"! S i n . or n o t at all.12 LESSON III I N D E P E N D E N T P E R S O N A L P R O N O U N S A N D S U F F I X E S ON N O U N S 1. as in BH. b u t pas is found in both books. The third person of the independent pronoun can function as a copula.) they (fem. T h e first person singular occurs with t h e variant ending s _ . 2:47).. The form ian occurs only in Ezra and p a n only in Daniel.) [Qere] he she Person 1 2 3 3 vxmvi pniN p i s . and the others may occur in variant forms. Independent Personal Pronouns: In BA some of the independent personal pronouns occur infrequently. 2:8) and also pn?S s n v p33T " y o u are buying [part. 2:38). t h e first person plural occurs with the variant ending r i . (A) Uses of the Independent Personal Pronouns: The independent personal pronoun can be used as the subject of a verb or sentence n i s S?T " I know [participle]" (Dan. In BA.ian p3S Plural we you (masc. '•nnas i a n S j m s " w e are H i s servants" (Ezra 5:11). either for nouns or for other personal p r o n o u n s : pn"?S nVs Sin psnVs " y o u r G o d is a G o d of g o d s " (Dan.n ^ l S " y o u are the h e a d " ( D a n . (B) .]ian . 2. Those which d o occur in BA are as follows: Singular rm nWN Nin S-'H I you (masc.) N o t e t h a t there is n o occurrence of t h e second person feminine singular in BA.) [Kethib] you (masc. N o t e that one important grammatical case of Kethib-Qere occurs in the second person masculine singular of t h e independent personal pronouns. there are instances where the Masoretic tradition has modified that which was actually " w r i t t e n " (a'ris) in t h e consonantal text so t h a t it was t o be pronounced or " r e a d " (sij?) with a different vocalization.

3:22).13 The independent personal pronoun can be used t o emphasize a preceding suffix: njx •'lai " a n d I. (E) The third person plural is used t o express t h e object of a verb as well as the subject since there is no third person plural in BA for pronominal suffixes attached t o verbs: p a n bisp_ " i t killed t h e m " ( D a n . hence they are omitted in the paradigms below. sing. 2:32). b u t these are included in t h e paradigms for the sake of completeness. N o u n s in the Plural Masculine ••ai'' Feminine "•rirn •qnvn my animals your animals (masc. N o u n s in t h e Singular Masculine 'ar (C) Feminine 'nrn •!]av nar nar my day your day (masc.) their day (fem. pi.) their day (masc.) their animal (fem. (D) Occasionally the independent personal pronoun is used similarly t o an article in giving determination t o a noun.) his day "^nvn nrii"'n Niaipsai" pnav |nar her day our day your day (masc. "iSHDia: T 3 i a n a n ' " H e gave them i n t o t h e power of N e b u c h a d n e z z a r " (Ezra 5:12). sing. even m e " (Ezra 7:21). pi. on singular and plural nouns both. pi.) his animal her animal o u r animal your animal (masc.sing.) your days [Qere] his days her days [Kethib] her days [Qere] ••niai'' n^ai"nni- nnrn nrrn his animals her animals .and Dh_ for p 3 _ and pn_.) Also occurring are the alternate endings D D . pi. Pronominal Suffixes on Nouns: In BA there is n o occurrence of either feminine singular or feminine plural of t h e second person pronominal suffixes.) their animal (masc. but it comes before the noun rather t h a n after: x a b s Kin "//le s t a t u e " or " / / / a / s t a t u e " (Dan. There is also n o occurrence of some of the other forms attached t o feminine nouns. sing.) my days your days [Kethib] (masc. pi. even 1" or " a n d as for me. 3.) nr^n Kinrn pariDTl pnprn plivn my animal your animal (masc. pi.

) their days (fem.14 Kj^ar tdsv fD'ar ]in''ai'' Masculine (continued) o u r days [Kethib] o u r days [Qere] your days (masc.) Feminine (continued) our animals pDnrn pnnrn ]nnvn your animals (masc. for. (C) (E) Closely related t o t h e usages of the suffixes discussed in B and D above.] you [masc. c) conjunction: that. 4. This usage is frequent in expressions of t i m e : " a t t h a t t i m e " or " a t t h e same t i m e " (Ezra 5 : 3 . It anticipates. (B) They are attached directly t o prepositions.) The Qere forms of the suffixes on t h e masculine plural nouns are best explained as analogical extensions from those on the singular noun. that.pl. those [ m a s c ] pj^ — arilS — pBSK — 13 — p^l — they. aa is used rather than aa: " a t that hour (moment)" or " i n t h e same h o u r ( m o m e n t ) " (Dan.pl. pi. 3:7.). Vocabulary: 5. etc.pl. etc. in order t h a t .pl.) their days (masc. (D) The prospective pronominal suffix is common in BA. Uses of the Pronominal Suffixes: (A) They are most commonly used with nouns t o denote possession. " w h o in Jerusalem His a b o d e " ] (Ezra 7:15). with the meaning " t h a t " or " t h e s a m e " : Vxrina aa " i n that D a n i e l " or " i n the same Daniel" [lit. is their use in a demonstrative sense. den (5) "•'I— a) sign of the genitive: of. sing. The retrospective pronominal suffix is often found in a relative clause introduced by t o indicate case: nistpa nVehT'a '•n bxn&r nVxl? " t o t h e G o d of Israel wAoje abode is at Jerusalem" [lit. a phrase introduced by n which explains i t : ''riinjV is? X a > nVx-n " w e are t h e servants of the G o d of heaven" [lit. so t h a t . aiK-l fan — they. as in BH. " H i s »B servants" of t h e G o d of heaven"] (Ezra 5:11). D a n .) their animals (fem.) their animals (masc.pl. W i t h a feminine noun.] son [singular only] (3) sons [used in t h e plural] (4) as — p i t .pl. b) relative pronoun: which. etc. etc.). those [fem. 3:6. "in him. because. 5:12). as it were. . in Daniel"] ( D a n . 8.] you [masc. but other genitive relationships can also be expressed in this way. etc.

] p a n — they [masc] ]3T — t o buy an^ — t o give nin^ — Jew. Jewish ]3(?a — abode (3) 6. Exercises: Translate the following: women [plural] (10) servant (1) t i m e . > year (4) nv(pael) to kill t o t h r o w .15 ian — they [masc. impose na"! — (a tax) heaven. sky (4) X\T(^ pn-'ia pjx nan xninx aiVi (i) arnaxKpD-jnaiVBj? (2) Vsnr-V -la xin nwx (3) "niB^i"? Vpn Niqa an^ (4) K31 vmti aV^ 1 3 » niN (5) xaVa 'la pan loniK K»l^Tjp_'^pjS (6) •Vi^iTa n. place. xnia^ n x w a i ian pnix (7) (8) a-iaV X33t?^a wn x n a 1 3 1 (9) I-'PVX *f?^ pVpn a"? ari''a'? xa"-?!! a n n xiTsa (10) ana"? 1 3 1 3 T x n v as (11) .

4:32 [35]). it may be used with a retrospective pronominal suffix: ni?l?a D|?BhT3 n VxniT TibHb " t o t h e G o d of Israel wAoic abode is a t Jerusalem" (Ezra 7:15). the independent personal p r o n o u n s may be used as demonstratives (see III. 6:17)." . 2. n^-nbe nniN -"l r]n'?K " y o u r G o d whom you serve [participle]" ( D a n . and means " w h o . There is also one occurrence of t h e alternate fpH for fbVi. " etc." "whatever.16 LESSON IV OTHER PRONOUNS 1. n T ? xnip?-''l xVl " a n d there is none who can stay His p o w e r " ( D a n . Demonstrative Pronouns: In BA t h e following demonstrative pronouns may also be used substantivally or adjectivally: Masculine Singular nn this Common Plural nVx (n)"?N pVx these these these Feminine Singular NT this N o t e t h e Kethib-Qere situation in the sole occurrence of bvi. " "which. F o r example. " " h e w h o . this must be expressed either by a subsequent word or by t h e context. 2 D ) . It can be used as a relative pronoun. Because it does n o t denote case. The following demonstrative pronouns are always used adjectivally in BA: Masculine Singular rw that Common Singular P'l that Feminine Singular •q"! that Common Plural r\bvi those In addition t o these demonstrative pronouns in BA. it has a function both in t h e main clause and in t h e subordinate clause." " w h a t . •'•'I is an uninflected form that has a variety of uses in BA. " etc. As a simple relative it means " w h o ." " t h a t . The Pronoun •''i: Related t o t h e Arabic i ( " t h a t of" or "possessor o f " ) . " "whoever. As a compound relative. sec.

Indefinite Pronouns: Besides the indefinite relative pronouns discussed above. 4.] n n . Interrogative Pronouns: In BA there are two interrogative pronouns. (B) In BA the indefinite pronoun "73 or -Vs [from kull: see I G and I] is most frequently used adjectivally with the following meanings: (1) Before a determinate singular noun.] ^1that [masc] 1 ? 1 . 2:43). sometimes alone. there are other indefinite pronouns in BA: (A) The idea of " o n e a n o t h e r " is expressed in BA by the repetition of the demonstrative: n n .that [com. it means "every. but usually as a compound (indefinite) relative pronoun. there is (are) these fVx — these those. it often has the force of a subordinate conjunction. " XBppi 3. 2:20). Lesson III). existence." (2) Before an indeterminate singular noun. Lesson III): nnni ''T xn"?N"n''3 •'isa " t h e vessels of gold and silver of the T e m p l e " [liV. Independent Possessive Pronouns: In BA there are no separate independent possessive pronouns. whose exact meaning must be gathered from the context (see the vocabulary." (3) Before a plural noun. -JO " w h o ? " and n a " w h a t ? " The interrogative pronoun is sometimes used as a relative. The interrogative n a is also frequently compounded with various prepositions: n a ? " h o w ! " na"? "for what p u r p o s e ? " " w h y ? " and na-Vx? "wherefore?" " w h y ? " 5. " Vocabulary: this [fem.17 It can also be used to express the genitive (see the vocabulary. In this last function it is usually compounded with ''l-'pi "whoever" or "whosoever.] t h a t [fem.). Standing alone. it means " a l l ." " W h a t e v e r " is less frequently expressed in BA by either na or n alone. " " a s soon a s . (these) m i 3 j — might T .D » n n " w i t h one a n o t h e r " (Dan. " " t h e whole. but they may be formed by using the relative pronoun •"T followed by a pronominal suffix attached directly to the preposition "?: X-'n-n"? •'1 Krni3M xnaDn "wisdom and might are His" (Dan. It is also compounded with the preposition s : " w h e n . it means " a l l . "house of G o d " ] (Ezra 6:5." and •"ina "whatever.this (is) [ m a s c ] 6. It is often found in compound conjunctions.

| a i aa fB^Tj? faVx-nn (i) '•aVi? ufs nsx^pVa aattf-n "7N«3^ xjai?* aVx nV? (2) Niaa*? a n xixai s i .1*73 — when. prevent.x n r n xaVa ani aaV xjaDnn a n (3) ]iaa nVri f x n a a xrisi "733 NNn-NT xVa X3"?a'apn (4) (e) • j snniai n NB"?? s i a . worship (God) VV3 •"I a"?N N i a .N W N (5) ^V x n a s (7) Nia N»a»"!n an p i 'rxy'r (9) •jx N n n p a axa »3"IH! fIBB^JP ••ri''N (10) . stay 7. Exercises: Translate the following: p — n-ja — na-"7» — nVe — who? whoever why ? wherefore ? t o serve. as soon as ]«a — vessel (4) xna — (pael) t o check.

t h e Imperative. Others found in B H (e. Reflexive Hithpeel Hithpaal H o p h a l Vppn Hishtaphal Vppritfri Vppnn Vpp. however. Niphal. Active Simple System "Intensive" System Causative System Peal [Stative Pael Haphel Aphel Shaphel Voj? "rppj Vpp. Pual) d o n o t occur in BA. I n spite of these differences. 2. and the Participle(s). the verbal system of BA is basically similar t o that of B H .19 LESSON V T H E VERBAL S Y S T E M : T H E P E R F E C T 1. B). t h e Imperfect. (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > Vpp. •'?BpN> VpjPX (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > VppjN (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect t o the perfect) > VpplS. The Conjugations: In the verbal system of BA are found some conjugations which are either n o t used in BH. •'?ppn> 'rppn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > Vppn (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of t h e imperfect to t h e perfect) > "pppg (see I H ) . or occur only extremely infrequently. Other conjugations (not o n the above chart) will be discussed in subsequent chapters. (analogical extension of t h e characteristic vowel of t h e imperfect to t h e perfect) > "7Bp_ (see I H ) .g. btJjrn "jajptf: VppE* Peil Passive V^'Op.pn In BA most of the conjugations have the Perfect. Haphel: Aphel: *'?pp> "?pp (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > Vsp. B). . Development of the Conjugations: T h e development of t h e original Proto-Semitic conjugations into their BA forms is generally considered t o have occurred as follows: Peal: [Stative] Pael: •Vpp>Vpp (see I A and •'7Bp> Vpp (see I A and (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > "rpp. the Infinitive.

in BA they are restricted to the qatil type in t h e perfect. H o p h a l : *VBi?n > Vppn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > bppn (seeIG). as in BH. However.'' Hithpeel: •Vopnri > Vppnn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > VBpnn (see I A and B) > Vpjrnn (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect t o the perfect) > 'jBpnn (see I H ) .20 •Vpj?^ > "rpj?^ (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > bppv (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect t o the perfect). Hishtaphal: bpppnn > Vop^nn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > '?pj?riir'n (metathesis of t and n). t h e assimilation is complete. " 4. Peil: \>''0p (no original Proto-Semitic conjugation. Complete assimilation of n t o a following initial dental would also be expected in BA. as in BH. the so-called "statives" (which are such in form a t least) d o n o t necessarily present uniform correspondence between BA and B H (or other Semitic languages) as t o this characteristic vowel in t h e perfect: BA an^ " t o s i t ." although the usual non-stative u also occurs. This qatil type occurs with either _ or _ in the final syllable (see I H ) : i j p " t o pay homage ( t o ) . and t h e i is doubled. tip'. " h e will pay homage ( t o ) . " The characteristic vowel of the imperfect of the stative verbs is usually a: Vf^b". " h e will be clothed. 3. If the sibilant is a T . with no occurrences of the qatul type. but simply the use of the Peal Passive Participle as a finite verb with personal endings added to it). In BA. there occurs in certain of the derived conjugations the transposition of a n with a succeeding sibilant. t h o u g h there are no certain occurrences. " t o s i t . rather t h a n using the earlier bvt or t h e later VDJ? of BH grammarians. This transposition is usually called " m e t a t h e s i s . a p p r o a c h . t h e r may partially assimilate to a D. T h e Peal Perfect of the regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows: Shaphel: . If the sibilant is s . However. " b u t BH a^. Stative Forms: I n BA. " The Hishtaphal furnishes a good example of metathesis and it also occurs normally in t h e Hithpeel and Hithpaal of roots beginning with sibilants. these are distinguished from the active forms in t h e simple conjugation. H i t h p a a l : *b^p_r\rf > "?B|?nri (shift of accent and loss of final vowel). " These forms are called "stative" because they usually denote a state or condition. " anpj " t o draw near. Conjugation of the Perfect: I n BA most grammarians have found it convenient t o use ana for t h e paradigms.

The same variant endings may be found in the derived conjugations. Examples of the most common uses of the perfect are listed below: (A) (B) (C) Historical perfect: Vaa-Tiba nsnaiai r a ian an^ " H e gave them into the power of Nebuchadnezzar. Future: nsb T^TTi": Kjatp-Va ninn niaVa n sniani wpV^i nniaVai pi'Vy " a n d the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under all the heavens will be given t o t h e people of the saints of the Most H i g h " ( D a n .) 3 (fem. (D) (E) . his son. have not humbled your heart.) Plural lana nana jinana Xiana they wrote they wrote you wrote we wrote 3 (masc.21 Singular Active ana nans nana nana he wrote she wrote you wrote I wrote Person 3 (masc. 4:6[9]).) 2 (masc. 7:27).) lanj? nanj? iwanj? Niani? they approached they approached you approached we approached anp Stative he approached na"]i? she approached nanp nanj? you approached I approached The second person masculine singular also has the variant forms nnana and n a n a . 5.) 1 (com. Pluperfect: "la pBin i s n a w ? n x E p a i narji •'i snV^-n^a-n xjixa aVirnT'a "T xVa^n " t h e vessels of gold and silver of the house of G o d " which Nebuchadnezzar had taken out of the Temple which is at Jerusalem" (Ezra 5:14). Present: '^3 pirip.) 2 (masc. 5:22). Present perfect: njn-ba Vap'Va -qaaV ^btvT\ xV nsxB^'pa n n s nn?Nl n s T " b u t you. as in BH. pnVx rn'T''7 n S T njx "1 know t h a t the spirit of the holy gods is in y o u " (Dan.) 1 (com. and hence it may be translated by several different English tenses.) 3 (fem. Uses of the Perfect: In BA. the king of Babylon" (Ezra 5:12). O Belshazzar. t h e perfect can be used in a variety of relationships to the element of time. although you have known all t h i s " (Dan.

'p->Va ribpi (6) xabs •?» pN nan (s) N.air* nVx Kan snVH xifip (10) NBpai Nani Nian^ (3) Nynx'rsnan^ (5) N^N""?? fnVPi? (7) KVyn ]a ppi Nina (9) . Vocabulary: T-i^ — then because.22 6. approach greatness (9) lan — dominion (4) (haphel and aphel) to humble. document. although ana — t o write a n a . inscription (4) t o be clothed w i t h . because t o draw near. reign. humiliate 7. Exercises: Translate the following: n^aniat (1) nn-jiaia nVa: (4) s.writing. kingdom (9) p-«-r? . B>aV — wear wVa — kingship.since t o go out pDl — (haphel) to take (out) nip — to pay homage t o the Most High (4) before.

panan you will write we will write The first person singular may also have the variant form 2.23 LESSON VI T H E VERBAL SYSTEM: T H E I M P E R F E C T . E T C . Uses of the Imperfect: In BA. The Peal Imperfect of the regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows: Singular Active he will write she will write anan anai? Person 3 (masc. and He gives it to whomever He wishes'" (Dan. T H E I N F I N I T I V E . L Conjugation of the Imperfect: The so-called "characteristic vowel" [the vowel after the second r o o t consonant] of the imperfect is usually u. 2:39). in both languages its use is not confined to these meanings only.i N . 3).) 1 (com. the stative verbs have a more frequently than u as this characteristic vowel (see V.b a a tjVtt?n •'•7 "which will rule over the whole e a r t h " (Dan. the imperfect is used ordinarily with a present or future meaning.) 2 (masc. However.) Plural Stative he will approach she will approach you will approach I will approach you will write I will write pana? they will write they will write 3 (masc.) 1 (com.) 2 (masc.) 3 (fem. 4:22[25]). However. as in BH.' Present: au?^ N a s ^ V l ^ V i NB'JN maVaa N'Vv ti'Viy-n "until you know that the Most High is ruler [mighty] in the kingdom of men.) panpn they will approach they will approach you will approach we will approach aripK.) 3 (fem. Some of the most common uses of the imperfect in BA are as follows: (A) (B) F u t u r e : s y . . sec.

and thus BA does not have in this conjugation the distinction between the infinitive absolute and the infinitive construct found in BH.for t h e infinitive construct. The Peal Imperative forms occurring in BA are as follows (there is no attestation in BA of a feminine plural imperative): ana (masc. sec.is found on the infinitive construct forms t o which suflSxes are added.(see VIII. sing. Cohortative (volitive ideas): saVs "T n"'3-ja |nw "U "give [it] from the king's treasury" [lit. but does follow the feminine in having forms ending in r i . in a few instances there are occurrences of a Peal Infinitive in a weak verb without this preformative m e m : siaV " t o b u i l d " (Ezra 5:3. In most cases the form of the jussive is identical t o that of the imperfect.24 Past: this use usually follows a perfect t o indicate simultaneous action [it has no relationship t o the BH "waw consecutive. Thus t h e Peal Infinitive of the regular (strong) verb is aripa " t o w r i t e . Occasionally this latter form of the infinitive occurring without a suflSx is used in place of t h e usual infinitive construct form ending in n_. and usually has •? as t h e sign of the direct object (see II.) (C) . the jussive of the third person masculine plural may be indicated in weak verbs by the elision of the final n u n : nax. The object of the infinitive may come either before or after the infinitive itself. 1). the BA infinitive follows closely its BH counterpart. presumably corresponding t o the jussive rather than t o the imperfect.). 4:13[16]). However. " However.sing. 3. 10:11) [some prefer here the rendering. 4:17[20]). The endings are short. in which the infinitives have the apparently feminine ending r i . 4. " l e t them perish" (Jer. This ending is n o t a true feminine ending. "they will perish"]. 6). a!? ari'n." but occurs either with or without the attached w a w ] : N^DIPV xpa? nipni 1j?ni na"l 'T "which grew (up) and became strong and whose height reached t o the heavens" ( D a n . (D) Jussive. " t h e house of the treasures of the king"] (Ezra 7:20).' nvn aa"?1 " a n d let the heart of an animal be given t o h i m " ( D a n .) "-ana (fem. Optative..) ana (masc. this distinction is maintained in the derived conjugations. However. etc.pl. in these derived conjugations t h e ending n i . In usage. However. The Infinitive: In BA only one form of the infinitive is found in the Peal conjugation. sec. The Imperative: In the simple conjugation the imperative has the same characteristic vowel as t h e imperfect (see above). In t h e simple conjugation the infinitive is regularly distinguished by a preformative mem (the infinitives of the derived conjugations will be discussed subsequently).

They may be declined as any other noun or adjective. cannot be used with a negative. as in BH.) (fem. Past: (alone. the active participle is used to express virtually all of the same points of time as the imperfect.: "^''Trv.) f?'''^? jTriS (masc. or often with the imperfect of n i n ) : X"TfXi "qb V. this usage can be made emphatic by the addition of •'TpV. 5:19). (B) Present: aV-nVs r\xm •'T -^Thv. "your G o d whom you serve" ( D a n . Thus the use of the participle instead of'the imperfect is commonly found in all the Aramaic languages and dialects. sing.) (fem.? nxifl^a ppVa-Vy " t h a t town from days of old has risen up against kings" (Ezra 4:19). as a verb. The Participles: In BA. or with the perfect of 7\'\T\): NaVsJ n a i ' .'n Vna " a r e you really a b l e ? " ( D a n . and like its counterpart in BH. sing.pl.) (fem. However. 6:17). The Peal Passive Participle of the regular (strong) verb of BA is declined as follows: TTO HTriS (masc. The participle is commonly used for the following: (A) F u t u r e : (alone. 2:24).sing. The Peal Active Participle of the regular (strong) verb of BA is declined as follows: (3ri3)3ri3 (masc.) 6. which appears with either _ or _ in the final syllable (see I H). pi.) nsns The passive participle of the simple conjugation is the qatil type. In BA the active participle of the simple conjugation is an adjective type. pi. (C) . the participles are used both verbally and nominally.fi'A p i "and you will be driven ow/ from m a n k i n d " [lit. q&til. pi. sing. 5. killed" (Dan.) (fem. 2:26). "(they) will drive you o u t " ] (Dan. with the context determining the specific point of time. and it even filtered into post-Biblical Hebrew. The negative imperative is expressed by the use of "?s with the jussive (or with the ordinary imperfect if there is n o distinctly jussive form): n3inri"'?K V33 •'a-'Sn'? not destroy the wise men of Babylon" (Dan.p T]T Nnn. Uses of the Active Participle: The most common verbal use of the participle in BA is t o express present time.) psns ]3n3 (masc.25 In BA the imperative has the normal uses found in BH. As a noun or adjective the participle is timeless. 4:29[32]). Vpj? mn xas Nin-n "whom he wished.

. 6. This circumlocution for the passive is much more frequent in BA than in BH. (E) Its use (is) very common in the expression "answered and s a i d " or "answered. examples A and D ) . p a w i l S ? "they answered [peal perfect] and said" (Dan. c f an^na . Active Verb Forms With Passive Meanings: In BA a passive may be expressed by a sort of impersonal or indefinite subject with an active verb form.. 6:14[13]). the impersonal subject " t h e y " can be either expressed (as in finite verbs) or implied (as in participles). " with an active verb form. 8.tribute"] (Ezra 4:13). 2:22).. the indefinite or impersonal subject is expressed (or implied) in the plural. will be paid" [hithpeel] (Ezra 4:20). but the impersonal or indefinite subject " t h e y " is n o t expressed by a separate pronoun (see above.. A study of the examples will clarify this peculiarity of BA grammar. as " t h e y . nia "tribute . "they will give .. Uses of the Passive Participle: In B A t h e passive participle is frequently used as a predicate adjective (sometimes as an adjective of quality). The object of the active verb is then actually the subject... 7. and the verb should be translated as a passive.26 (D) Jussive: fSl\r\1? Qbb^ " a n d let it be known to y o u " [lit. niia "tribute .. (B) The active participle: when this type of passive is expressed by an active participle. but not necessarily so): naxi NaVa n?» " t h e king answered and said" ( D a n . The infinitive: as mentioned above. " a n d he commanded (them) t o destroy all the wise men of Babylon"] ( D a n . " t o build this house of G o d " ] (Ezra 5:13). "let (them) make (it) known t o you"] (Ezra 7:24). 2:12). I t is most frequently expressed either by juxtaposition of the subject . will be paid" [lit. saying" (usually both verbs are participles.. the participle is plural. (C) 9. but with the infinitive it must of necessity be implied: V D V rrjainV *1BN1 Vaa ''a"'ari " a n d he commanded t h a t all the wise men of Babylon be destroyed" [lit. The passive participle also may be used with the perfect of nin to express the pluperfect: n n Nin-n "which had been built" (Ezra 5:11). Usually. although a singular subject may occasionally be used. (A) The finite verb: the use of a finite verb in the third person masculine plural is the most common method of expressing this type of passive: pinr . The Copula: I n BA there are several ways in which the copula may be expressed. Occasionally it may be used t o express the active participle: N"iir is properly translated "dwelling" or "dwells" ( D a n .. sec. waV njT Nri"?N-rT'a "this house of God be built" [lit. 6:17[16]).

4). like n a n . tribute [also nn3a](7) to reach. 2 B).27 and predicate. Vocabulary: to perish (haphel) t o destroy. happen t o Translate the following: t o rise u p against — superior. exist mountain (4) to drive away (haphel) to make k n o w n . 10. communicate (hithpeel) t o be given.to desire. t h e Most High (10) njs? — to answer n a V . become great Dl-l — height (4) Pb^ — to rule. command treasure (1) to b e . Exercises: Vaa wani ' a D n n VepaV l a x xaVa (i) xy'iK-'ja vbf: K'Vs (2) pnaja Nnr-ix nniai nDpn (3) N%i5> "?'na nav nin xas nirjai (4) xaqi n na^'T nniK Na^a laxi nia "?N»?T[ p i x (5) niD"? N a n a sn^a o n na*^ (e) ania ninri ra Ntoai Np'Vi? (7) Njaonn NNriT TipaV sa-'an Vna (8) xVea p a x xa^K-Va (9) Njaf aVx n-a-p saVa pTip? (10) . or by the use of some form of the verb nin. sec. officer. > t o dwell to be strong. highest. Also rather common is the use of a third person independent personal pronoun as a copula (see III. In such a case t h e statement is usually considered more emphatic than the other three methods of expressing the copula (cf sec. slay to say.t o grow ( u p ) . a t t a i n . be paid to be able tax. sec. happen. 6 B above). wish. come u p o n . become strong N(W — (hithpaal) — — — — niO — — IIP — — an' — — — Npa — 11. it may be expressed by using •'n'R (see XVI. it is allowed (4) nnip — to loosen. In addition t o these methods of expressing the copula. have power over B-'V^ — mighty.

because they are governed by the various phonetic laws given in Lesson I in their inflection (for number. It is t o be noted t h a t these so-called classes are not to be confused with the types of nouns. The numbers of the above classes are the numbers found in parentheses after the nouns and adjectives in the vocabularies at the end of each lesson in this grammar. (10) N o u n s of unique formation. (4) with a light suffix. which indicate the way that nouns are formed from the triconsonantal roots (types such as qatl. see I 4). N o u n s with a doubled final consonant (which usually appears as a single consonant in the absolute s t a t e . in the limited literature of BA all of these forms do not occur in the words chosen as examples. N o u n s ending in r i . Non-segholate nouns with two changing vowels and a single final consonant.and with changing vowels. Feminine nouns ending in and i_. Infiection of the First Nine Classes: For the sake of illustration one or more examples of the first nine classes will be shown in both singular and plural as follows: (1) the absolute s t a t e . and (5) with a heavy suffix. However.. qatal. 2. Nouns with unchanging vowels and a single final consonant. qattal. to set up such classes is simply a matter of convenience for the purpose of learning the inflections. A convenient system for this purpose is a ten-fold classification as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Segholate nouns.and with unchanging vowels.28 LESSON VII CLASSES O F N O U N S 1. (2) the construct state. Obviously. and pronominal suffix). .). etc. (3) the emphatic state. Feminine nouns ending in H. Nouns with one changing vowel in the ultima and a single final consonant. Feminine nouns ending in ri. but are restored from their occurrences in other words. state. Systems of Classification: Any division of nouns and adjectives into classes is quite arbitrarv.

pi. pi.29 absolute (1) sg. For the sake of clarity. isVa pilN T •• N-ini nrii Pis'? nna pa-Vp-a on nn pn aa 'aa nin nia "n J^rn nrn T •• san pn -an paan pa-an pan ai T^ xaa N»aa xnn -aa [plural with suff. pi. (7) (8) (9) sg.] -ninn n n " t o build"] psprn -nvn pajni-n pann^N -nnn -niaVa 'niaVa N^ia [the Peal Active Participle of nnax max T: • xrinas xnnas snia-) Nnia'ja T : - niaT pannn paniaVa pan3a"7a niaVa niaVi? Nrii?'?? Note the application of the rule that the noanaa letters retain their spirant pronunciation after a vowel even when the vowel which caused it is dropped: pa^rn. sg. sg. pi. sg. This usage of both -'n and . pi. Nouns of Unique Formation: Grouped together in this tenth class are various nouns (and adjectives) which have inflectional peculiarities that prevent them from being classified with t h e more regular classes of n o u n formation. pi. sg. sg. sg. heavy suff. pi. sg. -ISO ISO construct emphatic xaVa T light suff. sg.'n is also found in the plurals of this class. only those forms of the word which are actually found . paVa-n (see I 1). 3. P?Va i?4 J- npp npp Tia*??? panpp p?9 There also occur the variant forms KVn •'V'Tl and psV'O. sg. pi. (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) sgpi. sg.

not emphatic] niJ ni? *vri " v i s i o n " Nim -ITn m m . gift" (plural) ^ r . (plural) pB^Ni afi'^N*! [an apparent Hebraism] an " g r e a t " [the singular is Class 5 ] . and thus _ is n o t pronounced as a qames hatuph. presumably it would be *nri3K. (plural) pona naT33 "present. (masculine plural) pa"]ai (feminine plural) lanan xranan [These plurals are formed by reduplication. These include •nax " c u b i t " nax " n a t i o n " •nWH " w h e a t " *nia " w i n d o w " nV? " w o r d . (plural) .«!a3 [Both occur with Kethib-Qere variations. (plural) -iTtl o r " d a y " has the [construct] plural mv besides the regular plural par •nja "colleague" (plural) nnija yinnija Npna "seat. •3N " f a t h e r " -nN -qiaN . from a different root. (plural) x.n n a x •qrinai? wn^3^? • n x " b r o t h e r " [presumably resembling 3N in the singular]. (plural) NPin? n n j ? " t o w n " s r i n i ? . The following list is not complete but represents the great majority of BA nouns having irregularities. m i d s t " xij [construct. the Most H i g h " [emphatic state] N-Vs? [a Kethib-Qere variation] DV "people.30 in BA will be listed.] •pE*! " w o m e n " (plural) pn-?*! [The singular does not occur in BA.n u N . [emphatic state] B^K-) " h e a d " [the singular is Class 4 ] .] 13*7 " m y r i a d " (plural) pan [a Kethib-Qere variation] t3^ " n a m e " aaB*. .] • ' V y "highest.a T a J •N-a? " p r o p h e t " [emphatic state] nx'ai. n a t i o n " [the singular is Class 5]. (plural or collective singular) n n p . (plural) jiD-ria [This is probably an anomalous non-spirantization of the T\. (plural) rj-nx n!*iK " l i o n " (plural) x n i n x H^K "fire" [It is difficult to determine as to whether this is a simple feminine or possibly the emphatic state of the masculine tPX of Class 5. but masculine in the plural. (plural) -"ja -niia lin-n *^i "interior.] "13 " s o n " ana." The n o u n xna " l o r d " can properly be included in Class 3 in spite of the peculiar appearance of t h e form (with suffix) -Kia [a Kethib-Qere variation]. there is a group of words which are regularly feminine in the singular [some do not occur in the singular in BA]. with the exception of the supposed singular absolute state of t h e noun (this being indicated by an asterisk).] " h o u s e " [the singular is like b'n in Class 1]. (plural) Njaas •nnp " g o v e r n o r " n n s . m a t t e r " and "year. (plural) nnai^ Besides these. t h r o n e " a-ipia.

5) lord (3) n3T33 — present. matter. 4) ntsin — 5. great multitude (10) nnjN — nx — brother (10) nax — nation ( 7 . Vocabulary: letter (8) ni? — window ( 7 . vision. > fire-offering (10) ia — interior. T • pi. 5) colleague (10) seat. 5) T \ xa*^ — fire.x.31 4.ap xnai naraia xiiaxV xjpin ]nu « l p a ' n n n a» ann-'T n?*x-i xaVs xin (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) x-Vs? xn"?^ nniaia Vaa ma^aa papn? nniiai "rx-in do) . gift (10) nns — governor (10) T V myriad. pi. affair (7. Exercises: Translate the following: (1) "mnvib nx»3J anp n xnnaxa xriVp na-na xptt^ x-iaV pnVs pan ian "?aaa nin xnan xnaVa xo"ia xapinV pTPX 'nia'-ari •'itrj x»ax nns"? napri XB^ xiia ian. appearance (10) wheat (7. midst (10) nin — breast (6) im — apparition. throne (10) word. pi. pi.

etc.. Pass.g.g. except that the final vowel is _ rather than _ : (e. The infinitives of all the derived conjugations may be formed by taking the third person masculine singular of the perfect of the desired conjugation. Principal Parts: Although not all of the following principal parts of the active conjugations occur in BA. for the sake of convenience they are included in t h e diagram below: Peal Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Act. the appearance of an / vowel is generally regarded as an analogical extension from the imperfect (see Lesson V. The characteristic vowel of the second root consonant of the imperfect of derived conjugations in Proto-Semitic is an /. the Pael) ana > an? > nan?. 2). . a sere is frequently found. Part an? aria: ana aripa an? Stative Pael an? ariaan? nana anaa ana? Haphel anan an??- Aphel anax Shaphel ana?* an?B*. which is just like the active. the Pael) anaa. the Pael) ana.> anaa.32 L E S S O N VIII T H E D E R I V E D ACTIVE C O N J U G A T I O N S 1. Because the characteristic vowel in this position in Proto-Semitic is usually an a in the perfect. As might be expected. the infinitive also occurs with the usual orthographic variation of x_ for n_..- ana: an?N nanax an?n nan?n anana anpnp an?^ nan?^ anpB^a ana^p anaa anaa a-na In any of the second root consonants with an / vowel.. Thus the stative nip " t o pay homage ( t o ) " . changing the final vowel t o and adding the ending n-: (e.g. sec. the Pael Perfect an?. but the / may as frequently be retained (see I H ) . Part. In these same conjugations there is sometimes a passive participle. In the derived active conjugations the active participle may be formed from the third person masculine singular of the imperfect by simply changing the yodh to a m e m : (e. the Haphel Perfect an?n.

all the so-called "irregular" classes of verbs are basically conjugated according t o the pattern of the regular verbs. Regular and Irregular Verbs: In BA. (const. or strong verbs. (5) Pe Aleph. and (10) verbs doubly weak (of all classes). context alone determines whether the participle is active or passive]: .) 1 (com. based on the original grammatical paradigm word VsD (the three root consonants of any verb being named in order. (3) Lamedh Laryngeal (including resh). except where another phonetic development dominates them t o change the form slightly (see Lesson I). 3. The Pael: the Pael: The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows in Singular Perfect Imperfect Person 3 (masc. (with suffix) nian? The Pael Imperative i s : ana ( m a s c sing. it may be found either preceding or following either its subject o r its object. (9) Geminate (or Ayin Ayin). the direct object may (or may not) be introduced by the preposition b. T h e following classification of irregular (weak) verbs may be considered as inclusive: (1) Pe Laryngeal. As noted previously. the Pe letter. In BA the verb may come in almost any position in the sentence. except for the masculine singular. or weak verbs.) 2 (masc. (2) Ayin Laryngeal (including resh).33 2. (6) Pe Yodh (including Pe Waw). pi. (8) the so-called "Lamedh H e " (including Lamedh Aleph. All other verbs in BA are classified as regular (or strong) verbs. the Ayin letter.) Perfect Plural Imperfect para- an? nari? nan? nan? anaana?i anari an?N lana nan? pnana rianan an?i wan? The Pael Infinitive is nana. These irregular verbs will be considered in subsequent lessons. (7) Ayin W a w (including Ayin Yodh).) ian? (masc.) The Pael Participles are [note that. and the Lamedh letter). The names used for these irregular (weak) verbs in BA are generally the same as those used in BH. (4) Pe N u n . A verb which has more than one subject may be either singular or plural (whether it precedes or whether it follows its subjects). and Lamedh Y o d h ) . Actually.) -an? (fem.) 3 (fem. sing. I n other words. and irregular. verbs are divided into regular. Lamedh Waw.) nana. as in BH and other Semitic languages.

The Haphel: in the Haphel: Singular Perfect 3?sn rianan The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows Plural Person 3 (masc. pi. sg. sing.) 1 (com. sing. pi. One example of each of the forms occurring is listed below: .) Perfect lanan Imperfect awnanann ananri Imperfect panam nanan pnanan Nianan panann anpni nanan 3^|^^^t In the perfect there are also the variant forms nanan and nanan for the third person feminine singular and first person common singular respectively. One example each of those forms which do occur is listed below for convenience: Perfect—third person masculine singular "jap [and VapJ — third person masculine plural iVaa Imperfect — third person masculine plural pVap. active or passive) Only a few forms of the Pael paradigm as given above are actually found in any of the regular (strong) verbs of BA. active or passive) janana (f. active) ( m a s c sing. active or passive) ]an?a (f. active) (masc. the Haphel likewise has only a few actual occurrences in the regular (strong) verbs of BA. sing. The Haphel Infinitive is n a n a n . (const.) lanan (masc. pi.) The Haphel Participles a r e : anana anana nanana (masc.34 ansa anaa nanaa (masc. sing. sing.) 2 (masc. (with suflix) nianan. pi. passive) (f.) n a n a n .— second person masculine plural pVapn Infinitive —x'?Ba [note x for n] Participle—masculine plural (passive) pnsaa 4. active or passive) panana (m.) "-anan (fem. active or passive) pariD!? (m.) 3 (fem. passive) (f. The Haphel Imperative i s : anan (masc. pi. active or passive) As was true with the Pael. sg.

The Shaphel: Far more rare in BA than either the Haphel or the Aphel is the shin causative. 6. the Haphel is a he causative conjugation. passive) (f sg.) — second-person masculine singular — third person masculine plural Imperfect Infinitive — third person masculine singular — nVsiPn cbtn nVst^n Itnn VpEJn'' npbpn Imperative — masculine singular 5.P'. Even so. The Aphel: In BA. for the root VSE? appears elsewhere in the Haphel.) 1 (com. The few occurrences of the Shaphel may be regarded as remnants of a n older conjugation. the Shaphel. the example is somewhat doubtful. there is only one example of the Aphel (the Aphel occurs more frequently among the weak verbs).) 3 (fem.) 2 (masc. active) (masc. It is a Participle — masculine singular active: V-Bt^a [with the variant VsiPa]. active or passive) 3 (masc. However. and the Imperative of the Aphel can be formed uniformly by substituting an aleph for a he. .) panpn ana? Plural In the regular (strong) verbs of BA. pi. N o paradigms need be listed here. sing. the paradigm of the Perfect. this is not true for the Imperfect and the Participles. the Infinitive. The Aphel Imperfect of the regular (strong) verbs is therefore given as follows: Singular Person an?: ari?n anan anax The Aphel Participles a r e : anaio anaa nanaa (masc.active or passive) panaa (m.35 Perfect—third person masculine singular (with suff. and the Aphel is an aleph causative conjugation. active or passive) l?n?9 (f. Thus. for a universal rule for the formation of the Shaphel is to substitute a shin for the he of t h e Haphel. sing. rather than in the Aphel.

advice. be on the point of.ri 13121 patai paripr) 7\'^tp^ naVn jni sense. turn (2) in — one nm — to see. Vocabulary: behold! (pael) to stop nia — (hithpeel) to be built nya — to seek. tie nsa — (divine) service -IB^D — interpretation (1) (pael) t o receive before (haphel) to irritate.a ? ? aip. oVirn •qnV^ n-a ]nbs}? rj"? f an:ria""'i K?Kai (2) "^ Niann K"? Nnnj?! "qVs s n a j xVpa^ D»p la-fe' i»a (3) aniiai "^"yv^b nnsaV -lax nV-na n V-n-naj p a i ^ i Vaa-q"?!? T . (i) D"?Bh-i. warrior if. request. run great risk . whether t i m e . report (1) now (pael) t o bind. command. there are no examples of the Shaphel.36 In t h e regular (strong) verbs of BA.I 3 J . make m — angry (haphel) to complete. perceive -dream (1) Exercises: Translate the following: ••D"Tp-p pVap.(mighty) m a n . Those occurrences in t h e weak classes of verbs will be considered in subsequent lessons. 7. deliver (completely) DJ7B — 8. a ian an^ xjair^ aVs^ ao ann ne^Nii ^C!?? '•'HlI ""T '73p""?a (5) DV^ IV^JI x-'p-'Va D/'PI nm Vaa sna (e) NaVa> nynin'? xntt^pi nV-jnii jay •T xaVa-ia nsa Vs'jni (7) ' . finish.

rather than the Haphel in retaining it. This would accord with the Hophal Imperfect of BH. The Peil also occurs in Imperial Aramaic.) 2 (masc. Peil and Hophal. and otherwise.) Peil wna Hophal lanan nanpn na^ipn (H)ria-n3 rianan na-na T .] The Perfect of the passive conjugations of the regular (strong) verb of BA is as follows: Perfect Singular Peil Hophal aron . Both of the passive conjugations. . It is apparently nothing more nor less than the Peal Passive Participle to which finite endings have been added.) 1 (com. The Hophal is considered by some to be a Hebraism in BA. it is the Peil Perfect. It is possible that the few forms so labeled are remnants of such a conjugation which was at home in BA. T Plural Person 3 (masc. For the sake of convenience in syntactic classification it may be assumed that when it is accompanied by a separate subject (either n o u n or pronoun). 77ie Passive Conjugations: In BA there are two passive conjugations. [Some have conjectured a Hophal Imperfect of nni in Ezra 6:5.37 LESSON IX T H E PASSIVE A N D R E F L E X I V E C O N J U G A T I O N S 1. However. this is not certain. This participle itself is an adjectival type. qatil.) 3 (fem. pna-na Nja-na pnanan Nianan n?"'n? nanan It is frequently difficult to determine whether a-na is the masculine singular of the Peal Passive Participle or is the third person masculine singular of the Peil Perfect. which has been introduced into the verbal system and adapted for use as a passive participle. They occur only in the Perfect and n o t in all of its forms. While there is no occurrence of a Hophal Imperfect in BA. it is the Peal Passive Participle. Peil and Hophal. have a very limited use in BA. it would be expected t o follow the Aphel in dropping the n.

The Hithpeel: The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows in the Hithpeel [note that metathesis of n with a following sibilant regularly occurs in verbs with an initial sibilant (see V. orbf third person feminine singular nV-tJj? second person masculine singular NpVpn [for nV'pri] third person masculine plural inD? [for W M ] third person feminine singular Wj?rn 2. Pael. and Shaphel. —a phenomenon occurring also in other Semitic languages. sec.38 Only a few forms of either the Peil or the Hophal occur in any of the regular (strong) verbs of BA. Hithpaal. rather than being retained as in the Haphel. just as in the Aphel. One example each of those forms which are found is listed below (all are in the Perfect): Peil — • Hophal — third person masculine singular. Although n o t all of the following principal parts of the reflexive conjugations occur in BA. Hithpeel. etc. In each case the n which precedes the n seems t o be an analogical extension of the initial consonant of the causative system. there are the reflexive stems in t. as well as their expected reflexive meaning. for the sake of convenience they are included below: Hithpeel Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Participle a?3na Hithpaal ari??in arisnansnn Hishtaphal aripnfn anariifJn nanawn anariB^ N o t e t h a t in the imperfect the prefixed n is completely elided. 3. This n can be replaced by an K [cf Haphel and Aphel]. thus occurs the Ithpeel for Hithpeel. and Hishtaphal.) 3 (fem. The Reflexive Conjugations: Corresponding t o the Peal. 2)]: Singular Perfect ariann rariann Plural Imperfect araii: Person 3 (masc. It is important t o note that these "reflexive" conjugations may often have a true passive meaning.) Perfect larann Imperfect panan? lanan? apann nanapn .

) 3 (fem. (const.) lanann The Hithpeel Participles a r e : anara nanana (masc.) Once again. The Hithpaal: in the Hithpaal: Singular Perfect anann nanann nanann nanann The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows Plural Person 3 (masc. sing.) 1 (com.) The Hlthpee'Infinitive is n a n a M .riP paniPn [note the metathesis] 4.) nanann. (withsuffix) nianann.) panana ]anana (masc. sing.) lanann (masc. pi.) (fem. (masc. pi.39 Singular nansnn napsnn ansrir) ananK 2 (masc. The Hithpeel Imperative is: anann (masc. One example of each of the forms which do occur is listed below: Perfect Imperfect Infinitive Participle — second person masculine plural pniantn [a Kethib-Qere variation—possibly pniam — or a Hithpaal] — third person feminine singular — nVopnn — masculine plural pVPp. sing. (const. sing.) (fem. sing. sing.) 2 (masc.) .) pnanpriri wanann Plural pansnn anani In the perfect the variant form feminine singular. pi. The Hithpaal Imperative is: anann (masc.) Perfect lanann nanann pnanann Nianann Imperfect panan? l?naripanann anan? Imperfect anananann anann ananx The Hithpaal Infinitive is nanann. pi. only a few of the above forms are actually found in the regular (strong) verbs of BA. (withsuffix) (fem.) nanann.) -anann nanann is found for the third person nianann.) -anann (fem.) 1 (com.

7.) l???ria In the regular (strong) verbs of BA the only forms of the Hithpaal which occur are participles (there are other forms in the weak verbs). like the Shaphel. and n o t at all in the regular (strong) verbs. [adverb] very (4) Vafe — (hithpaal) t o consider paB> — (hithpeel) to be left.40 The Hithpaal Participles a r e : arisra nanana (masc.-? ]»a i » i n s . many. pass on t o n^tt? — t o send — (peil) t o be finished Vpn — (peil) t o be weighed ipn — (hophal) t o be reestablished wb^ xVi jqara nn. much. the actual occurrences will be discussed subsequently in connection with the class of weak verbs involved. pi.p i paVsj*? pantfn ao q " xniaVai (9) h? pVDp. Exercises: Translate the following: xni-n nV-pp is n^piK n t n (i) (3) nan — (hithpeel) to be thrown — great. These forms a r e : Participle — masculine singular Vn ^ [note the metathesis] af a e — masculine plural ppjana 5. command.i . Vocabulary: — tree (4) m — decree.) (fem.p i (2) xnVa nVanft^nV i i a i T n i iB^iann xnai nan V-pni •"nita n-aV asp? xa"?? nb<6 (4) n"?ppnn sVi nipnn •'nia^io-Vsi (5) N-a^ nani Nsnx xiia fr^ xa-an nm (6) (8) x p i ^ nVx " n "TIT ian nnni na»a n xas-Va (7) >n xnii-xia"p xann: xaVs"? lip^i b& x V . sing.p n-r mm do) » " aj . occurs extremely rarely in BA.) (fem. order. Rather than giving a reconstructed paradigm for the Hishtaphal.na x B > ri x a V a .) f3?iana (masc. sing. decide — (hithpaal) t o assemble B^a I B — fire (4) *ia» — the opposite bank (1) — (peil) t o be killed — (hithpeel) t o be killed — (hithpaal) t o be killed 6. pi. T law (4) — (hithpeel or hithpaal) to agree. The Hishtaphal: The Hishtaphal.

consideration will be given to underlying principles and phonetic rules applicable t o each class. they exhibit relatively minor irregularities from t h e pattern of the regular (strong) verb of BA. rather than reconstructing hypothetical paradigms for the weak classes of verbs. Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Aleph. Obviously a laryngeal can occur in verbs t h a t have more than one weakness (e. In this and subsequent lessons.41 LESSON X L A R Y N G E A L VERBS 1. and n o t t o verbs which are doubly weak. Infinitive: t h e mem has _ instead of _ : i s s a .g. Such verbs that are doubly weak will be discussed subsequently.or fn^vn [here the laryngeal adopts t h e vowel of the prefix. Any statement as to the occurrences of verbsin this lesson. t h e laryngeals and resh cannot be doubled.). refers t o verbs with only one weak root consonant (and that a laryngeal). A short / before this first consonant usually becomes a seghol (I F ) . As a group. The laryngeals and resh prefer a vowels. The variations which d o occur are a result of some phonetic development that dominates them t o change t h e form slightly. Usually t h e vocal shewa under this first consonant is composite (I M ) . (A) Peal: the above rules have specific applications as follows [some examples are given as illustrations]: Perfect: where the Pe letter of the regular verb has — or _ t h e laryngeal has . etc. 2. rather than being dissimilated t o an / (I E). A short a before this first consonant is usually retained (as in t h e Peal Imperfect).or _ : (sing. in place of retaining its shewa]. Laryngeal Verbs: In this lesson t h e three classes of laryngeal verbs will be discussed.) 13S? rinas nna?. (plural) n 3 » Imperfect: t h e prefix retains t h e original _ instead of having _ [but becomes _ when t h e verb is also Lamedh H e ] : (plural) peVn. It is important t o note t h a t this lesson deals primarily with verbs t h a t are weak in one root consonant only. Pe Laryngeal Verbs: T o this class belong those verbs whose first consonant is r\> or ». etc. Pe N u n and Lamedh Laryngeal. A n original a is usually retained under this first consonant. and there will be a listing of specific examples which actually occur in BA.

rather than the Haphel. (C) (E) (F) 3. n. which will be considered in a later lesson). and is quite regular in form: (plural) yapni Participles: the actual occurrences of the participles in Pe Laryngeal verbs are quite regular in both the Haphel and the Aphel. .42 Participles: the active participle is regular. having _^ where the regular verb has _ : Imperfect: ( s i n g . Perfect: (plural) y p m Imperfect: here the only occurrence is in the Aphel. like the laryngeals. consequently t h e P e Laryngeal verbs have no irregularities in the Hithpaal.) i:ivm H i t h p a a l : the same use of _ i s found in the regular verb as in the Pael. Hithpeel: this is very similar to the Peal. the passive participle has _ for _ : (plural) pn-B^n (B) Pael: since the Pe letter of the regular (strong) verb uniformly has _ in the Pael and this is also what the laryngeals prefer. V or l . the Pe Laryngeal verbs have no irregularities in the Pael.[and npyn-] Participle: (sing. involving several phonetic rules: it appears to have taken place as follows: * 3 p r i n > ipnn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > ]pnn (the so-called " q a t q a t . Infinitive. ) n a r n . cf I E]) > Jpnn (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect to the perfect) > ]pnn (short / before a laryngeal becomes a seghol [see I F ] ) > jDnn (insertion of a hateph [see I N]). n. Haphel (and Aphel): the development of the Haphel from the original Proto-Semitic to BA seems to have been more complicated. Resh is included in this class primarily because it. and Imperative: all occurrences happen to be regular (with the exception of a verb with verbal suffixes. Imperfect.q i t q a t " dissimilation [however. (A) Peal: the above rules for Ayin Laryngeal verbs have specific applications as follows [some examples are given as illustrations]: Perfect. Ayin Laryngeal Verbs: T o this class belong verbs whose second root consonant is N. (D) Passive conjugations: there are no occurrences of Peil or Hophal in verbs strictly Pe Laryngeal [occurrences in verbs doubly weak (Pe Laryngeal plus some other factor) will be discussed subsequently]. unusual with laryngeals. note especially that in compensation for the lack of doubling the preceding vowel may be lengthened under certain circumstances (see I 8). cannot be doubled. Besides the general rules for the laryngeals given above.

(plural) pnbD: Infinitive: t h e Lamedh Laryngeal infinitive is regular in t h e Peal. so t h e preceding vowel is lengthened in compensation for the lack of doubling: (sing.) anpn. » or i [this a is a he proper.) n*"^ .) nbl^. indicated by a mappiq.) "qiati. and Hithpeel: there are only a few forms of these conjugations which occur in verbs strictly Ayin Laryngeal. only one form actually occurs as given below). Besides the general rules above. with the inability of t h e laryngeal t o be doubled. and this is w h a t t h e laryngeals also prefer. are formed regularly. Imperfect: here there is found _ for _ before t h e last consonant. (plural) f"T5?oa Haphel. Lamedh Laryngeal Verbs: T o this class belong verbs whose last consonant is n.) (C) (D) Vnarta 4. the Ayin Laryngeal verbs exhibit their greatest irregularities in the Pael (see 1 8). the feminine active singular and both active plural participles have _ for _ : (plural) f VnS(B) Pael: as might be expected.) "qna n ? 1 3 Imperfect: (sing. a p a t h a h furtive appears after a heterogeneous long vowel (I K). t h e plural is regular: (sing. n.43 Participles: the masculine active singular and the passive participles. (plural) pnVs the passive participle has t h e pathahi furtive: (sing. Peil.pass. Perfect: all the occurrences are with resh. Hithpaal: as in the Pael. singular and plural. t h e Lamedh Laryngeal class is regular in t h e Peal Perfect. the lack of doubling produces some irregularity (however. (plural) pas?»Participles: (sing. (A) Peal: the above rules for Lamedh Laryngeal verbs have specific applications as follows [some examples are given as illustrations]: Perfect: because t h e regular (strong) verb has a p a t h a h before t h e last consonant. remember t h a t short vowels become pathah before final n. and all of these occurrences happen t o be regular. and not a he t h a t is just one of the matres lectionis for t h e long vowel d — all of t h e latter verbs are included in the so-called " L a m e d h H e " class of verbs].) n'?B. a shewa before the last consonant is retained. t h e same as in the regular (strong) verb: (sing. Also. Participles: the active singular has _ for _ . or » (I J). Participle: here is the one instance of t h e vowel before a he being lengthened in compensation for the lack of doubling (see I 8 ) : (sing. n.

the singular has _ for _ in the active participle (see the Pael Participles above). 2). Perfect: here _ i s found for .) i B ^ D p n a e ' D (C) Haphel (and Aphel): the same occurrences of _ for _ and _ as found in the Pael are found in t h e Haphel. H i t h p a a l : all occurrences of this conjugation in verbs strictly Lamedh Laryngeal are regular. sec.) nariB'n —third person feminine singular: in this class of verbs particularly. .) i|?aInfinitive: the Lamedh Laryngeal infinitive is regular in the Pael. in BA there occurs a reflexive conjugation basically identical to (F) 5. Perfect: note that metathesis occurs quite regularly in case of an initial sibilant: (sing. the formations with a n suflRx [third person feminine.44 (B) Pael: here the preference of t h e laryngeals and resh for the a-vowel is regularly exhibited. and first person common] tend t o be formed somewhat on an analogy with a segholate [cf the Peal Imperfect of the Pe Laryngeal above ]na??ri > pnasn]: thus n i t a n n and nriar«?. second person masculine. Hithpeel: the same occurrence of _ for _ as found in the Pael is found in the Hithpeel.) nVsM. Participles: the occurrences actually found in BA of the Lamedh Laryngeal class are in t h e Aphel rather than in the H a p h e l . —second person masculine singular: easy to confuse with the above: nnariE^a [the final n is n o t aspirantized]. Perfect: (sing. The Ithpeel Conjugation: As was mentioned previously (Lesson IX. (plural) inaiPn Njnatf^n Imperfect: (sing.) nnai^.o r _ : (sing.n [the latter appears in the form of a true laryngeal segholate]. (plural) i n a ^ Imperfect: the same _ is found as in the perfect: (sing. Imperative: the same _ is found as in the perfect: (plural) i T i a Participles: because _ is found in the active participle for it becomes identical with the passive participle in form and the context must be used to differentiate between t h e m . (plural) nairni Infinitive: t h e Lamedh Laryngeal infinitive is regular in the Haphel. the plural participles are regular: (sing.) n ^ s n n n a ^ n [first person — for this peculiar formation see t h e discussion under the Hithpeel Perfect below].) mtr\T). the plural is regular: (sing. (plural) pnVsa (D) (E) Peil: t h e sole occurrence of this conjugation is quite regular.

Extending this parallel into the perfect of the Ithpeel. Verbs Doubly Laryngeal: In BA there occur some verbs with two different laryngeals (or resh). This appears to be on an analogy with the causatives. investigate •qna — (pael) t o bless nn — (hithpeel and ithpeel) t o be cut o u t . there is another analogical influence on the Ithpeel which apparently comes from the Hithpeel Imperfect.45 the Hithpeel. 6. pass by jon — (haphel and aphel) t o occupy. extended into the reflexives so that there is a form anariX corresponding to the form ansnn. turned i n t o . > respect DBD — (pael) t o feed. be perplexed npa — (pael) to seek. or consider specific examples. which has _ (the first person singular is a r i a n x ) . be done (pael) t o interpret (haphel and aphel) t o (cause to) prosper. where the Haphel begins with a n and the Aphel with an x . In either case. give t o eat 8. as well as the form a n a n x . aid (hithpeel) t o be m a d e . Thus some verbs are both Pe Laryngeal and Ayin Laryngeal. making it unnecessary t o list paradigms. break off »]"?n — t o pass (over). rather than with a n . application of all the above rules for laryngeals or resh involved in each individual verb is all that is needed. except it begins with an K in the Perfect. scatter Vna — (hithpaal) t o be frightened.altar (3) • (pael) t o help. In the Lamedh Laryngeal verbs there is one occurrence of an Ithpeel: nnfanx corresponding t o nnfann [see above — Hithpeel]. besides those with a laryngeal and another type of irregularity or weakness (which will be discussed subsequently). Exercises: Translate the following: nafa nas nir^B nVs anp nas^ natt> ny6 . fare well. The prefixes of the Hithpeel Imperfect all have _ except the x . make progress (pael) t o offer (pael) t o praise (haphel) t o find (hithpeel) t o be found ra-B^nxVaxB-iK-anj-Vai ( i ) aVifiTa •'•7 oanVN n-a ""r nna-ra-Vs ian anp^ni (2) TinV r-i»09 snVs-n x w a i jinaxn (3) . possess a^n — t o consider. 7. and others are both Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal. However. the form a n a n x is found for the perfect. Vocabulary: m a — (pael) t o disperse.

sri-iJK inpB^ni iip.ai ovp o-i? ""lai (5) aVa-n Niaa -nWi Tia!i "jnana x-ato sa'pa p-rx (e) xniaVa ]pt^i n -ni"??? psVa: piiv s^aiNi (7) nna.i " ' ? ? (11) aiaa a-na-pi ana Vaaa nani|?ni (12) .-nm"-] (10) aVs n-a"? nayn? Nwa l a s .•q'? pnina xai^vi (9) nxjai -"ari "ava pn^sai pia v.^ xaVs •'n'?i na-ia x-Vs?'?'! (8) p»5?».

(imperfect) > ana (imperative) then p B . especially in the Haphel.jriiri. no irregularities are caused by a nun that is initial (the first consonant in a word or syllable). for the nun may also be retained. (B) Pael: the sole occurrence happens to be an infinitive. Perfect and Imperfect: those occurrences in verbs strictly Pe N u n are regular. However. (A) Peal: the Pe Nun verbs exhibit more irregularities in the Peal than in the derived conjugations [possibly because there are more occurrences in the Peal]. PE Y O D H . the nun is initial. Participles: as in the perfect.JW.47 LESSON XI PE N U N . so there are no irregularities. the assimilation or non-assimilation of the nun seems to be indiscriminate: (sing. A N D PE A L E P H VERBS 1. and with an initial nun there is no irregularity.) Vp. hence there are no irregularities in the Peil. Pe Nun Verbs: Most of the irregularities in this class of verbs occur because a nun at the end of a syllabic is often assimilated to the consonant beginning the following syllable.> ps]. (C) Haphel (and Aphel): the assimilation or non-assimilation of the nun seems to occur indiscriminately here also. 1). Participles: the nun may be retained. (D) Peil: the initial nun is not assimilated. . or it may be assimilated. sec. Infinitive: the nun may be retained. Perfect: no irregularities are caused by the initial nun in the perfect. even to a laryngeal (I 2). Naturally. or it may be assimilated. (plural) pVpn pjrir Infinitive: the sole occurrence happens to be regular: ]n3!p Imperative: the nun is dropped completely: (plural) ips [apparently on an analogy with the imperfect and imperative of the regular verb: if nnp. Imperfect: although the characteristic vowel of the imperfect is usually u (with a i n the stative verbs). as in "jsa [an Aphel form]. as innVsn. this is not universal. the Pe N u n verbs exhibit a decided preference for an / (see Lesson VI.

48 (E) (F) Hithpeel: there are no occurrences in verbs strictly Pe N u n . and (2) the impossibility of doubling the laryngeal (I 8). 4. in t h e Haphel (or Aphel) the nun is assimilated. but the laryngeal cannot be doubled as a result of the assimilation. Hithpaal: in the hithpaal conjugation the Pe letter never comes at the end of a syllable. b u t are distinguishable from each other only in the Haphel. then those few occurrences of verbs in this class are amply explained. there is no lengthening of the vowel in compensation (see I 8).nVa? Imperfect: this is usually conjugated as though the verb belonged to the Pe N u n class. when the perfect occurs with the conjunction i. Irregularities occur when the yodh (or waw) comes a t the end of a syllable. Verbs Pe Nun and Ayin Laryngeal: All the phonetic rules of both classes apply t o this class of doubly weak verbs. with one important exception. (A) (B) Peal and H o p h a l : the sole attested form in each of these conjugations happens t o be regular. If it is noted t h a t a nun may (or may not) be assimilated.) ap.) nnn [an Aphel form] Imperative: (sing) nns [an Aphel form] Participle: (plural) pnnna [a Haphel form] 3. (A) Peal: the only irregularities attested occur in the imperfect and the imperative. and that all short vowels become pathah before a final laryngeal (see I J).) Va^Van [Qere: t h e K e t h i b form "raw and . Verbs Pe Nun and Lamedh Laryngeal: Once again. hence no irregularities occur in the Pe N u n verbs. Especially irregular are formations analogous t o the Pe N u n class where the initial consonant is assimilated [only apparently] to the following consonant. The two main ones are (1) the possible assimilation of the nun. because the laryngeal is a n. In this connection it should be remembered that an initial waw becomes a yodh (see I 6). Pe Yodh Verbs {Including Pe Waw): These are really two distinct classes. Haphel (and Aphel): t h e only verb with this kind of double weakness comes from t h e root nm. Imperfect: (sing. all the rules of both of these particular classes apply t o this class of doubly weak verbs. and becomes part of t h e long vowel (as in B H ) : lami Perfect: quite regular: (sing. with t h e initial consonant assimilated t o the second conson a n t (see above): (sing. 2. t h e yodh is elided as a consonant.

t h e yodh is eliminated as a consonant instead. the true Pe Yodh verbs become ••n in t h e Haphel (see I P). which is cognate t o the B H aw.) "jD. sec. The Shaphel and Saphel Conjugations: As was noted previously. Perfect: (sing. (plural) pan. Haphel: here there is a distinction between true Pe Yodh verbs and those originally Pe W a w .) apBto . (B) (C) Pael: the sole occurrence (infinitive) of a verb strictly Pe Yodh is regular. in one instance.) aori Participles: all are regular: (sing. (E) Hophal: there is only one occurrence. 2:10) are considered as Peals incorrectly written like Hophals. All of the occurrences of the Shaphel in BA are closely related t o (if n o t borrowed from) t h e Shaphel of Accadian (common in that language). there occurs a shin causative conjugation. Perfect: (sing. t h e occurrences are n o t common (see Lesson VIII. hence it can be listed in BA as a Pe Yodh only for convenience. However.) Participle: (sing.. which has in instead of the regular im- perfect: third person feminine singular: nepin (F) Hithpeel and H i t h p a a l : there are no occurrences in verbs strictly Pe Yodh.) a r * Imperfect: (sing. sec. for it comes from the Accadian sUzubu — usezib. t h e Shaphel (see Lesson V. (A) Shaphel: the sole occurrence in the Pe Yodh verbs is more apparent than real.) a p ^ Infinitive: (with an attached suffix) 'qniartt^ (etc. 6).49 the form V D V ( D a n . not ar. see the verbs both Pe Yodh and Ayin Laryngeal below]. has a shewa under the initial consonant.) anin Va-n Infinitive: nVa-n (D) Peil: this conjugation. but no irregularities need have been expected anyway. others consider them t o be genuine examples of an old BA Huphal (Hophal) conjugation] however. and therefore is regular. in the latter t h e yodh reverts t o its original waw. and joins a preceding long vowel (see I P ) : (sing.n"??. the Shaphel of ezebu. like the peal perfect. for the Pe letter does not come a t the end of a syllable [for examples of Pe Yodh. 5. 1) as well as the Haphel and the Aphel. unless preceded by the conjunction 1 (see above). and becomes in in the Haphel (see I D ) .

50 (B) Saphel: t h e one occurrence of a Saphel in BA is undoubtedly from an original Pe Waw conjugation (cf. except when it occurs with the conjunction ^: (sing. if it is maintained that the yodh is assimilated to the second consonant. instead of the usual ^ of the Shaphel. as in verbs Pe Yodh only). this nun could be considered as a resolution of that doubled second consonant (see I 3): (sing. Imperfect: the outstanding characteristic of the imperfect is its analogy to the Pe N u n class. (plural) ]-an. (plural) pan-n? Participles: (sing.an-nn. except when found with the conjunction i. BH).) an Participle: the only irregularity is that the laryngeal takes a composite shewa: (sing. Verbs Pe Yodh and Ayin Laryngeal: All the rules of both classes apply t o this class of doubly weak verbs. Perfect: (plural) lB»-nx 7. (A) Peal: the perfect is quite regular. T h e use of o. (B) Peil: uniformly regular. Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh Laryngeal: Most of the irregularities which occur in both the Pe Yodh class and in the Lamedh Laryngeal class occur in this class of doubly weak verbs.in the Peal and Haphel conjugations. possibly reflects an Assyrian rather than a Babylonian pronunciation of the Accadian in this instance. This is true in spite of the fact that this class is limited in BA t o the root v i . and the infinitive does not occur.— the initial consonant is dropped completely: (sing. (A) Peal: there are no occurrences in the imperfect or in the infinitive.) an. More of the attested irregularities occur because of the laryngeal than because of the yodh (even if there is no Pael attested).nan-. (plural) ]-an::na (D) Ithpaal: the sole attested form is irregular because the laryngeal cannot be doubled and the preceding vowel is lengthened in compensation for the lack of doubling by the » (see I 8 b). the Shaphel of {w)abdlu (even though in the Haphel of BA by is treated as a true Pe Yodh). for it comes from the Accadian subulu.—all irregularities that occur are on account of the laryngeal. Imperfect: (sing.) an-pa nan-iia. (plural) ian-i Imperative: this is conjugated as though it belonged to the Pe N u n class. Participle: (plural) pVaioa 6. which is here shown by the actual presence of a nun (rather than by doubling the second consonant.) an-n. Perfect: regular.) s?:rin V71N. (plural) psnr . (C) Hithpeel: the yodh causes no irregularities. alternatively.) an-^.

To compensate for this quiescence a t t h e end of a syllable. Otherwise.) p-n Imperfect: the verb nan is analogous t o a Pe W a w : (sing. However. rather than the usual hateph pathah (see the doubly weak verb nax below): (sing. (plural) n a x : [jussive] Infinitive: see the doubly weak verb naK below.) VI Participles: (sing.) V T N . the Pe Aleph class is very similar t o t h e Pe Laryngeal class (which see). (B) Haphel: the Pe Aleph verbs have a formation analogous t o t h e Pe Yodh (and Pe Waw) class in the Haphel. Perfect: (sing.) -bjv.) r T .) nainri. (A) Peal: the shewa under an initial aleph is usually a hateph pathah (see I M ) . (plural) I V I N Klbw Imperfect: the aleph quiesces. including a hateph seghol under t h e aleph.51 Imperative: also analogous t o t h e Pe N u n class: (sing. Peil. and all t h e forms are only irregular in accordance with the normal pattern for a Pe Waw Haphel. and t h e Reflexive Conjugations: there are no occurrences in BA of these conjugations in the Pe Aleph class. X-_ instead of t h e usual sere yodh ">—). and also in those places where having a Lamedh Laryngeal affects t h e vocalization. Perfect: the verb pN is analogous t o a Pe Y o d h : (sing. Other t h a n a possible early o r t h o graphic waw-yodh confusion. Pe Aleph Verbs: In general t h e aleph quiesces whenever it does not have its own vowel.g.) nam (D) Pael. (plural) jnanInfinitive: nnain Participle: the sole occurrence is a passive participle: (sing. 8. (plural) p s T j (passive) v .n a (C) Hophal: the sole attested form is also analogous t o t h e Pe W a w .T [note the p a t h a h furtive] (B) Haphel: t h e occurrences in t h e Haphel show that was an original Pe Waw verb. the aleph was retained in writing by historical orthography (e. ""VsN Participles: the active participles are all regular (there is no occurrence of the passive participle). the preceding vowel is often lengthened (see I 5).) p . and the vowel of the prefix is lengthened in compensation (see I 5): (sing. . Perfect: (sing. Imperative: here is exhibited a variety of formations.) bo»r\. there is apparently no reason why one verb is formed like a Pe Waw and another like a Pe Y o d h .

Translate the following: nVsra n-a laim Knrn iVax (i) ]na»n nas^V ap-". Vocabulary: — (ithpaal) to take counsel together — (haphel) to settle. lay.) l a N . r[<m-b^'\ •^•'bv n nai (2) nV nppin nx-Jto naani nnVxa p'n Vs!n (3) . (plural) piaxri Infinitive: the aleph quiesces as usual. and t h a t in the Peal. I t exhibits the weaknesses of the two classes respectively t o which it belongs. testimony (9) — t o rescue — — — • ^ ^ ^ jax — — — bT bT — (hophal) t o be destroyed to go (to or away) to eat (haphel) t o trust in earth (1) (haphel) t o bring (saphel) t o offer.) i a ^ Participles: the laryngeal of the singular influences the preceding vowel.52 9. bring. Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh Laryngeal: Only one verb is attested in BA. city (7) — (haphel and aphel) t o deposit — (haphel and aphel) to rescue.. > preserve — heap of stones (1) a?: — to be pleasing — (hophal) t o be added Exercises: annria nm b^ aw 12. n"iaN [as in the Pe Laryngeal verbs. This class of doubly weak verbs 10.) l a x —third person feminine. Verbs Pe Aleph and Ayin Laryngeal: does n o t happen t o be found in BA. but there is also an unusual orthographic variation where the aleph is not written: l a x a and l a a Imperative: the hateph seghol is found here instead of the usual hateph p a t h a h : (sing. cause to dwell — province. (plural) n a s Imperfect: the aleph quiesces: (sing. (plural) p-iax 11. n n a x [for a discussion of the apparent segholate ending. town. —first person. the original _ is retained instead of _ (see the discussion of the peal perfect of the Pe Laryngeal verbs in Lesson X ) ] . deliver — witness.) l a s . see the discussion of the hithpeel perfect of the Lamedh Laryngeal verbs in Lesson X ] . the plural is regular: (sing. The Peal of nax is formed as follows: Perfect:the aleph takes the hateph p a t h a h and the laryngeal prefers the a-vowel: (sing.

nx pDt^ n nnpa ian anini ^Vx xjax Va-n xan xa"?? lax xiara wni xan xnVx n-a"? xninp nin-V xiVm D'?BhTa n s'^a-n? xjixa nnx-^jx nV •la^?1 x»nx?i xjatfa f n x n a y i "jsai arw? xini xynxa nax! nas? x^ x p n x i x-aB^-'T xjnVx oinV pnpxn nna (Jer. 10:11) nVx (Genesis 31:47) xnnrjto Tl^ (4) (5) (e) (?) (8) (9) (lo) K»aw ninn-]ai .53 Uniar^V Kn»'?ia •'»''3n Vb wv.

The Hollow Verbs: Ayin Waw verbs and Ayin Yodh verbs are also called " h o l l o w " verbs.g. The Ayin Waw verbs are verbs fundamentally biconsonantal with the i as a vowel predominating over the • in the Peal imperfect. the §ere in the first person singular does n o t have the accent. Consequently. Ayin Waw Verbs: As indicated above. Dip and np^. the regular perfect endings have been added. This long vowel (qames)in the perfect has the accent. of course. 2. even if some forms are not written plene. borrowed from Arabic. the usual reduction of the pretonic vowel to shewa in the prefixes of the imperfect and in the Haphel perfect. verbs with waw as a co/uona/j/ for the Ayin letter d o n o t belong t o this class of verbs. a term. 2)J. they are most probably to be regarded as long vowels. or even to group t h e m together in one class (see Lesson VIII. Very possibly this confusion of forms has resulted largely from an earlier orthographic waw-yodh confusion. Dp.54 LESSON XII H O L L O W VERBS 1. Thus. It is probably best to consider the hollow verbs as basically biconsonantal. However. « (A) Peal: the general rules given above have their application as follows: . I n b o t h BH and BA there is some confusion between forms written with waw and those written with yodh. Whereas in BH there is much fluctuation between the use of short and long varieties of difl'erently vocalized stems (e. it is i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t in BA b o t h classes have qames in the perfect [which makes it convenient t o consider them together in one lesson. and DpJ. sec. therefore it has been somewhat diflScult to determine which verbs are properly Ayin Waw and which are Ayin Yodh. and to this long stem. and such verbs do not belong t o the " h o l l o w " verbs. and is therefore reduced t o a seghol. This weakness. is present only when the waw or yodh is a vowel. in BA there is almost invariably the long variety of the stem (Dip and Dp). Those verbs in which waw predominates in the imperfect are classed as Ayin Waw verbs and those verbs in which yodh predominates in the imperfect are classed as Ayin Y o d h verbs. B o t h classes also have another c o m m o n characteristic. In some verbs these letters in the middle position are true consonants. which is used to designate the " e m p t i n e s s " or "weakness" in the middle consonant of these two classes.

) D''p. except for an apparently anomalous perfect of m"i: (sing. and becomes a hateph seghol: (sing.55 Perfect: the perfect has the accented qames. in the third person feminine singular the vowel of the n is propretonic. (plural) paip. and Hithpolel over Hithpael].) D'-p'. which are so common in BH among the .r! (and D-'pn) na-'px [Aphel-with suffix] napH na"'!?. (plural) ]•'a^tp [Kethib] pa'i? [Qere] Pael: with so few attested formations of this class in BA. occurrences of Pael and of Polel (which see below) are equal. (plural) w p n Imperfect: in the singular the vowel of the preformative n is . [Aphel] D''pri [Aphel] but rjipn [Aphel] and D'pm [Haphel] Infinitive: this is formed as though the root were truly biconsonantal. usually the latter: (sing. (plural) l a p Imperfect: the pretonic vowel is reduced to shewa under the prefixes: (sing. being doubled (it is a yodh rather than the waw expected [cf. without a preformative s has this _ under the a: (sing. 3.) mpi a w . Perfect: the only occurrences are both third person feminine singular (B) na''pri and napn (F) Hithpeel: see the Hithaphel (Hittaphel) conjugation below.?] na-'pn. — one example each [unlike BH which has a preponderance of Polel over Piel. in which the waw or yodh coming between _ and a full vowel.) D x p . The Polel and Hithpolel Conjugations: In BA there are only a few forms of these derived conjugations. (E) Hophal: the preformative n has the reduced vowel _ .Imperative: similar t o the imperfect. the Aphel. the vowel of the preformative is _ : nitn Participles: the vowel of the preformative n is _ . Perfect: the vowel under the preformative n or x is usually a hateph pathah (see I M ) . without the prefix: (sing. but the Qere reads i for x [even in the Ayin Waw class]: (sing.) D p D"l n p o .) -"aip Participles: in the hollow verbs the Peal active participle is a triconsonantal formation. Peal participles above]): na»p (C) Haphel (and Aphel): the pretonic vowel is reduced here.or _ . the middle letter treated as a consonant. the prefix has _ or _ . becomes x.) D ^ n a [Haphel] a n a [Aphel] (D) Peil: see the Peil of the Ayin Yodh class below. Infinitive: here again appears a triconsonantal formation. in the plural the x has a hateph pathah in the Kethib. as in the Peal imperfect. Polal over Pual.

their meaning is often the same as that of the /-reflexive of the Peal. Finally. yn and one an Ayin Yodh verb. sec. the formations of the two classes are almost identical.) riaainnr' 4. so the aleph causative conjugation.56 hollow verbs. (A) Polel: this conjugation parallels in meaning and usage the Pael of the regular (strong) verb. Ayin Yodh Verbs: Verbs of this class are far less frequent in BA than Ayin Waw verbs. the Shaphel. Just as the shin causative conjugation. It must be noted. that although the verbs are to be explained as /-reflexive formations of the Aphel.) D ^ n ^ (plural) pafen? Participle: (sing. the Hithpeel. Participle: the sole occurrence is a participle: (sing. and are limited to the hollow verbs. has a /-reflexive. has a /-reflexive. (A) Ayin Waw: whereas the preservation of the waw as an a-vowel might be expected here (see the Ayin Yodh forms below).) ptfi(B) Ayin Y o d h : conversely. and the same general rules discussed above apply here. However. which in turn is doubled. Thus they are often called "Hithpeel" verbs. however. The Hithaphel (Hittaphel) Conjugation: The so-called "Hithpeel" forms of hollow verbs are really Hithaphel forms. the yodh of the Aphel seems t o dominate. oris. but there is n o certain occurrence of the imperfect. 1). these formations preserve the o-vowel. these conjugations are formed in BA by the reduplication of the final root consonant. As was mentioned previously. the preformative x is assimilated by the n. Perfect: the sole occurrence is a perfect: (sing. the Aphel. and the vowel is Imperfect: (sing.) Dfena 5. As in BH.) Dto r i n ^ (and ^aw) r a ^ Imperative: here (and in the imperfect) the true distinction between the two classes is readily apparent: (plural) la''?? . one an Ayin Waw verb. so the Hithaphel appears as Hittaphel. the Hishtaphal (see Lesson V. either _ or _ : Imperfect: (sing. the o-vowel under the doubled taw is reduced to a shewa.) DDilD (B) Hithpolel: this conjugation parallels in meaning and usage either the Hithpeel or the Hithpaal of the regular (strong) verb. the Hithaphel. (A) Peal: in the Peal conjugation diflferences between Ayin Yodh and Ayin Waw verbs would be expected in the imperfect as well as the imperative. In BA there are two roots with a Hithaphel (Hittaphel) conjugation. Perfect: the same as Ayin W a w : (sing.

57 Participle: only t h e passive is attested, and possibly it is a third person masculine of t h e Peil perfect: (sing.) Peil: the occurrence of a w-vowel here is difficult t o explain; possibly it is a Hebraism (on an analogy with the Qal passive participle of B H ) ; possibly it is a result of an earlier orthographic waw-yodh confusion, later lost [this form is n o t plene, however], but preserved in oral tradition to Masoretic times. Perfect: (sing.) w^il) [see the Peal participle above] n a ^ [feminine]


6. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Hollow: It is difficult t o determine whether the sole example of this class of verbs is an Aphel from t h e r o o t Bin, or either a Peal or an Aphel from the root D T I . Because of the cognate Arabic t h e author prefers the root yn, and because of the p a t h a h under the prefix (with the variant qames), the author prefers t o consider it an Aphel [cf t h e Aphel form r\''PFi above]. Neither conclusion is by any means conclusive. The form i s : Imperfect: (plural) itjin; 7. Verbs Lamedh Laryngeal and Hollow: Those few hollow verbs which have a laryngeal as the Lamedh letter, do not happen t o have any additional irregularities because of the presence of the laryngeal in t h e attested forms. They all belong t o the Ayin Waw class of hollow verbs, and so can be considered in that section of this lesson and need no further discussion here. 8. Verbs Pe Nun and Hollow: As in the class above, it so happens t h a t the presence of a nun does not add t o the irregularities already present in the two classes of hollow verbs. In fact, since there is no strong consonant in t h e p o sition of the Ayin letter t o which t h e nun (as t h e Pe letter) can assimilate in the imperfect, the nun is retained. T h e only attested form is in t h e Peal, as follows: Imperfect: (sing.) niri 9. Vocabulary: •'P'IBX — a title of officials -DnonDN — a title of officials • . . • . r TT 1 •nsiN — an inhabitant of Uruk •'Vaa - Babylonian S i m — which is; that is Kjrn — judges; . [ t r a d i t . — a proper name] niT — (haphel) t o act presumptuously PT — (hithaphel) t o live ' . . . •. , s (on); subsist (on) _ (^p^ei) t o j o i n t o gether; (repair, lay, officials or inspect)

"V * ? — ^ " ?? *

Kai3 — thus Dip — (hophal) to be set up

— t o flee *]10 — t o be fulfilled — (aphel) t o p u t an end to, annihilate —clerk; secretary; scribe (3) — Elamite Dip — (pael) t o set u p , establish Dip — (haphel and aphel) t o set u p , found, appoint, establish 10. Exercises: Ezra 4:8, 9.

— t o rise; be high, be haughty D l l — (aphel) t o raise; heighten D1-I — (polel) to praise; (exalt) D l l — (hithpolel) to rise up (against) D'tr — (hithaphel) t o be p u t ; > be made — an inhabitant of Susa; Susanian

Translate the following sentences,

and also translate nVx D^N (i)

xnipa-Vs ptn^ aaai in

xaqii N s p ? \n'7NV raaiii nnnni ppaiinn xps? sia-Vsi (2) rtio'Ts Vs Dferin i s n s i a i i nsp snVa (3) yoba ipni yobia D'pri n"?x rniaj (4) na-pn x y i ^ Vvi rVpai r a n Hrm nim (5) ni xVi Vnann xVi \>«m bppnb avp na»pV sniaVa "Bp-in-Va i»»;nx (e)


LESSON XIII G E M I N A T E VERBS 1. Gemmate (or Ayin Ayin) Verbs: I n this class, where t h e Ayin letter and t h e Lamedh letter (second and third consonants) are alike, there is a combination of forms which can only be adequately explained by assuming that some are fundamentally biconsonantal while others are triconsonantal. In other words, sometimes there is either gemination of the identical consonants or some compensation for it, b u t elsewhere there is none. If t h e expected gemination or doubling of t h e Ayin letter (second consonant) does n o t occur, there is usually doubling of the Pe letter (first consonant), especially in t h e imperfect and other forms with preformatives. Or, where this cannot take place because of a laryngeal or resh, there is either a compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel or t h e resolving of t h e doubling by a n u n (see I 3). Peal: most of the occurrences in t h e Peal are with verbs t h a t have another weakness in addition t o being Geminate (see t h e classes of verbs b o t h Geminate and also laryngeal or Pe N u n below). Perfect: the sole attested form of t h e Peal perfect is plural where gemination could most easily be seen, b u t it does n o t occur; rather, t h e verb is formed like a member of t h e Ayin W a w class, and hence is probably fundamentally biconsonantal: (plural) Imperative: t h e sole attested form here is also plural, and it has gemination, hence is fundamentally triconsonantal: (plural) (B) Pael: t h e Pael is uniformly like t h e regular (strong) verb, (VVg, VVg^, VVaa, etc.) with one exception-the feminine singular participle, which appears as follows: nVVaa (C) Haphel (and Aphel): only one occurrence is attested as being formed regularly, t h e Aphel imperfect of t h e verb W e (which see below); otherwise, in compensation for t h e lack of doubling of t h e identical second and third consonants, t h e first consonant is doubled instead (unless it is a laryngeal; cf. t h e classes of verbs b o t h Geminate and also laryngeal below). Perfect: (sing.) rtpnn [feminine]; (plural) ip^g Imperfect: (sing.) p^n [Aphel], b u t also VV^Ji [a regular Aphel formation] (A)

Hithpeel: this conjugation does n o t occur in this class of verbs in BA.) Daintf^ 4. as though it were t h e Shaphel of t h e regular (strong) verb. properly speaking. p^rnp [Haphel] np^ra and nplig [both Aphel] Peil: there is no occurrence of a Peil in the Geminate verbs in BA. but t h e proper distinction can be made by referring t o the basic verb r o o t . 5). and is formed by a reduplication of the final consonant. and Lesson X I . verbs of the Geminate class which also have a laryngeal for t h e Pe letter. is an Ithpoel. H o p h a l : see below t h e occurrences in the doubly weak verbs which are both Geminate and Pe Laryngeal. as well as its /-reflexive conjugation. The Hithpolel belongs t o the Ayin Waw (Ayin Yodh) class. and both of t h e identical consonants (second and third) are retained. Hithpaal: this conjugation of the Geminate class of verbs is regularly formed like the Hithpaal of the regular (strong) verb (cf the Pael above). The sole occurrence of this conjugation in BA happens t o be with preformative x rather than n. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Geminate: I n some of t h e conjugations. its place is taken. t h e final formations of the Hithpolel and Hithpoel look the same. However. In the Geminate class of verbs there occurs another example of the Shaphel conjugation. but the Hithpoel belongs to the Geminate class. The Hithpoel (Ithpoel) Conjugation: Closely related t o the Hithpolel conjugation (see Lesson X I I . 3) is t h e Hithpoel.t o the Shaphel (Hithshaphal). the only occurrences are as follows: Perfect: (sing. and thus.) aVVai? [with suffix]. see Lesson IX). a n d so is subject t o the usual rules of metathesis as follows: Perfect: (sing. which in turn becomes Hishtaphal by metathesis. there is one important distinction. contain . Imperfect: in BA the sole occurrence of the Hishtaphal conjugation in any class of verbs is in this class: (plural) pVVsnB^ 3. The Shaphel and Hishtaphal Conjugations: T h e Shaphel conjugation has already been considered (see Lesson VIII. by the Hithpoel conjugation (which see below). As a result.60 Participles: (sing). (D) (E) (F) (G) 2. (A) Shaphel: in BA the Shaphel of t h e Geminate verbs is formed quite regularly. however. sec. t h e Hishtaphal (for a discussion of the reflexive conjugations in general and of the Hishtaphal conjugation in particular. sec. I t comes from the root ontl. (plural) •\b'^yii Infinitive: nVV?B> (B) Hishtaphal: t h e Hishtaphal is formed regularly by adding the reflexive preformative hith.

Little wonder. in this class. (plural) iVsn (D) Hithpaal: like the Pael of verbs Geminate only.) Vsin Infinitive: aVwn but also nVyn (C) H o p h a l : the Hophal does not occur in verbs Geminate only. etc. t h e laryngeal is usually t h e initial consonant. However. then. » » i [§ade three—BH f S l ] . the resh is n o t doubled. in those conjugations of the Geminate class which require doubling of t h e Pe letter (first consonant). thus t h e hypothetical Geminate formation snn becomes shn: (sing. and thus there occurs an additional irregularity.) Vrn. or the previous vowel is lengthened in compensation.) VvnV? [Qere] nV^B [Kethib] Infinitive: ]na Participle: (plural) p V V [Qere] f"?!?¥ [Kethib] (B) Haphel: verbs Geminate only double the Pe letter in t h e Haphel. its third consonant (ayin) is a laryngeal.61 no additional irregularities because of the presence of the laryngeal. or even quadruply weak. its second consonant (ayin) is a laryngeal. but in this class. only t h e infinitive shows any difference from verbs that are simply Geminate without any other weakness. sec. In such cases the doubling is either resolved by a nun. which is also Pe Laryngeal as well as Geminate. in t h e Peal of this class. and besides all this. the verb is Geminate. Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Geminate: It may be maintained t h a t the only root of this class which occurs in BA.) y'ln . (A) Peal: because there are n o occurrences of the Peal imperfect in this class of doubly weak verbs. the laryngeal does n o t double. and is formed according t o t h e pattern of the regular (strong) verb. so the previous vowel is lengthened in compensation. but what would be expected in that class of verbs is what is actually found in this class of doubly weak verbs. (A) Peal: the long o in the sole occurrence is generally considered as a Hebraism. hence. thus the hypothetical Geminate formation *?»!] becomes bpiTi. Imperfect: in Geminate verbs the Peal imperfect would normally have the doubling of t h e first consonant as does t h e Haphel (see above. the sole attested form has so many apparent irregularities. Its first consonant (resh) cannot be doubled. 5. Perfect: (sing. that in the Peal. t h e doubling is usually (but not always) resolved by a nun (see I 3). Perfect: (sing. 1). is actually triply weak. the Hithpaal of this class of doubly weak verbs is quite regular. Perfect: (sing. however.

This Peal form i s : Perfect: (sing. the n u n is the initial consonant. I I . there is n o additional irregularity other than what normally occurs in verbs Geminate only (which see above). xanni xep? vam NVne nnn? ipn pixai xaVs Vwn nn ^xVa (i) pan ]naV aVp'ria Vaa ••a'-an aa VVa xaVa pix (2) K-ia nvr^ WV">N n l (3) (4) nrn VVtpn •'ninhn VVa^ Q V B ^ T V K j i r j a an V» vnni pnn I J T laVa rVx-Va ssnp-^n sVneai (5) n9ini?^Ni xaVa Va-'^a Vsn bv.62 (B) Pael: the sole occurrence in the Pael of this class of verbs is a triconsonantal formation. Therefore. just as though the verb were not Geminate.— — 8.^! p i g (e) KjaB> D V K D^a pVVantt^ a!^Nj tqann •q-t x n n p (7) .) n i ? 7. honorable (4) (shaphel) t o finish Exercises: Translate t h e following sentences. and also translate Ezra 4:10. > t o m a k e a nest difficult. Verbs Pe Nun and Geminate: I n BA the sole attested form of this class occurs in the Peal perfect.) vvyi 6. and as such. but rather both Ayin Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal. t o take i n t o exile t o crush (haphel and aphel) t o crush t o show mercy (to) (aphel) t o seek shade. Vocabulary: — foundation (5) — (hishtaphal) t o be finished n w 3 — and now — (pael) t o speak VVs — t o go in. Participle: (sing. enter bbv — (haphel) t o bring in — (hophal) t o be brought in — copy (1) — t o crush — (pael) t o crush — wall (4) D»8^ — (ithpoel) t o be appalled mi — t o cut d o w n nVi — (haphel) — — ]in — — Tp.

BA usually has the active a-vowel in all forms of the Peal perfect of this class.63 LESSON XIV L A M E D H H E VERBS L The Development of the Lamedh He Formations: The so-called "Lamedh H e " class of verbs is actually a mixture of three classes of verbs in BA. —n. These all appear as final So the existing forms are t o be regarded as either final x or final • formations. it is possible t o trace the changing course of the various formations of this class of verbs with some degree of probability. sing. —!p}3 or 1X13 > l i a [loss of intervocalic • or x ] > [I D ] > iia [ I ' A ] 1 p l u r a l — x i ^ i a > xi*ga [I P ] > x r i 3 [I A . — n ^ S or rXJS > n i a [loss of intervocalic • or x ] n i a > [I A . — rni or n x i a > M a or n x i a [the loss of final vowel] > n'la o r n'la [I 5] > n'la or m:i [I A ] 3 masc. also w i t h t h e variant of final n for final x ] > 113 > 113 orthographic .] 2 masc.—^^33 or x i a > 13 [with t h e loss of intervocalic • or x . or ''. In BA there is no trace remaining of the forms with final i. aa. pi. t h e > n _ ending also has the orthographic variants n x _ and n X . which has the stative j-vowel. i. Therefore. will be disregarded in the outline of development below. sing. it may be well to consider in some detail the probable development of the Lamedh H e verbs in the Peal conjugation [the change from the original non-aspirantized forms of the n O D n n letters to their aspirantized BA forms. namely those whose final consonant was originally either N. > With these basic developments in mind. The greatest variations from the regular formations of the strong verb are exhibited in the Peal conjugation. became t h e long vowel a] > ja [I A ] > n}3 or X13 [the existing n or x being merely a mater lectionis for long d] 3 fem. sing.']3 > n^]3 [I A ] 1 sing. Perfect: whereas BH has a constant mixing of the active a-vowel and the stative j-vowel in the formations of the Qal perfect of the Lamedh H e class. 3 masc. it occurred somewhere along the line of development]. except in t h e first person singular. the two > short vowels together.

the passive participle is n o t a qatil type (as in a'na).pl. the Peil conjugation of the Lamedh He class of verbs is a qatil type (as in 3''ria). there are only two Peal imperatives in the singular.ia. the first forms listed are not to be regarded as true Proto-Semitic]. Active Participles: t h e masculine singular is formed with s . sing. the N appears regularly in the imperfect of the derived conjugations and in the other forms which are based on it. with the orthographic variants ""is and ""la]. is merely a mater lectionis] Peil: On the other hand. Imperative: in all of the Lamedh H e classes of verbs together. the • appears as the final consonant.will be disregarded in the outline of development below. > -faT [I D ] > 3 fem. with emphasis on actual occurrences in the Lamedh H e class of verbs. or ''. but is r a t h e r a qatal type: •'ia> N13 [ I P ] > N13 [I A : here t h e final N. — i r i a ' or JINia: > fnT. or p x i a . hence. 3 masc. sec. Infinitive: t h e regular BA formation •'Jaa> Niaa [I P .|3ari > ^lan [loss of final vowel] > s i a n [I P] 3 masc.J3. or long.64 Imperfect: in E A the imperfect of the Lamedh He class has quite uniformly the characteristic a-vowel of t h e stative (see Lesson VI.) N?3 n. . with 8 as a mater lectionis]. p i . The Derived Conjugations of the Lamedh He Class: In the perfect of the derived conjugations.> p i a .) -"ig > •'13 > ""IS [ 1 A . all the others are formed with •>: (sing.|?a^> "^iT [loss of final vowel] > niT [I P . (plural) v''3a or w i a > r i 3 [loss of intervocalic • or s ] > Via > r i a [I A] > 2. 1. Nia. and these difier as to the use of or K (see below t h e class of verbs b o t h Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh He and the class b o t h Pe N u n and Lamedh He). [loss of intervocalic • or K] > p i a . and is formed as follows: (sing. On the other > h a n d . with s as a mater lectionis] 3 fem. However. it should be noted that the x in the final position here is merely used as a mater lectionis. n'laa.—. conjugation by conjugation. t h e infinitive also occurs w i t h o u t the mem.to yi.sing—. [loss of final vowel] > •pi?.— i. o r its orthographic variant n. (plural) p i a p n Passive Participles: in the Lamedh H e class of verbs. This is true regardless of whether the original r o o t was N. 1) [for the sake of convenience the change from the original prefix ya. [loss of final vowel] > p n ? [I A] Jussive: the third person masculine plural of the jussive is without the final nun of the imperfect. The derived conjugations will be considered below.

(plural) rac* Imperfect: (sing. and also has _ instead of _ under the first consonant: (sing. with but few changes in vocalization.) 'Vanri Imperfect: (sing. (plural) iinpn'tn Imperfect: the verb mn substitutes "? for • wherever the latter occurs » in the personal prefixes of t h e imperfect.) 'aa Participles: (sing.) Nltrna Hophal: in BA there is no attestation of the Hophal conjugation in the Lamedh He class of verbs.) Imperfect: (sing.) 'aa m a .o? Niann. (plural) jiantf*: iariET' Oussive] 3. Perfect: (sing.) v^T. (A) Peal: the endings of the Peal of the Lamedh H e verbs are found. in addition t o the irregularities of t h e Lamedh H e class. Perfect: (sing.a??B.) 'antPN [Qere] Imperfect: the imperfect also has a final n for the mater lectionis instead of N in one occurrence: (sing. (plural) pacr Imperative: the sole occurrence has • where K might be expected (cf > the imperfect). Perfect: (sing.) NV?nn. masculine . F o r t h e sake of illustration. and in addition there is usually a composite shewa under the laryngeal.) fQFtfy. sec. the Peal will be discussed in full. however.65 (A) Pael: the endings found in the Peal are also found in the Pael. singular and plural.) N33na (E) Hithpaal (Ithpaal): once again the same endings are found as in the Pael [note the occurrence of metathesis].) niri (and xin) nin (and nirj) n^inn-'irj. with the other conjugations which occur mentioned briefly.) Na"i. (plural) pannn Participle: (sing. any of the irregularities of the Pe Laryngeal class may occur (see Lesson X.) xaipn' Infinitive: matt^n Participle: (sing. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs. 2). Perfect: (sing. (C) (D) Hithpeel: again quite uniformly the same endings are found as in the Pael. in one verb there is a most unusual development in the imperfect (which see). Perfect: (sing. (plural) pVsa (B) Haphel: quite uniformly the same endings are found here as occur in the Pael.

. with one exception as follows: Participle: the Aphel participle of rrn is completely anomalous (probably an e r r o r ) .) «n. (A) Peal: practically all of the formations are identical to those of verbs Lamedh H e only. » for there are only two occurrences. the use of V is now generally considered t o have been derived from the Accadian (cf Acc. Here also the Peal will be considered for the sake of illustration of these rules.) xna (C) 4. (plural) pfn Passive Participle: (sing. so this class has no additional irregularities in the Pael compared to verbs Lamedh He only. the sole other doubly weak verb of this class with the imperfect attested. Haphel (and Aphel): all the formations are quite normal. Both the perfect and imperfect of the Peal conjugation are thus used with the participles of other verbs. has a formation with x: (sing. Perfect: (sing. has the usual •<. if the K is considered as a mater lectionis.) Kjn As has been noted previously (see Lesson VI.) N I ^ V (and nw^) Minn (and n i i l ? ) . the form is written as a m o n o c o n s o n a n t a l : (sing.66 and feminine.) n»a. and the class of verbs b o t h Pe N u n and Lamedh He (which see below). this classhas a formation with ' . Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Lamedh He: The phonetic rules of both classes involved apply in this class of doubly weak verbs. with a seghol under the preformative n in the perfect. and the other conjugations will be mentioned briefly. the usual endings of the derived conjugations of the Lamedh He verbs. a composite shewa under the laryngealin the imperfect. liprus): (sing.) xsa? Infinitive: S»3B Participles: b o t h active and passive participles are just like those of the Lamedh H e class (and also occur with n for s as a mater lectionis). (B) Pael: the regular (strong) verb and the Pe Laryngeal class both use pathah under the Pe letter in the Pael. etc. xaa^ W'sa . sec. (plural) pilVl^wV Infinitive: Ntna Imperative: in the masculine singular of the Peal imperative of all Lamedh He verbs. (plural) iin (and iin) Active Participles: (sing. (plural) i»a Imperfect: (sing.) Ktn (and nay). mn is frequently used in BA as an auxiliary verb. 6). it is impossible to tell whether final N or final • is dominant.

tax (10) ^Vr. Perfect: in this class of verbs occurs the only attested third person feminine singular perfect of any of the classes of Lamedh H e verbs. This is true of both the simple and the derived conjugations.) xto (B) Hithpaal: the x is retained in the feminine participle. with xVa — (hithpeel) t o be (with) ma — (pael) t o appoint — rebellious (4) filled . t h e previous vowel may or may not be lengthened in accordance with the rules given in I 8 (e. it is listed here as follows: (sing.g. 1): (sing. being a laryngeal. Verbs Pe Nun and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs. and is formed just as verbs Lamedh H e only. there are only two attested roots. t h e nun is here dropped completely (cf Lesson X I .— (ithpeel) t o be distressed — near.) nxfeino 6. because of its paradigmatic importance. in other respects.67 (B) Pael and Hithpaal: in these conjugations the Ayin letter. and in compensation. The root xiM invariably retains its s in those formations which have ^ or n in other classes of Lamedh H e verbs. tax (4) n. The sole occurrence of the other root of this class is found in the Hithpeel perfect (third person masculine singular). — toll.) xfel Imperative: it is impossible t o tell if this form is normative in the use of x (on analogy with the imperfect). Hithpeel (Ithpeel): quite uniformly the same as in the attested formation of verbs Lamedh He only.n —• t o live rrn — (aphel) t o let live. > treasury. cannot be doubled. restore t o life m a . the only other Peal imperative singular in any Lamedh H e class has the " (see verbs both Pe Laryngeal and > Lamedh He above). Vocabulary: DhBX — store-house.) nnsriN [Ithpeel] (C) 5. sec. t h e Pael of this class is almost identical to the Pael of verbs Lamedh H e only. beside.). xna. (A) Peal: the two occurrences of xtol in the Peal are as follows: Perfect: (sing. [eventually? positively?] — t o come B^xa — b a d (4) nVa — (pael) t o wear o u t iVa . where all other Lamedh H e classes have the Participle: (sing. with few formations.

Exercises: 4:12. > violate niB* — (hithpaal and ithpaal) to be changed p"?p — t o go (come) u p nVs — (pael) t o pray 7. niB^ — (pael) to change.i (2) n n •'ima Vnana niNr-ii^a i i a Vx^n n i x ' nnans (3) naan 'Vann Niqa aa"? p N a (4) NaVa n n 'jna^n Vx faV»V '^n xaVa bvm nax (5) Njaa? nVx"? 'Vsi '•nii^v ""i^ N?*?? nVa (e) . lift u p carry away. > violate niB* — (haphel) t o alter.68 ptl — (haphel) t o damage X^—to take. 13. ( i ) NniaVa •-B^N"! Naaa mn xas nirj-ni ma n n Nas mn-n. Translate the following sentences and also translate Ezra xVai ypba •'^TpVi nni f i a t xjtfn.

(plural) Infinitive: n. sec. unless there was an early orthographic waw-yodh confusion. (A) Peal: the aleph prefers t h e composite shewa. as in t h e infinitive. The Haphel Passive Conjugation: In the class of verbs b o t h Pe Aleph and Lamedh He there occurs something unique in BA.n 2. Participles: (sing. like verbs Pe Aleph only (see Lesson X I .n.69 L E S S O N XV O T H E R D O U B L Y W E A K A N D I R R E G U L A R VERBS 1. Both verbs follow the normal patterns of their respective classes (see Lesson XI). (A) Haphel (and Aphel): the only occurrences are two forms of the participle of n r . In BA it is common t o find passive participles in the derived active conjugations (see Lesson VIII. and the endings are all in accordance with t h e corresponding formations of the Lamedh He class. 3.) "nrn. and may even be omitted entirely. These unique formations are as follows: third person feminine singular perfect n^n^n (and the variant n^n^n). and the Haphel (Aphel) is an original Pe Waw. third person plural perfect r n ' n (and t h e variant rn'n).)nnx [active] ntX [passive] (B) Haphel: this conjugation is formed on an analogy with the Pe Yodh class. where it is merely a mater lectionis. Perfect: (sing.) Knina [Haphel] vrrta [Aphel] w n . The endings are all in accordance with the corresponding formations of the Lamedh H e class. sec. there are only a few verbs in this doubly weak class. an obviously passive conjugation of the Haphel. Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs. However. This is n o t a H o p h a l . 1). Perfect: (sing. 8). (plural) ins Infinitive: Nna KTa Imperative: (plural) i n x Participles: (sing. b u t nowhere else are found other passive forms. t h e initial consonant follows the rules of t h e Pe Aleph class.) nriN (and uriN). The Shaphel is a true Pe Yodh. Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs are found only two verbs.

2). t h e Shaphel of (w)asu). it cannot be doubled. 5. T h e three verbs will be considered individually below. In fact. This characteristic is t h a t some of t h e formations of the verbs in question (though n o t all). However. this one is also related to the Accadian (susQ—usesi. which seem rather t o belong t o " V as follows: (imperfect) •qn. It would be qn .) S'S'^ [Kethib] "Sl* [Qere] 4. are analogous t o the corresponding formations of the Geminate class of verbs. in verbs Ayin Laryngeal only.70 (B) Shaphel: like t h e other occurrences of this conjugation in BA (see Lesson X I . for in the Pael and Hithpaal conjugations. although seemingly unrelated t o the casual observer. for t h e sake of completeness. The other three attested forms are quite regular. nevertheless can be grouped together under one common characteristic. There are two other forms which have been traditionally attributed t o the hypothetical root '. It is the third person feminine singular perfect of a i n : nannn. The result is t h e same. which. In all cases the Ayin letter is resh rather t h a n being a true laryngeal. and even fewer irregularities (some formations are identical t o their strong verb counterparts). In BA t h e r o o t •qVn is n o t used in t h e Peal perfect or Peal imperative. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal: There are very few verbs in this class of doubly weak verbs. the previous vowel is lengthened (see Lesson X).G e m i n a t e " class of verbs. and three occurrences of a pathah before t h e final laryngeal instead of a sere or hireq (see Lesson X ) . it is somewhat curious that all three have V as either the second or the third consonant. Perfect: t h e perfect of NS"' has a Kethib-Qere variation: (sing. but instead t h e r o o t VtK is used. and (infinitive) -qna. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Ayin Laryngeal: There are very few attestations of verbs in this class of doubly weak verbs. these verbs might be termed the "Weak Lamedh" class. These verbs are n o t Geminate. Pseudo-Geminate Verbs: In BA there are some verbs exhibiting irregularities. 5. 6. for t h e lamedh apparently disappears or is assimilated. However. the sole occurrence of the Hophal in this class of doubly weak verbs is here listed. There is one occurrence of a composite shewa under t h e initial laryngeal in place of a simple shewa. Therefore. Although t h e three verbs involved do n o t have identical second and third consonants. and Lesson XIII. and in compensation. sec. sec. there is no attestation of the Hophal conjugation. but could be classified as a so-called " P s e u d o .)in. more pronounced t h a n this behavior of the lamedh are their various analogies to the Geminate class.

This accounts for the forms -qri' and 'sjrip (cf. sec. but would have been formed regularly. as follows: Perfect: (sing. or participle) they would not have been formed on an analogy with the Geminate class. only there it has some formations analogous t o t h e Pe Yodh (Pe Waw) class. sec. is considered by some authorities as incorrectly so written. if it is assumed t h a t " V ! q? is the root. this seems t o differ from •ijVn in the Peal. presumably they t o o would have .there is frequently gemination or doubling in the first consonant. imperative. and so n o t formed on an analogy with the Geminate class. On the other hand. the participle f pVna. pVo. Peal infinitive of ]in. The one occurrence of -qbri in the Aphel conjugation. exhibits formations analogous t o the Geminate class in the derived conjugations. but n o t in the Peal. Lesson XIII. It should be kept in mind that •qVn exhibits weakness in B H . 1). on the other hand. and the n cannot be doubled. H a d there occurred formations of rjVn in t h e perfect or participle. it should be noted that these occurrences are uniformly without a preformative.) Ttpbo. In BH these alternate formations are so widespread that most Hebrew grammarians postulate the existence of a root T)"?'. jna. Actually. for the imperfect is precisely where the i or ^ would be found in these classes. the loss of the Ayinletter is explained. as well as in BA. but formed on an analogy with the Geminate class. especially in the imperfect a n d other forms with the preformatives (see Lesson X l l l . If not. •qVn is also Pe Laryngeal. 4). for this class is also regularly formed in t h e Pael. but this t o o could be considered to be on an analogy with the Geminate class. not omitted. However. there is no comparable verb both Pe Laryngeal and Geminate in the Aphel conjugation with which to make an analogical comparison. N o t e that both forms in question (imperfect and infinitive) have preformatives.71 difficult to classify an imperfect of this formation as either an Ayin W a w or an Ayin Yodh verb. had there occurred forms of "^pn in the Peal without preformatives (perfect.If this emendation is correct. Instead. The second verb. Turning t o t h e derived conjugations. t h e observations in the above paragraph apply. The Peal attestations are perfectly regular. they prefer to revocalize it as a Pael participle. -qVn is quite regular in the Pael conjugation. pDVnp. (plural) ip"?? Participle: (plural) ipbo On the surface. Presumably. rather than analogous t o t h e Geminate class as in BA. Rememberthat in the Geminate class.

the entire matter is doubtful. t h e final consonant being reduplicated. the Poel conjugation is not to be confused with the Polel conjugation. or would normally occur in all forms of the Peal perfect. it is undoubtedly a Poel. The V is completely elided. a holem (usually with waw). The attested forms are as follows: Haphel perfect: (plural) ipon Haphel infinitive: niroin [13] Hophal perfect: (sing. sec. However. The form of the Poel in question here is as follows: Passive participle: (plural) pVaiOKi Perhaps with so few examples. the "? is assimilated to the previous consonant. Vao. they may well be called verbs of t h e "Pseudo-Geminate" class. they are listed below individually. and in compensation the initial consonant is doubled. and invariably its formations are analogous t o the Geminate class. The formation in question is as follows: rriB^N. had pbo occurred in the Peal imperfect or infinitive (and thus with a preformative). there are a few other verbs in BA that exhibit other minor irregularities in form or in usage. it t o o might have been formed o n an analogy with t h e Geminate class. Although t h e two are identical in form. The verb nntf has a prosthetic K in the Peal perfect. the initial consonant. 7. and yet n o t being true Geminate verbs.) pon The third verb. which is strictly from the " H o l l o w " class of verbs. or this doubling is resolved by a n u n (see I 3). and the third consonant (the last two being identical in true Geminate verbs). On t h e other hand. Other Irregular Verbs: In addition to the verbs above. as in BH. Without any attempt at classification. pVo does have preformatives. the second consonant. And in BA. Should the root actually prove to be Vao instead." But with these verbs exhibiting some tendencies to formations analogous with the Geminate class. because its sole occurrence is in the Poel conjugation. 5). it is difficult t o determine whether this is an isolated phenomenon. Since the verb is attested only in the third person plural. can be considered analogous to the Geminate class.72 been regular (see above). having present. the Poel is strictly a Geminate class conjugation. Stated another way. . in order. This is n o t found in other forms of the Peal conjugation. In the derived conjugations. it is n o t really wise t o set u p a so-called "class. The writer prefers t o class this formation in question as a Saphel of t h e Pe Y o d h (Pe Waw) root (see Lesson X I .

73 In its sole occurrence. > reach (pael) t o walk about (aphel) to walk about (hophal) to be laid waste (haphel and aphel) to praise (shaphel) to finish. the imperative. the Peal perfect of "ijo is found as nip instead of the expected i j p . Exercises: Translate t h e following sentences. becoming (4) revolt (4) (haphel) to bring record (book) (4) to go [tradit. heat fitting. lay.x a y . ^aa? oVipn''"? ^na"? 'niinai Vsnftr. and the participles. > be under obligation of loyalty nVa — salt (1) •?30 . Although the verb V a i occurs in the perfect. The use of a r r and ]n3 is completely complementary with an"' being used in the perfect.a x'S'tih ( i ) nan •^iVnp nini Nnins aia bm-f? nia xaVa (2) Naa-p bm-i ppni x a r p npoinV nax bmib^ (3) pVaioa 'niniOi aVirn-'a NnV^-n'aV nx-a^ nana n^nmi (4) niiaa i^^J??^ T^l?*? ^"^^ "^l^ ^"V^ ^5) Naaxi NS7S nVtna NB^ni -nVnV inaa^i xsoai s a m 'iNa la vnu^N (e) rjn. shame (7) to finish.] to g o . Vocabulary: T-: T'JN — nns — n?n - ann — to light. and also t r a n s l a t e Ezra 4:14. > preserve "lip — to shut pVo — (haphel) t o take u p pVo — (hophal) to be lifted up n n s — nakedness. and ]ni being used in the imperfect and the infinitive. 15. na nVgV xjina an x-iia nini n n nn. 8.(poel) t o bring. the imperfect. is also used in the participles.p xas-Va n D»p o'lp 'aa (7) . Vns. be finished nna^ — to drink 9. be finished nVp — to eat salt. and the participles. a parallel verb. The complementary use of rjVn and VtX has already been discussed in the preceding section of this lesson.

2. in t u r n .) (following a vowel) (following a consonant) (following a vowel) 3 (fem. Instead. the independent personal p r o n o u n is used (see Lesson III.) T (following a consonant) (following a vowel) (following a consonant) 2 (masc. Formation of Suffixes on the Perfect: It can be maintained that most of the suffixes were added to forms resembling closely the Proto-Semitic. were modified according to the rules of BA phonology. These may be added either to a finite form or to the infinitive. 2 E). Verbal Suffixes: In BA pronominal direct objects are usually expressed by suffixes. as follows: Person 1 (com.) These suffixes may be modified slightly when attached to verbs of the Lamedh H e class. The one exception to this rule is that the suffix of the third person plural does not appear in BA.) (following a consonant) Plural 1 (com.74 L E S S O N XVI VERBAL SUFFIXES: WITH THE PERFECT 1.) T Singular (following a consonant) (following a vowel imperative) and with the 2 (masc. They are n o t used in a reflexive sense. .) (following a consonant) T 3 (masc. Thus. The forms of the verbal suffixes are basically the same (except the first person singular) as the pronominal suffixes on nouns. which forms. sec.

) ijyiin haphel r]pVB>n haphel 3 (masc. a result of Proto-Semitic qatala plus the Proto-Semitic third person masculine suffix hu. Obviously. Table of Suffixes on the Perfect: The following table is a complete list of attested forms in BA of pronominal suffixes on the perfect. for it is almost impossible t o consider the attested form nVpp. The suffix n-~. (see I L).) •'iny'Tin haphel 1 (com. 3.) 3 (plural) 'JlVan pael 2 (masc. However. Form of the Verb Suffix 1 (com. this basic assumption cannot be universally true.) 2 (masc. plural) xinsiia haphel wn'ria haphel .) nana peal aaVtf^a haphel an. suffixes will not be found on the passive or reflexive conjugations. in considering the entire picture. Hence.) 3 (masc.N aphel aVVs^ shaphel ••nW peal -aiaipa haphel 3 (fem. Thus. is illustrative of this type of analogical development. in BA a greater extent of analogical formation must be postulated than in most of the other Semitic languages.75 the Proto-Semitic Vpj? plus the suffix •rj > "^Vtsp. for example. for such conjugations do not have a direct object.53 peal 1 (com.) 'nja peal anno peal anfe peal aa-i?a haphel apVtt^a haphel a»''f'. It must have originated in noun forms and spread t o the verb. it is practically impossible t o formulate universal rules to cover the development of the attested forms.

76 4. The Suffixes on 'rfN: Alone, •'n'S indicates existence, and means "there i s " or "there a r e " (see Lesson IV, sec. 6). With the negative it means "there is n o t " or "there are n o t . " However, when it is used with a sufiix, this does n o t hold true. In such a case, it is used as a copula (which, if found at all, is usually expressed by the third person independent p r o n o u n ; cf. Lesson III, sec. 2 B). As a copula, with the suffix usually expresses additional force or emphasis (see Lesson VI, sec. 6 B, and sec. 9). A complete listing of the occurrences in BA of •'n'tt with the various pronominal suffixes is given below as follows: •q;ri''N [Kethib] •!]n"'S [Qere] 'nTri"'N XJin-N [Kethib] Nir'N [Qere] pD'n-'N

5. 1Vocabulary: — — — — Van — — — — arm, force (4) hurry (9) injury; damage (8) (warned); > cautious (4) h u r t ; damage (4) a share in (4) rebellion (1) decree; official document (4) Translate Ezra 4:16-23. — (pael) to separate — word, decree (4) Nip — (peil) to be read; (be shouted) — to grow great — negligence (9) — welfare; [as a salutation] hail (4) — strong, mighty (4) TP?




LESSON XVII VERBAL S U F F I X E S : W I T H T H E I M P E R F E C T , T H E I N F I N I T I V E , E T C . 1. Formation of Suffixes on the Imperfect: In BA most of the attestations of the imperfect with a suffix occur in the so-called " E n e r g i c " form of the imperfect. In the singular the Energic imperfect of BA ends in -inn (the nn is reduced t o n when it is vowelless), and in the plural the Energic imperfect ends in -unn (sometimes written with a long m). However, two examples are found of suffixes on forms other than the Energic imperfect (in b o t h cases, in the Pael conjugation). These two examples seem t o be attached t o the jussive forms of the imperfect (see Lesson VI, sec. 2). Some grammarians call the Energic imperfect the " L o n g " or " C o m p l e t e " imperfect, which is found only with suffixes. Then the " S h o r t " imperfect is that used in modal expressions. However the latter is usually identical in form with the ordinary imperfect, and is " s h o r t " in only a few forms. 2. Table of Suffixes on the Imperfect: The table below represents a complete listing of attested forms in BA of the pronominal suffixes on the imperfect.

Singular Form of the Verb Plural (all masc.) [the person of the verb is in brackets] [3] [3] [2] 'aVny pael ••asJ"Tin; haphel ""asJ-Tinn haphel


3 (masc.)

3 (fem.)

i (com.)

1 (com.)

'a>nT pael ••ain? pael -aviin; haphel

[2} •'aiSJ-Tinn haphel [2] 2 (masc.) pael •qiar^ shaphel [3] '•ainnn haphel ^iVfja; pael

78 Singular Suffix 3 (masc.) (3 fem.) Form of the Verb Plural (all masc.) 1 (com.) aJVlifiN haphel 3 (masc.) [the person of the verb is in brackets] [."] [3] [3] [3] 3 (fem.) auri; peal Tiivr pael 2 (masc. plural) aiBhTR peal aJjP.'iri aphel aaVna; pael nwVria; pael ana»tt; pael naitt^B^ pael

v^f?«0: peal pDjantJ; shaphel

3. Table of Suffixes on the Infinitive: When the suffixes are a d d c t o the Peal infinitive, the final short vowel is i u .;ed t o a shewa (see T A ) . In the derived conjugations, the suffixes a n ded t o the constru orm of the infinitive, ending in tV\— (see Lesson ^ i, sec. 3). T h e table below lists all of the forms attested in BA. Suffix Infinitive Suffix Inli.

1 (com. singular)

'inW'lin haphel '^S-iin haphel

3 (uusc.) si • ;ular

aiira ; .i a^asa peal

2 (masc. singular)

^frtSfin haphel •qniana haphel "^riViVp shaphel

aa-ifja pe^i ariVsa haphel ariaj??! haphel a n i a n ? shaphel

1 (com. plural)

Kiniajntf shaphel

) •'I'pSJn haphel ••linn haphel 3 (masc. [plural] elders (4) VXB^ — t o ask. The suffixes are added directly to the imperative. 6. Table of Suffixes on the Imperative: In BA there are only three occurrences of the imperative with suffixes. toil. act as a prophet 7. Vocabulary: exactly. sg.) ••niVan pael 5. The sole occurrence in BA has a KethibQere variation as follows: 'q. " b e a m " ? ] n T a » — work. stop building (4) squared (stones) (4) VnaKai wall (1) (hithpaal) to prophesy. singular) Imperative (2 masc. > require 7ra — (pael) to begin ain — (haphel and aphel) t o give back. [tradit. eagerly a title of officials wall. without any helping vowel. Exercises: Translate Ezra 4 : 24.si6? [Kethib]. plural) 1 (com. the participle can be used as a noun or as a verb. Suffixes on the Participle: In BA."^ [Qere]. sg. formerly (7) a(P — h o a r y .1 1 . as in other Semitic languages. as follows: Suffix Imperative (2 masc. The suffixes are added to the participle as they are added t o nouns. answer f n n n — two [fem. be discontinued. service (7) n a i p — former t i m e . "^v. administration. deliver. 5 : 1 . .79 4.] W-ISON Voa to cease.

is not employed by all grammarians to describe the distinction in formation of Semitic nouns. There are some advantages in classifying nouns in this maimer. a few noun types are listed below. The latter is the basic type. 2. These cultural loan words occur more frequently in nouns than in verbs. although other possible occurrences have been suggested. participles. In addition. Definition of Noun Types: Although the same word.80 LESSON XVIII N O U N TYPES 1. or other noun formations. Since nouns in the various Semitic languages are generally triconsonantal. although many words so considered may actually go back to a common Proto-Semitic source. it may be well to use this designation for this particular feature. In addition to the various Hebrew. In considering the noun types of BA. due recognition must be given to the rich heritage which that language possesses. the more accurate can be the classification into n o u n types. especially in recognizing the meanings that some of these types have. it is possible to classify nouns according to the modifications (both consonantal and vocalic) which they undergo. having definite patterns of vocalization of the same basic root. Accadian. The greater the number of Semitic languages in which such cognates occur. Recognition of Noun Types: It is essential t h a t the student have some knowledge of the phonology of the language involved in order to recognize n o u n types (see Lesson I). With this background in mind. type. adjectives. a knowledge of other Semitic cognates of the word under discussion is quite helpful. it abounds in other words from these and other languages. . Also it should be noted that no formal distinction will be made in the discussion between nouns. and Persian proper names of persons and localities found in BA. Careful distinction should be made between the Aramaic type and the Proto-Semitic type. Borrowings from Greek are certain only in the field of music. it should be noted that this lesson dealing with n o u n types will be confined to those which are Semitic in origin (or at least have had a long history of Semitic usage). Borrowings from Hebrew are especially frequent in relation to religion or other Jewish institutions. Borrowings from Accadian and Persian are most frequently connected with governmental or political administration. F o r the sake of illustration.

there is a reconstructed Proto-Semitic form of the noun in question. A similar procedure could be used for any Semitic language. In t h e third column is given the basic Proto-Semitic type of the noun in question. and does not refer t o types strictly BA unless specifically so indicated. where the Ugaritic forms are often identical with the so-called Proto-Semitic forms. but it has a pathah due t o the i (see 1 J). It actually makes no diflerence whether the feminine sufiix is present or not in BA. 3. Conceivably. As a matter of fact. yet they may be considered rather certain due to their occurrence in Ugaritic. One or two BA words are listed as examples of the type in question. Table of Noun Types Occurring in BA: The table below lists the basic Proto-Semitic types (cf. in the fourth column. In t h e first column the BA (or Hebrew or Accadian.) noun is given. t h e basic type is listed without it. Hence Vpp is the Aramaic type of npp. By definition. any of t h e types below could have feminine nouns as well as masculine nouns.aN Type Biconsonantal Nouns qal qil Common Use{s) nxa . and finally a common or general usage in BA (if any) is listed. then the type is given. Example{s) niB>. It should also be noted that some of these hypothetical Proto-Semitic forms are very similar to extant Arabic forms. this is the form usually meant by t h e term type. the third column above). Although these forms are hypothetically reconstructed. Finally. Vpp Proto-Semitic type Proto-Semitic noun qatl qitl qattil qatil ba'Iu sipru qaddishu baniyu The few nouns given above are merely random examples. some of the types happen to have no other examples in BA except feminine nouns. In t h e second column t h e basic consonants are used (VtJp from t h e standard paradigm) and the vocalization is that of t h e regular (or normal) Aramaic form of t h a t type.81 Aramaic noun Vya -Ipp BT'Ti? Xia (owner) (book) (holy) (building) Aramaic type Vtsj? Vpp V'pp.etc.

very likely a Hebrew loan word] (abstract noun) (adjective.82 Example{s) Type Common Use(s) Biconsonantal Nouns (continued) 30 T qal qil qui Geminate Nouns qall qill qull naxjaj Triconsonantal Nouns •7573 IBD "in? naVs T \ : qatl qitl qutl qatal qatil qital qutul qatal qatil qatul (abstract noun) (passive participle of Lamedh He Class (adjective) [doubtful. passive participle of the strong verb) (feminine abstract noun) qitai trag DVS? T ari3. active participle of the strong verb {not a P-S type.3n3 Tin? ne*?! IBS n3r)? qutal qatal qatil qatol qattal qittul qattal qattil (adjective. nomen agentis) (the Pael infinitive of the strong verb) (the most common adjective type in BA) Nouns With More Than Three Consonants VV aa ]???1 "IBIDIP qalqal qatalal qataltal [reduplication of a biconsonantal stem] [reduplication of the final consonant of a triconsonantal stem] [reduplication of the final two consonants of a triconsonantal stem] .

etc. b u t . class 9). the ending holem with waw (iVa).83 True quadriliterals include such words as rans. BA has a few other types involving diphthongs. the BA gentilic ending (""Vaa).. yet inV- nVsa — scroll. and the feminine suffixes -ith and -Hth (see Lesson VII. decision (9) pri8^ — sixty Translate Ezra 5:12-17. In addition t o the above types. Nouns Formed With Prefixes nariDN nVron ]3BJa nan?^ inn 'aqtal haqtal miqtal shaqtal (the Aphel infinitive of the strong verb) (the Haphel infinitive of the strong verb) (the Peal infinitive of the strong verb) (the Shaphel infinitive of the strong verb) [a noun formed by adding prefix / t o the verbal root *dawara] Nouns Formed With Suffixes These suffixes include the suffix n u n (pia). Vocabulary: — place. 1 and 2. see I D ) . Exercises: am — (peil) t o be given Chaldaean -except. but nan — to sacrifice nan — sacrifice (of slain animals) (1) — record (4) 5. sees.g. roll (7) M e d i a . which will not be discussed here (e. Mede(s) nnp — to demolish ^ns . fortress nTa (7) npa — (hithpaal) t o be investigated m ? — yet.breadth (4) will. . Db~}n. trace (2) — fortified place. 6:1-3. DV. etc. 4.

2). 3). for they have several forms which are similar or even identical to each other. so the singular will be discussed in greater detail below. and the form of the same noun in BA may differ considerably from the original. The designation type. Nouns Belonging to Class 1: In this class are grouped all the nouns of the so-called "segholate" formation (the name is derived from the BH noun class. the former is a q i t l type and the latter a qatal type (Lesson XVIII. F o r example. sec. The term class. The nouns of this class are of the three types. they are often called the nouns of shortest formation. refers to the basic Proto-Semitic stem. i p p and i n i have identical formations in the singular of the absolute state. This vowel is usually an e written _. The absolute (also the construct) form is developed from the stem by the insertion of a secondary (helping) vowel between the two final consonants. qatl. Classes 1 and 2 of nouns (see Lesson Vll) may be rather easily confused. This . on the other hand. the former belongs to Class 1 and the latter to Class 2 (Lesson VII. Confusion of Similar Noun Classes: In order to prevent confusion between nouns that have many similar forms. sec. for the emphatic singular is formed by adding the BA determinate ending N_. but when a laryngeal or resh is present it becomes _ (see I J). 2 below). and qutl. For example. The emphatic state usually reveals clearly the Proto-Semitic type. 2. is simply one of several groups so designated simply for convenience in learning the declension of BA nouns. a clear distinction must be made between noun types (see Lesson XVIIl) and noun classes (see Lesson VII). Hence. Class 1 of nouns includes all BA nouns belonging to three basic types (see sec. Because nouns having certain similarities in their modifications due to declension are rather arbitrarily grouped together in a class. where the presence of the seghol is common). However.to the type stem. In such cases the original noun type determines to which noun class the word in question belongs. Being monosyllabic in formation.84 LESSON X I X S I M I L A R N O U N CLASSES 1. qitl.. it is possible t h a t one noun class in BA may include two or even more types of nouns. The confusion between these two classes of nouns is largely confined to the singular rather than the plural.

Similar Noun Classes in the Plural: The above discussion has been confined to t h e singular. 3). qutul. As was pointed o u t previously. qitul. Distinguishing Between Similar Noun Classes: When a form like -ipp is compared with one like nni it is easy t o see how they can be confused as to noun class. however. Here. of nine possible types: qatal. This means t h a t though the roots of the singular and of the plural . However. if there are only a few cognates. and so it becomes a shewa (see I L). xipp 3. F o r this reason. the second vowel. as long as the student keeps in mind t h a t the plural stem of the "segholate" nouns is metaplastic. and qital (see Lesson XVIII. the original types include qatal. and the pretonic syllable is subsequently reduced t o shewa (see 1 A). qital.85 secondary vowel attracts the accent t o it. but the pretonic vowel is reduced t o shewa. qatil (in BA all occurrences have a due to a final laryngeal or resh). xVya l a y > nay > nay [I A and M ] . qitil. not the first. however. or an / changed to an a where necessary in the presence of a laryngeal). snay • i B p > -IDO [I J] > nap [I A ] . The plural of these nouns causes no particular difficulty. however. however. 5. t h e results are quite uncertain. or n o cognates at all. etymology is t h e only real solution t o the problem. is pretonic. The student must become acquainted with t h e cognate forms in other Semitic languages in order t o be able t o distinguish correctly between these two classes. -in3> ini [I A ] . In t h e absolute (also the construct) form. sec. for the latter resemble t h e former in t h e emphatic state as well as in the absolute state. Nouns Belonging to Class 2: The nouns grouped together in Class 2 are dissyllabic. qatul. F o r example. xnni is formed exactly like sVya in the emphatic state singular. qutal. qatil. does n o t help in distinguishing between nouns of Class 1 and nouns of Class 2. in BA only forms with a in the final syllable occur with certainty. nni plus N _ > « n r i 3 > N"i?t3 [I L] > xnri? [i M] 4. qutil. As a matter of fact. Even this. Even then. A few examples will serve t o show this development. A single example will suffice to illustrate these two main developments. VV? > "7»3 > Vra [I A ] . the accented second vowel is retained (either an original a. however. The development of these types of noun differs in the singular of the emphatic state. t h e emphatic state of nouns belonging t o Class 1 will indicate the noun type t o which they belong.

. order (3) «nB — (hithpeel) t o be impaled (on a stake) — (anointing) oil (1) tjail — layer (of stones or wood) (')iVii . but the plural stem is malak.refuse-heap.. the similar formation of t h e nouns of these two classes leads t o analogous forms when t h e suflBxes are a d d e d : e. the final forms of t h e plural of nouns belonging to Class 1 are indistinguishable from t h e plural of those belonging t o Class 2. sec. Consequently. the stems are different types.expense (7) (haphel) t o bring near. but t h e plural stem is sipar. The stem of t h e singular is monosyllabic.86 contain t h e same three basic consonants. > offer p'llT — far (4) t o leave (behind) niVsj — burnt-offering (4) 7. This is true in B H as well as in B A : e.. t h e singular stem is sipr. t h e singular stem is malk.g. •IBS — lamb (3) IDf — r a m (2) »)pT — t o impale ran — new *1Bn — wine (1) nntf^n — need (7) — w o r d . Vocabulary: 6. ruin(s) (9) riches (2) nimi — incense (4) nw — (hithpeel) t o be pulled out np?? . Likewise. ]i3*ini which is here treated as though its stem were nahr (on a n analogy with t h e segholates). 2). Exercises: Translate Ezra 6:4-11. instead of mhar as it really is (see Lesson VII. t h e stem of the plural is dissyllabic.g.

The Cardinal Numerals: Although the limited a m o u n t of BA literature leaves many gaps in the attested forms of the numerical systems. The masculine number " t w o " occurs in the construct s t a t e : n n . the entire system of cardinal numerals can be reconstructed with some degree of certainty by analogy with those forms which do occur.] 10 mfes? [12] n t o . The table of numerals below will be confined t o the absolute state of numbers actually occurring in BA.000. ssnx ntf 37317 6 7 nnir^ nsaa* [120] p a w i nN!? [etc. The masculine numbers ending in n . Masculine Feminine Common 1 2 3 4 nn p. That means that the numerals which are apparently feminine in form (with the usual feminine ending n—) are used with masculine nouns.in the absolute state. there is so-called "chiastic concord" in the numerals from three t o ten.] The word i 3 . " A thousand t h o u s a n d " is ppVs fjVs [the M T has the Hebraism—final mem for final nun]. as in B H .| " a large multitude.87 LESSON X X THE NUMERALS 1. the numerals apparently masculine in form are used with feminine nouns. " T e n thousand times ten t h o u s a n d " is pan i3"i.n nnVn n»a"|S "in nVn T : 20 30 60 [62] 100 200 400 1000 nxa » 3 n « T I I - rn?^ nxa T . Conversely. 2." " a myriad. Presumably the feminine pnnn also h a d a construct state formed analogously.n n [etc. also have the apparently . Uses of the Cardinal Numerals: In BA." is used for 10.

" T h o u s a n d " occurs in the construct s t a t e : The construct state of the numbers occurs only infrequently in BA. t h e n o u n is in t h e plural." "altogether. " T h o u s a n d " also occurs in the emphatic state: NsVx. The formula used for indicating the day of the m o n t h is as follows: H T V nnVri DV " t h e third day of the month x " (Ezra 6:15). "(as) a son of 62 ye'ars"] (DanV 6:i[5:31]). Standard Numerical Formulas: The formula for dating events by the reign of a king employs t h e following p a t t e r n : niDVaV pr)"iri ny0 " t h e second year of the reign of x " (Ezra 4:24). In t h e former case t h e noun is in the singular. 3). 7:25). 2:35). The formula used t o express multiplication is as follows: nyat£>"nn "seven times" ( D a n . T h e n u m b e r " o n e " is used as a noun.88 feminine construct ending ri— in the construct state. the numbers can be used with pronouns instead of nouns. 3). The standard formula used t o express t h e age of a person is as follows: prinni pna^ \<X0 1 3 ( 3 ) "(approximately) 62 years o l d " [lit. It is used with t h e preposition D t o mean "together. I t is used t o stress or emphasize t h e indetermination of a noun (see Lesson II. 3:23). sec. nnn njp'Vn njva-i . Masculine first second third fourth pin -p-'Vn •'S'an Feminine ma-rp. The numbers are usually used with nouns adjectivally. in t h e latter. 4. The fraction "one-half" is indicated by t h e use of t h e noun SVB [lit." or "completely": nitn? (Dan. I t is debatable whether or n o t other fractions actually occur in BA. " a division"] (Dan. t h a t is used for gentilic nouns (see Lesson II. 3. 3:19). It is also used t o express multiplication (see sec. 3 below). either preceding or following t h e nouns they modify. sec. •>_. as well as adjectivally: pma in " o n e of t h e m " or " t h e first of t h e m " ( D a n . in such cases being used with the pronominal suffixes: jinriVri " t h e t h r e e of t h e m " ( D a n . The Ordinal Numerals: I n BA t h e ordinal numbers (except "second") are formed with t h e same ending. Also. 6:3[2]).

destroy. division (of Levites) (8) Translate! Ezra 6:12-18. — he-goat (4) oatf^ — tribe (1) pa? — (pael) t o cause to dwell m — six — two [ m a s c ] 6. Exercises: . as well as the absolute state. 5. sying (7) tS — goat (5) > prophe- niVs — division (of priests) (7) T B S — — — npVr"? — month (1) Levite (pael) to overthrow course. 2:7). The apparent feminine construct ending ni_ on the number "second" is actually an adverbial ending: mi^in " a g a i n " or "for the second t i m e " (Dan.89 The ordinal numbers occur in the emphatic state. Vocabulary: T — exile (9) damage joy (7) — number (3) Van — (pael) to hurt. nnn nxpn — sin-offering naan — dedication (7) T : V nsna — prophecy.

anan anan ana. The Regular (Strong) Verb: Perfect Person 3 m. 2 m. 2 m. l???n? ana. ana. Peal Pael Haphel Aphel Hithpeel Hithpaal ana nan? nana nana nana !iana nana pnana «??na nana lana nana pnana xiana anan nanpn panan nanan lanan nanan pnanan Nianan anps nanpK nanaN anann nanppn panpnn nappnn lanapn nanpnn anann nappnn nanann nanann lanann nanapn nanpx lanax nanpK pngnas pnanpnn pnananri xjanas xjawnn xjanpnn Imperfect 3 m. 3 m. anann anann ananx pappn. pa??. anan anan anas pan?. 3 m . 3 f. sg. anann anann an^n^? panan. pi. 1 c. pi. 3 f. pi. panpn. 1 c. pi. anan. panann an?ni pa^an anai panan anaj papann anam panan anai panpnn anan? Infinitive anai? nana nan?D nanaK nanann nanann .90 PARADIGMS 1. sg. ian?p. 3 f. 1 c. pi. sg. anan. sg. anann anann ananx i V pana. sg. sg. 3 f. pi. 2 m. pi. anan anan anas anan. sg. ian?p. pi. 1 c. 2 m. sg.

sg. etc. pi. m. sg. . f. ana nana fana nanaa pnaa l?naa ananxj nanan!? r???n? lananp anaa nappa r?naa !?naa anana nanana rananp lanana anana nananip panana lanana )m a^na Passive Participle m. 1 c. 1 c. sg. Peil a'na na'pa na'pa naTi la'na na'na fina'na sjyna Hophal anan ngnpn nanan nanan lana^i nanan pnanari Shaphel ana^ nan?^ n?naB> Hishtaphal anane^ nanar«f?n nanantf^ nana^ lana^ nanaef pnana^ Kianat? nanant^ii ian?nfn nan?ni?^n pnanane^ mm The Shaphel imperfect is a r i a ^ . etc. The Hishtaphal imperfect is an^ritt^. anaa anana anaa na^na pyna lyna [In t h e derived conjugations t h e feminine singular and b o t h t h e masculine and t h e feminine plural of the passive participle are the same as in t h e active participle. 2 m. pi. pi. 3 m. sg. sg.pl. f. sg. pi. pi.] Perfect Person 3 m. sg. sg. m.91 Imperative Person m. f. pi. f. f.sg. sg. 2 m.pl. 3 f. 3 f. m. Peal ana '?na lana Pael ana "ana lana Haphel anan 'anan lanan Aphel anaN -anax Hithpeel anann "•anapn lanann Hithpaal anann ••anann lanann lanaK Active Participle [Reflexive Participle in Hithpeel and Hithpaal] m. pi.

pi. 3 f. 3. pi. mp. 3 f. 2 m. andPe Aleph Verbs: See Lesson XL Hollow Verbs: Ayin Waw and Ayin Yodh [for other forms see Lesson XII]. 3 f. Laryngeal Verbs: See Lesson X . Perfect Person 3 m. p i .92 2. Peal OR nap. sg. n!?P. naainnn etc. lav.q . 4. Pe Yodh. Pe Nun. 3 m. etc. sg. p i . pi. 1 c. sg. na'pn na'pn etc. etc. pL 1 c. 3 f. 2 m. etc. 1 c. mp^? riaip. Dipn Dipn • t a'P-Ol D'pnn Q'pnn naiT oainn. etc. Peal Haphel a'pn Polel nan Hithpolel nainpn etc. 2 m. 3 m . sg. 2 m.nap pnipj? «3ap pnxj'pn Imperfect 3 m. sg. D-^jpn D'fen etc. sg. pa'ir pa'pai l»'pa: pa^yn pa'pqn a?™ m\ riaipn •ipi Infinitive °pa Dfea naain n^ai-inn njtnn . p i . p i . «p. sg. 1 c. sg.

sg.93 Imperative Person m. pi. sg.na Peal •?» Haphel pnn npnn etc. 5. sg. Geminate Verbs: Or Ayin Ayin Verbs [for other forms see Lesson XIII]. 3 f pi. 3 f sg. pi. Haphel Vwri etc. Hithaphel m etc. nVy etc. Imperfect 3 m.\ Ithpoel Dain(?st etc. etc. pnnn pnnn etc. Perfect Person 3 m. aanna etc. f. f sg. sg.sg. sg. m. 3 f. 3 m. iVin . Peal t3ip pip < Peal Haphel D'pri Polel nan Hithpolel Danpn etc. f pi. Hophal "?»n . pi. etc. 1 c. p i . P'pn la-pri etc. pi. na't? na'pna raT.\ nW etc. sg. 1 c. sg. 2 m. sg. Wip Participles Active m. 1 c. . 2 m. m. VS7K i"?» Ipnn Passive Active n-'pna nana etc. sg. 2 m.

sg. 2 m. f.i3nn iwrjanji m rria Ua nn jvria Kris n-ja r?a n. m. 2 m. >?» nV» pVy pina npjna rpnna Vsina etc. Lamedh He Verbs: Original Lamedh Aleph. 1 c.33 n'jan nan' iw'ian K?^aD r^iann w^>n. and Lamedh Yodh [for other forms see Lesson XIV]. 3 m. sg. pi. sg. Infinitive Peal Haphel Haphel Imperative m. pl. 3 f. 1 c. pi. sg.i Peal nn Pael -53 Haphel •"jan n!?an n-ian Hithpeel -lann n!)3ni:» rfnpn n'lapi. 6. 3 f. pi.! rnnn nriann Hithpaal "Jann n!ia nngn? n'nnn n^ann i^anq n. m. pi. sg. f-sg. -Vs. 2 m.:i . pi. sg.94 Person 3 m. pi. 3 f. Active Participle m. pi. pi.sg. Perfect Person 3 m. 1 c. Lamedh Waw. p i .

pl. jiiann |ii?nn papn N3?fl3 f<3ani ^nam Infinitive mn TT - n-nn TT . pi. 3 f pi. 3 m. f. sg. sg. sg. - n. saann xnnn xaanx ]iaar. 2 m. pa? itiaa ^3?nKl?n Nianri xnnri i<l!?^ wans linn. 2 m. pi. pi.sg. sg. 1 c. m. f. sg. 3 m. Hithpeel wana misna Hithpaal KHanp ri? m m m ":??na rsana T:»oa n. -n -?? iaa -ian -?an iaan Participle Active Peal ]Passive Peal Active Pael Active Haphel Nian!? Person m. f sg. m. 3 f sg.3apn mnnn Imperative m.33na r3??9 riana . 1 c.95 Imperfect Person Peal Pael Haphel Hithpeel Knm xasnn Nisnn KnnK Hithpaal xnn. pi. pi.

command l a x * Iamb nnx pnx another (at) last nix I px they. those [ m a s c ] . god nVx these iVx behold! fVx these •riVx those. or both the Hithpaal and the Ithpaal respectively. The asterisic indicates that the exact form listed is unattested. a r m . In a few instances of extreme uncertainty the consonants are left without any vocalization in this glossary. The abbreviation hithp. force xntx promulgated. In these formations the characteristic vowel of the perfect (the vowel under the second consonant) is given. in some instances there is some degree of uncertainty.t o trust in l a x t o say. there is (are) •rax t o eat Vx n o t aVx Vx* these G o d . father fruit t o perish haphel—to destroy. h e a t VTX t o go ( t o or away) nx* brother nrnt?* riddle -inx* after n n x * end ax* ax* nax — — ]M nnJX pnx ]snwnx* yV'X ina-'X* •'ri"'X another satrap tree terrible existence. or h/ithpa. slay hophal—to be destroyed stone letter then T l x * threshing floor '^!^^^* counselor x n m x with zeal. All the other conjugations are designated. (these) iVx thousand nax* cubit nax nation p x h a p h e l . The verbs without a designation as to conjugation are in the Peal (including statives). The abbreviations h/aph.. but gentilic nouns are given. N o proper names of persons or places are here listed. it may be restored with certainty. both the Hithpeel and the Ithpeel. except in the case of stative formations of the Peal conjugation. [or] gone nrx t o light. eagerly Vnv.. However. h/ithpe. indicate that the verbs in question occur in both the Haphel and the Aphel. is used where it is extremely uncertain as to whether the attested formation is Hithpeel or Hithpaal. The verbs are given without vocalization.96 GLOSSARY In most instances where the singular of the absolute state of a noun is not attested in BA.

request. by (means of) E^'SS* b a d trS3 t o be displeasing t o t o trouble. master t ] 1 8 * face triN man. > fire-offering — p a e l — t o search (eagerly). call u p o n enchanter wall. — p3 nrs VP3 ened. pi.3* •73 n'73 to spend the night house. b e o n t h e p o i n t o f .] IIDS «l-lSpN "IDS »N (]K b o n d . t o e . prayer Vys owner. > temple mind ms* nns p a e l . fetter exactly. investigate nx* s i g n . > heart. trace nVi?3* npa — hithpaal-to be investigated son field na -la* . m i r a c l e nns — pns nns to come h a p h e l . be d i s c o n t i n u e d . [eventually ? S?3SN* d i g i t . be perplexed t o cease. sing. stop pael—to stop between. also beam nnS3 after Babylonian pael-to hurry pael-to frighten disperse. vg-ps* f o u r pnK* purple n s behold! way lion fitting. length of Uruk becoming > treasury. eagerly prohibition wood. those [fem. knee duration. r u n great risk •qnS n33ns* npiK iVs ni3 — p3* pl3* 033 n5?3 "•pis* a n i n h a b i t a n t S?ns* e a r t h "•ViN* bottom earth pnS* S^N «]B*N pB^K* nnriB^K B>N* f o u n d a t i o n fire.-beam??] revolt 1»3* petition.] 3 in.t o bring (in) furnace place.t o wear out tax to build hithpeel—to be built sons [plural] building to become angry t o seek. > to hurry fright- — hithpaal—to be •"pIBK* a t i t l e o f o f f i c i a l s •"ponsN* a t i t l e o f o f f i c i a l s "•pnonpN* a t i t l e o f o f f i c i a l s DhBN storehouse. oppress. lord plain pael—to seek. scatter nnis •"VpS* nns iVng '?n3 — hithpeel —(to be perplexed). among p o s i t i v e l y ?] finger discernment place.[tradit.97 NiriiN pjN D3K we they. mankind y o u [masc.] y o u [masc. fortress nTa* fortified ^ 3 n.

complete W treasure wing ons* bone 0 8 ^ * body ai which is. 14] n t o judge n in* "T • right. food. (so) that gold a i * side. determination m aphel—to stir u p TS* plaster wheel nVa t o reveal h a p h e l . perfume. ? ? t o fear Vnn pael—to make afraid.] V. etc. justice. t h a t [masc] t h a t [com. back pit.—musical instrument] . concubine.—to be cut o u t . that.t o bless knee D"13 yet. judgment. etc. > a liquid measure nan to sacrifice n a n * sacrifice (of slain animals) pan to stick together ni31 ann «inn mn m a t t e r . break off decree. judges t h a t [fem. table. but n^a flesh n a * b a t h . order. [see p .] bear . council (of judgment) judge [tradit. command.] ram linan* record record (book) pVn t o burn nan t o resemble n n this (is) [masc] Pi?n t o crush h/aph. warrior treasurer nns to cut down interior.1 of. frighten .—to crush in generation.—a proper name].98 rjia •qia — •q-ia* t o kneel t o bless p a e l . nn T law grass «nn* n a n ^ * judge n Kn an this [fem.t o take into exile iVs* exile squared (stones) nas t o finish. den nniai* might man 13? na?* (mighty) m a n . lifetime arm »nn* decree. midst nil pride 131?* treasurer -ITS t o determine (destiny > by astrology) h/ithpe. that is t o dwell Bhn to tread down m n n * [tradit.

damage hurt. decide (pi. > com- ngnn« h i g h r o y a l official nnn* •nn xin mn •qin x'n Vs-'n ^Vn musical instrument naj* m u s i c i a n . T>VT» pVT «]pT »nT small to wail. majesty particle T>j* b r i g h t n e s s . (for.) life to live hithaphel-to subsist to tremble (on) 'yq* •«n mn . perceive apparition. agree. music turn for strings. plexion) OT pt pt nap innocence hithp. Tit pt snt haphel—to tuously act nirq* T\^n* sight sin-oflfering sin living. that t o b e . (pi. or injury.. h a p p e n .99 n n Nn ns-Kn interrogative behold! e v e n as member pael-to he. ian •qiian* VJ •"ID they they [masc] [masc] necklace if.-to time. ap- pt to buy "ViJ]* ( w a r n e d ) . t o see. temple to go. pearance vision. exist to go [tradit. to seed. crime. singer or. then. mn mn 1 a n d . damage pael-to damage hithpaal—to be destroyed.] she.] ifinn* nVnann in mrj* rrpn joy new pael—to show.—to interpret white make known. perish hurt.that palace. |T* sort. alive. make k n o w n h/aph. > reach pael—to walk about aphel—to walk about toll. whether either. destroy. damage fantasy (in a dream) hurry gift nan* nnan* companion companion one breast [fem. tax glorify glory.. etc.) — r ntn > cautious presumplive (on). > shriek descendants impale kind nVian Van — hurtful act.

pass by a share in fury wine wheat dedication to show mercy (to) hithpaal—to implore.100 n-n nrn en V?? can na?n oVn iVn P"?n ton nwn* nsin* T\-: pn mpn pn non «)sn ann Dfann •qnn aphel —to let live. be paid Jew. be finished a s . advice. > be glad a? good nap* executioner.t o be added t o advise ithpaal—to take counsel together s h a p h e l . wanting h/aph. command.to occupy.t o finish.pael—to make certain n^a:* dry — . prevail sea rjp-. possess might molded clay hfaphel—to be harsh hophal—to be laid waste magician h i t h p a a l . army wise wisdom dream to pass (over). hungri(ly) pD* (wet) clay. . > earth heap of stones h a n d .t o be singed fasting(ly). > n n * hip aa^n to consider. animal a p h e l . Jewish nim* or day aD' to be pleasing to be able. give to eat D5?P sense. power h / a p h . lay.t o be given — h i t h p e e l . . (earthenware) Vp dew a p h e l . > to make a nest p a e l . h o p h a l .t o praise nr to know — h a p h e l . lay.t o be given.t o bring s a p h e l . or inspect) strength.t o make known. bodyguard niB mountain aKc preserve land. restore t o life beast.t o seek shade.t o join together.t o feed. report (finger)nail. (repair. communicate a m to give — p e i l . claw npp* nnts to drive away 'Vsnp* a class of officials nip — h a p h e l .t o bring. make supplication deficient. > respec ^TB^n* darkness nB^n t o be in need of nnttfn* need inB^n* need Vafn t o grind o n n t o seal P to be g o o d .

about nan? lie when. roll . nothing A V * heart A A V * heart B#IAV* garment vflib t o be clothed with. all. > language as. order vessel scroll. honor month (the upper p a r t of the) thigh sign of the accusative t o sit. a dry measure n^^'O* cap. reliable. wear — h a p h e l . true to burn burning.101 well-established. feast N J N V concubine '<Yi* night NAV why? for what purpose? > lest yf?* tongue. extraordinary. firm. according t o . tie n b * k o r .] •NV* Levite N I V * near. (so) F Naia thus t2^a to assemble h i t h p a a l . document. throne i-iji^a Chaldaean in- an' ana t o write ana writing. exceedingly •p t o . dwell haphel—to settle.t o proclaim seat. honorable dignity. h a t ma lina* i t h p e e l .t o clothe (with) |JIV except.t o be distressed herald na KOna h a p h e l . > firebrand T p ! * difficult. as soon as na here Vna to be able priest nja* window naa* talent whole. yet JO^ therefore [Heb. beside. with ANV (bread).t o be finished naa how! [exclamation] t h u s . b u t . cause t o dwell — pael—to bind. scription Vna wall Tn. every because of VVa shaphel—to finish h i s h t a p h a l . for.t o assemble n j a * colleague silver 19? now niya and now nsa peil—to be bound ? a nxa ]TSB* naxa ]Na* nVia hundred balance word. sign of t h e accusative k V n o t . > meal.

gift N-ai* prophet nir^nai* candlestick. come u p o n . t o w n . stay hithpeel—to be impaled (on a stake) course.t o check. > banquet nina* gift hithpaal-to prophesy. be willing layer (of stones or wood) t o flee nni nni nini* Trii* iTni "ini mi xai (sheath > body). bestow. entering). division (of npVna* Levites) «»a t o reach.t o offer willingly. lamp (stand) nil t o flow nil towards. reign.102 pael—to overthrow altar tax. prevent. tribute nna • i n a * dwelling Media.t o be plucked out n^a (anointing) oil aaap* bed psto* abode •'i?in?'a* pipe. > be under obligation of loyalty nVa salt king counsel na>a' queen laViS kingship. a t t a i n . Mede(s) nj-n!?* province. > prophesying natai present. city ' n a what ? that which nia death ]iTa food Hna t o smite p a e l . in the direction of nil* brightness ana h i t h p a a l . tribute understanding nia t o number pael—to appoint nnia (grain) offering nana* pljp number nas?a* work. matter. > on account of light light illumination (of mind) river t o flee . [with " s u n " ] > sunset tna lord m a * rebellious TT nna rebellion ana p e i l . act as a prophet nsiai* prophecy. deed nya* belly (going. kingdom VVa pael—to speak who? ' T I P whoever from. out of. than since mina nnja tax. happen t o to fill sVa hithpeel-tobefilled(with) angel nV)? word. flute xriB?a* drinking. affair nVa to eat salt.

pni* ]n3 nni sanctuary who t o give is g i v e n ) nis? tjis? a p h e l . scribe •jjDl* l i b a t i o n nap* npp Vanp* •!]np* nno nno naSJ* nsi Vsi Xpi B^pl Niw hithpaal-to oneself h/aph. time.t o be made. book a garment. bronze to come down h/aph.-to deposit Vao poel-to to intend to pay homage to governor t o shut bagpipe(?) t o be fulfilled aphel—to put an end to. up — h i t h p a a l . vulture official d o c u m e n t servant. be done to knock together t o take. ofi"er t o fall ( d o w n ) to go out haphel—to take (out) expense firmness. carry a w a y .t o take away still. [cloak? sers?] h i g h official to demolish pael-to hide troubring.-to pure rescue.iSp1D r\^0 — copper. toil. > preserve h o p h a l — t o be deposed t o lift u p peil .t o rise u p a g a i n s t nras?* work. until t o g o . yet iniquity bird •pm* w o m e n [ p l u r a l ] naitfl* na^l breath ( o f life) eagle. pass a w a y . (one nv nns? "QTtpi* d e c r e e . m a k e h i t h p e e l .t o be pulled o u t p a e l . administration. deliver nas? lift to d o .t o shake o f f . lay.103 WiVll TU pn — B?m nm — — bvi — nw DDI* naj noi •!|D1 "7D3 pDl — npDl* refuse-heap. annihilate end to go (come) take up up up haphel-to hophal—to clerk. service the opposite bank u n t o . > year depart h a p h e l . turned servant into. aid secretary. leopard h i t h p e e l .t o p o u r o u t . ruin(s) fire to come to grief haphel-to damage nao niD ]lp» niD n.t o be lifted u p t o keep nimi* i n c e n s e riches panther. hardness distinguish t^io p"?D — — nVD be lifted pael—to help.

advice eye Tiy» wild ass niny* nakedness. ancient TV (awake). > watcher. worship (God) (divine) service OS m o u t h o p a part of the h a n d . concerning na-Vs? why ? wherefore ? above. > angel (up)on. shame a^y herbs.to be plucked o u t ip. decree nnB t o open JVB peil—to be open.t o mingle n n s * governor i n ? potter arpB* a garment.t o mix — h i t h p a a l . ground for acT • cusation burnt-offering • V * superior. over. [palm? back? all below wrist?] stringed instrument V n ? iron C I S peil—to be divided o n p half-shekel. poor ]iy* cloud «]iy» bough. enter — haphel . [tradit.-halfmina] -D-JB* Persia. Persian(s) t o c o m m u t e . remote time ••aVy* Elamite vbv* rib oy people. highest. against. over pretext.y r o o t i y * adversary ana p a e l . [coat? trou- sers?] t o divide half division (of priests) t o serve. branch B^jy fine [a legal term] ' p y * foliage a'Sy sad ip» i thpeel . the Most "y High ••Vy* roof-chamber frba* t h e Most High V?a t o go in. be opened breadth .to bring in — hophal—to be brought in oVy eternity. nation ay (along) with p'ay* deep nay wool lUS t o answer niy* miserable.104 chaff TV* goat npW* signet-ring nos? counsel. remove pael—to separate copy t o interpret pael—to interpret interpretation •jnp word. grass nfey ten ptoy ne^S? Tny* p'py twenty peil—to intend ready (to) old.

[plural o f great multitude Vtjp ian ian "•yan* fia"^an» m h a p h e l . like matter. greatness fourth lords. chief grow great p a e l — t o make g r e a t . an nan — to chief (up).t o bring near. read peil-to be read.t o be killed knot. former tt^xn head. image bird T B S * he-goat J wet h i t h p a a l — t o be wet onmp Vp Vp enduring. t h i n g . formerly ^np* Dij*p . heighten myriad. because holy before former t i m e . — to (cause to) prosprogress s t a t u e .t o be set u p t o kill p e i l . desire pael—to side true (right-doing). endure p a e l — t o set up. city horn piece truth nip t]Sp «]Sp I'Sp nsp xnp — xns* T np-fS nsis* mVs nVs nes* anp nnp* pp pael-to receive before. establish h / a p h . > righteousness neck pael-to per. b i g .t o kill h i t h p e e l . appoint.t o be killed p a e l .a i P * first. joint.t o be killed h i t h p a a l . wish. make h/aph. establish h o p h a l . wish.t o cut off e n d . task summer statute > difl&cult great. m a k e angry Pip. an] grandees. become Dip t o rise. part t o call ( o u t ) . DVS pray — anp — — fare well. — t o set up. m rage foot Vjn* . t o w n . offer war village. (sure) zither insolence.105 Djj? nns US S3S — ns to desire.t o irritate. (be shouted) hithpeel-to be called t o draw near. approach > p a e l — t o offer h a p h e l . curse v o i c e . nobles. sound to buy t o be(come) furious wrath p a e l . found. s t a n d .

Susanian mP t o spoil sr?* t o rescue N'S'tJ t o finish. 4 strings) ^afe t o grow great K^iiD great.t o consider unVpB^ insight WiP t o hate 1VV hair — n p'>ni* far flpni compassion(s) h i t h p e e l . place. pass on to tr*31£> hithpaal—to be perplexed nbit* concubine 11^ hithpaal—to strive niltf — — t o be like pael —to make like hithpaal —to be made (like) wall — — — !|S?n* •fcai* yiVl VVI — OB") Oftil -^if^* h o a r y . much.#* t o ask. spirit o n to rise. make.t o rise u p (against) height secret hithaphel —to be p u t . decision thought flourishing t o crush pael—to crush t o tread down t o write. > require question. carefree niVB>* prosperity . [plural] elders KD3t* stringed i n s t r u m e n t .t o be left. be finished nSB? h a p h e l . > be made VsiP h i t h p a a l . remainder p a e l . requirement rest.106 tr*n haphel—to throng i n . [adverb] very n n ^ * witness. impose (a tax) peil . m a n y . lay. testimony ipfc side D "! t o place. (storm in) n * appearance n n wind.t o praise. be haughty a p h e l .t o find — hithpeel—to be found VVaa? [see'7'73] t o dwell — l"?^ pael—to cause to dwell negligence n"?(^ ( t o be) at ease. inscribe VNE^ nbvm* -)XB# nyo D3i.to be thrown hithpeel—to be thrown will.t o praise tribe flame seven p3ir^ t o leave (behind) h i t h p e e l . heighten p o l e l . (exalt) h i t h p o l e l . (triangular.t o raise. be high. es" !? tablish an inhabitant of Susa.t o trust in smell to t h r o w .

t o serve Vtpt* sun ift* t o o t h ot pt* nit — — leg t o loosen. again •. finish. [with a] continually h/aphel—to give back.107 to send t o rule. seem good l ^ n B a ^ * dawn third p a r t . be frightened ox. magistrate Tp??* s t r o n g . humiliate Vptf low.—third in rank] thirty there n a n * wonder second nan nii^in a second time. deliver (completely) welfare. am t o r e t u r n duration). annihilate ]?aB>» heaven. (short space of time) DDB> t o judge T B t t > fair. deliver. bull nin* ninn u n d e r sVn snow ••niVri* t h i r d n V n three Nn"?n nitt* t o be changed.—to humble. mighty Vpn peil—to b e weighed Vpn shekel . > violate — haphel . beautiful bot h/aph.t o begin hithpaal—to be loosened. answer m n t o be amazed.—a r o o t ing o u t ] r\t six nnt t o drink fFit sixty nan to break T i n * (encircling.t o obey Vhit p a e l .to alter. sky oat i t h p o e l .t o destroy. [tradit. [as a salutation] hail name Tot h a p h e l . > shake ttt* r o o t ytit b a n i s h m e n t . [lit. > violate — h/ithpa.nDn* police officer.t o be appalled s?atf t o hear — h i t h p a a l . > dwell p a e l . humble IBt t o please. officer.—to be changed rat* year niB^* sleep nvt moment. be different — pael—to change . have power over haphel—to make ruler over dominion IbVi?* high official mighty. it is allowed peil—to be finished haphel-to complete.

m o u t h . become strong pael—to make stringent.] . gate prinn two [fem. enforce *]pri strength r^pri* s t r e n g t h p"iri* two [ m a s c ] VIFi* doorkeeper »nri d o o r .108 pn tjppi — hophal—to be reestablished to be strong.

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