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serve most needs of the student, as well as of the practicing engineer, for doing
routine calculations. I f a heat transfer research project requires accurate and reliable
thermophysical property data, the prudent researcher should carefully check relevant
primary data sources.


The Basic Heat and Mass Transfer software has a menu that describes the content
of each program. The programs are also described at appropriate locations in the
text. The input format and program use are demonstrated in example problems in the
text. Use of the text index is recommended for locating the program descriptions and
examples. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the text and the software.
In principle, all numbers generated by the software can be calculated manually from
formulas, graphs, and data given in the text. SmaU discrepancies may be seen when 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N AND E L E M E N T A R Y H E A T T R A N S F E R 1
interpolation in graphs or property tables is required, since some of the data are
stored in the software as polynomial curve fits. 1.1 Introduction 2
The software facilitates self-study by the student. Practice hand calculations can 1.2 Heat Transfer and Its Relation to Thermodynamics 3
be immediately checked using the software. When programs such as CONV, PHASE, 1.3 Modes of Heat Transfer 7
and B O I L are used, properties evaluation and intermediate calculation steps can also 1.3.1 Heat Conduction 8
be checked when the final results do not agree. 1.3.2 Thermal Radiation 13
Since there is a large thermophysical property database stored in the software 1.3.3 Heat Convection 17
package, the programs can also be conveniently used to evaluate these properties for 1.4 Conibined Modes of Heat Transfer 24
other purposes. For example, in CONV both the wall and fluid temperatures can be 1.4.1 Thermal Circuits 24
set equal to the desired temperature to obtain property values required for convection 1.4.2 Surface Energy Balances 27
calculations. We can even go one step further when evaluating a convective heat 1.5 Transient Thermal Response 29
transfer coefficient from a new correlation not contained in CONV: i f a corresponding 1.5.1 The Lumped Thermal Capacity Model 29
item is ehosen, the values of relevant dimensionless groups can also be obtained frora 1.6 Mass Transfer and Its Relation to Heat Transfer 34
C O N V further simplifying the calculations. 1.6.1 Modes of Mass Transfer 36
1.6.2 A Strategy for Mass Transfer 3!7
1.7 Dimensions and Units 37
1.8 Closure 37
Exercises 37


2.1 Introduction 58
2.2 Fourier's L a w of Heat Conduction 58
2.2.1 Thermal Conductivity 59
2.2.2 Contact Resistance 61
2.3 Conduction across Cylindrical and Spherical Shells 63
2.3.1 Conduction across a Cylindrical Shell 63
2.3.2 Critical Thickness of Insulation on a Cyhnder 67
2.3.3 Conduction across a Spherical Shell 70
2.3.4 Conduction with Internal Heat Generation 72

4.3 Forced Convection 269

2.4 Fins 76 4.3.1 Forced Flow in Tubes and Ducts 269
2.4.1 The Pin Fin 76 4.3.2 External Forced Flows 280
2.4.2 Fin Resistance and Surface Efficiency 84 4.4 Natural Convection 293
2.4.3 Other Fin Type Analyses 85 4.4.1 External Natural Flows 293
2.4.4 Fins of Varying Cross-Sectional Area 90 4.4.2 Internal Natural Flows 301
2.4.5 The Similarity Principle and Dimensional Analysis 98 4.4.3 Mixed Forced and Natural Flows 308
2.5 Closure 101 4.5 Tube Banks and Packed Beds 315
References 102 4.5.1 Flow through Tube Banks 316
Exercises 102 4.5.2 Flow through Packed Beds 323
4.6 Rotating Surfaces 330
4.6.1 Rotating Disks, Spheres, and Cyhnders 330
M U L T I D I M E N S I O N A L AND U N S T E A D Y C O N D U C T I O N 133 4.7 Rough Surfaces 333
4.7.1 Effect of Surface Roughness 334
3.1 Introduction 134 4.8 The Computer Program C O N V 343
3.2 The Heat Conduction Equation 134 4.9 Closure 343
3.2.1 Fourier's Law as a Vector Equation 135 References 352
3.2.2 Derivation of the Heat Conduction Equation 135 Exercises 355
3.2.3 Boundary and Initial Conditions 140
3.2.4 Solution Methods 143
3.3 Multidimensional Steady Conduction 144
3.3.1 Steady Conduction in a Rectangular Plate 144 5.1 Introduction 382
3.3.2 Steady Conduction in a Rectangular Block 151 5.2 High-Speed Flows 383
3.3.3 Conduction Shape Factors 154 5.2.1 A Couette Flow Model 383
3.4 Unsteady Conduction 157 5.2.2 The Recovery Factor Concept 388
3.4.1 The Slab with Neghgible Surface Resistance 158 5.3 Laminar Flow in a T\ibe 390
3.4.2 The Semi-Infinite Sohd 165 5.3.1 Momentum Transfer in Hydrodynamically Fully Developed
3.4.3 Convective Coohng of Slabs, Cyhnders, and Spheres 177
Flow 391
3.4.4 Product Solutions for Multidimensional Unsteady Conduction 5.3.2 Fuhy Developed Heat Transfer for a Uniform Wall Heat Flux 394
3.5 Numerical Solution Methods 193 5.4 Laminar Boundary Layers 400
3.5.1 A Finite-Difference Method for Two-Dimensional Steady 5.4.1 The Governing Equations for Forced Flow along a Flat Plate 401
Conduction 194 5.4.2 The Plug Flow Model 403
3.5.2 Finite-Difference Methods for One-Dimensional Unsteady 5.4.3 Integral Solution Method 405
Conduction 202 5.4.4 Natural Convection on an Isothermal Vertical Wall 414
3.6 Closure 211 5.5 Turbulent Flows 420
5.5.1 The Prandti Mixing Length and the Eddy Diffusivity Model 421
References 212
Exercises 213 5.5.2 Forced Flow along a Flat Plate 424
5.5.3 More Advanced Turbulence Models 427
5.6 The General Conservation Equations 428
C O N V E C T I O N FUNDAMENTALS AND C O R R E L A T I O N S 243 5.6.1 Conservation of Mass 428
5.6.2 Conservation of Momentum 430
4.1 Introduction 244 5.6.3 Conservation of Energy 434
4.2 Fundamentals 244 5.6.4 Use of the Conservation Equations 438
4.2.1 The Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient 245 5.7 Closure 439
4.2.2 Dimensional Analysis 251 References 439
4.2.3 Correlation of Experimental Data 263 Exercises 440
4.2.4 Evaluation of Fluid Properties 267

6 T H E R M A L RADIATION 449 7.2.3 Laminar Film Condensation on Horizontal Tubes 586

7.2.4 Effects of Vapor Velocity and Vapor Superheat 592
6.1 Introduction 450 7.3 Film Evaporation 599
6.2 The Physics of Radiation 450 7.3.1 Falling Film Evaporation on a Vertical Wah 599
6.2.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 451 7.4 Pool Boiling 603
6.2.2 The Black Surface 452 7.4.1 Regimes of Pool Boiling 603
6.2.3 Real Surfaces 454 7.4.2 Boiling Inception 606
6.3 Radiation Exchange between Surfaces 456 7.4.3 Nucleate Boiling 609
6.3.1 Radiation Exchange between Black Surfaces 456 7.4.4 The Peak Heat Flux 611
6.3.2 Shape Factors and Shape Factor Algebra 458 7.4.5 Film Boiling 614
6.3.3 Electrical Network Analogy for Black Surfaces 465 7.5 Heatpipes 620
6.3.4 Radiation Exchange between Two Diffuse Gray Surfaces 468 7.5.1 Capillary Pumping 623
6.3.5 Radiation Exchange between Many Diffuse Gray Surfaces 475 7.5.2 Sonic, Entrainment, and Boiling Limitations 628
6.3.6 Radiation Transfer through Passages 483 7.5.3 Gas-Loaded Heatpipes 630
6.4 Solar Radiation 486 7.6 Closure 634
6.4.1 Solar Irradiation 486 References 635
6.4.2 Atmospheric Radiation 488 Exercises 637
6.4.3 Solar Absorptance and Transmittance 490
6.5 Directional Characteristics of Surface Radiation 495
6.5.1 Radiation Intensity and Lambert's Law 496
6.5.2 Shape Factor Determination 499 8 HEAT EXCHANGERS 649
6.5.3 Directional Properties of Real Surfaces 502
8.1 Introduction 650
6.6 Spectral Characteristics of Surface Radiation 508
8.2 Types of Heat Exchangers 650
6.6.1 Planck's Law and Fractional Functions 508
8.2.1 Geometric Flow Configurations 652
6.6.2 Spectral Properties 510
8.2.2 Fluid Temperature Behavior 655
6.7 Radiation Transfer through Gases 517
8.2.3 Heat Transfer Surfaces 657
6.7.1 The Equation of Transfer 518
8.2.4 Direct-Contact Exchangers 657
6.7.2 Gas Radiation Properties 519
8.3 Energy Balances and the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 658
6.7.3 Effective Beam Lengths for an Isothermal Gas 527
8.3.1 Exchanger Energy Balances 658
6.7.4 Radiation Exchange between an Isothermal Gas and a Black
8.3.2 Overall Heat Transfer Coefflcients 660
Enclosure 532
8.4 Single-Stream Steady-Flow Heat Exchangers 665
6.7.5 Radiation Exchange between an Isothermal Gray Gas and a Gray
8.4.1 Analysis of an Evaporator 666
Enclosure 533
8.5 Two-Stream Steady-Flow Heat Exchangers 669
6.7.6 Radiation Exchange between an Isothermal Nongray Gas and a
8.5.1 The Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference 669
Single-Gray-Surface Enclosure 537
8.5.2 Effectiveness and Number of Transfer Units 674
6.8 Closure 539
8.5.3 Balanced-Flow Exchangers 682
References 540
8.6 Elements of Heat Exchanger Design 685
Exercises 541
8.6.1 Exchanger Pressure Drop 687
8.6.2 Thermal-Hydraulic Exchanger Design 694
C O N D E N S A T I O N , E V A P O R A T I O N , AND B O I L I N G 569 8.6.3 Surface Selection for Compact Heat Exchangers 701
8.6.4 Economic Analysis 704
7.1 Introduction 570
8.6.5 Computer-Aided Heat Exchanger Design: HEX2 709
7.2 Film Condensation 570
8.7 Closure 720
7.2.1 Laminar Film Condensation on a Vertical Wall 572
References 721
7.2.2 Wavy Laminar and Turbulent Film Condensation on a Vertical
Exercises 721
Wall 580


9.1 Introduction 746

9.2 Concentrations and Ficlc's L a w of Diffusion 749 P R O P E R T Y DATA 903
9.2.1 Definitions of Concentration 749
Table A . l a Sohd metals: Melting point and thermal properties at 300 K 905
9.2.2 Concentrations at Interfaces 752
Table Solid metals: Temperature dependence of thermal
9.2.3 Fick's Law of Diffusion 754
conductivity k [W/m K ] 907
9.2.4 Other Diffusion Phenomena 756
Table A . l c Solid metals: Temperature dependenee of specific heat
9.3 Mass Diffusion 758
capacity c [J/kg K ] 908
9.3.1 Steady Diffusion through a Plane Wah 758
Table A.2 Solid dielectrics: Thermal properties 909
9.3.2 Transient Diffusion 765
Table A.3 Insulators and building materials: Thermal properties 911
9.3.3 Heterogeneous Catalysis 772
Table A.4 Thermal conductivity of selected materials at cryogenic
9.4 Mass Convection 777
temperatures 913
9.4.1 The Mass Transfer Conductance 777
Table A.5a Total hemispherical emittance of surfaces at — 300 K, and solar
9.4.2 Low Mass Transfer Rate Theory 778
absorptance 914
9.4.3 Dimensional Analysis 779
Table k.5b Temperature variation of total hemispherical emittance for selected
9.4.4 The Analogy between Convective Heat and Mass Transfer 782
surfaces 917
9.4.5 The Equivalent Stagnant Film Model 789
Table A.6a Spectral and total absorptances of metals for normal
9.5 Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer 792
incidence 918
9.5.1 Surface Energy Balances 793
Table KM Spectral absorptances at room temperature and an angle of inci-
9.5.2 The Wet- and Dry-Bulb Psychrometer 798
dence of 25° from the normal [for nonconductors a (25°) —
9.5.3 Heterogeneous Combustion 806
a (hemispherical)] 919
9.6 Mass Transfer in Porous Catalysts 810
Table A.7 Gases: Thermal properties 920
9.6.1 Diffusion Mechanisms 810
Table A.8 Dielectric liquids: Thermal properties 924
9.6.2 Effectiveness of a Catalyst Pellet 812
Table A.9 Liquid metals: Thermal properties 927
9.6.3 Mass Transfer in a Pellet Bed 817
Table A.10a Volume expansion coefficients for liquids 928
9.7 Diffusion in a Moving Medium 820
Table A.lOè Density and volume expansion coefficient of water 929
9.7.1 Definitions of Fluxes and Velocities 821 Surface tension 930
Table A.11
9.7.2 The General Species Conservation Equation 824 Thermodynamic properties of saturated steam 931
Table A.12a
9.7.3 A More Precise Statement of Fick's Law 827 Thermodynamic properties of saïturated ammonia 934
Table A.126
9.7.4 Diffusion with One Component Stationary 828 Thermodynamic properties of saturated nitrogen 935
Table A.12C
9.7.5 High Mass Transfer Rate Convection 833 Thermodynamic properties of saturated mercury 936
Table k.lld
9.8 Mass Exchangers 836 Thermodynamic properties of saturated refrigerant-22
Tabie k.lle
9.8.1 Catalytic Reactors 837 (chlorodifluoromethane) 937
9.8.2 Adiabatic Humidifiers 842 Thermodynamic properties of saturated refrigerant-134a
Table A.12/
9.8.3 Counterflow Cooling Towers 847 (tetrafluoroethane) 938
9.8.4 Cross-Flow Cooling Towers 855 Aqueous ethylene glycol solutions: Thermal properties 939
Table A.13a
9.8.5 Thermal-Hydraulic Design of Cooling Towers 858 Table A.13è Aqueous sodium chloride solutions: Thermal properties 940
9.9 Closure 871 Table A.14a Dimensions of commercial pipes [mm] (ASA standard) 941
References 872 Table A.14è Dimensions of commercial tubes [mm] ( A S T M standard) 942
Exercises 873 Table A.14c Dimensions of seamless steel tubes for tubular heat exchangers
[mm] ( D I N 28 180) 943
Table kA4d Dimensions of wrought copper and copper ahoy tubes for con-
densers and heat exchangers [mm] ( D I N 1785-83) 943

Figure C.2a Fractional energy loss for a convectively cooled slab 972
Table A.14e Dimensions of seamless cold drawn stainless steel tubes [mm] ( L N Figure C.2b Fractional energy loss for a convectively cooled cylinder 972
9398) 944 Figure C.2c Fractional energy loss for a convectively cooled sphere 973
Table A.14/" Dimensions of seamless drawn wrought aluminum alloy tubes Figure C.3fl Shape (view) factor for coaxial parallel disks 973
[mm] ( L N 9223) 944 Figure C.36 Shape (view) factor for opposite rectangles 974
Table A.15 U.S. standard atmosphere 945 Figure C.3c Shape (view) factor for adjacent rectangles 974
Table A.16 Selected physical constants 946 Figure C.4a L M T D correction factor for a heat exchanger with one shell pass
Table A.17a Diffusion coefficients in air at 1 atm 947 and 2, 4, 6, . . . tube passes 975
Table A.17& Schmidt numbers for vapors in dilute mixture in air at normal tem- Figure CAb L M T D correction factor for a cross-flow heat exchanger with both
perature, enthalpy of vaporization, and boiling point fluids unmixed 975
at 1 atm 948 Figure C.4c L M T D correction faetor for a cross-flow heat exchanger with both
Table A. 18 Schmidt numbers for dilute solution in water at 300 K 949 fluids mixed 976
Table A.19 Diffusion coefficients in solids 950 Figure C.4d L M T D correction factor for a cross-flow heat exchanger with two
Table A.20 Selected atomic weights 951 tube passes (unmixed) and one sheh pass (mixed) 976
Table A.21 Henry constants C H B for dilute aqueous solutions at moderate
pressures 952
Table A.22a Equilibrium compositions for the NHa-water system 953 Bibliography 977
Table A.22b Equihbrium compositions for the S02-water system 953
Nomenclature 987
Table A.23 Solubility and permeability of gases in solids 954
Table A.24 Solubility of inorganic compounds in water 956 Index 993
Table A.25 Combustion data 957
Table A.26 Thermodynamic properties of water vapor-air mixtures
at 1 atm 958


Table Base and supplementary SI units 960

Table Derived SI units 960
Table Recognized non-SI units 961
Table B.lrf Multiples of SI units 961
Table B.2 Conversion factors 962
Table B.3 Bessel functions 963
a. Bessel functions of the first and second kinds, orders 0
and 1 964
b. Modified Bessel functions of the first and second kinds,
orders 0 and 1 966
Table B.4 The complementary error function 968


Figure C . l a Centerplane temperature response for a convectively cooled

slab 970
Figure Centerline temperature response for a convectively cooled
cylinder 971
Figure C l c Center temperature response for a convectively cooled sphere 971











Cooling of all kinds of electronic gear is an example of thermal control. The develop-
ment of faster computers is now severely constrained by the difficulty of controlling
The proeess of heat transfer is familiar to us all. On a cold day we put on more
the temperature of very small components, which dissipate large amounts of heat.
clothing to reduce heat transfer from our warm body to cold surroundings. To make
Thermal control of temperature-sensitive components in a communications satellite
a cup of coffee we may plug in a keUle, inside which heat is transferred from
orbiting the earth is a particularly difficult problem. Transistors and diodes must not
an electrical resistance element to the water, heating the water until it boils. The
overheat, batteries must not freeze, telescope optics must not lose alignment due to
engineering discipline o f heat transfer is concemed with methods of calculating
thermal expansion, and photographs must be processed at the proper temperature to
rates of heat transfer. These methods are used by engineers to design components
ensure high resolution. Thermal control of space stations of the future will present
and systems in which heat transfer occurs. Heat transfer considerations are important
even greater problems, since reliable life-support systems also will be necessary
in almost all areas of technology. Traditionally, however, the discipline that has
From the foregoing examples, it is clear that heat transfer involves a great variety
been most concemed with heat transfer is mechanical engineering because of the
of physical phenomena and engineering systems. The phenomena must first be under-
importance of heat transfer i n energy conversion systems, from coal-fired power
stood and quantified before a methodology for the thermal design of an engineering
plants to solar water heaters.
system can be developed. Chapter 1 is an overview of the subject and introduces key
Many thermal design problems require reducing heat transfer rates by providing topics at an elementary level. In Section 1.2, the distinction between the subjects of
suitable insulation. The insulation o f buildings i n extreme climates is a familiar heat transfer and thermodynamics is explained. The first law of thermodynamics is
example, but there are many others. The space shuttie has thermal tiles to insulate reviewed, and closed- and open-system forms required for heat transfer analysis are
the vehicle from high-temperature air behind the bow shock wave during reentry developed. Section 1.3 introduces the three important modes of heat transfer: heat
into the atmosphere. Cryostats, which maintain the cryogenic temperatures required conduction, thermal radiation, and heat convection. Some formulas are developed
for the use of superconductors, must be effectively insulated to reduce the cooling that allow elementary heat transfer calculations to be made. In practical engineering
load on the refrigeration system. Often, the only way to ensure protection from problems, these modes of heat transfer usually occur simultaneously Thus, in Sec-
severe heating is to provide a fluid flow as a heat "sink." Nozzles of liquid-fueled tion 1.4, the analysis of heat transfer by combined modes is introduced. Engineers
rocket motors are cooled by pumping the cold fuel through passages in the nozzle are concerned with the changes heat transfer processes effeet in engineering systems
wall before injection into the combustion chamber. A critical component in a fusion and, i n Seetion 1.5, an example is given i n which the first law is applied to a simple
reactor is the "first wall" of the containment vessel, which must withstand intense model closed system to determine the temperature response of the system with time.
heating from the hot plasma. Such waUs may be cooled by a flow of helium gas or In Section 1.6, the subject of mass transfer is briefly introduced and its relation to
liquid lithium. heat transfer explained. Finally in Section 1.7, the Intemational System of unhs (SI)
A common thermal design problem is the transfer of heat from one fluid to another. is reviewed, and the units policy that is followed in the text is discussed.
Devices for this purpose are called heat exchangers. A familiar example is the
automobile radiator, i n which heat is transferred f r o m the hot engine coolant to cold
air blowing through the radiator core. Heat exchangers of many different types are HEAT T R A N S F E R AND ITS R E L A T I O N TÖ THERMODYNAMICS
required for power production and by the process industries. A power plant, whether
the fuel be fossil or nuclear, has a boiler i n which water is evaporated to produce
When a hot object is placed in cold surroundings, it cools: the object loses intemal
steam to drive the turbines, and a condenser in which the steam is condensed to
energy while the surroundings gain intemal energy We commonly describe this
provide a low back pressure on the turbines and for water reeovery. The condenser
interaction as a transfer of heat from the object to the surrounding region. Since the
patented by James Watt i n 1769 more than doubled the efficiency o f steam engines
caloric theory of heat has been long discredited, we do not imagine a "heat substance"
then being used and set the Industrial Revolution i n motion. The common vapor cycle
flowing from the object to the surroundings. Rather, we understand that intemal
refrigeration or air-conditioning system has an evaporator where heat is absorbed at
energy has been transferred by complex interactions on an atomic or subatomic
low temperature and a condenser where heat is rejected at a higher temperature. On a
scale. Nevertheless, it remains common practice to describe these interactions as
domestic refrigerator, the condenser is usually in the form of a tube coil with coohng
transfer, transport, or flow, of heat. The engineering discipline of heat transfer is
fins to assist transfer of heat to the surroundings. A n oil refinery has a great variety
concemed with calculation o f the rate at which heat flows within a medium, across
of heat transfer equipment, including rectification columns and thermal crackers.
an interface, or from one surface to another, as well as with the calculation of
Many heat exchangers are used to transfer heat from one process stream to another,
associated temperatures.
to reduce the total energy consumption by the refinery.
It is important to understand the essential difference between the engineering
Often the design problem is one of thermal control, that is, maintaining the discipline of heat transfer and what is commonly called thermodynamics. Classical
operating temperature of temperature-sensitive components within a specified range. thermodynamics deals with systems in equilibrium. Its methodology may be used

The system contains a fixed mass (pV); thus, we can write dU = pVdu, where u
to calculate the energy required to change a system from one equilibrium state to an- is the specific internal energy [J/kg]. Also, for an incompressible sohd, du = c,, dT,
other, but it cannot be used to calculate the rate at which the change may occur. For where c,, is the constant-volume specific heat [J/kg K ] , and T [K] is temperature. Since
example, i f a 1 kg ingot of iron is quenched from 1000°C to 100°C in an oil bath, the solid has been taken to be incompressible, the constant-volume and constant-
thermodynamics tells us that the loss in internal energy of the ingot is mass (1 kg) x pressure specific heats are equal, so we simply write du = c dT to obtain
specific heat (—450 J/kg K ) x temperature change (900 K ) , or approximately 405 kJ.
But thermodynamics cannot tell us how long we w i l l have to wait for the tempera- dT
pye— = Q + Q. (1.2)
ture to drop to 100°C. The time depends on the temperature of the oil bath, physical
properties of the oil, motion of the oil, and other factors. A n appropriate heat transfer Equation (1.2) is a special form of the first law of thermodynamics that w i l l be used
analysis w i l l consider ah of these. often in this text. I t is written on a rate basis; that is, it gives the rate of change
Analysis of heat transfer processes does require using some thermodynamics con- of temperature with time. For some purposes, however, it w i l l prove convenient to
cepts. In particular, the first law of thermodynamics is used, generahy in particularly retum to Eq. (1.1) as a statement of the first law.
simple forms since work effects can often be ignored. The first law is a statement
of the principle of conservation of energy, which is a basic law of physics. This
principle can be formulated in many ways by excluding forms of energy that are
irrelevant to the problem under consideration, or by simply redefining what is meant
by energy. In heat transfer, it is common practice to refer to the first law as the
energy conservation principle or simply as an energy or heat balance when no work
is done. However, as in thermodynamics, it is essential that the correct form of the
first law be used. The student must be able to define an appropriate system, recog-
nize whether the system is open or closed, and decide whether a steady state can
be assumed. Some simple forms of the energy conservation principle, which find
frequent use in this text, follow.
A closed system containing a fixed mass of a solid is shown in Fig. 1.1. The
system has a volume V [rry'], and the solid has a density p [kg/m^]. There is heat
transfer into the system at a rate of Q [J/s or W ] , and heat may be generated within
the solid, for example, by nuclear fission or by an electrical current, at a rate 0,, [ W ] .
Solids may be taken to be incompressible, so no work is done by or on the system. Figure 1.2 Application of the energy conservation principle to a steady-flow open system.
The principle of conservation of energy requires that over a time interval Af [s],
Figure 1.2 shows an open system (or contipl volume), for which a useful form of
Change in internal energy _ Heat transferred _^ Heat generated
the first law is the steady-flow energy equafion. It is used widely in the thermody-
within the system into the system within the system
namic analysis of equipment such as turbines and compressors. Then
A [ / = é A f + évAr (1.1) I \ • •
mA h + — + gz = Q + W (1.3)
Dividing by Af and letting Af go to zero gives
where m [kg/s] is the mass flow rate, h [J/kg] is the specific enthalpy, V [m/s] is
velocity, g [m/s^] is the gravitational acceleration, z is elevation [ m ] , Q [ W ] is the
rate of heat transfer, as before, and W [ W ] is the rate at which external (shaft) work
is done on the system.' Notice that the sign convention here is that extemal work
done on the system is positive; the opposite sign convention is also widely used.
The symbol AX means Xout - Xin, or the change in X. Equation (1.3) applies to a pure
System boundary

' Equation (1.3) has been written as if /), V, and ; are uniform in the streams crossing the control volume boundary.
Often such an assumption can be made; if not, an integration across each stream is required to give appropriate average
Figure 1.1 Application of the energy values.
conservation principle to a closed system.


substance when conditions within the system, such as temperature and velocity, are
unchanging over some appropriate time interval. Heat generation within the system In thermodynamics, heat is deflned as energy transfer due to temperature gradients
has not been included. In many types o f heat transfer equipment, no extemal work or S ^ t o e s Con istent with this viewpoint, thermodynamics recognizes only two
is done, and changes in kinetic and potential energy are negligible; Eq. (1.3) then I d e f o f heat transfer: conduction and radiation. For example, heat transfer aero s
reduces to

mA/z = Q (1,4)

The specific enthalpy h is related to the specific intemal energy u as

h = u + Pv (1.5)
^ r n c t i o n T t w e e n conduction and radiation is that the energy carriers for conduc-
where P [N/m^ or Pa] is pressure, and v is specific volume [mVkg]. Two limit forms distincuon oeiwe radiation the carriers have a long
of A/z are useful. I f the fluid enters the system at state 1 and leaves at state 2: tion have a f ^'^^[/^^^^^^ ,ery low pressures characteristic of high-
mean free P.^^h. However, in a r at the y p ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^
1. For ideal gases with Pv = RT,

rT2 ~ e 7 d = l ; r s r t ? : r ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
Ah = CpdT (1.6fl) other Then heat transfer by molecules is govemed by laws analogous to those

' ' ^ f m d by virtue of its mass and velocity, can transport momentum. In addition
where R [J/kg K ] is the gas constant and Cp [J/kg K ] is the constant-pressure by v i r t u f its temperature, it can transport energy Strictly speaking convection ts
specific heat. S e t l T o r t of energy by bulk motion of a medium (a moving s o M can a s^^ c^^^^^
2. For incompressible liquids with p = 1/v = constant
= ; g ; t : : n i r r ï ^ s ^ s r ^ ^
r^2 P —P internal energy IS con ^^^^j^j^ radiation is on the right-hand side.
Ah= cdT+^ L
Tt^oZ'^ P-^^^^^ *1 r , ^ ^ T o "
broadly and describe heat transfer from a surface to a movmg fluid also as convecüon
where c = c,, = Cp. The second term in Eq. (1.6b) is often negligible. TcoZele heat transfer, even though conduction and - J i a t i o n play a ^^^^^^^^^
role close to the surface, where the fluid is stationary In this sense, convection is
Equation (1.4) is the usual starting point for the heat transfer analysis of steady-state l a ^ r e g a r ed as a di'stinct mode of heat transfer. Examples of convec .^^^^^^^^
open systems. ttansfer include heat transfer from the radiator of an automobile or ^ A e skm of
The second law of thermodynamics tells us that i f two objects at temperatures aTvTersonie vehicle. Convection is often4ssociated with a change of phase, fo
T, and T2 are connected, and i f > T2, then heat w i l l flow spontaneously and LampTe w h l water boils in a kettle or when steam condenses m a power plant
irreversibly from object 1 to object 2. Also, there is an entropy increase associated " Z s ^ r . Owing to the complexity of such processes, boiling and condensation are
with this heat flow. As T2 approaches Ti, the process approaches a reversible pro- often regarded as distinct heat transfer processes.
cess, but simultaneously the rate of heat transfer approaches zero, so the process is T h e i r w a t o home heating system shown i n Fig. 1.3 illustrates the modes of
of little practical interest. A l l heat transfer processes encountered in engineering are
irreversible and generate entropy With the increasing realization that energy supplies
should be conserved, efficient use of available energy is becoming an important con-
sideration in thermal design. Thus, the engineer should be aware of the irreversible
processes occurring in the system under development and understand that the opti-
mal design may be one that minimizes entropy generation due to heat transfer and
fluid flow. Most often, however, energy conservation is simply a consideration in the ? ^ c o ' v e c L is natural convection: .he heated ait adjacent » ° ^ ;
overall economic evaluation of the design. Usually there is an important trade-off face rises due to its buoyancy, and coolei air flows in to take its p ace The radiators
between energy costs associated with the operation of the system and the capital f r ^ héat L t h a S e r s . A l t L g h commonly used, the terin raSa,or is misleading smce
costs required to construct the equipment.

Figure 1.4 Steady one-dimensional conduction across a plane wall, showing the
application of the energy conservation principle to an elemental volume AA: thick.

Ti>T2,Qis in the positive x direction.^ The phenomenological law governing this

heat flow is Fourier's law of heat conduction, which states that in a homogeneous
Figure 1.3 A hot-water home heating system illustrating the modes of heat transfer.
substance, the local heat flux is proportional to the negative of the local temperature
heat transfer f r o m the shell surface can be predominantly by convection rather than by
radiation (see Exercise 1-20). Heaters that transfer heat predominantly by radiation Q and (1.7)
A dx
are, for example, electrical resistance wire units.
Each of the three important subject areas of heat transfer w i l l now be introduced: where q is the heat flux, or heat flow per unk area perpendicular to the flow direction
conduction, in Section 1.3.1; radiahon, i n Section 1.3.2; and convection, in Section [W/m^], T is the local temperature [ K or ° C ] , and x is the coordinate i n the flow
1.3.3. direction [m]. When dTldx is negative, the minus sign in Eq. (1.7) gives a positive
q i n the positive x direction. Introducing a constant of proportionality Ic,

1.3.1 Heat Conduction

-k- (1.8)
On a microscopic level, the physical mechanisms of conduchon are complex, encom-
passing such varied phenomena as molecular collisions in gases, lattice vibrations where k is the thermal conductivity of the substance and, by inspection of the
in crystals, and flow of free electrons i n metals. However, i f at aU possible, the equation, must have units [ W / m K ] . Notice that temperature can be given i n kelvins
engineer avoids considering processes at the microscopic level, preferring to use or degrees Celsius i n Eq. (1.8): the temperature gradient does not depend on which
phenomenological laws, at a macroscopic level. The phenomenological law gov- of these units is used since one kelvin equals one degree Celsius (1 K = 1°C). Thus,
eming heat conduction was proposed by the French mathematical physicist J. B . the umts of thermal conductivity could also be written [ W / m ° C ] , but this is not the
Fourier i n 1822. This law w i l l be introduced here by considering the simple problem recommended practice when using the SI system of units. The magnitude of the
of one-dimensional heat flow across a plane wall—for example, a layer of insula- thermal conductivity k for a given substance very much depends on its microscopic
tion.^ Figure 1.4 shows a plane wall of surface area A and thickness L, with its face structure and also tends to vary somewhat with temperature; Table 1.1 gives some
at X = 0 maintained at temperature Ti and the face at x = L maintained at T2. selected values of k.
The heat flow Q through the wall is i n the direction of decreasing temperature: i f
3 Notice that this Q is the heat flow in the x direction, whereas in the first law, E q s . ( I . I H I . 4 ) , Q is the heat transfer
into the whole system. In linlcing thermodynamics to heat transfer, some ambiguity in notation arises when common
- In thermodynamics, the term insulated is often used to refer to a perfectly insulated (zero-heat-flow or adiabatic)
practice in both subjects is followed.
reduce heat flow
surface. In practice, insulation is used to and seldom can be regarded as perfect.

Table 1.1 Selected values o f thermal conductivity at 300 K ( ~ 2 5 ° C ) .

Material W/mK Comparison of Eq. (1.9) with Ohm's law, / = EIR, suggests that AT = Ty - T2
can be viewed as a driving potential for flow of heat, analogous to voltage being the
Copper 386
driving potential for current. Then R = LIkA can be viewed as a thermal resistance
Aluminum 204
analogous to electrical resistance.
Brass (70% Cu, 30% Zn) m
If we have a composite wah of two slabs of material, as shown i n Fig. 1.5, the
M i l d steel 54
heat flow through each layer is the same:
Stainless steel, 18-8 15
Mercury g4 Q T - T 2 T2- T3
Concrete ^4
Lfy/kAA LglkBA
Pyrex glass 109
Water 0.611 Rearranging,
Neoprene rubber 0.19
Engine o i l , SAE 50 0.145
White pine, perpendicular to grain 0.10
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 0.092
j T \
Freon 12 0^071
Cork . 0.043 [kBAj
Fiberglass (medium density) 0.038
Adding eliminates the interface temperature T2:
Polystyrene 0.028
Air 0.027
Note: Appendix A contains more comprehensive data. ^ kAA keA j

Figure 1.4 shows an elemental volume A V located between x and x + A x ; A V
is a closed system, and the energy conservation principle in the form o f Eq. (1.2) Q = iLlIl = (1.10a)
applies. I f we consider a steady state, then temperatures are unchanging i n time and LAlkAA + LB/keA RA + RB
dT/dt = 0; also, i f there is no heat generated within the volume, Q, = 0. Then Using the electrical resistance analogy, we would view the problem as two resistances
Eq. (1.2) states that the net heat flow into the system is zero. Since heat is flowing in series forming a thermal circuit, and immediately write
into AV across the face at x, and out of A V across the face at x + A x ,
AT ?


Q = Constant

But from Fourier's law, Eq. (1.8),

Q = qA= -kA —

The variables are separable: rearranging and integrating across the wall,

~ dx = - kdT
A Jo Jt,
Figure 1.5 The temperature distribution for steady conduction
where Q and A have been taken outside the integral signs since both are constants. across a composite plane wall and the corresponding thermal circuit.
I f the small variation of k with temperature is ignored for the present we obtain
1.3 M O D E S O F H E A T T R A N S F E R

3. Notice that the temperature difference T, - is expressed in kelvins, even though T,

EXAMPLE 1.1 Heat Transfer through Insulation and Ti were given in degrees Celsius.
A refrigerated container is in the form of a cube with 2 m sides and has 5 mm-thick aluminum d We have assumed perfect thermal contact between the aluminum and cork; that is,
walls insulated with a 10 cm layer of cork. During steady operation, the temperatures on the toe i l no taal'resistanee associated with the interface between the two matenals
inner and outer surfaces of the container are measured to be -5°C and 20°C, respectively (see Section 2.2.2).
Determine the cooling load on the refrigerator.

Solution 1.3.2 Tiiermal Radiation

A l l matter and space contains electromagnetic radiation. A particle, or quantum of
Given; Aluminum container insulated with 10 cm-thick cork. ZuZ,n.ticln.r,y is a photon, and heat transfer by - d f - ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
Required: Rate of heat gain. either in terms of electromagnetic waves or m terms of photons. The flux of radiant
: Z ^ ^ - t on a s u r f a i i s its irradiation, G [W/m^]; ^ ^ - ^ ^ f « ^ ^ X l y
Assumptions: 1. Steady state. suri^ace due to emission and reflection of electromagnetic radiation is its rad>osity
2. One-dimensional heat conduction (ignore comer effects). / W / m ^ A bla^k surface (or blackbody) is defined as a surface that absorbs aU
n S e n t l a i t i o n : reflecting none. As a - s e q u e n c e all of the^^^^^^^
black surface is emitted by the surface and is given by the Stefan-Boltzmann law
Equation (1.10) applies:
2 = where R =

Let subscripts A and B denote the aluminum wall and „he« . .he blacKbo.y emissive p o « r , y - ^ » ? « — « 'Sr^o^
cork insulation, respectively. Table 1.1 gives Ic^ = is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (== 5.6/ x l u w / m ^ ). ii
204 W/mK, ICB = 0.043 W/mK. We suspect that the Eb = crT"^ increases rapidly with temperature.
thermal resistance of the aluminum wall is negligible,
but we will calculate it anyway. For one side of area Table 1.2 Blackbody emissive power. (tT^ at various temperatures.
A = 4 m-, the thermal resistances are 0.1 m
0.005 m

(0.005 m) K ^—_ ^—
RA = = 6.13 X 10-*^ KTW
ICAA (204 W/mK)(4m2) . X 459
300 (room temperature)
(0.10 m) 1000 (cherry-red hot) ^ 4 590000
R = ^ = = 0.581 KAV
' I<BA (0.043 W/mK)(4 m^) 3000 (lamp filament) 62'40o'oOO
5760 (sun temperature) '
Since RA is five orders of magnitude less than Rg, it can be ignored. The heat flow for a
temperature difference of - = 20 - ( - 5 ) = 25 K, is
Figure 1 6 shows a convex black object of surface area A, m a black isothermal
Ó = — = 25 K = 43.0 W enclosure at temperature T.. At equilibrium, the object is also at temperature T,, and
RB ^ 0.581 KAV
ti:^. r a d i r t i r f l u x incident «n the object must equal the radiation flux leavmg:
For six sides, the total cooling load on the refrigerator is 6.0 x 43.0 = 258 W.
G,A, = 7iA, = aT^Ay

1. In the future, when it is obvious that a resistance in a series network is negligible,
it can be ignored from the outset (no effort should be expended to obtain data for its and is'^unifol'over the area. I f the temperature of the o ^ e c t j now - i s e d Jo
calculation). its radiosity becomes rrTf while its irtadiation remains crT, (becau^ the enclosure
2. The assumption of one-dimensional conduction is good because the 0.1 m insulation Iflects no radiation). Then the net radiant heat flux through the surface, is the
thickness is small compared to the 2 m-long sides of the cube.

Table 1.3 Selected approximate values of emittance, s (total hemispherical values at

normal temperatures).
Surface Emittance, e

Aluminum alloy, unoxidized 0.035

Black anodized aluminum 0.80
Chromium plating 0.16
Stainless steel, type 312, lightly oxidized 0.30
Inconel X, oxidized 0.72
Black enamel paint 0.78
White acrylic paint 0,90
AsphaU 0.88
Concrete 0.90
Soil 0.94
Pyrex glass 0.80
Note: More comprehensive data are given in Appendix A . Emittance is very dependent on surface finish; thus, values
Figure 1.6 A convex black object (surface 1) in a black isothermal enclosure (surface 2). obtained from various sources may differ significantly.

radiosity minus the irradiation: Real surfaces also emh less radiation than do black surfaces. The fraction of the
blackbody emissive power o-f'* emitted is caUed the emittance (or emissivhy), e.*
A gray surface also has a constant value of e, independent of its temperature, and,
or as w i l l be shown in Chapter 6, the emittance and absorptance of a gray surface are
(1.14) equal:
where the sign convention is such that a net flux away from the surface is positive. e = a (gray surface) (1.16)
Equation (1.14) is also vahd for two large black surfaces facing each other, as shown Table 1.3 shows some typical values of s at normal temperatures. Bright metal
in Fig. 1.7.
surfaces tend to have low values, whereas oxidized or painted surfaces tend to have
The blackbody is an ideal surface. Real surfaces absorb less radiation than do high values. Values of a and p can also be obtained from Table 1.3 by using Eqs.
black surfaces. The fraction of incident radiation absorbed is called the absorptance (1.15) and (1.16).
(or absorptivity), a. A widely used model of a real surface is the gray surface, I f heat is transferred by radiation between two gray surfaces of finite size, as
which is defined as a surface for which a is a constant, irrespective of the nature of
shown in Fig. 1.8, the rate of heat flow wilf depend on temperatures Ti and Tz and
the incident radiation. The fraction of incident radiation reflected is the reflectance
emittances sy and sz, as well as the geometry. Clearly, some of the radiation leaving
(or reflectivity), p, I f t h e object is opaque, that is, not transparent to electromagnetic
surface 1 w i h not be intercepted by surface 2, and vice versa. Determining the rate
radiation, then
of heat flow is usually quite difficult. I n general, we may write
1 a (1.15) Ö12 = Ai^2(crrf - aTt) (1.17)

1% Figure 1.8 Radiation heat transfer

between two finite gray surfaces.

Both the endings -ance and -ivity are commonly used for radiation properties. In this text, -ance will be used for
Nl Figure 1.7 Examples of two surface radiation properties. In Chapter 6, -ivity will be used for gas radiaUon properties.

12 large surfaces facing each other.


Equation (1.18) is applicable with

where Ö12 is the net radiant energy interchange (heat transfer) from surface 1 to
surface 2, and ,^,2 is a transfer factor, which depends on emittances and geometry 012 = 300 mW
For the special case of surface 1 surrounded by surface 2, where either area Ai is
smah compared to area A2, or surface 2 is nearly black, 0\2 = s, and Eq. (1.17) = 30°C = 303 K
and Tl is the unknown.
QM = ByAMT'y - uT^) (1.18)
Ö12 = e,Ai(c7rf - a-T^J
Equation (1.18) w i l l be derived in Chapter 6. It is an important result and is often
0.3 W = (ei)(7r)(0.02 mf[aTt - (5.67 X 10"* W W K * ) ( 3 0 3 K ) " ]
used for quick engineering estimates.
The T'' dependence of radiant heat transfer complicates engineering calculations. Solving,
When r , and T2 are not too different, it is convenient to linearize Eq. (1.18) by 239
factoring the term (o-Jf - aT^) to obtain (JT\ = 478 +

Qn = eyAMTl + r | ) ( T , + Tz)(T, - Tz) (i) For bright aluminum (e = 0.035 from Table 1.3),
- e,A,(T(4r,3„)(r, - Tz)
aT\ = 478 + 6828 = 7306 W/rn
for Tl ^ Tz, where r „ is the mean of 7, and Tz. This result can be written more Tl = 599 K (326°C)
concisely as
(ii) For black anodized aluminum (e = 0.80 from Table 1.3),
Qu =^ AyhriTy - Tz) (1.19)
oT^ = 478 + 298 = 776 W/m'
where K = 4eycrT^„ is called the radiation heat transfer coefficient [W/m^ K ] . At
25°C ( = 298 K ) , Tl = 342 K (69°C)

hr = (4)si(5.67 X 10"^ W/Tn K'')(298K)^ Comments

or 1. The anodized aluminum gives a satisfactory operating temperature, but a bright alu-
h,. = 6siW/m^ K minum capsule could not be used since 326°C is far in excess of allowable operating
temperatures for semiconductor devices.
This result can be easily remembered: The radiation heat transfer coefficient at room
temperature is about six times the surface emittance. For Ti = 320 K and Tz =
2. Note the use of kelvins for temperature in this radiation heat transfer calculation.
300 K , the error incurred in using the approximation of Eq. (1.19) is only 0.1%- for
r , = 400 K and Tz = 300 K , the error is 2%.
1,3.3 Heat Convection
As already explained, convection or convective iieat transfer is the term used to
E X A M P L E 1.2 Heat Loss f r o m a Transistor describe heat transfer f r o m a surface to a moving fluid, as shown i n Fig. 1.9. The
surface may be the inside of a pipe, the skin of a hypersonic aircraft, or a water-air in-
An electronic package for an experiment in outer space contains a transistor capsule, which
is approximately spherical in shape with a 2 cm diameter. It is contained in an evacuated terface in a cooling tower. The flow may be forced, as i n the case of a liquid pumped
case with nearly black walls at 30°C. The only significant path for heat loss from the capsule
is radiation to the case walls. If the transistor dissipates 300 mW, what will the capsule
temperature be if it is (i) bright aluminum and (ii) black anodized aluminum?

Solution Figure 1.9 Schematic of

convective heat transfer to
Given: 2 cm-diameter transistor capsule dissipating 300 mW. a fluid at temperature T,,,
flowing at velocity V past a
Required: Capsule temperature for (i) bright aluminum and (ii) black anodized aluminum.
surface at temperature T,.
Assumptions: Model as a small gray body in large, nearly black surroundings.

through the pipe or air on the flight vehicle propelled through the atmosphere. On the
other hand, the flow could be natural {or free), driven by buoyancy forces arising
from a density difference, as in the case of a natural-draft cooling tower. Either
type of flow can be internal, such as the pipe flow, or external, such as flow over
the vehicle. Also, both forced and natural flows can be either laminar or turbulent,
with laminar flows being predominant at lower velocities, for smaller sizes, and for
more viscous fluids. Flow in a pipe becomes turbulent when the dimensionless group
called the Reynolds number, Re^ = VDIv, exceeds about 2300, where V is the
velocity [m/s], D is the pipe diameter [ m ] , and v is the kinematic viscosity of the
fluid [m^/s]. Heat transfer rates tend to be much higher in turbulent flows than in
laminar flows, owing to the vigorous mixing of the fluid. Figure 1.10 shows some
commonly encountered flows.
The rate of heat transfer by convection is usually a comphcated function of surface
geometry and temperature, the fluid temperature and velocity and fluid thermophys-
ical properties. In an external forced flow, the rate of heat transfer is approximately
proportional to the difference between the surface temperature T, and the temperature
of the free stream fluid T^. The constant of proportionality is called the convective
heat transfer coefficient h^:

where A r = T, - Te, qs is the heat flux from the surface into the fluid [W/m^],
and K has units [W/m^ K ] . Equation (1.20) is often cahed Newton's law of cooling
but is a definition of rather than a true physical law. For natural convection, the
situation is more comphcated. I f the flow is laminar, q^ varies as Ar^'"*; i f the flow
is turbulent, it varies as Ar^'^. However, we still find h convenient to define a heat
transfer coefficient by Eq. (1.20); then he varies as Ar"'^ for laminar flows and as
A T " ^ for turbulent ones.
A n important practical problem is convective heat transfer to a fluid flowing
in a tube, as may be found in heat exchangers for heating or cooling liquids, in
condensers, and in various kinds of boilers. I n using Eq. (1.20) for intemal flows,
A T = Ts - Tb, where Tb is a properly averaged fluid temperature cahed the bulk
temperature or mixed mean temperature and is defined in Chapter 4. Here h is
sufficient to note that enthalpy in the steady-flow energy equation, Eq. (1.4), is also
the bulk value, and Tb is the con-esponding temperature. I f the pipe has a uniform
wall temperature along its length, and the flow is laminar (Reo s 2300), then
sufficientiy far from the pipe entrance, the heat transfer coefficient is given by the
exact relation

he = 3 . 6 6 - (1,21)
Rgure 1.10 Some commonly encountered flows, (a) Forced flow in a pipe, Reo = 50,000.
The flow is initially laminar because of the "bell-mouth" entrance but becomes turbulent
where k is the fluid thermal conductivity and D is the pipe diameter. Notice that downstream, {b) Laminar forced flow over a cylinder, R C D - 25. (c) Forced flow through
the heat transfer coefficient is directiy proportional to thermal conductivity inversely a tube bank as found in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger {d) Laminar and turbulent natural
proportional to pipe diameter, and—perhaps surprisingly-independent of flow ve- convection boundary layers on vertical walls, (e) Laminar natural convection about a heated
locity On the other hand, for f u h y turbulent flow (Re^ > 10,000), he is given horizontal plate, i f ) Cellular natural convection in a horizontal enclosed fluid layer.

Laminar flow: he = 1.07(AT/x)'"' w W " K 10* < Gr. < 10^ (1.23«)
approximately by the following, rather complicated correlation of experimental data:
Turbulent flow: he = l.^iATf' K 10^ < Gr, < lO'^ (1.23&)

= 0-023^ ; J ^ , f (1.22) Since these are dimensional equations, it is necessary to specify the units of he, AT,
and X, which are [W/m^ K ] , [ K ] , and [ m ] , respectively Notice that / i , varies as
In contrast to laminar flow, he is now strongly dependent on velocity, V, but only
weakly dependent on diameter. In addition to thermal conductivity other fluid prop- x"'"* i n the laminar region but is independent of x in the turbulent region.
erties involved are the kinematic viscosity, v; density, p ; and specific heat, Cp. In Usually the engineer requires the total heat transfer from a surface and is not too
Chapter 4 we w i l l see how Eq. (1.22) can be rearranged in a more compact form by interested i n the actaal variation of heat flux along the surface. For this purpose, it is
introducing appropriate dimensionless groups. Equations (1.21) and (1.22) are only convenient to define an average heat transfer coefficient he for an isothermal surface
valid at some distance from the pipe entrance and indicate that the heat transfer co- of area A by the relation
efficient is then independent of position along the pipe. Near the pipe entrance, heat f Q = li;AITs-Te)) ^^•2'*^
transfer coefficients tend to be higher, due to the generation of large-scale vortices so that the total heat transfer rate, Q, can be obtained easily The relation between
by upstream bends or sharp comers and the effect of suddenly heating the fluid.
he and he is obtained as follows: For flow over a surface of width W and length L ,
Figure 1.11 shows a natural convection flow on a heated vertical surface, as
as shown i n Fig. 1.12,
well as a schematic of the associated variation of he along the surface. Transition
from a laminar to a turbulent boundary layer is shown. In gases, the location of dQ = he(Ts-Te)Wdx
the transition is determined by a critical value of a dimensionless group called the
Grashof number. The Grashof number is defined as Gr.^. = {l3AT)gx^/p^, where
Q = he(Ts - TeW dx
A r = Ts - Te, g is the gravitational acceleration [m/s^], x is the distance f r o m
the bottom of the surface where the boundary layer starts, and (3 is the volumetric
coefficient of expansion, which for an ideal gas is simply l/T, where T is absolute or
temperature [ K ] , On a vertical waU, transition occurs at Gr^ — 10^. For air, at 1 he dAk{Ts - Te), where A = WL, dA = W dx (1.25)
normal temperatures, experiments show that the heat transfer coefficient for natural
convection on a vertical wall can be approximated by tiie following formulas:
i f {Ts - Te) is independent of x. Since Te is usuahy constant, this condition requires
an isothermal waU. Thus, comparing Eqs. (1.24) and (1.25),

hed A (1-26)
A 0

Figure 1.12 An isothermal

surface used to define the
Figure 1.11 A natural-convection boundary layer on a vertical wall, showing the variation average convective heat
of local heat transfer coefficient. For gases, transition from a laminar to turbulent flow transfer coefficient he-
occurs at a Grashof number of approximately 10^; hence =^ [10^ v^/pATg]"^.

Table 1.4 Orders of magnitude of average convective heat transfer coefficients.
Given: Glass doors, width W = A m, height L = 2.3 m.
Flovt' and Fluid W/m^ K Required: Estimate of convective heat loss to the doors.

Free convection, air 3_25 Assumptions: 1. Inner surface isothermal at = 0°C.

Free convection, water 15-1000 2. The laminar to turbulent flow transition
Forced convection, air 10-200 occurs at Gr^ — 10'.
Forced convection, water 50-10,000
Equation (1.24) will be used to estimate the heat loss. The
Forced convection, liquid sodium 10,000-100,000
inner surface will be at approximately 0°C since it is only
Condensing steam ' 5000-50,000
partially covered with frost. If it were warmer, frost couldn't
Boiling water 3000-100,000 T, = 10°C
form; and if it were much colder, frost would cover the glass
completely There is a natural convection flow down the door
since = 10°C is greater than = 0°C. Transition from a
laminar boundary layer to a turbulent boundary layer occurs
X = 2.3 m
The surface may not be isothermal; for example, the surface may be electricaUy when the Grashof number is about 10'. For transition at
heated to give a uniform flux qs along the surface. In this case, defining an average X =
heat transfer coefficient is more difficuk and w i l l be dealt with in Chapter 4. Table
1.4 gives some order-of-magnitude values of average heat transfer coefficients for
Gr = 10' = (^Ar)gXt^r. ^ = y j foj. an ideal gas
various situations. In general, high heat transfer coefficients are associated witb high
fluid thermal conductivities, high flow velocities, and small surfaces. The high heat 1/3
f (10')(14 x 10''^mVs)^"
ti-ansfer coefficients shown for boiling water and condensing steam are due to another = 0.82 m
x„ = [ (AT/T)g (10/278)(9.81 m/s2)
cause: as we will see in Chapter 7, a large enthalpy of phase change (latent heat) is
a contributing factor. where the average of and has been used to evaluate p. The transition is seen to take
The complexity of most situations involving convective heat transfer precludes place about one third of the way down the door. _ ,, • c
exact analysis, and correlations of experimental data must be used in engineering We find the average heat transfer coefficient, ft,, by substituting Eqs. (1.23fl,è) m Eq.
practice. For a particular situation, a number of correlations from various sources (1.26):
might be available, for example, from research laboratories in different countries.
Also, as time goes by, older correlations may be superseded by newer correlations h,dA\ A = WL, dA = W dx
based on more accurate or more extensive experimental data. Heat transfer coeffi-
cients calculated from various available correlations usually do not differ by more
than about 20%, but in more complex situations, much larger discrepancies may hr dx
be encountered. Such is the nature of engineering calculations of convective heat
transfer, in contrast to the more exact nature of the analysis of heat conduction or of 1.3(Ar)"'^/x
elementary mechanics, for example.

= (l/L)[(1.07)(4/3)Ar'V* + (1.3)(Ar)"^(L - x,,)]

= (1/2.3)[(1.07)(4/3)(10)"*(0.82)^"' + (1.3)(10)"^(2.3 - 0.82)]

EXAMPLE 1.3 Heat Loss through Glass Doors = (l/2.3)[2.19-h4.15]

The living room of a ski chalet has a pair of glass doors 2.3 m high and 4.0 m wide. On = 2.75 W W K
a cold moming, the air in the room is at 10°C, and frost partially covers the inner surface Then, from Eq. (1.24), the total heat loss to the door is
of the glass. Estimate the convective heat loss to the doors. Would you expect to see the
frost form initially near the top or the bottom of the doors? Take = 14 x 10^<^m^/s for Q = h^AAT = (2.75 W / m ' K ) ( 2 . 3 X 4.0 m')(10 K ) = 253 W
the air.

Comments Newton's law of cooling, Eq. (1.20), can be rewritten as

1. The local heat transfer coefficient is larger near the top of the door, so that the rela- AT (1.27)
tively warm room air will tend to cause the glass there to be at a higher temperature Ö =
than further down the door. Thus, frost should initially form near the bottom of the
door. with l/hcA identified as a convective thermal resistance. At steady state, the heat flow
through the waU is constant. Referring to Fig. 1.13 for the intermediate temperatures.
2. In addition, interior surfaces in the room will lose heat by radiation through the glass
doors. T - To To
T - T (1.28)
Equation (1.28) is the basis of the thermal circuit shown i n Fig. 1.13. The total
resistance is the sum of four resistances in series. If. we define the overall heat
Heat transfer problems encountered by the design engineer almost always involve transfer coefficient U by the relation
more than one mode of heat transfer occurring simultaneously For example, consider
the nighttime heat loss through the roof of the house shown in Fig. 1.3. Heat is Ö = UA{T - To)
transferred to the ceiling by convection from the warm room air, and by radiahon
then IIU A is an overaU resistance given by
from the walls, furniture, and occupants. Heat transfer across the ceiling and its
insulation is by conduction, across the attic crawlspace by convection and radiation, _^ _ _1_ LA . LB . 1 (1.30a)
and across the roof tile by conduction. FinaUy, the heat is transferred by convection UA ~ hcjA RAA ICBA hc,oA
to the cold ambient air, and by radiation to the nighttime sky To consider reahstic
engineering problems, it is necessary at the outset to develop the theory required to or, since the cross-sectional area A is constant for a plane wall,
handle combined modes of heat transfer.
1 1 1 (1.30&)
1.4.1 Thermal Circuits U
Equation (1.29) is simple and convenient for use in engineering calculations. Typ-
The electrical circuit analogy for conduction through a composite wall was introduced ical values of U [ W / m ^ K ] vary over a wide range for different types of wahs and
m Section 1.3.1. We now extend this concept to include convection and radiation as convective flows. .
well. Figure 1.13 shows a two-layer composite wall of cross-sectional area A with the
Figure 1.14 shows a wall whose outer surface loses heat by both convection and
layers A and B having thickness and conductivity LA, ICA and LB, kg, respectively
radiation. For simphcity assume that the fluid is at the same temperature as the
Heat is transferred from a hot fiuid at temperature T; to the inside of the wall with
surrounding surfaces, To. Using the approximate linearized Eq. (1.19),
a convective heat transfer coefficient h^j, and away from the outside of the wall to
a cold fluid at temperature To with heat transfer coefficient h^o-



^ L

Figure 1.14 A wall that loses heat by both conduction and

Figure 1.13 The temperature distribution for steady heat transfer
radiation; the thermal circuit shows resistances in parallel.
across a composite plane wall, and the corresponding thermal circuit.

The themial conductivities of pine woo^' P^g^dicu- 20 °C

lar to the grain, and of fiberglass are given m Table l . i
T l i and 0.038 W/m K, respectively The exterior r^^^^
diation heat transfer coefficient is given by Eq. (1.19)
with l/hrA identified as a radiative thermal resistance. We now have two resistances
in parallel, as shown in Fig. 1.14. The sum of the resistances is /!,.„ = 4s crT,^
L 1 where e = 0 9 for white acrylic paint, from Table 1.3,
kA + hcA + hrA Tnd r„. - 2°C = 275 K (since we expect the exterior
resistance to be small). Thus,
or 2°C
h,.^ = 4(0.9)(5.67 X 10-« W/m^K'')(275 K)^

UA kA ^ (/z, + hr)A ^^'^^^ = 4.2 W/m' K

so that the convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients can simply be added. 1 1 0.02 0 ^ , ^ + ^ ^
y = 3 ^ OTÓ ^ 0.038 0.10 6 + 4.2
However, often the fluid and surrounding temperatures are not the same, or tbe
simple linearized representation of radiative transfer [Eq. (1.19)] is invalid, so the = 0.333 + 0.200 + 1.316 + 0.200 + 0.098
thermal circuit is then more complex. When appropriate, we w i l l write h = hc + K
to account for combined convection and radiation.^ = 2.15 (W/m'K)"'
[ ƒ = 0.466 W/m'K ^
rrfr - T ) = Q 466(20 - 2) = 8.38 W/m .
Then the heat flux q = U(T, lo) "'to >^
The thermal circuit is shown below.
E X A M P L E 1.4 Heat Loss through a Composite WaU

The walls of a sparsely famished single-room cabin in a forest consist of two layers of
pine wood, each 2 cm thick, sandwiching 5 cm of fiberglass insulation. The cabin interior
is maintained at 20°C when the ambient air temperature is 2°C. If the interior and exterior
convective heat transfer coefficients are 3 and 6 W/m^ K, respectively and the exterior surface
isfinishedwith a white acrylic paint, estimate the heat flux through the wall.


Given: Pine wood cabin wall insulated with 5 cm-of fiberglass. Comments 098/2 15 - 5% of the total resistance; hence, the
Required: Estimate of heat loss through wall.

Assumptions: 1. Forest trees and shrubs are at the ambient air temperature, T, = 2°C. of r, = 275 K for the evaluation of h,o is adequate.
2. Radiation transfer inside cabin is negjigible since inner surfaces of walls,
roof, and floor are at approximately the same temperature.
From Eq. (1.29), the heat flux through the wall is
impact on the result.
q = ^ = U(T, - T„)

From Eqs. (1.30) and (1.32), the overall heat transfer coefficient is given by 14.2 Surface Energy Balances
fl^o, h across the waU surfaces is contin-
1 = J- + ^ + ^ + :^ + __JL__ Secion 1.4,1 « - " « V f J o ^ r ^ C l n l y W a » r / . « energy balance.
U llrj ke kc (Ilea + iTrJ

5 Notice that the notation u.sed for this combined heat transfer coefficient, h, is the same as that used for enthalpy.
The student must be careful not to confuse these two quantities. Other notation is also in common use, for example,
a for the heat transfer coefficient and ; for enthalpy.

Let T, be the thermometer reading, the air tem-

Solid m ; Fluid : perature, and T„ the wall temperature. Equation
M (1.35) applies, ^
'ié öcon. + érad = O
m T, = 290 K
öcond since at steady state there is no conduction within
the thermometer. Substituting from Eqs. (1.24) and ' 278 K
^rad -
i|b{05SxHH9?^^^ figure 1.15 Schematic of a surface energy
balance, showing the m- and 5-surface in hAiT, -T,) + eaA{Tt - T^) = 0
the solid and fluid, respectively.
From Table 1.3, e = 0.8 for pyrex glass. Canceling A,
in the fluid just adjacent to the interface, and an m-surface in the solid located such
10(290 - T,) + (0.8)(5.67)(2.90'' - 2.78*) = 0
that all radiation is emitted or absorbed between the /n-surface and the interface.
Thus, energy is transferred across the m-surface by conduction only (The choice of Solving,
s and m to designate these surfaces foUows an established practice. I n particular, the
T, = 295 K = 22°C
use of the s prefix is consistent with the use of the subscript i to denote a surface
temperature 7,. in convection analysis.) The first law as applied to the closed system
located between m- and ^-surfaces requires that X Ö = 0; thus,
1. Since Te > 20°C, the air-heating system appears to be working satisfactorily
öcond - öconv - örad = O (1.33)
2. Our model assumes that the thermometer is completely surrounded by a surface at 5°C;
or, for a unit area. actually the thermometer also receives radiation from machines, workers, and other
sources'at temperatures higher than 5°C, so that our calculated value of T, = 22°C is
^cond - 9rad = 0 (1.34)
somewhat high.
where the sign convention for the fluxes is shown i n Fig. 1.15. I f the solid is
isothermal, Eq. (1.33) reduces to
Qo Q rad 0 (1.35)
which is a simple energy balance on the solid. Notice that these surface energy The heat transfer problems described i n Examples 1.1 through 1.5 were steady-state
balances remain valid for unsteady conditions, in which temperatures change whh problems; that is, temperatures were not changing i n time. In Example 1.2, the
time, provided the mass contained between the i - and m-surfaces is negligible and transistor temperature was steady with the resistance (I^R) heating balanced by tbe
cannot store energy. radiation heat loss. Unsteady-state or trankient problems occur when temperatures
change with time. Such problems are often encountered in engineering practice, and
tbe engineer may be required to predict the temperature-time response of a system
E X A M P L E 1.5 A i r Temperature Measurement involved i n a heat transfer process. I f the system, or a component of the system, can
be assumed to have a spatially uniform temperature, analysis involves a relatively
A machine operator in a workshop complains that the air-heating system is not keeping the air simple application o f t h e energy conservation principle, as w i l l now be demonstrated.
at the required minimum temperature of 20°C. To support his claim, he shows that a mercury-
in-glass thermometer suspended from a roof truss reads only 17°C. The roof and walls of the
workshop are made of corrugated iron and are not insulated; when the thermometer is held 1.5.1 The Lumped Thermal Capacity Model
against the wall, it reads only 5°C. If the average convective heat transfer coefficient for the
suspended thermometer is estimated to be lOW/m'K, what is the true air temperature? I f a system undergoing a transient thermal response to a heat transfer process has a
nearly uniform temperature, we may ignore small differences of temperature witbin
Solution the system. Changes in internal energy of the system can then be specified in terms
of changes of the assumed uniform (or average) temperature of the system. This
Given: Thermometer reading a temperature of 17°C.
approximation is called the lumped thermal capacity model."^ The system might be
Required: True air temperature.

Assumptions: Thermometer can be modeled as a small gray body in large, nearly black Tlie term capacitance is also used, in analogy to an equivalent electrical circuit.
surroundings at 5°C.

Solution for the Temperature Response

a small solid component of high themial conduchvity that loses heat slowly to hs
surroundings via a large extemal thermal resistance. Since the thermal resistance to A simple analytical solution can be obtain£d provided we assume that tbe bath is
conduction in the solid is smaU compared to the extemal resistance, the assumption large, so Te is independent of time, and that iicA/pVc is approximated by a constant
of a uniform temperature is justified. Altematively, the system might be a weU-stirred value independent of temperature. The variables i n Eq. (1.36) can then be separated:
liquid in an insulated tank losing heat to its surroundings, in which case it is the
dT hcA ,
mixing of the liquid by the stirrer that ensures a nearly uniform temperature. I n either • dt
case, once we have assumed uniformhy of temperature, we have no further need for T -Te pVc
details of the heat transfer within the system—that is, of the conduction in the sohd Writing dT = d{T -Te), since is constant, and integrating with T = To at ? = 0,
component or the convection in the stirred liquid. Instead, the heat transfer process
of concem is the interaction of the system with the surroundings, which might be '^d{T-Te) hcA dt
by conduction, radiation, or convection. To T -Te pVc 0

, T-Te _ hcA
' " ' T ^ e . ' - ^ c '
Governing Equation and Initial Condition
j T-Te ^ ^-(h,AipVc)t ^ e''''' ~'' (1.38)
For purposes of analysis, consider a metal forging removed from a fumace at
/ T^-Te
temperature TQ and suddenly immersed i n an o i l bath at temperature T^, as shown i n
Fig. 1.16. The forging is a closed system, so the energy conservation principle in the where tc '=yVcihcA [s] is cahed the time constant of the process. When t = tc,
form of Eq. (1.2) apphes. Heat is transferred out of the system by convection. Using the temperature difference (T - Te) has dropped to be 36.8% of the initial difference
Eq. (1.24) the rate of heat transfer is hcA(T - Te), where he is the heat transfer {TQ - Te). Our result, Eq. (1.38), is a relation between two dimensionless parameters:
coefficient averaged over the forging surface area A, and Tis the forging temperature. a dimensionless temperature, T* = {T- Te)liTo - Te), which varies f r o m 1 to 0; and
There is no heat generated within the forging, so that Q„ = 0. Substituting i n a dimensionless time, t* = tite = heAtlpVc, which varies from 0 to ^ . Equation
Eq. (1.2): (1.38) can be written simply as

r = e-'* (1-39)
PVC~ = -heAiT - Te)
and a graph of T* versus t* is a single curve, as illustrated i n Fig. 1.17.

dT^ hpA
(T - Te) (1.36)
~dt pVc

which is a first-order ordinary differential equation for the forging temperature, T,

as a function of time, t. One initial condhion is required:

f = 0: T = Tr (1.37)

Area A :

Figure 1.16 A forging immersed Figure 1.17 Lumped thermal capacity temperature
in an oil bath for quenching. response in terms of dimensionless variables T* and t*

( = 0
Methods introduced in Chapter 2 can be used to deduce directly from Eqs. (1.36) t = 0

and (1.37) tbat T* must be a function of f* alone [i.e., T* = ƒ(?*)] without solving
the equation. Of course, the solution also gives us the form o f t h e function. Thus, the
various parameters, h^, c, p, and so on, only affect the temperatiire response in the
combination t*, and not independentiy. I f both and c are doubled, the temperature
at time t is unchanged. This dimensionless parameter t* is a dimensionless group
in the same sense as the Reynolds number, but it does not have a commonly used
T' = 0
name. E = 0

Figure 1.18 Equivalent electrical and thermal circuits for the

lumped thermal capacity model of temperature response.
Validity ofthe Model
in Fig. 1.18,
We would expect our assumption of neghgible temperature gradients within the
system to be valid when the intemal resistance to heat transfer is small compared djE ^ _JE_ (1.42)
with the extemal resistance. I f L is some appropriate characteristic length of a solid dt ~ RC
body, for example,Q/M)(which for a plate is h a l f its thickness), then
with the initial condition £ = Êo at f = 0 i f the capacitor is initially charged to a
_\ vohage EQ. Tbe solution is identical in form to Eq. (1.38),
Intemal conduction resistance L/k^A /zjzT)
Extemal convection resistance ^ (1-40) E_
where is the thermal conductivity of the solid material. The quantity h,.L/k,.
[W/m^ K ] [ m ] / [ W / m K ] is a dimensionless group caUed the Biot number, B i . More and the time constant is RC, the product of the resistance and capacitance [or CI{\IR),
exact analyses of transient thermal response of solids indicate that, for bodies resem- the ratio of capacitance to conductance, to be exactly analogous to Eq. (1.38)].
bling a plate, cylinder, or sphere, B i < 0.1 ensures that tiie temperature at the center
w i l l not differ from that at the surface by more than 5%; thus, B i < O.i is a suhable
criterion for determining i f the assumption that the body has a uniform temperature
E X A M P L E 1.6 Quenching of a Steel Plate
is justified. I f the heat transfer is by radiation, the convective heat transfer coefficient
in Eq, (1.40) can be replaced by the approximate radiation heat transfer coefficient A steel plate 1 cm thick is taken from a furnace at 600°C and quenched in a bath of oil at
hr defined in Eq. (1.19). 30°C. If the heat transfer coefficient is estimated to be 400 W/m^ K, how long will it take
In the case of the well-stirred liquid in an insulated tank, it w i l l be necessary to for the plate to cool to 100°C? Take k, p, and c^for the steel as 50 W/m K, 7800 kg/m\ and
evaluate the ratio 450 J/kg K, respectively.

Intemal convection resistance l/hcjA U Solution

Extemal resistance l/UA ~ 'h~ (1-41) Given: Steel plate quenched in an oil bath.

where U is the overall heat transfer coefficient, for heat transfer from the inner Required: Time to cool from 600°C to 100°C.
surface of the tank, across the tank wall and insulation, and into the surroundings. Assumptions: Lumped thermal capacity model valid.
I f this ratio is small relative to unity, the assumption of a uniform temperature in the
liquid is justified. First the Biot number will be checked to see if the lumped thermal capacity approximation
The approximation or model used in the preceding analysis is called a lumped is valid. For a plate of width W, height H, and thickness L,
thermal capacity approximation since the thermal capachy is associated with a V _ WHL ^ L
single temperature. There is an electrical analogy to the lumped thermal capac- A " 2WH 2
ity model, owing to the mathematical equivalence o f Eq. (1.36) to the equation
where the surface area of the edges has been neglected.
goveming the voltage in the simple resistance-capacitance electrical circuit shown

B i = ^
^ (400W/m'K)(0.005 m) Figure 1.19 A sugar lump dissolving in
50 W/mK a cup of coffee: the dissolved sugar moves
away from the lump by diffusion in the
= 0,04 < 0.1
direction of decreasing sugar concentration.

so the lumped thermal capacity model is applicable. The time

constant t. is

steep mountain traU. The ah adjacent to the water surface is satura ed w«h water
vapor The corresponding water vapor concentration is usually higher than that in the
r = £ ^ = P(^/2)c ^ (7800 kg/m')(0.005 m)(450 J/kgK) ^
surrounding ah: water vapor diffuses away from the surface and is replemshed by
hcA h, (400 W/m'K). ~ ' ^ evaporation of the liquid water. The enthalpy of vaporization (latent heat) required
Substituting = 30°C, To = 600°C, T = 100°C in Eq. (1.38) gives to evaporate the water is supplied from the bulk water or human body and the sur-
rounding air, causing the famihar cooling effect. Indeed, meat cooling m which a
^00 - 30 ^ porous surface is protected from a high-temperature gas stream by supplying water
600 - 30 to keep the surface wet, is a technological adaptation of the natural sweat coohng
Solving, process. We always welcome a breeze when sweating; the mass convection asso-
ciated with the ah motion increases the rate of evaporation and the coohng effect.
r = 92 s Sweat cooling includes simultaneous heat and mass transfer, as do many other
transfer processes of engineering concem. A wet cooling tower cools water from the
Comments condenser of a power plant or refrigeration system by evaporatmg a smaU portion ot
the water into an ah stream. AU combustion processes involve simultaneous mass
The use of a constant value of may be inappropriate for heat transfer by natural con-
vection or radiation. transfer of the reactants and products, and heat ttansfer associated with release of
the heat of combustion. Examples include combustion of gasoline vapor m a spark
ignition automobUe engine, of kerosene in an aircraft gas turbine, and of fuel-oil
M A S S T R A N S F E R AND I T S R E L A T I O N T O H E A T T R A N S F E R droplets or pulverized coal in a power plant fumace.
Mass transfer occurs i n a variety of equipment. Of increasmg concem to mechan-
The process of mass transfer is not as famUiar as heat transfer, even though we en- ical engineers is the equipment required to^control pollution of the environment by
counter many mass transfer phenomena i n everyday life. Mass transfer is the move- exhaust gases from combustion processes, for example, the exhaust f r o m automo-
ment o f a chemical species in a mixture or solution, usually due to the presence of a bUes or stack gases from power plants. A catalytic converter on an automobi e is a
concentration gradient of the species. Figure 1.19 shows a sugar lump dissolving in mass exchanger that removes carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, and mtrogen
a cup of coffee. The concentration of dissolved sugar adjacent to the lump is higher oxides from the engine exhaust. The tuning of a modern automobUe engine is dxc-
than i n the bulk coffee, and the dissolved sugar moves down its concentration gra- tated by emissions control requirements and the operating characteristics of catalyt^
dient by the process known as ordinary diffusion. Ordinary diffusion is analogous converters. The United States is very dependent on coal as a power plant fuel and
to heat conduction, which may be viewed as diffusion of thermal energy down its unfortunately our coal has a rather high sulfur content. The sulfur oxides produced
temperature gradient. I f the coffee is stirred, the fluid motion transports dissolved in the powerplant fumace are the cause of the acid rain problem that plagues the
sugar away from the lump by the process known as mass convection. Mass convec- Northeast. Thus, coal-fired power plants are now required to have mass exchangers
tion is exactly analogous to heat convection: the fluid can transport both energy and that remove sulfur oxides (as weU as nitrogen oxides and particulate matter) from
chemical species by virtue o f its motion. The transport of perfume vapor or noxious the fumace exhaust. Such equipment requires a substantial portion of the capital
odors i n the air surrounding us similarly involves the processes of mass diffusion and operating costs of a modem power plant, and the mechanical engineer is con-
and mass convection. cemed with its proper operation, as well as with the development of more effective
We often encounter processes involving the evaporation of water into air, for ex- exchangers.
ample, from a hot tub or swimming pool, or when we sweat while trudging up a

where . , Ikg/m^" s] is the mass transfer conductance. The mass transfer conduc-
1.6.1 Modes of Mass Ti-ansfer TaS e £ connective heat transfer coefficient play simUar but not e - c t l y ana ogous
r i s f^r mass and heat convection. For example, the mass transfer analog to Eq.
In this text we focus our attention to the two modes of mass transfer just discussed,
(1.21) for laminar flow in a tube is
namely, ordinary diffusion and convection. There is no mass transfer analog to
radiation heat transfer. However, there are diffusion mass transfer modes in addition
to ordinary diffusion caused by a concentration gradient. Diffusion of a chemical pC^u (1-47)
species can also be caused by temperature and pressure gradients, and by an electrical
field; however, these modes are left to more advanced texts. The phenomenological
law goveming ordinary diffusion is Rck's law of diffusion and is analogous to and to Eq. (1.26) is
Fourier's law of conduction. It states that the local mass flux of a chemical species
is proportional to the negative of the local concentration gradient. A number of ƒ ml " A y-ml dA
measures of concentration are in common use; in this text, we will most often use
the mass fraction, which for species / is defined as

Mass fraction of a species / = P^tial density of species / ^ ^ ^

Density of the mixture p '
where p = Pi for a mixture o f n species. Fick's law then gives the diffusion
mass flux y, [kg/rn s] of species 1 in a binary mixture of species 1 and 2 as
mass transfer or simuhaneous heat and mass ttansfer.
i > - - ^ 7 (1.44)
1.6.2 A Strategy for Mass Transfer
for one-dimensional diffusion in the x-direction. For convenience, we write the
constant of proportionality as pl^n, where p [kg/m^] is the local mixture density and
C^'n [m /s] is the binary diffusion coefficient (or mass diffusivity); thus
dmi , , 0
Jl - - P ' ^ i 2 ^ k g / m ' s (1.45)

Data for £/,2 will be given in Chapter 9 and Appendix A .

Mass convection is essentially identical to heat convection, and similar consider-
ations apply The flow may be forced or natural, intemal or external, and laminar phenomena do not have some of ^«n^Pl^™^^^^ , g. The subsequent
or turbulent. Referring to Fig. 1.20, and analogous to Newton's law of cooling, Eq. subject of heat transfer is f^;'^^^'^^^^^^^^^ L experience gained
(1.20), we may write

JI..V = > i A w i ; Am, = m,,, - m , ( 1 . 4 6 )

Of simuhaneous heat and mass transfer, and of poUutton control.


Figure 1.20 Notation for convective

mass transfer in an external flow.

is tlie International System of units (SI), from the French name Système International
d'Unités. This system was recommended at the General Conference on Weights and
Chapter 1 had two main objectives:
Measures of the Intemational Academy o f Sciences in 1960 and was adopted by the
U.S. National Bureau of Standards in 1964. In the United States, the transhion from 1. To introduce the three important modes of heat transfer, namely conduction,
the older English system of units to the SI system has been slow and is not complete. radiation, and convection.
The SI system is used in science education, by engineering professional sociehes,
and by many industries. However, engineers in some more mature industries still 2. To demonstrate how the first law of thermodynamics is applied to an engineer-
prefer to use English units, and, o f course, commerce and trade in the United States ing system to obtain the consequences of a heat transfer process.
remains dominated by the English system. We buy pounds of vegetables, quarts For each mode of heat transfer, some working equations were developed, which,
of milk, drive miles to work, and say that it is a hot day when the temperature though simple, allow heat transfer calculations to be made for a wide variety of
exceeds 80°F (Wine is now sold in 750 m l bottles, though, which is a modest step
problems. Equations (1.9), (1.18), and (1.20) are, probably the most frequently used
equations for thermal design. A n electtic circmt analogy was shown to be a useful
In this text, we w i l l use the SI system, with which the student has become aid for problem solving when more than one mode of heat transfer is involved. In
famihar from physics courses. For convenience, this system is summarized in the applying the first law to engineering systems, a closed system was considered, and the
tables o f Appendix B . Base and supplementary umts, such as length, time, and plane variation of temperature with time was determined for a solid of high conductivity or
angle, are given in Table B . l a ; and derived units, such as force and energy, are given a well-stirred fluid. (An example of an open system is a heat exchanger, and Chapter
in Table B . l è . Recognized non-SI units (e.g., hour, bar) that are acceptable for use 8 wUl show how the first law is applied to such systems.)
with the SI system are hsted in Table B . l c . Multiples of SI units (e.g., kilo, micro) The student should be famihar with some of the Chapter 1 concepts from previous
are defined in Table B.ld. Accordingly the property data given in the tables of
physics, thermodynamics, and fluid mechanics courses. A review of texts for such
Appendix A are in SI units. The student should review this material and is urged to
courses is appropriate at this time. Many new concepts were introduced, however,
be careful when writing down units. For example, notice that the unit of temperature
which w i l l take a littie time and effort to master. Fortunately the mathematics m
is a kelvin (not Kelvin) and has the symbol K (not °K). Likewise, the unit of power
this chapter is simple, involving only algebra, calculus, and the simplest first-order
is the watt (not Watt). The symbol for a kUogram is kg (not KG). A n issue that often
differential equation, and should present no difficulties to the student. After suc-
confuses the student is the correct use o f Celsius temperature. Celsius temperature is
cessfully completing a selection of the foUowing exercises, the stadent wUl be weU
defined as {T - 273.15) where T is in kelvins. However, the unit "degree Celsius"
is equal to the unit "kelvin" (1°C = I K ) . equipped to tackle subsequent chapters.
A feature of this text is an emphasis on real engineering problems as examples
Notwithstanding the wide acceptance of the SI system of units, there remains
and exercises. Thus, Chapter 1 has somewhat greater scope and detaU than the
a need to communicate with those engineers (or lawyers!) who are still using En-
introductory chapters found m most similar texts. With the additional material, more
glish units. Also, component dimensions, or data for physical properties, may be
realistic problems can be treated, both in Chapter 1 and in subsequent chapters. In
available only in English or cgs unhs. For example, most pipes and tubes used in
particular, conduction problems in Chapters 2 and 3 have more reahstic convection
tbe United States conform to standard sizes originaUy specified in English units. A
and radiation boundary conditions. Throughout the text are exercises that require
1 inch nominal-size tube has an outside diameter of 1 in. For convenience, selected
application of the first law to engineering systems, for it is always the consequences
dimensions of U.S. commercial standard pipes and tubes are given in SI units in
of a heat transfer process that motivate the engineer's concem with the subject.
Appendix A as Tables A . 14a and A . 1 4 è , respectively The engineer must be able
A computer program accompanies Chapter 1. The program UNITS is a simple
to convert dimensions from one system o f units to another. Table B.2 in Appendix
units conversion tool that allows unh conversions to be made quickly and rehably
B gives the conversion factors required for most heat transfer applications. The pro-
gram UNITS is based on Table B.2 and contains all the conversion factors in the
table. With the input o f a quantity in one system of units, the output is the same
quantity in the altemative units hsted i n Table B.2. K is recommended that the EXERCISES
student or engineer perform all problem solving using the SI system so as to effi- Note to the student: Exercises 1-1 through 1-3 are included to provide a review of
ciently use the Appendix A property data and the computer software. I f a problem some concepts of mathematics and thermodynamics that are especially relevant to
is stated in English units, the data should be converted to SI units using UNITS; heat transfer. I n addition, students are urged to keep their mathematics and ther-
i f a customer requires results in unhs other than SI, UNITS will give the required modynamic texts in easy reach while studying heat and mass ttansfer, in order to
1 . ... nf heat loss from the vessel. Also calculate the temperature of
review pertinent topics as the occasion arises. Too often, students tend to com-
partmentalize their leaming experience, with each subject terminated by an end- ture profile through tbe composite wall.
of-semester examination. Continuous review of more elementary subjects, as the 1 5 In the United States, insulations are often specified in terms of theh thermal
student proceeds through the degree program, is essential to the mastery of more
resistance in [Btu/hr ft^ ° F ] - , called the "R" value,
advanced subjects.
(i) What is the R value of a 10 cm-thick layer of fiberglass insulation?
1-1. Solve tbe following ordinary differential equations: (i How thick a layer of cork is required to g^^e an R value of 18.
(iil) What is the R value of a 2 cm-thick board of white pme.
(i) -^ + py =0
(h) + By +a =0
water of 335 kJ/kg.
(hi) - 4 - A^y = 0

dh Zn C c L Z r i L - f l b e r g l a s s interface .empe«.ures, and,

(iv) ^ + ^'y = ^
draw the temperature proflle through the wall.
d^y 0
(V) ^ - A^y + a = 0 A ireezer . 1 . wide and deep ,1
When the ambient air is at 30 C ™ tm y y ^^^^
where a, jS, and A are constants.
r : r f o V £ = t a.„h.en, a.r te.peratnre
1-2. A low-pressure heat exchanger transfers heat between two helium streams, each
and that the base of the freezer is perfectly insulated.
with a flow rate of m = 5 X 10"-' kg/s. I n a performance test the cold stream
enters at a pressure of 1000 Pa and a temperature of 50 K , and exits at 730 Pa 1 , A very effechve insulation can be made from muMple layers °f
and 350 K .
(i) I f the flow cross-sectional area for the cold stream is 0.019 m^, calculate
the inlet and outlet velocities. 12, J r y o U .i.ui'E^ on a space sutioj,^ a 1 ^ ^ ^ ^ : ^ ^ ^
tains saturated nihogen at atm pre sure_What* . c k n « s o, p ^^^^
(u) I f the exchanger can be assumed to be perfectly insulated, determine the
heat transfer in the exchanger. For helium, Cp = 5200 J/kg K , r ' l r o i f o f f t t t ^ a ^ W ^ ^ ^ ^
1-3. A shell-and-tube condenser for an ocean thermal energy conversion and fresh K T l h e h * g p i t ofnitrogen is IIA K. and its enthalpy of vapor,zat,on ,s
water plant is tested with a water feed rate to the tubes of 4000 kg/s. The water
inlet and outlet conditions are measured to be Pi = 129 kPa, 7] = 280 K ; and 0.200 X 10*^ J/kg.
P2 = 108 kPa, T2 = 285 K .

(i) Calculate the heat transferred to the water.

(h) I f saturated steam condenses in the shell at 1482 Pa, calculate the steam 5000 K .
condensation rate.
A„ assonant is at - i t V r h e r l p S ::ft ™
For the feed water, take p = 1000 k g / m \ c„ = 4192 J/kg K . (Steam tables are by walls that are at - 1 0 0 C. iUe outer suua ^, . ^^ i^eat
given as Table A. 12a in Appendix A . )
1-4. A Pyrex glass vessel has a 5 mm-thick wall and is protected with a 1 cm-thick
layer of neoprene rubber. I f the inner and outer surface temperatures are 40°C kcal/hr.
and 20°C, respectively, and the total surface area of the vessel is 400 cm^, cal-
100 m/s. Repeat for air at 1 atm and 300 K. Use tbe property values given in
1-12. A n electronic device is contained i n a cylinder 10 cm in diameter and 30 cm Exercise 1-15.
long. It operates inside an unpressurized module of an orbiting space station. 1-17 A 1 m-high vertkal wah is maintained at 310 K , when the surrounding air is
Tbe device dissipates 60 W, and its temperature must not exceed 80°C wben tbe at 1 atm and 290 K . Plot the local heat ttansfer coefficient as a function of lo-
module walls are at - 8 0 ° C . Wbat value of emittance should be specified for cation up the wall. Take v = 15.7 x 10^« m^/s for air Also calculate the
tbe surface coadng of the cylinder?
convective heat loss per meter width of wall.
1-13. A high-vacuum chamber has hs wahs cooled to - 190°C by liquid nitrogen. A
1-18 A 2 m-high vertical surface is maintained at 15°C when exposed to stagnant air
sensor in the chamber has a surface area of 10 cm^ and must be maintained at a
at 1 atm and 25°C. Plot a graph showing the variation of the local heat transfer
temperature of 25°C. Plot a graph of the power required versus emittance of the
coefficient, and calculate the convective heat transfer for a 3 m width of wall.
sensor surface.
Take = 15.0 x 10"^ m^/s for air.
1-14. A semiconductor laser is attached to a diamond heat spreader on the top of a 1
cm copper cube heat sink. The assembly is located in an evacuated Dewar flask. 1-19. A thermistor is used to measure the temperamre of an air stream leaving an air
The average surface temperature of the heat sink is 80 K when the inner surface heater, h is located i n a 30 cm square duct and records a temperamre of 42.6 C
of the Dewar flask is at 100 K. Estimate the parasitic heat gain by the sink due when the walls of the duct are at 38.1°C. What is the trae temperamre of the
to radiation heat transfer. The emittance of the copper is 0.08 and Dewar flask air'? The thermistor can be modeled as a 3 mm-diameter sphere of emittance
inner surface is almost black. 0.7. The convective heat ttansfer coefficient f r o m the air stream to the thermis-
tor is estimated to be 31 W/m^ K .

1_20 A room heater is i n the f o r m of a thin vertical panel 1 m long and 0.7 m high,
with ah allowed to circulate freely on both sides. I f its ratmg is 800 W, what
w i l l the average panel surface temperature be when the room air temperamre is
20°C? The emittance of the surface is 0.85. Take l'air = 17.5 X 10 m /s.


1-15. Consider a 3 nil length of tube with a 1.26 cm inside diameter. Determine the
convective heat transfer coefficient when

(i) water fiows at 2 m/s.

(ii) OÜ (SAE 50) flows at 2 m/s.
(iii) air at atmospheric pressure flows at 20 m/s.

Thermophysical property data at 300 K are as fohows: 1-21 A n electric water heater has a diameter of I m and a height of 2 m . h is in-
P V k Cp sulated with 6 cm of medium-density fiberglass, and the outside heat transfer
kg/m^ m^/s W/mK J/kgK coefficient is estimated to be 8 W/m^ K . I f the water is maintamed at 65 C and
the ambient temperature is 20°C, determine
Water 996 0.87 X10-*^ 0.611 4178
SAE 50 oil 883 570x10"*^ 0.145 1900 (i) the rate of heat loss.
Air at latm 1.177 15.7x10"* 0.0267 1005
(ii) the monthly cost attributed to heat loss i f electricity costs 8 cents/kilowatt
1-16. Consider flow of water at 300 K i n a long pipe of I cm inside diameter. Plot hour.
a graph of the heat transfer coefficient versus velocity over the range 0.01 to

1-22. A 1 cm-diameter sphere is maintained at 60°C in an enclosure with walls at

35°C through which ah at 40°C circulates. I f the convective heat transfer co-
efficient is 11 W/m^ K , estimate the rate of heat loss from the sphere when hs
emittance is
(i) 0.05.
(ii) 0.85.
1-23. Estimate the heating load for a buüding in a cold climate when the outside tem- rm^onT" m " a l l w L .he .emperature ts 20'C ahd the out¬
perature is - 1 0 ° C and the ah inside is maintained at 20°C. The 350 m^ of
side temperature is - 2 0 ° C ?
wahs and ceüing are a composite of I cm-thick wallboard (k = 0.2 W/m K ) ,
10 cm of vermiculite insulation {k = 0.06 W / m K ) , and 3 cm of wood (k =
0.15 W / m K ) . Take the inside and outside heat transfer coefficients as 7 and 35
W/m'-^ K , respectively.

1-24. I f a 2.5 X 10 m shaded wah in the building of Exercise 1-23 is replaced by a

window, compare the heat loss through the wall i f it is
(i) 0.3 cm-thick glass (k = 0.88 W / m K ) .
(Ü) double-glazed with a 0.6 cm ah gap between two 0.3 cm-thick glass panes,
(hi) the original wall.
1-25. Rework Exercise 1-20 for a panel 0.7 m high and 1.5 m long that is rated at
1 kW.
1-26. Saturated steam at 150° C flows through a 15 cm-O.D., uninsulated steam pipe
(e = 0.8). In order to reduce the amount of steam condensed, the pipe is
painted with aluminum paint (e = 0.14). Determine the reduction in the amount
of steam condensed in kg/day for a 20 m length of pipe. Take the outside con-
vective heat transfer coefficient to be 4 W/m^ K , and surroundings at 20°C.
Also, calculate the annual savings i f the cost of thermal energy is 4 cents/kWh.
1-27. A 2 cm-square cross section, 10 cm-long bar consists of a 1 cm-thick copper
A polystvrehe Ice chest ' > - - ^ ^ S t ^ 2 : of^^e^s a ^ ^ l " ^
layer and a 1 cm-thick epoxy composite layer. Compare the thermal resistances . and a 3 cm wall thickness. It is 8 1 ™ ™ a ^^^^ _^ j^.^
for heat flow peipendicular and parahel to the two layers. In both cases, assume
that the two sides of the slab are isothermal. Take k = 400 W/m K for the cop-
per and k = 0.4 W / m K for the epoxy composite.

enthalpy of melting of 335 kJ/kg.

wo. A kitchen oven has a — J ^ ^ i ^ reSriLu^^^^^^^^ *

1-28. Suprathane, manufactured by Rubicon Chemicals Inc., is a wall insulation con-

sisting of a sandwich of urethane foam covered with a protective layer on either


temperature i f the convective heat transfer coefficient for the thermometer bulb
are available in two kinds at the same price. Type A has a thermal conductivity is estimated to be 12 W/m" K .
of 2.0 W / m K and a maximum allowable temperature of 1600 K. Type B has a
1-36. A tent is pitched on a mountain i n an exposed location. The tent walls are
thermal conductivity of 1.0 W/m K and a maximum ahowable temperature of
opaque to thermal radiation. On a clear night the outside air temperature is
1000 K. Determine how the bricks should be arranged so as not to exceed a
- r c , and the effective temperature of the sky as a black radiation sink is
beat flow per unit area of 1000 W/m^, and minimize the cost of the walls.
- 6 0 ° C . The convective heat transfer coefficient between the tent and the am-
bient ah can be taken to be 8 W/m^ K . I f the temperature of the outer surface
1-32. A furnace wall has 0.3 m-thick inner layer of fire-clay brick (k = 1.7 W/m K ) ,
of a sleeping bag on the tent floor is measured to be 10°C, estimate the heat
a 0.2 m-thick layer of kaolin brick (k = 0.12 W / m K ) , and a 0.1 m-thick outer
loss from the bag in W / m - ,
layer of face brick (k = 1.3 W/m K ) . Tbe furnace gases are at 1400 K , and the
ambient air is at 310 K. The inside and outside heat ttansfer coefficients are (i) i f the emittance of the tent material is 0.7.
100 and 15 W/m^ K , respectively. (ii) i f the outer surface of the tent is aluminized to give an emittance of 0.2.

(i) Determine the heat loss through a 4 m-high, 8 m-long wah. For the sleeping bag, take an emittance of 0.8 and a convective heat ttansfer co-
(ii) It is later decided that the face brick temperature should not exceed 360 K. efficient of 4 W/m^ K. Assume that the ambient air circulates through tbe tent.
Can this constiaint be met by increasing tbe thickness of the kaolin brick
1-37. A natural convection heat transfer coefficient meter is intended for situations
layer? where the air temperature T is known but the surrounding surfaces are at an un-
1-33. In cold climates, weather reports usually give both the actual air temperature known temperature T,,,. The two sensors tbat make up the meter each bave a sur-
and the "wind-chill" temperature, which can be interpreted as follows. A t the face area of 1 cm^, one has a surface coating of emittance = 0.9, and the
prevahing wind speed there is a rate o f heat loss per unit area from a clothed other has an emittance of = 0.1. The rear surface of the sensors is well insu-
person for an air temperature 7,. The wind-chill temperature is the ah tem- lated. When = 300 K and the test surface is at 320 K, the power inputs re-
perature that whl give the same rate of heat loss on a calm day. Estimate the quired to maintain the sensor surfaces at 320 K are ö i = 21.7 mW and g , =
wind-chill temperature on a day when the ah temperature is - 1 0 ° C and the ^ 8.28 mW. Determine the heat transfer coefficient at the meter location.
wind speed is lOm/s, giving a convective heat ttansfer coefficient of 50 W / m K.
A radiation heat transfer coefficient of 5 W/m^ K can be used, and under
calm conditions the convective heat ttansfer coefficient can be taken to be
5.0 W/m^ K . Assume a 3 mm layer of skin {k = 0.35 W / m K), clothing equiva-
lent to 8 mm-thick wool (k = 0.05 W / m K ) , and a temperature of 35°C below
the skin. Also calculate the skin outer temperature.

1-34. The cross section of a 20 cm-thick, 3 m-wide, and 1 m-high composite wall
is shown. The conductivities of materials A , B , and C are 1.0, 0.1, and iat ion
0.05 W / m K , respectively. One side is exposed to ah at 295 K with a heat trans-
fer coefficient of 4 W/m^ K , and the other side is exposed to air at 260 K with a
heat transfer coefficient of 16 W/m^ K . Estimate the heat flow through the wah. 1-38. The horizontal roof of a building is surfaced witb black tar paper of emittance
Carefully discuss any assumptions you need to make. 0.96. On a clear, stih night the ah temperature is 5°C, and the effective temper-
ature of the sky as a black radiation sink is - 6 0 ° C . The underside of the roof is
well insulated.
(i) Estimate tbe roof surface temperature for a convective heat transfer coeffi-
cient of 5 W/m^ K .
(ii) I f the wind starts blowing, giving a convective heat transfer coefficient of
20 W/m^ K , what is tbe new roof temperature?
(ih) Repeat the preceding calculations for aluminum roofing of emittance 0.15.
Air at 260 K
1-39. A chemical reactor has a 5 mm-thick mild steel wall and is lined inside with a
1-35. A mercury-in-glass thermometer used to measure the ah temperature i n an en- 2 mm-thick layer of polyvinylchloride. The contents are at 80°C, and the am-
closure reads 15°C. The enclosure walls are aU at 0 ° C . Estimate the true ah

1-45. A hot-water cyhnder contains 150 liters of water, h is insulated, and its outer
bient air is at 20°C. The inside thermal resistance is negligible {hcj very large),
and the outside heat transfer coefhcient for combined convection and radiation surface has an area of 3.5 m ' . I t is located in an area where the ambient air is
is 7 W/m^ K . 25°C, and the overall heat transfer coefficient between the water and the sur-
roundings is 1.0 W/m^ K, based on outer surface area. I f there is a power fail-
(i) Draw the thermal circuit. ure, how long w h l it take the water to cool from 65°C to 40°C? Take the den-
(ii) Plot a graph of the temperature profile through the wall. sity of water as 980 kg/m^ and its specific heat as 4180 J/kg K.
(iii) Calculate the rate of heat loss for a surface area of 10 m ^
1-46. A n aluminum plate 10 cm square and 1 cm thick is immersed in a chemical
•40. To prevent misting of the windscreen of an automobile, recirculated warm air at bath at 50°C for cleaning. On removal, the plate is shiny bright and is allowed
37°C is blown over the inner surface. The windscreen glass (k = 1.0 W / m K ) to cool in a vertical position in stih air at 20°C. Estimate how long the plate
is 4 mm thick, and the ambient temperature is 5°C. The outside and inside heat w i l l take to cool to 30°C by
transfer coefficients are 70 and 35 W/nr K , respectively
(i) assuming a constant heat transfer coefficient evaluated at the average AT of
(i) Determine the temperature of the inside surface of the glass. 20 K.
(ii) I f the air inside the automobile is at 20°C, 1 atm, and 80% relative humid- (h) allowing exactly for the AT'"* dependence of K given by Eq. (1.23a).
ity will misting occur? (Refer to your thermodynamics text for the princi- For ah, take v = 16.5 X 10^*' m^/s, and for aluminum, take k = 204 W / m K,
ples of psychrometry.)
p = 2710 k g / m ^ c = 896 J/kg K.
41. The horizontal roof of a building is coated with tar of emittance 0.94. On a 1-47. A 2 cm-diameter copper sphere with a thermocouple at its center is suddenly
cloudy, still night the air temperature is 5°C, and the convective heat transfer immersed in liquid nitrogen contained in a Dewar flask. The temperature re-
coefficient between the air and the roof is estimated to be 4 W/m^ K . sponse is determined using a dighal data acquisition system that records the
(i) I f the effective temperature o f the sky as a black radiation sink is - 1 0 ° C , temperature every 0.05 s. The maximum rate of temperature change dT/dt is
determine the roof temperature. Assume that the under surface of the roof found to occur when T = 92.5 K, with a value of 19.8 K/s.
is well insulated. (i) Using the lumped thermal capacity model, determine the corresponding
(ii) I f a wind starts blowing, resulting in a convective heat transfer coefficient heat transfer coefficient.
of 12 W/m^ K , what is the new roof temperature? (ii) Check the Biot number to ensure that the model is valid.
(iii) Repeat the preceding calculations for aluminum roofing of emittance 0.15. (iii) The fact that the cooling rate is a maximum toward the end of the cool-
42. A n alloy cylinder 3 cm in diameter and 2 m high is removed from an oven at down period is unusual; what must be the reason?
200°C and stood on hs end to cool in an air flow at 20°C. Give an estimate of The saturation temperature of nitrogen at 1 atm pressure is 77.4 K. Take p =
the time for the cylinder to cool to 100°C i f the convective heat transfer coeffi- 8930 kg/m\ c = 235 J/kg K, and k = 450 W / m K for copper at 92.5 K.
cient is 80 W/m^ K . For tbe alloy take p = 8600 kg/m\ c = 340 J/kg K , and
k = 110 W / m K . 1-48. A 1 cm-diameter alloy sphere is to be heated in a fumace maintained at 1000°C.
I f the initial temperature of the sphere is 25°C, calculate the time required for
43. A thermometer is used to check the temperature in a freezer that is set to oper- the sphere to reach 800°C i f tiie gas in the fumace is circulated to give a con-
ate at - 5 ° C . I f the thermometer initially reads 25°C, how long w i l l it take for vective heat transfer coefficient of 100 W/ur K. Properties of the alloy include
the reading to be within T C of the true temperature? Model the thermometer p = 4900 kg/m^ and c = 400 J/kg K.
bulb as a 4 mm-diameter mercury sphere surrounded by a 2 mm-thick shell
of glass. For mercury take p = 13,530 kg/m\ c = 140 J/kg K ; and for 1-49. A material sample, in the form of a 1 cm-diameter cyhnder 10 cm long, is re-
glass p = 2640 k g / m \ c = 800 J/kg K . Use a heat transfer coefficient of moved from a bohing water bath at 100°C and allowed to cool in air at^20°C.
15 W/m^ K . I f the free-convection heat transfer coefficient can be approximated &s he =
3.6Ar"* W/m^ K for AT in kelvins, estimate the time required for the sample
44. A thermocouple junction bead is modeled as a 1 mm-diameter lead sphere to cool to 25°C. For the sample properties take p = 2260 kg/m^ c = 830
(p = 11,340 k g / m \ c = 129 J/kg K ) and is initially at a room temperature J/kg K. Owing to a low emittance, radiation heat ttansfer is neghgible.
of 20°C. I f the thermocouple is suddenly immersed in ice water to serve as a
1-50. Two small blackened spheres of identical size—one of aluminum, the other of
reference junction, what wUl be the error in indicated temperature corresponding
an unknown alloy of high conductivity—are suspended by thin wires inside a
to 1, 2, and 3 times the time constant of the thermocouple? I f the heat transfer
large cavity in a block of melting ice. I t is found that it takes 4.8 minutes for
coefficient is calculated to be 2140 W/m^ K , what are the corresponding times?

1-55 Electronic components are often mounted with good

the temperature of the aluminum sphere to drop from 3°C to 1°C, and 9.6 min-
heat conduction paths to a finned aluminum base plate,
utes for the alloy sphere to undergo the same change. I f the specihc gravities of
which is exposed to a stream of cooling ah from a
the aluminum and alloy are 2.7 and 5.4, respectively and the specific heat of
the aluminum is 900 J/kg K , what is the specific heat of the alloy? fan. The sum of the mass times specific heat products
for a base plate and components is 5000 J/K, and the
1-51. A mercury-in-glass thermometer is to be used to measure the temperature of effective heat transfer coefficient times surface area
a high-velocity ah stream. I f the ah temperature increases linearly with time, product is 10 W / K . The initial temperamre of the plate
Te = at + constant, perform an analysis to determine the error in the ther- and the coolmg ah temperature are 295 K when 300 W
mometer reading due to its thermal "inertia." Evaluate the error i f the inside of power are swhched on. Find the plate temperature
diameter of the mercury reservoir is 3 nun, its length is 1 cm, and the glass after 10 minutes.
wall thickness is 0.5 mm, when the heat transfer coefficient is 60 W/m^ K and 1-56 A reactor vessel's contents are initially at 290 K when a reactant is added lead-
the air temperature increases at a rate of ing to an exothermic chemical reaction that releases heat at a rate of 4 X 10
(i) 1°C per minute. W/m^ The volume and exterior surface area of the vessel are 0.008 m and
(ii) 1°C per second. 0 24 m^ respectively and the overah heat transfer coefficient between the ves-
sel contents and the ambient ah at 300 K is 5 W/m^ K . I f the reactants are weh
Property values for mercury are p = 13,530 k g / m ^ c = 140 J/kg K ; for glass
stirred, estimate theh temperature after
p = 2640 k g / m ^ c = 800 J/kg K .
(i) 1 minute.
1-52. Under high-vacuum conditions in the space shuttle service bay radiation is (ii) 10 minutes.
the only significant mode of heat transfer. Obtain an analytical solution for a
Take p = 1200 kg/m^ and c = 3000 J/kg K for the reactants,
lumped thermal capacity model thermal response. Also, identify a dimension-
less group analogous to the Biot number that can be used to determine i f the 1-57 A carbon steel butane tank weighs 4.0 kg (empty) and has a surface area of
model is valid. (Hint: A table of standard integrals found in mathematics hand- 0 22 m ^ When f u h h contains 2 kg of liquified gas. Butane gas is drawn o f f to
books may be of assistance.) a burner at a rate of 0.05 kg/h through a pressure-reducing valve. I f the arnbient
temperature is 55°C, estimate the steady temperature of the tank and he time
1-53. A thermocouple is immersed in an air stream whose temperature varies sinu-
taken for 80% of the temperature drop to occur. Take the sum of the convective
soidally about an average value with angular frequency M. The thermocouple is
and radiative heat transfer coefficients from the tank to the surroundings as 5
small enough for the Biot number to be less than 0 . 1 , but the convective heat
W/m^ K . Property values for butane are c = 2390 J/kg K and ftf^ = 3.86 X 10
transfer coefficient is high enough for radiation heat ttansfer to be negligible
J/kg; for the steel c = 434 J/kg K .
compared to convection.
1-58. A 2.5 m-diameter, 3.5 m-high miUc stt«:age tank is located m ^ c ^ y factory
(i) Set up the differential equation governing the temperature of the thermo- in Onehunga, New Zealand, where the ambient temperature is 30 CJ h e tank
couple. -
has walls of stainless steel 2 mm thick and is msulated with a 7.5 cm-thick
(ii) Solve the differential equation to obtain tbe amplitude and phase lag of the la^er of polyurethane foam. The tank is filled with milk at 4°C and is continu-
thermocouple temperature response. ously s t i L d by an impeher driven by an electric motor that consumes 400 W
(iii) The thermocouple can be modeled as a 2 mm-diameter lead sphere (p =
^fpower. WhJt w i h th'e milk temperature be after 24 hours? ^he - i l k ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
11,340 kg/m\ c = 129 J/kg K ) . I f the ah temperature varies as T = 320 +
o = 1034 kglm\ c = 3894 J/kg K ; for the msulatton, Ic = 0.026 W / m K , and
10 sin r, for T in kelvins and / i n seconds, calculate the amplitude and phase
for the outsile h^at transfer coefficient, h = 5 W/m^ K . The impeller motor
lag of the thermocouple for heat transfer coefficients of 30 and 100 W/m^ K .
efficiency can be taken as 0.75.
1-54. A system consists of a body i n which heat is continuously generated at a rate 1-59 Referring to Exercise 1-14, the laser dissipates beat at a rate of 1.5 W. Since the
ö v , whUe heat is lost from the body to hs surroundings by convection. Using laser's action deteriorates above 100 K, it is sometimes necessary to operate the
the lumped thermal capacity model, derive the differential equation goveming laser discontinuously. I f a magnesium heat sink is initiaUy at 50 K, esttmate the
the temperature response of the body I f the body is at temperature TQ when time requhed for h to reach 100 K. A "cold finger" removes heat at a rate
time t = 0, solve the differential equation to obtain T(t). Also determine the Qe = 0.02(r - 50) W, where T is the block temperature in kelvins. Also
steady-state temperature.

determine the block equihbrium temperature. For the magnesium, take reached, for which the beat transferred into the tank from the surroundings bal-
P = 1750 kg/m , ^ = 250 W/m K, c = 450 J/kg K. Ignore the heat capacity of ances the heat of vaporization requhed.
the laser and the diamond spreader and parasitic heat gains from the Dewar (i) Estimate the steady-state temperamre of the hquid WF^.
(h) Estimate how long it w i h take for the liquid to approach withm 1 C ot its
steady value.
-60. A 3.5 cm-O.D., 2.75 mm-wall-thickness copper tube is used in a test rig for the
measurement of convective heat transfer f r o m a cylinder in a cross-flow of fluid Property values for liquid WF^ include p = 3440 kg/m^ = 1000 J/kg K,
The tube IS fitted with an intemal electric heater. A 5 mm-square, 0.1 mm-thick hr = 25 7 X 10^ kJ/kmol, and for steel, c = 434 J/kg K. The weight of the
heat flux meter is attached to the surface and measures both the local surface empty tank is 30 kg, and the heat transfer coefficient for convection and
heat flux q, and surface temperature T, (see Exercise 1-74). In a series of tests radiation to the tank is /j = 8 W / m K.
to determine the heat transfer coefficient at the stagnation line, the cylinder is 1-63 A 83 mm-high Styrofoam cup has 1.5 mm-thick wahs and is filled with 180 ml
placed m a wmd mnnel and the ah speed varied incrementally over the desired ' coffee at 80°C and covered witb a lid. The outside diameter of the cup varies
range. How long w i l l the experimenter have to wait after the fan speed is f r o m 45 m m at its base to 73 mm at its top. The ambient air is at 24 C and the
?nn"wf The heat transfer coefficient is expected to be about combined convective and radiative heat transfer coefficient for the outside of the
100 W / m K. Take p = 8950 kg/m^ c = 385 J/kg K for the copper
cup is estimated to be 10 W / m ' K.
(i) Determine the initial rate of heat loss through the side wahs of the cup and
Copper tube the corresponding temperature of the outer surface. , u u .
3.5 cm O.D.,
2.75 mm wail Ihickness (ii) Estimate the time for the coffee to cool to 60°C tf the average o the heat
fluxes through the hd and base are taken to be equal to the flux through the
side wahs.
Comment on the significance of your answer to acmal cooling rates experienced
at the moming coffee break. Take k = 0.035 W / m K for the Styrofoam, and
p = 985 kg/m^ Cp = 4180 J/kg K for the coffee.
1-64. Derive conversion factors for the following units conversions.
(i) Enthalpy of vaporization, Btu/lb to J/kg
(ii) Specific heat, Btu/lb °F to J/kg K
61. In a materials-processing experiment on a space station, a 1 cm-diameter sphere (iii) Density Ib/ft^ to kg/m^
of alloy IS to be cooled from 600 K to 400 K . The sphere is suspended in a test (iv) Dynamic viscosity lb/ft hr to kg/m s
chamber by three jets of nitrogen at 300 K . The convective heat transfer coeffi- (v) Kinematic viscosity, f t ' / h r to m /s
cient between the jets and the sphere is estimated to be 180 W / m ' K Calculate
(vi) Thermal conductivity, Btu/hr f t °F to W / m K
the time required for the cooling process and the minimum quenching rate Take
the alloy density to be p = 14,000 kg/m^ specific heat c = 140 J/kg K and (vu) Heat flux, Btu/hr f t ' to W / m '
thermal conductivity k = 240 W / m K. Since the emittance of the alloy is very 1-65 In the United States, gas and liquid flow rates are commonly expressed in cubic
small, the radiation contribution to heat loss can be ignored. feet per minute (CFM) and gallons per minute (GPM), respectively
(i) For ah at 1 atm and 300 K (p = 1.177 kg/m^), prepare a table showing
62. Consistent delivery of low-vapor-pressure reactive gases is required for semi- flow rates i n m^/s and kg/s corresponding to 1, 10, 100, 1000, and 10,000
"?S!n? ^ ' ' ' ' ^ ' ? ' ^" P ' " " ^ ' ' ' '"'^g^^^" fluoride WFe (normal boiling
pomt 17 C) is supphed from a 80 cm-diameter spherical tank containing hquid (h) F ^ i ^ a t e r at 300 K (p = 996 kg/m^), prepare a table showing flow rates in
WFe under pressure. The tank is located in surroundings at 21 °C After con- S / s and kg/s corresponding to 1, 10, 100, 1000, and 10,000 G P M .
necting a f u l l tank to the gas delivery system, supply at a rate of 50 seem (stan- 1-66. I n January 1989 the barometric pressure reached 31.84 inches of mercury at
dard cubic centimeters per minute) commences. In order to supply the required'
Northway, Alaska, a record for North America. On the other hand, a typical
heat of vaporization, the liquid WF^ temperature drops unth a steady state is

(Hint: Fhst obtain the appropriate curve fit for T in degrees Rankine, then con-
barometric pressure for Denver, Colorado, is 24.4 inches of mercury.
vert to SI units.)
(i) What are these pressures in mbar and pascals?
1-74 Miniature heat flux meters are being increasingly used to measure convective
(ii) At what temperature does water boil at these pressures?
heat transfer coefficients. The cross section of a typical design is shown. Notice
1-67. Specify the following in the English system of units (Btu, hr, f t , °F or °R): that the total thickness is approximately 0.1 mm, whicb is small enough not to
disturb tbe flow in many applications. The two thermopiles (assembhes of ther-
(i) The Stefan-Boltzmann constant
mocouples in series to multiply the signal) are located on each side of a 1 mil
(ii) The radiation heat transfer coefficient at 25°C
(2 54 X 1 0 " ' mm)-thick Kapton fllm in order to measure the conduction heat
(iii) The free-convection formulas given by Eqs. (1.23a) and (1.23Z>). transferred across the film. A separate thermocouple measures the temperature
1-68. Convert the problem statement of Example 1.3 to the English system of units, underneath the film. The manufacturer calibrates the meter by subjecting it to a
work the problem in English units, and convert your answer back into SI units. known heat flux, and a calibration constant is supplied with the meter.

1-69. Convert the problem statement of Example 1.4 to the Enghsh system of units, (i) The manufacturer specifies the cahbration constant as 0.350 ^W(Btu/hr f t ' ) .
work the problem in English units, and convert your answers back into SI units. Determine this constant i n SI units.
(ii) The thermocouple does not measure the tiue surface temperamre. Determine
1-70. Convert the problem statement of Example 1.5 to the English system of units,
the correction required, named (T, - T,,), for heat fluxes of 100, 1000, and
work the problem in Enghsh unhs, and convert your answers back into SI units.
10,000 W / m ' .
1-71. Convert the problem statement of Example 1.6 to the English system of units, Take k = 0.245 W/m K for the Kapton.
work the problem in English units, and convert your answers back into SI unhs.

1-72. Check the dimensions of Eq. (1.22) in

(i) SI units.
(ii) English units.
1-73. Asbestos is no longer used for insulating steam lines in power plants because it
is a proven carcinogen. Substitutes include calcium silicate, ceramic fiber, and Thermopile
mineral wool. The thermal conductivity of these insulations is temperature- Thermocouple
dependent, and appropriate data are requhed for design calculations. A simple
quadratic curve fit k(T) = AQ + Ay + AzT^ is usually adequate. Utility engi-
neers in the United States tend to use English unhs, with k expressed in
Btu in/hr f t ' °F and temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. The table shows some
data in current use.
1-75. The thermal resistance per unit area of clothing is often expressed in the unit
Brand Name Materia] Company clo, where 1 clo = 0.88 f t ' °F hr/Bm.
A, A2
Thermo-12 Calcium Manville 0.34 5.0 X 10"-5 2.5 X 10"-7 (i) What is 1 clo in SI unhs?
(ii) I f a wool sweater is 2 mm thick and has a thermal conductivity of
Kaowool Ceramic fiber Babcock and 0.23 2.245 X 10"-4 3.75 X 10"-7
Wilcox 0 05 W / m K, what is its thermal resistance in clos?
Epitherm-1200 Mineral wool (iii) A cotton shirt has a thermal resistance of 0.5 clo. I f the inner and outer
Fibrex 0.2809 -5.0 X 10"-5 1.0 X 10"-6
Kaylo Calcium Owens/Corning 0.43 -1.25 X 10'-4 6.25 X 10""7 surfaces are at 31°C and 28°C, respectively, what is the rate of heat loss
silicate per unit area?

(i) Obtain quadratic curve fits for T in kelvins and k in W / m K.

(ii) Prepare a graph of k versus T for these four insulations over the temperature
range 300 K < 7 < 900 K .


O N E - D I M E N S I O N A L




2.4. FINS

Cartesian coordinates, with temperature varying in the x direction only

In this chapter we analyze problems involving steady one-dimensional heat conduction.
By steady we mean that temperatures are constant with time; as a resuh, the heat flow is
Recall from Section 1.3.1 that the negative sign ensures that the heat flux q is positive
also constant with time. By one-dimensional we mean that temperature is a function of
in the positive x direction. In cylindrical or spherical coordinates, with temperature
a smgle "dimension" or spatial coordinate. One-dimensional conduction can occur in a
number of geometrical shapes. In Section 1.3.1, one-dimensional conduction across varying in the r direction only,
a plane wall was examined, with temperature as a function of Cartesian coordinate x
only; that is, T = T{x). Conduction in cylinders or spheres is one-dimensional when
temperature is a function of only the radial coordinate r and does not vary with polar
angle and axial distance, in the case of the cylinder, or with polar or azimuthal angles, Equation (2.2) is the form of Fourier's law required for Section 2.
in the case of the sphere; that is, T = T{r). Analysis of steady one-dimensional heat
conduction problems involves the solution of very simple ordinary differential equa-
tions to give algebraic formulas for the temperature variation and heat flow. Thus, i f 2.2.1 Thermal Conductivity
at all possible, engineers like to approximate, or model, a practical heat conduction Table 1.1 gave a brief list of thermal conductivities to illustrate typical values for
problem as steady and one-dimensional, even though temperatures might vary slowly gases, liquids, and sohds. Appendix A gives more complete tabulated data. The
with time or vary a littie in a second coordinate direction.
relevant tables are:
A wide range of practical heat transfer problems involve steady one-dimensional
heat conduction. Examples include most heat insulation problems, such as the refrig- Table A . 1 Solid metals
erated container of Example 1.1, the prediction o f temperatiires in a nuclear reactor Table A . 2 Solid dielectrics (nonmetals)
fuel rod, and the design of cooling fins for electronic gear. Often, complex systems Table A.3 Insulators and building materials
involvmg two- or three-dimensional conduction can be divided into subsystems in
Table A . 4 Sohds at cryogenic temperatures
which the conduction is one-dimensional. Cooling of integrated circuit components
can often be satisfactorily analyzed i n this manner. Table A.7 Gases
In Section 2.2, Fourier's law o f heat conduction is briefly revisited. The physical Table A.8 Dielectric liquids
mechanisms of heat conduction are discussed, and the applicabihty of Fourier's law Table A . 9 Liquid metals
at the interface between two solids is examined. Conduction across plane wahs has
Table A.13 Liquid solutions
already been treated in Section 1.3.1; thus, i n Section 2.3, we restrict our attention
to conduction across cylindrical and spherical shells and include the effect of heat Additional data may be found in the literamre, for example. References [1] through
generation within the solid. Section 2.4 deals with the class ofproblems known as fin [4]. I n the case of commercial products, such as insulations, data can be obtained
problems, including famhiar cooling fins and an interesting variety of mathematically from tbe manufacturer.
similar problems. The engineer needs conductivity data to solve heat conduction problems (as was
There is a common methodology to the analyses in Chapter 2. Each analysis begins seen in Chapter 1) and is usually not too concerned about the actoal physical mecha-
with the application of the first law, Eq. (1.2), to a closed-system volume element nism of heat conduction. However, conductivity data for a given substance are often
and introduction of Fourier's law, to obtain the goveming differential equation. This sparse or nonexistent, and then a knowledge of the physics of heat conduction is use-
equation is then integrated to give the temperature distribution, with the constants f u l to interpolate or extrapolate what data are available. Unfortunately the physical
of integration found from appropriate boundary conditions. Finally, the heat flow is mechanisms of conduction are many and complicated, and h is possible to develop
obtained using Fourier's law. simple theoretical models for gases and pure metals only A brief account of some
of the more important aspects of the conduction mechanisms foUows.

Fourier's law of heat conduction was introduced in Section 1.3.1. A general statement The kinetic theory model gives a reliable basis for determining the thermal con-
of this law is: The conduction heat flux in a specified direction equals the negative ductivity of a gas. Molecules are in a state of random motion. When collisions occur,
of the product of the medium thermal conductivity and the temperature derivative there is an exchange of energy that results in heat being conducted down a temperamre
in that direction. In Chapter 2, we are concemed with one-dimensional conduction. In

In general, thermal conductivity is temperature-dependent. Formnately the vari-

gradient from a hot region to a cold region. The simplest form of kinehc theory
gives ation f n T p i c a l engineering problems is smah, and h suffices to use an appropriate
lera : v i e . An'exception is solids at cryogenic ^^^^^^^f^^^
1 / 1 \ of Table A . 4 w i h show Another exception is gases m the vicmity of the critical
^ = 3 C . i 7, Jmc„ + - i j [ W / m K ] (2.3) point. Special care must be taken in such simations.

where c is the average molecular speed [m/s], . V is the number of molecules per
unit volume [m \ /, is the transport mean free path [ m ] , m is the mass of the 2.2.2 Contact Resistance
molecule [kg], c„ is the constant-volume specific heat [J/kgK], and A is the Boltz- In Section 1 3.1, heat conduction through a composite wall was analyzed. Figure
mann constant, 1.38054 X IQ-'^ j / K . The product c . A 'V, is virtually independent of 2 l a Z s the interface between two layers of a composite waU with the sur ace
pressure in the vicinity of atmospheric pressure; thus, conductivity is also indepen- of each layer assumed to be perfectly smooth. Two mathematical surfa es the «¬
dent of pressure. Table A.7 gives data for a nominal pressure at 1 atm but can be and .-surfaces, are located on each side of and infinitely close to the real interface
used for pressures down to about 1 torr (1/760 of an atmosphere, or 133.3 Pa). No- as shown. T h ; first law of themiodynamics applied to the closed system located
tice also that the average molecular speed is higher and the mean free path is longer between the u- and .-surfaces requires that
for small molecules; thus, conductivities of gases such as hydrogen and helium are
much greater than those of xenon and the refrigerant R-22. Ql - ül
since no energy can be stored in the infinitesimal amount of material in the system.
Dielectric Liquids Considering a unit area and introducing Fourier's law gives

In liquids (excluding liquid metals such as mercury at normal temperatures and dT (2.5)
sodium at high temperatures), the molecules are relatively closely packed, and heat dx
conduction occurs primarily by longitudinal vibrations, simhar to the propagation of Also, since the distance between the u- and .-surfaces is negligible, thermodynamic
sound. The stracture of hquids is not well understood at present, and there are no
equilibrium requires
good theoretical formulas for conductivity.
r„ = Ts ^'-'^

Pure Metals and Alloys as shown on the temperature profile (for fe. > ks). For perfectly smooth surfaces,
there is no thermal resistance at the interface.
The primary mechanism of heat conduction is the movement of free electrons. A
smaller contribution is due to the transfer of atomic motions by lattice vibrations, or A B A B
waves; however, this contribution is unimportant except at cryogenic temperatures.
In alloys, the movement of free electrons is restricted, and thermal conductivity
decreases markedly as alloying elements are added. The lattice wave contribution
then becomes more important but is difficuh to predict owing to the variable effects
of heat treatment and cold working.

Dielectric Solids

Heat conduction is almost entirely due to atomic motions being transferred by lat-
tice waves; hence, thermal conductivity is very dependent on the crystalline structure
of the material. Many building materials and insulators have anomalously low val-
ues of conductivity because of theh porous nature. The conductivity is an effective
value for the porous medium and is low due to air or a gas fiUing the interstices and
pores, through which heat is transferred rather poorly by conduction and radiation.
Figure 2.1 Interfaces between two layers of a composite
Expanded plastic insulations, such as polystyrene, have a large molecule refrigerant
waU. (a) Smooth surfaces, (b) Rough surfaces.
gas filling the pores to reduce the conductivity.

Figure 2. lb shows a more reahstic situation, in which each surface has some Table 2.1 Typical interfacial conductances (at moderate pressure and usual finishes,
degree of roughness. The solid materials are in contact at relatively few places, and unless otherwise stated). ^ ^
the gaps may contain a fluid or, in some apphcations, a vacuum. The heat flow in the
mterface region is complicated: the conduction is three-dimensional as the heat tends interface W/m^- K
to "squeeze" through the contact areas, and there are parallel paths o f conduction
and radiation through the gaps. The u- and j-surfaces are located just on either side Ceramic-ceranuc 1500-8500
of a somewhat arbiUarily defined interface location. In addition, a- and ^-surfaces Ceramic-metals 3OOO-6OOO
are located just far enough from the interface for the heat conduction to be one- Graphite-metals 1700-3700
dimensional. No temperature profile is shown between the a- and è-surfaces since Stainless steel-stainless steel 2200-12 000
no unique profile T(x) exists there; instead, the temperamre profiles are extrapolated Aluminum-aluminum 3000-4500
from the bulk material to the interface as shown, thereby defining the temperatures Stainless steel-aluminum 000-25,000
and temperature gradients at the u- and .-surfaces. As was the case for the perfectiy Copper-copper _
smooth surfaces, the first law requires Rough aluminum-aluminum (vacuum conditions) 4000-40 000
-ks (2.7)
dx dx

but now there is no continuity o f temperature at the interface; that is, r„ ^ r , . The C O N D U C T I O N A C R O S S C Y L I N D R I C A L AND S P H E R I C A L S H E L L S
thermal resistance to heat flow at the interface is called the contact resistance and
IS usuaUy expressed in terms o f an interfacial conductance /z,- [ W / m ' K ] , defined Steady one-dimensional conduction in cylinders or spheres requires that temperamre
in an analogous manner to Newton's law of cooling, namely be a function of only the radial coordinate r. The analysis of steady heat flow across
a plane wall in Section 1.3.1 was particularly simple because the flow area A did
e = A/A(r„ - T,) (2.8) not change in the flow direction. In the case of a cylindrical or spherical shell the
or area for heat flow changes in the direction of heat flow For a c y l i n d n c a l j h e l l of
I •f\4
hi length L , the area for heat flow is A = 27rrL; for a spherical sheh, it is A - 47rr .
dT dT^
~k, hiiT, - Ts) = -ke In both cases, A increases with increasing r.
71 (2.9)

Figure 2.2 shows the contact resistance added to the thermal circuh o f Fig. 1.5. 2.3.1 Conduction across a Cylindrical Shell

Figure 2.3 shows a cyhndrical shell of length L , with inner radius r, and outer
radius r2 The inner surface is maintained af temperature T and the outer surface
is maintained at temperature T^. A n elemental control volume is located between
radii r and r + A r . I f temperatures are unchanging in time and öv - 0, the energy
Figure 2.2 A contact resistance
in a thermal circuit. conservation principle, Eq. (1.2), requires that the heat flow across the face at r
equal that at the face r 4- A r

There is always a contact resistance to conduction across real solid-solid interfaces.

Q\r = ÖUa,-
The contact resistance can be the dominant thermal resistance when high-conductivity that is,
metals are i n v o l v e d - f o r example, in aircraft constmction, where aluminum alloys
Q = Constant, independent of r
are used extensively The contact resistance depends on the pressure with which
contact is maintained, with a marked decrease once the yield point o f one o f the Using Fourier's law in the form of Eq. (2.2),
materials is reached. Data for contact resistances are, unfortunately sparse and un-
rehable. Table 2.1 does, however, show some representative values. Additional data / , dT\
can be found in the literature [5,6,7]. Q =Aq = 27rrL —^

Using either of the two equations then gives

Substituting back in Eq. (2.11) and rearranging gives the temperature distribution as

T - T _ ln(r/ri) (2.13)
Ti-Tz ln(r2/ri)
which is a logarithmic variation, in contrast to the linear variation found the plane
wah in Section 1.3.1. The heat flow is found from Eq. (2.10) as Ö = 2^kLCu or

. _ 2TTkL(T - T2) (2.14)

Hgure 2.3 A cylindrical shell showing Ö " ln(r2/ri)
an elemental control volume for application
Equation (2.14) is again in the form of Ohm's law, and the thermal resistance of the
of the energy conservation principle.
cylindrical sheh is

Dividing by lirkL and assuming that the conductivity k is independent of temperature ln(r2/ri) (2.15)
gives 2TTkL
When r2 = n+8 and d/n « 1, Eq. (2.15) reduces to the resistance of a slab,
——- = -r— = Constant = C i (2.10)
iTrkL dr
^^^h ifnow^pofsfble to treat composite cyhndrical shehs with convection and radi-
which is a first-order ordinary differential equation for T{r) and can be integrated ation from either side without any further analysis. Figure 2.4 shows the cross sec^
easily: tion of an insulated pipe of length L, through which flows superheated steam and
1? r

T = -Cilnr + C2 (2.11)

Two boundary coirditions are required to evaluate the two constants; these are

= n : T = T (2.12a)

r = r2: ' T = T2 (2.12b)

Substituting in Eq. (2.11) gives

T = - C l i n r, + C2

T2 = - C l In r2 + C2

which are two algebraic equations for the unknowns d and C2. Subtracting the
second equation from the first:

T-T2 = - C l In r, + Cl In r2 = C, ln(r2/ri)

C, = Hgure 2.4 An insulated steam pipe showing the temperature distribution and thermal circuit.

which loses heat by convection and radiation to its surroundings. The thermal circuit Equation (2.16) applies, with Eq. (2.17) used to obtain the UA product,
is also shown, with Eq. (2.15) used for the conductive resistances of the pipe and i n - Q = UA(Ti - T„)
sulation. Notice that in contrast to the plane wah case, the area for heat flow is dif-
1 _ 1 ^ ln(r2/ri) ^ ln(r3/>-2) ^ I _\
ferent on each side of the composite wall: on the inside it is ITTTIL, and on the outside
it is lirr-iL. Again we define an overaU heat transfer coefficient by Eq. (1.29): UA 2TrL\r\lir.i ke r^h„ j
Tables A.Ifc and A.3 in Appendix A give the variation of conductivity with temperature for
Q = UA(Ti - n ) = j ^ ^ ^ i (2.16) 1010 steel and magnesia, respectively As a first step, we guess that the steel is close to
the steam temperature (500 K). and since - - ^ . , f * e temperature drop^w^^^
Then, summing the resistances;in the thermal network, magnesia insulation, its average temperature will be about (500 + 300 /2 - 400 K. The
corresponding conductivity values are k, = 54 W/m K and ks = 0.073 W/m K.
1 1 J hi (rj/rO \ /In (rs/rz) 1 1 1 / 1 In(0.075/0.068) In(0.128/0.075) ^ 1 \
UA IvriLhcj ! lirkAL J f ItrkeL j 1É = ( M ^ ) [ m m ^ ) 0-073 (0.128)(8)|
The area A need not be specified since all we need is the UA product. However,
= ^ (0.42 + 0.002 + 7.32 + 0.98)
often a value of U will be quoted based on either the inside or outside area; then the 125.7^
appropriate area must be used i n Eqs. (2.16) and (2.17).
Q = [/AAr = (14.4)(500 - 300) = 2880 W
Since the resistance ofthe steel wall is negligible, we do not need to check our guess for its
EXAMPLE 2.1 Heat Loss from an Insulated Steam Pipe conductivity. For the magnesia insulation, we estimate its average temperature by examining
A mild steel steam pipe has an outside diameter of 15 cm and a wall thickness of 0.7 cm. the relevant segment of the thermal circuit. For convenience, the thermal resistance of the
It is insulated with a 5.3 cm-thick layer of 85% magnesia insulation. Superheated steam at insulation is split in half to estimate an average temperature T:
500 K flows through the pipe, and the inside heat transfer coefficient is 35 W/m^ K. Heat is
lost by convection and radiation to surroundings at 300 K, and the sum of outside convection l^lnOVrj) ^ 1
and radiation coefficients is estimated to be 8 W/m- K. Find the rate of heat loss for a 20 m ^2/ iTrLke l-nLriK
length of pipe. 1^ 7.32 ^ 0.98
300 = (2880)
_ 2 j 125.7 125.7J
= 106 K
Given: Steam pipe with 85% magnesia insulation.
f = 406 K
Required: Heat loss for 20 m length if = 8 W/m^ K. A look at Table A.3 shows that our guess of 400 K introduced an error of less than 1%, so
there is no need to calculate a new value of Q using an improved k value.
Assumptions: Steady one-dimensional heat flow.

1. After one has gained some experience with this type of calculation, the problem can
be simplified by ignoring the small resistance of the steel pipe.
2 In practice, the outside heat transfer coefficient varies somewhat around the circumfer-
ence of the insulation, and the conduction is not truly one-dimensional. For an engi-
neering calculation, we simply use an average value for K.

2.3.2 Critical Thickness of Insulation on a Cylinder

Tbe insulation on the large steam pipe i n Example 2.1 was installed because it re-
500 K ^ 300 K duced the heat loss. However, adding a layer of insulation to a cylinder does not
c—[QJ—wv—3—^A^—=—^A^—=—^A^—o necessarily reduce the heat loss. When the outer radius of the insulation r„ is small,
1 Hri^r^) Hr,/r^ i
rtière is the possibüity that the added thermal resistance of the insulation is less than

Equation (2 19) is an often-used formula for the critical radius, but u is only an
the reduction of the outside resistance VlTrroLho due to the larger value of the area
approximate estimate since the heat transfer coefficient was assumed to be indepen-
for convective and radiative heat transfer, 27rr„L. This phenomenon is often used
dent of r„. In general, we can write K = ar;" where, for example, « = 1/2 for
for cooling electronic components that must dissipate I^R heahng. Figure 2.5 shows
laminar forced convection. Thus, the total resistance R is more correctiy written as
a resistor with an insulahon sheath of inner radius r; and outer radius r^. Since
the resistor usually has a relatively high thermal conductivity, we w i l l assume h is
isothermal at temperature T;. The ambient ah temperature is Te, and tbe outside
iTtLk • 27TLarJ-"
heat transfer coefficient is ho. There are two resistances in series; denoting the total
resistance as R the heat flow is hence,

Tj - Te Ti - Te
Q (2.18)
R ln(r„/r;)/27rLfe + lIlTrLroho dro 27rL\rok ' a j

Q w i l l have a maximum value when the total resistance R has a minimum value; which equals zero when
differentiating R with respect to r^:
_ / « y^'""'^ (2.20)
dR_ 1 1 1 fo '"cr i/1l - n )M,
dr„ lTrL\rok r^K,
For « = 1/2 r = {k/2af. For namral convection, the simation is more complex: not
only do we'have n = 1/4, but Newton's law of cooling is invalid, with /i„ - A r .
which equals zero when the outer radius o f tiie insulation equals the critical radius,
In the case of radiation, h,. can be taken to be independent of r„, but K Wor
small (T-T)] Exercises 2-30 and 2-31 examine these simations. Fortunately, from
= '-cr = T- (2.19) a practical standpoint, a precise value of r „ is not needed. Because Ö is a maxi-
To check whether gives a minimum resistance, we differentiate again and evaluate mum at re. the heat loss is not sensitive to the precise value of r wben r is in the
at ro = r„: vicinity of rer-

d^R 1 1 2
dr?: 27rL r l k ^ l ^ o
and EXAMPLE 2.2 Cooling of an Electrical Resistor
d^R ht A 0 5 W 1 5 MO graphite resistor has a diameter of 1 mm and is 20 mm long; it has a thin
> 0 glass she'ath and is encapsulated in micanite (cm^hed mica bonded by a phenohc resin) The
dr^ ITTL k^ k' l-rrLk^
micanite serves both as additional electrical insulation and to increase the heat loss. It can
as required be assumed that 50% of the I'R heating is dissipated by combmed convection and radiation
from the outer surface of the micanite to surroundings at 300 K with h = 16 W/na K
^ remainder is conducted through copper leads to a circuit board. If the conductmg of
micanite is 0.1 W/mK, what radius will give the maximum cooling effect, and what is the
corresponding resistor temperature?

Given: Cylindrical graphite resistor encapsulated in micanite.
Required: Critical radius of micanite insulation, and the resistor temperature.
Assumptions: 1. The resistance of the glass sheath is negligible.
2. The outside heat transfer coefficient h„ is constant.
Figure 2.5 An electric resistor 3. The resistor temperature is uniform.
with an insulation sheath.

The critical radius is given by Eq. (2.19):

k 0.1 ^^^^^^ x ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ " ^

— = -— = 0.00625 m
h„ 16
, ...x.xx.x..,., «xx^xxxxx, -Glass sheath
6.25 mm
FromEq. (2.18),
^ , , , , , X. -Graphite resistor
T - T = ^ l^'^^^olrd , 1
2TTZ, \ k r„h„

nn _ (0-5)(0.5) /In(6.25/0.5) 1
Figure 2.6 A spherical shell showing an
(2)(7r)(0.020) \ 0.1 (0.00625)(16)/
elemental control volume for application
= 70.1 K of the energy conservation principle.

Hence, T; = 300 + 70.1 = 370.1 K.

C, (2-22)
1. To obtain a more accurate result, additional data are required, particularly for the varia- r = y + C2
tion of h„ with radius.
The boundary conditions required to evaluate the two constants are
2. Section 2.3.4 shows how to check the validity of assumption 3. (2.23^z)
3. In general, ho (and hence rer) vary around the circumference of the insulation. For ' = (2.23b)
engineering purposes, we ignore this complication and use an average value for h„.
r = r2- T - T2
Substituting in Eq. (2.22) and solving for C, and C2 gives
T — T\ " Tj
2.3.3 Conduction across a Splierical Shell L\ J2 r' — T. •

Figure 2.6 shows a spherical sheh of inner radius r i and outer radius rz- The inner Then substituting back in Eq. (2.22) and i^jrranging gives tiie temperamre distribu¬
surface is maintained at temperature Ty and the oUter surface at T2. A n elemen-
tal control volume is located between radii r and r + A r . As was shown for the tion as
cylindrical shell in Section 2 . 3 . 1 , energy conservahon applied to the control volume Ty-T l/n - l/r (2.24)
requires that the heat flow Q be constant, independent of r i f the temperatures are
Ty - T2 yry - l/r2
unchanging i n time and öv = 0. Using Fourier's law, Eq. (2.2),
The heat flow is found f r o m Eq. (2.21) as Ö = 47rfeC,, or
Q =Aq = AjrrA-k^ . _ 47rit(Ti - T2) (2.25a)

Dividing by 477^ and assuming that the conductivity k is independent of temperature


Ö ndT resistance of a spherical sheh is

4-7rit = - r ' —
dr = Constant = C, (2.21)
_ l / n - l/r2 (2.25ft)

EXAMPLE 2.3 Determination of Thermal Conductivity

To measure the effective thennal conductivity of an opaque honeycomb material for an aircraft
wall, a spherical shell of inner radius 26 cm and outer radius 34 cm was constructed and a
100 W electric light bulb placed in the center. At steady state, the temperatures of the inner
and outer surfaces were measured to be 339 and 311 K respectively What is the effective
conductivity of the material?


Given: Spherical shell containing a 100 W heat source.

Required: Thermal conductivity of shell material. fïgure 2.7 A solid cylindrical

rod with intemal heat generation.
Assumptions: 1. Steady state.
2. Spherical symmetry, T = T(r).

Eq. (2.25a) applies, with Q,TuT2 known and k the Q\r - Ö U A . + Ö:"27rrLAr = O
unknown: i f temperatures are steady Dividing by A r and rearranging gives
100 = 47^^^(339-311)
g|r+Ar - Q\r ^ Q'^'2'ïrrL
1/0.26 - 1/0.34
which for A r 0 becomes
Solving, k = 0.257 W/mK.
^ = l^rLQ:
Introducing Fourier's law, Q = Aq = 2^rL[-k ( J T / J r ) ] , and assuming k constant
The large thermal resistance of the honeycomb results in a relatively large temperature differ-
ence across it, which is easy to measure accurately The same method would not be practical
for detemiining the conductivity of a metal shell. dr \ dr] k ƒ
which is a second-order linear ordinary diffefential equation for r ( r ) .
2.3.4 Conduction with Internal Heat Generation Two boundary conditions are required; the first comes from symmetry:

In some situations, the thermal behavior of a body is affected by internaUy generated r = 0: f =0 ^^-^'^^
or absorbed thermal energy The most common example is I^R heating associated
with the flow of electrical current I i n an electrical resistance R. Other examples To obtain a resuh of some generality we w i h take as the second boundary condition
include fission reactions in the fuel rods o f a nuclear reactor, absorption of radiation a specified temperamre on the outer surface of the cylinder:
in a microwave oven, and emission o f radiation by a flame. We w i l l use the symbol
Ql" [W/m^] for the heat generation rate per unh volume.' As an example, consider
intemal heat generation in a solid cylinder o f outer radius n , as might occur in an In a typical'engineering problem, T, might not be specified; however, we shall see
electrical wire or a nuclear fuel rod. Figure 2.7 shows an elemental volume located be- thatthe resuh wiU be in a f o m i suitable for problem solving. Integratmg Eq. (2.26)
tween radii r and r -I- A r . Applying the energy conservation principle, Eq. (1.2), requires
once gives
dJ_ _
dT l e ; " , , ^
' The triple priine indicates "per unit volume" (per lengtii dimension cubed). In Section 1.2, tlie symbol Q,. [W] ' dr 2 k
was used for the heat generated within a system and is related to Q"' [W/m^] as Q, = jy Q[!' dV.

or Volume of array
0,!" = 152.4
Volume of fuel

dr 2 k r (1.75)^
= 152.4
Applying the hrst boundary condition, Eq. {2.21 a),
= 873 W/cra = 8.73 x 10** W/m'
0 = 0 + ~ , or C, = 0 Next we find the temperature of the outer surface
of the fuel rod. For unit length of rod, the heat flow
Integrating again, across the Zircaloy tube wall is g = Q"' ('Trö^/4)(1):
1 O'" Q = (8.73 X 10'*)(7r/4)(0.825 X lO^^)'(l)
= 46,700 W/m Water
Applying the second boundary condition, Eq. {2.21b) allows Ct to be evaluated:
-AA/v °
1 In (yr,.)
Substituting back gives the desired temperature distribution, T{r):
T~Ty = ] ^ [ r ^ - r ^ (2.28) From the thermal circuit, as shown,

The maximum temperature is at the centerline o f the cyhnder. Setting r = 0 i n Eq r„ = Te + aY.^

(2.28) gives In (0.485/0.413)
= 400 + 46,700 (27r)(0.00485)(10t)
^max ll - -^—J— (2.29)
= 400 + 46,700(0.00642 + 0.0256//:zr + 0.00328)
The use of this result is illustrated i n the following example. As a guess, we take the mean temperature of the tube to be 600 K; from Table A.lfc, the
conductivity of Zircaloy-4 is 17.2 W/m K, and
T^, = 400 + 46,700(0.00642 + 0.00149 + 0.00328) = 923 K
EXAMPLE 2.4 Temperature Distribution i n a Nuclear Reactor Fuel Rod Now Bq. (2.29) can be used to obtain r„,ax- | f we guess a mean temperature of 1500 K
Uranium oxide fuel is contained inside 0.825 cm-I.D., 0.970 cm-O.D. Zircaloy-4 tubes. The for the uranium oxide. Table A.2 gives fcuo, = 2.6 W/m K, and
tubes have a 1.75 cm pitch in a square array The power averaged over the volume including
r - r + ^ ^ 923 + ^'"^ ^ 10^)(0-00413)^ ^ ^3^^ ^
the space between the fuel rods is 152.4 W/cm\ At a specific location along the bundle the
4 (4)(2.6)
coolant water is at 400 K and the convective heat transfer coefficient is 1.0 X 10" W/m^ K ^ max ~ '•tt ^ A UO• 2
^ "

If the interfacial conductance between the fuel and the tube, A, , is 6000 W/m^K, determine To check if our guessed mean temperatures are appropriate, we first determine the mean
the maximum temperature in the fuel rods. temperature of the tube. From the thermal circuit.

Solution (0.00328 + 0.00149/2)

= 588 K
r,„t,e = 400 + (923 - 400)-(0.00642 + 0.00149 -h 0.00328)
Given: Nuclear reactor fuel rod.
which is close enough to our guess of 600 K. The mean temperature of the fuel rod is
Required: Maximum rod temperature at location where the coolant
water is at = 400 K. 923 + 2355
Tuo, — = 1639 K
Assumptions: Steady one-dimensional heat flow.
We cannot immediately use Eq. (2.29) to obtain T^^, because the
and at this temperature, feuoj = 2.5 W/m^K. The new value of r„ax is
surface temperature of the fuel rod is unknown. We proceed as (8.73 X 10')(0.00413)- 2412 = 2400 K
follows: first we calculate Q"' in the fuel itself. Tmax = 923 + (4)(2.5)
2.4 FINS 77


1. Since tlie k-valm of U O 2 is given to only two significantfigures,no further iteration

is warranted.
2. Notice that the conductivity of Zircaloy-4 is lower than that of pure zirconium.
3. The largest thermal resistance in the circuit is at the fuel-cladding interface. The ac-
curacy of the result depends primarily on our ability to obtain a reliable value of A,.
In fact, it could be argued that the second iteration for T^.„ was unwarranted due to
uncertainty in the value of /z,.

4. Notice that we cannot extend the thermal circuit into the rod because Q is not constant
when there is internal heat generation.


Heat transfer from a system can be increased by extending the surface area through
the addition of fins. Fins are used when the convective heat transfer coefficient is
low, as is often the case for gases such as air, particularly under natural-convection
conditions. Common examples are the coohng fins on electionics components, on
the cylinders of air-cooled motorcycles and lawnmowers, and on the condenser tubes
of a home refrigerator. Figure 2.8 shows a variety of fin configurations. A careful
examination of an automobile radiator w i h show how h is designed to provide a
large exterior surface.
Fins are added to increase the hcA product and hence decrease the convective Figure 2.8 Some heat sinks incorporatingfinsfor cooUng of
thermal resistance 1//Ï,A. But the added area is not as efficient as the original surface standard packages for integrated circuits. (Photograph courtesy
area since there must be a temperature gradient along the fin to conduct the heat. of EG&G Wakefield Engineering, Wakefield, Mass.)
Thus, for cooling, the average temperature difference ( J , - J , ) is lower on a finned
surface compared with the unfinned surface, and an appropriate thermal resistance
for a fin is l/hcArjf, where A is the surface area of the fin and rjf is the efficiency
of the fin (0 < 77/, < 1). For short fins of high thermal conductivity T]f is large, but Governing Equation and Boundary Conditions
as the fin length increases, 17/ decreases. Our objective here is to analyze heat flow
Consider the pin fin shown in Fig. 2 . 9 . The cross-sectional area is A,. = TTR^
in a fin to determine the temperature variation along the fin and, hence, to evaluate
where R is the radius of the pin, and the perimeter ; ^ = ITTR. Both Ac and R
its efficiency 77/. Because fins are thin in one direction, it can be assumed that the
are uniform, that is, they do not vary along the fin in the x direction. The energy
temperature variation in this direction is negligible; this key assumption allows the
conservation principle, Eq. ( 1 . 2 ) , is applied to an element of the fin located between
conduction along the fin to be treated as i f it were one-dimensional, which greatiy
X and ;c + A;c. Heat can enter and leave the element by conduction along the fin and
simplifies the analysis.
can also be lost by convection f r o m the surface of the element to the ambient fluid
at temperature T^. The surface area of the element is '//^Ax; thus,
2.4.1 ThePinïïn
qA,:l - qAel+A, - K'J'AxiT - T,) = 0
Simple pin fins, such as those used to cool electronic components, w i l l be analyzed
to develop the essential concepts of fin theory The first law is used to derive the Dividing by Ax and letting A;Ï 0 gives
goveming differential equation, which, when solved subject to appropriate boundary
conditions, gives the temperature distribution along the fin. The heat loss from tbe -±-{qAe)-h-/>{T - T , ) = 0 (2.30)
fin is then obtained and put in dimensionless f o r m as the fin efficiency
2.4 FINS 79

can be obtained i f the temperature distribution along the fin is assumed identical to
that for an infinitely long fin, for which the appropriate boundary condition is

j 3 c . hm r = r, (2.33c)

Figure 2.10 illustrates these boundary conditions.


Figure 2.9 A pin fin siiowing tiie coordinate system, and an energy balance on a fin element.
Figure 2.10 Three tip boundary conditions for the pin fin analysis,
For the pin fin, A , is independent of x\ using Fourier's law ^ = -k dTldx with k (a) Heat loss by convection, {b) Insulated tip. (c) Infinitely long fin.
constant gives

kAr 0 - hc^(T - T ) = 0 (2.31) Temperature Distribution

Which is a second-order ordinary differential equation for T = T(x). Notice that We wiU use Eq. (2.33fc) for the second boundary condition as a compromise
modeling of the conduction along the fin as one-dimensional has caused the con- between accuracy and simphcity of the resuh. For mathematical convenience, let
vective heat loss from the sides of the fin to appear i n the differential equation i n 0 = r - r , and jS^ = hc^PlkAc-, then Eq. (2.31) becomes
contrast to the problems dealt with i n Section 2.3, where convection became involved
as a boundary condition. fl-13^6 = 0 (2.34)
Next, boundary conditions f o r Eq. (2.31) must be specified. Since we wish to dx^
examme the performance of the fin itself, it is appropriate to take hs base temperature For /3 a constant, Eq. (2.34) has the solution
as known; that is.
d = Cie'^^ + C 2 e - ^ ^
^ I A - ^ O — TB
At the other end, the fin loses heat by Newton's law of cooling:
e = Bismhfix -1-02cosh)Sx
-Ark- = A A ( r U i - r , )
' dx (2.33a) The second form proves more convenient; thus, we have

T -Te = Bi sinh fix + B2 cosh I3x (2-35)

where the convective heat transfer coefficient here is, in general, different f r o m the
one for the sides of the fin because the geometry is different. However, because the Using the two boundary conditions, Eqs. (2.32) and (2.33è) give two algebraic
area of the end. A , , is small compared to the side area, 0^1, the heat loss f r o m the end equations for the unknown constants Bi and B2,
is correspondingly small and usually can be ignored. Then Eq. (2.33a) becomes
- Te = Bl sinh(O) + B2 cosh(O); B2 = TB - Te
- 0
dx (2.33ft) dT_
x=L = jSBiCOshiSL + j 8 B 2 s i n h i S L = 0; Bi = -Bjtanh I3L
dx x=L
and this boundary condition is simpler to use than Eq. (2.33a). A n even simpler resuh
2.4 FINS

Substituting B, and 5^ i n Eq f2 35-. «nW

(2.35) and rea^anging gives the temperature distribu- {Ky/'I^B - Te) cosh^
ö = cosh jSL J3i.

coshflZ ' where ^ = :!£:1 hef

sinh O - sinh/SL
(TB - Te)
\kA,j (2.36) coshiÖL

hc'^V (2.38)

A less obvious altemative, but usually a more convenient way to hnd the heat
dissipation, is to apply Fourier's law at the base of the fin:


Substituting f r o m Eq. (2.36),

[(d/dx)coshj3(L - x)]^^Q
Q = -kAeiTB - Te)- cosh /3L
= -kAciTB - r,)-
cosh /3L
= M.i8(rB-r,)tanhi8L (2-40)
Since = hcl-P/kAe, Eqs. (2.38) and (2.40) give the same resuh, which is to be
Figure 2.11 shows a plot o f EQ r2 3^^ ^^ru expected since there is no heat loss f r o m the end of the fin.

Fin Efficiency
Let us now put Eq. (2.38) i n dimensionless f o r m by dividing through by K'.'/'LiTB -

Ö ^ J_tanhi8L = (2-41)
he'.rL{TB - Te) /3L
The dimensions o f the left-hand side of this equation are [WJ/lW/m^ K ] [ m ] [ m ] [ K ] =
1 as desired The right-hand side must also be dimensionless smce ^ has dimensions
[ m - ' ] and the group UL has dimensions [ m - ] [ m ] = 1 (Of course .^^^ ^ ^ ^ \ ^ ^
dimensionless to be the argument of the tanh function.) Now K^PL^TB J e ) is
w i t h r o b t a i n e d f r o m E q . (2.36). Substituting gives
tiie rate at which heat would be dissipated i f the entire fin surface were at the base
Q = temperature TB\ i n reality, there is a decrease i n temperature along the fin, and the
cosh jSL ooshf3(L~x)dx actual heat loss is less. Thus, tiie left-hand side of Eq. (2.41) can be viewed as the
ratio of the actual heat loss to the maximum possible and is termed the fin etficiency,
To simplify the integration, Iet ^ = ^ ,y . , The right-hand side is a function of the dimensionless parameter only; we
/^(^ then rfx =
w i h set ^L = x ^ ^ ^ f i n parameter, and then Eq. (2.41) can be written in the
compact f o r m

tanh A: (2.42)
Vf = ——
area fo. convective heat loss is the .urfacTLTf'Te fi" j ^ '
2.4 FINS

Computer Program FINI

When X is smaU, r)f is near unity; when x is larger than about 4, tanh;^' ~ 1
and r]f = 1/^. Since x = I3L = (hci^LVkAcf\ a smah value of x corresponds The urogram F I N I calculates the temperature distribution, fin efficiency, and base
to relatively short, thick fins of high thermal conductivity, whereas large values of h e a f f l o r f f Sttaight rectangular fins. There are three options for the tip boundary
X correspond to relatively long, thin fins of poor thennal conductivity When x is HVnn- m infinitelY long fin (2) insulated, and (3) convective heat loss. The
small, T does not fah much below TB, and the fin is an efficient dissipator of heat. r n Ï v s " fo op S^^^^^^^ the analyses for options 1 and 3 are given as
However, it is most important to understand that a thick fin with an efficiency of S e r d L T s n ^ ^ For three options, , , i s defined m terms
nearly 100% usuaUy is not optimal from the viewpoint of heat ti:ansferred per unit ^ a X h e r m a l fin heat loss of Q = He UTB - T.,). Use of F I N I is illustrated
weight or unit cost. The concept of fin efficiency refers only to the abihty of the fin in the example that foUows.
to transfer heat per unh area of exposed surface. Figure 2.12 shows a plot of Eq.
(2.42). Use of dimensionless parameters has allowed the heat dissipation to be given
by a single curve: different curves are not required for fins of various materials or
E X A M P L E 2.5 Fins to Cool a Transistor
lengths or for different values of the heat ttansfer coefficient. Likewise, storage of
this information i n a computer software package is efficient. An array of eight aluminum alloy fins, each 3 mm wide, 0.4 mm thick, and 40 mm long,

1.0 cZ^Li is estimated to be 8 W/m^ K? The alloy has a conductivity of 175 W/m K. ,
1 ' \

Given: Aluminumfinsto cool a transistor
Required: Power dissipated by 8 fins.
Assumptions: 1. Heat transfer coefficient constant along fin.
2. Heat less from fin tip negligible.
For one fin,
A, = (0.003)(0.0004) = 1.2 X IO"" m^
Dimensionless fm parameter, X=PL
.^Z* = 2(0.003 + 0.0004) = 6.8 X 10"' m
Kgure 2.12 Efficiency of a pin fin as given by Eq. (2.42). -3 mm

P - kA. i
Straight Rectangular Fins
_ (8.0 W/m' K)(6.8 X 1 0 ; _ ^ 40 mm
Although the pin fin shown i n Fig. 2.9 was used for the purposes of this analysis, " (175 W/mK)(1.2x IO"* m^)
the results apply to any fin with a cross-sectional area Ac and perimeter ; ^ constant
along the fin. The sttaight rectangular fin shown i n Fig. 2.13 has a width W and = 259 va^ - 0,4 mm

thickness 2t. The cross-sectional area is Ac = 2tW, and the perimeter is ; ^ = /3 = 16.1 m~'
2(W + 2t). For W » the ratio t^/A^ is simply lit, and /3 = (hc/kty^.
X = fiL = (16.1 m-')(0.040 m) = 0.644

Substimting in Eq. (2.42),

Y ^2(0.644) _ 1
1 tanh (0.644) = (K644e2(o.644) + I = 0.881
Vf =
The side surface area of one fin is = (6.8 X 10-^)(0.040) = 2.72 X 10- m=. If each
fin were 100% efficient, it would dissipate
h(:Ws - r,) = (8)(2.72 X 10-)(340 - 300) = 8.70 X 10^ W
Figure 2.13 A straight rectangular fin.
84 2.4 FINS

Since the fins are only 88.1% efficient,
fi = (0.881)(8.70 X 10-') = 7.67 X 10"' W he (A-Af)
For 8 fins, é,o,„, = (8)(7.67 X 10-^) = 0.613 W.

Solution using FINI

The required input is:

Boundary condition = 2 hcAfrif
Half-thickness, length, and width = 0.0002, 0.040, 0.003
Thermal conductivity = 175
Heat transfer coefficient = 8 Figure 2.14 Afinnedsurface showing the parallel paths for heat loss.
Base temperature and ambient temperature = 340, 300
x-range for plot = 0.0, 0.04
where Af is the surface area of the fins and A is the total heat transfer surface area,
HNI gives the output:
including the fins and exposed tube or other surface. Solving for 17,,
rif = 0.881
T?, = 1- f (1 - r?/)
Q = 7.67 X 10-2 (^gjfg)
The corresponding thermal resistance of the finned surface is then
1. Any consistent system of units can be used with H N I . Since SI units were used here, 1 (2.47)
R =
the heat flow is in watts. hcAr],
2. Notice the use oi h = + K to account for radiation. Design calculations for the finned surfaces used i n heat exchangers, such as auto-
mobile-radiators, are conveniently made using Eq. (2.47).

2.4.2 Fin Resistance and Surfiace Efficiency

2.4.3 Other F i n Type Analyses
It is useful to have an expression for the thermal resistance of a pin fin for use in
The key feature of the fin analysis presented i n Section 2.4.1 was that the thinness
thermal circuhs. Equation (2.38) can be rewritten as
of the fin allowed us to ignore the temperatiire variation across the fin and, hence, to
account f o r the convective loss from the surface dhectiy i n the differential equation
l/[(/z,r#//3)tanh/3L] (2.43) for Tix). The same assumption is valid for extended surfaces unrelated to cooling
fins, and tiie resuhs obtained i n Section 2.4.1 are directiy or indirectly applicable to
Thus, the thermal resistance of a pin fin is
these surfaces.
/? = 1 _ 1 Sometimes h is quite obvious that the situation is simüar to that f o r a cooling
{h^/l3)tm\ipL ~ h ^ ^ f (2.44) fin. For example, Fig. 2.15 shows a thermocouple instahation used to measure the
temperature of a hot air stream. The thermocouple junction is at a lower temperature
Notice that this thermal resistance accounts for both conduction along the fin and than the ah since the conduction heat flow along the thermocouple wires to the colder
convection into the fluid. There are two parallel paths for heat loss from a finned
surface—one through the fins and one tiirough the area between the fins, as shown
in Fig. 2.14. The respective conductances are thus additive; however, quite often the Duct-
heat loss through the area between the fins is negligible.
The total surface efficiency -q, of a surface with fins o f fin efficiency rjf is obtained
I Thermocouple ^
by adding the unfinned portion o f the surface area at 100% efficiency to the surface
area of the fins at efficiency rjf-. Figure 2.15 A thermocouple
immersed in afluidstream.
Arf, = (A - A f ) + TifAf (2.45)

and the wall temperature is 300 K. What length of immersion is required for the error m
the thermocouple reading to be 0.1 K when the heat transfer coefficient on the perimeter is
approximately 30 W/m^ K? The wires are (i) copper and constantan (type T), (u) iron and
constantan (type J), and (iii) chromel and alumel (type K).

Given: Duplex thermocouple leads for types T, J, and K thermocouples.

Required: Length of immersion for a specified error.

Assumptions: Temperature variation across lead is small compared to the variation along the
Figure 2.16 An element
of a perforated-plate heat This is a fin-type problem since the temperature variation
exchanger showing heat across the lead is small compared to the 50 K variation
conduction along the plates. along the lead. The effective jS^ is

wall must be balanced by convection from the air. The temperature variation along ZkA,
the thermocouple is identical to that for a pin fin, so Eq. (2.36), with appropriate
choices for the kAc product, can be used to detemune the error expected in tiie where = 30 W/m^ K, .^Z» = 1.5 X IO"' m, and E kA,
thermocouple reading. must be evaluated for the thermal resistances of the two
wires and the insulation in parallel. For each wire. A, = (77/4)(0.25 X 10 )
Sometimes it is not obvious that the situation resembles that for a cooling fin,
10"' m^ and for the insulation A, = 10 X 10"' m l Thermal conductivity and kA, values are
yet the assumption of negligible temperature variation i n the thin direction of a whe
given in the following table.
or plate gives a differential equation similar to Eq. (2.30). The perforated plates hi
the heat exchanger shown in Fig, 2.16 can be treated as fins since the temperature k kA,
variation across the plates is smah compared to the temperature variation along the Wire Material W/mK Wm/K
plates between the hot and cold sti-eams. The copper conductors on the circuh board
Copper 385 19 X lO-*^
shown in Fig. 2.17 can be treated as fins, as can the circuh board between the
Constantan (55% Cu, 45% Ni) 23 1.1 X lO'*^
conductors. The examples that fohow relate to Figs. 2.15 and 2.16, and Exercise 73 3.6 X 10"*
2-88 is based on Fig. 2.17. 17 0.83 X 10"^
Chromel-P (90% Ni, 10% Cr)
Alumel (95% Ni, 2% Mn, 2% Al)) 48 2.36 X 10-*^
Insulation 0.1 0.01 X IO-**
cloth board
The contribution of the insulation to Z kA, is seen to be negUgible; hence its precise shape or
composition is unimportant. The temperature of the thermocouple junction (located at x - L)
is given by Eq. (2.36) as
conductor n - T , ^ -0.1 ^ ^
Fïgure 2.17 Copper conductors on a circuit board. TB-T, 300 - 350 coshjSL

cosh/3L = 500
EXAMPLE 2.6 Error in Thermocouple Readings i8L = 6.91 from a calculator, or use cosh x = (l/2)(e' + e" ')
Duplex thermocouple leads have both wires embedded in polyvinyl electrical insulation. One L = 6.91/^3
available size has wires of 0.25 mm diameter in insulation with an outside perimeter of f.5
Evaluating /3 for each thermocouple pair gives the following results:
mm and is to be used in the situation depicted in Fig. 2.15. The air temperature is 350 K,

Y.kA, At first sight the heat transfer process might appear complicated. However, after a little
Thermocouple Type Wm/K m-' thought it should become clear that heat is transferred from the hot to the cold stream through
three resistances in series: afinon the hot side, the aluminum plate between the spacers, and
T 20.1 X 10-' 47.3 afinon the cold side. Referring to the sketch, the product of overall heat transfer coefficient
J 4.7 X lO-"^ 97.8 7.1 and area for a single plate is
K 3.2 X 10-" 119 5.8

Comments UA K-y/'U-^f ktWILi h,-rLi7]f

With the thermal resistances identified, the remaining complexity is associated with calculating
1. Type T thermocouples are to be avoided when conduction along the wires may cause a the various relevant geometric parameters. These are the area A for convective heat transfer to
significant error, j a.
the plates, and the perimeter -/^ and cross-sectional area A„ which appear in thefinparameter
2. There are other criteria for choosing thermocouple pairs, including operating tempera- (3. The calculation will be broken down into four steps.
ture range, emf output, and corrosion resistance.
1. The convective heat transfer area A. The area A should include both sides of the plate
3. Type T thermocouples are widely used because the component wires are relativelv free as weU as the inside area of the perforations. The number of perforations per umt area
rrom inhomogeneities; hence, calibration charts are reliable. is the reciprocal of the pitch p squared; thus, for either stream,

E X A M P L E 2.7 A Perforated Plate Heat Exchanger

Perforated-plate heat exchangers are used in cryogenic refrigeration systems. Thefluidsflow

t Z t ^ ' t r "''^T ^^P^^*«^ ^'^^"l^ting spacers. Heat is traTsfeÏed
from the hot stream to the cold stream by conduction along the plates, as shown in Fig 2 16

S T i f th H ^ ' H . . ^"^'^ '' ^^ The ^P^'^^^ 4 mm wide and 0.86 mm

t ^ f r f '^^^i,^^^f^l,7effi"e°t i« 400 W/m2 K for both streams, calculate the overaU = 0.00333 m^
heat transfer coefficient. Take k = 200 W/m K for the aluminum.
2 Thefinperimeter•//>and cross-sectional area A,. The portions of the plate exposed to
Solution " the gas flow are fins of efficiency T,^, andfinparameter /S^ = h,J'lkA,. Both //^ and
A, WiU be approximated as average values. The perimeter /P is then just the surtace
Given: A perforated-plate heat exchanger.
area per unit length of fin:
Required: Overall Jieat transfer coefficient U. 0.00333
= 0.167 m
Assumptions: 1. The plates are thin enough for afin-typeanalysis to be vahd. 0.02
2. Heat flow along the plates is one-dimensional. The cross-sectional area A, for heat conduction along the
fin wiU be taken as A, = Wt{\ - s.,) where s„ is the vol-
ume void fraction of the plate, which is equal to the cross-
00OOOOOOoooo oooooooo ooooo oooo ooooo
oooooooooooo oooooooo ooooo oooo ooooo sectional area of the holes per unit area of plate:
oooooooooooo oooooooo ooooo oooo ooooo Hot
oooooooooooo oooooooo ooooo
oooooooooooo oooooooo ooooo oooo ooooo
oooo ooooo
oooooooooooo oooooooo ooooo oooo Ajtrd'^ne)
oooooooooooo oooooooo ooooo oooo ooooo
ooooo 1 Z. = 0.376
p' 4 13
oooooooooo ooooo ooooo oooo oooo OOOOOO
oooooooooo ooooo ooooo oooo OOOOOO
oooooooooo ooooo ooooo 8888 oooo OOOOOO Cold A, = (0.08)(0.0005)(1 - 0.376) = 2.50 X IO"' m^
oooooooooo ooooo ooooo
oooooooooo ooooo ooooo oooo oooo OOOOOO
oooooooooo ooooo ooooo oooo oooo OOOOOO
OOOOOO (Actually heat conduction along the fin is two-dimensional since the heat flow is
oooooooooo ooooo ooooo oooo 8888 OOOOOO
"squeezed" between the perforations. Exact analysis of the problem shows that the use
-»'=80mm- of this estimate of the effective area A, is conservative; the true value is a few percent
0.86 mm / = 0.5 mm

3. The fin efficiency 17, . The fin parameter ^ can now be calculated:

2 ^ ^ ^ (400)(0.167) _
kA, (200)(2.50 X IQ-^) " ^'^^ö X 10^

13 = 115.6; A- = /SL, = (115.6)(0.02) = 2.31

If we assume that the fin efficiency is given by Eq. (2.42):

Vf = twihx/x = 0.9805/2.31 = 0.424

Z Z i t ^"^^^•'"^ ^^''^"'^^^ * ^ " of the Figure 2.18 An annular fin

of uniform thickness.
1 _ 1
h,//>Li rjf (400)(0.167)(0.02)(0.424) 1.765 KAV

1 _ 1 Governing Equation and Boundary Conditions

= 0.50 KAV
ktW/L2 (200)(0.0005)(0.08)/(0.004) Figure 2 18 shows an annular fin of uniform thickness 2t, as might be found on the
The overall heat transfer coefficient is then obtained from outside of a tube. Such fins have extensive application i n liquid-gas heat exchangers
such as air-cooled evaporators f o r refrigeration systems. The energy conservation
principle, Eq. (1.2), applied to a differential element between radu r and r + A r
UA h,//>Lir,f ' ktWIU. ' h,y/>L,7ff
requhes that
= 1.765 + 0.50 + 1.765 = 4.03 K/W
^(27rr)(20|r - ?(27rr)(20UAr - /2c(2)27rrAr(r - T,) = 0

Dividing through by 4 i r A r and letting A r - » 0,

^ ^ (4.03)(0.00333) = ^^-'^ ^ / m ' ^

Comments -4-irtq)-KriT-Te) = 0
^" l ° b L m ! Ï ' °" ^^"'"^^y calculations; the heat transfer Substituting Fourier's law, q = -k(dT/dr), and dividing by (tk) gives
problem is a simple one of three thermal resistances in series.

^' r o ^ . P ^ f i ^ T " " " ' ï " ' ' o^e-^^i^Plified. In fact, Eq. (2.42) does not give the d I• dT ^ hr (T -Te) (2.48)
— r—— = 0
remS t f «"^^ trough the exchanger, its temperature will not dr dr tk
remain umform Low-velocity laminar flow is typical for these exchangers; hence the
Z^ZT.T ''''' P'"'"'- *° '^^"ter heats more fapidly since the
Note that this equation also could have been obtained directly f r o m Eq (2.30) by

TZTl^iTr V'T''
l w . 7 l " / ^ Tu ''r''
' P'^^"' ^^'"P^^^^"- ' ^ i f f ™ between
"''^"g the plate. The plate can still be
substiluting Ac = 4^rt and ^ = 4 . r , since A . and ^ had not yet been given
constant values. Equation (2.48) can be rearranged as
viewed as a fin since the heat flow along the fin is essentially one-dimensional, but
S'fin t h ''^'''^ """'y^^' ^'*^""^ed that r,. was constant along , 2 ^ + , ^ _ ^ V ( r - r , ) = o
Ae fin. The new analysis is required as Exercise 2-111 and gives a 15% lower fin k
dr'^ dr
where = hjtk; tiien introducing new variables z = ^ r and Ö = (T - r,)/(TB -
Te) gives
2.4.4 Hns of Varying Cross-Sectional Area
,d^e de (2.49)
S i h " r ^ i " ' f ^o™tered in practice have a cross-sectional area A , that varies
s t j e n i n fifïf f '"'^^^^^ ^« difficuh than for'he Suhable boundary conditions are as used f o r the pin fin i n Section 2 . 4 . 1 , that is,
S e s u f i s f?r T h ^^'^tal) fin is analyzed, a specified base temperature and zero heat flow through the tip of the fin,
lhe results for a variety of other fin profiles are also given.

and hence

dT Q = k(A'rrryt)(TB - Te)p[C2Ky(l3ry) - Cyly(pry)]

r = r2. —
dr • = 0
The maximum possible heat loss is from an isothermal fin and is simply the product of
or the heat transfer coefficient, surface area, and temperature difference: (h,)(2)(7rr2
Trrf)(TB - Te). The fin efficiency Vf is the ratio of tiie acmal heat loss to that for
^=^'=^^'^ ' = ' (2.50a) an isothermal fin and can be rearranged as
_ (2ry/p) Ky(pry)Iy(pr2) - Iiil3ry)Ky(Pr2) (2.52)
"'^ " (ri - rf)Ko(Pry)Iy(Pr2) + h{^ry)Ky(^r2)
Temperature Distribution Equation (2.52) can be evaluated using the tables of Bessel functions given in A p -

Equation (2.49) is a modified Bessel's equation o f zero order and has the solution pendix B .

e = Cyloiz) + CzKoiz) (2.51)

Other Fin Profiles: Computer Program FIN2
t zero-order modified Bessel functions o f the first and second
Mnds, respectively Properties o f Bessel functions are given i n Appendix B . Applying A variety of fin profiles are used i n practice. Table 2.2 gives the efficiency of
the boundary conditions and using the differentiation fomiulas \n Appendix B a selection of straight fins, annular fins, and spines. To facihtate the calculation of
heat flow and fin mass, the surface area per umt width S' and profile area Ap are
1 = Cilo(zi) + CzKoizi) given for straight fins, and the surface area S and volume V are given for annular
0 = C,/,(Z2) - C2K,iZ2) fins and spines. The efficiencies for items 1, 5, 6, and 7 were obtained using the
boundary condition of zero heat flow tiirough the tip. For thick rectangular fins a
since dio/dz = / , dKo/dz = -Ky, where ƒ, and Ky are first-order modified simple approximate rale to account for heat loss from the tip is to add half the fin
Bessel functions. Solving for Cy and C2, momnea
thickness to the fin length L for tiie straight fin and to the outer radms r2 for the
^. _ 'ST, (22) 7,(22) annular fin. . , n J
CJ = — The computer program FIN2 calculates the efficiency, base heat flow, and mass
T(Zl,Z2y F(zy,Z2)
for the 10 fin profiles hsted i n Table 2.2. For straight fins, the heat flow and mass
are per umt width of fin. Ks use is illustrated i n Examples 2.8 and 2.9.
T(Zl, Z2) ^ Io(Zy)Ky(z2) + Il(Z2)Ko(Zi)
Cooling Fin Design
Substitution i n Eq. (2.51) gives the temperature distribution along the fin.
The proper design of cooling fins is an optimization problem: usually the objective
is to mimmize the amount of material i n the fins in order to minimize either weight
Heat Loss and Efficiency
or cost Exercises 2-71 and 2-113 show how optimal dimensions can be found for a
given fin shape, and Exercises 2-105, 2-107, 2-120, and 2-125 illustrate that there
is an optimal fin shape. The engineer is also free to choose the fraction of area cov-
ered by fin "footprints." This is a more difficuh problem because as the fins are
dr = -k(27rry)(2t)(TB - T,)p — moved closer to each other, the value of the heat transfer coefficient K changes m a
dz comphcated way. There is always the question of whether fins should be provided at
ah Exercise 2-104 shows that when tiie heat ttansfer coefficient is large, addmg fins
Since dT = (TB - T^Jde and dr = rf^/^. Differentiating Eq. (2.51) gives
can acmally reduce the heat loss. The conduction resistance in the fin can exceed the
del decrease i n convective resistance due to the increased surface area. A useful rule is
= CyIy(zy)-C2Ky(Zy)
dz not to use fins unless klhj > 5.
? ' ' ' ^ c ? / ' " f ^ f ^ ? ? ' ^ ^ P ^ ' - Effi^ien<=y' « « r f a c e a r e a p e r u n i t w i d t h ( S V a n d p r o f i l e a r e a ( A „ ) f o r s t r a i g h t fins- s u r f a e e
a r e a ffl a n d v o l u m e ( V ) f o r a n n u l a r fins a n d s p i n e s : 0 = ( h j k t f \ ' ^ '

Straight Fins

1. Rectangular
>' = ?

2. Parabolic = J _ ^2^3(|j3L) 5" = f f i -f ( f V 2 Z , ) l n ( 2 Z , / r 4- B)

>• = ?(l-x/Z,)"2 Vf
PLI.y^ilPL) B = / l + 4L^/t\ = f,tL

3. Iriangular 1 /i(2^I) ^' = l^t^+L'

y =t(l -X/L) Vf

4. Parabolic S' = LB+ (Ü/2t) ln(2f/L + fi)

y = f(l -x/L)2
V4(^L)2 + 1 + 1 B = V l + 4 ? W ,

Annular Fins

= (2n/^) ^i(i6ri)/i(j3r2) - Iy(^r{)K,(pr2)

5. Rectangular
^ (r| - r f ) X-o(y8r, )ƒ, ( ^ r j ) + / o ( j 3 r , )7s:, (ySr^)
y = ï
5 = 27r(r| - rf), V = 277-(r| - rf)f

(r2 + r , ) /,/3 ( | f a i ) / 2 / 3 ( | / 3 r 2 7 ^ ) - I~v, (1^2 (|fa.

6. Hyperbolic
y = f(ri/r)
5 = 2 ^ , ( c - B + ( r / 2 ) l n ^ ^ : f i ] | ^

C = V ( r | / r i ) 2 + f2
V = 477fl-i(r2 - r,)

Spines (Circular Cross Section)

7. P i n T), = - ^ t a n h ( 7 2 ; 3 L ) , S = 277fL, V = TTT'L

y = f JÏ^L

2 II ( f 7 2 / 3 L ) S = ( f * i 7 / 6 L 2 ) { ( 4 L 2 / f 2 + l)-''^ _ ^
8. Parabolic
V = t(\-x/LY'^ fV2/3L)/o(f72)SL)' V = (W2)f2L

h(2j2^L) 5 = Trf 7^-2 + f2 V = (7r/3)r2L

9. Triangular
V = f(l - X/L) "'•^ (2 7 2 / 3 L ) Z , ( 2 7 2 ^ L ) '

^ V = (7r/5)f-I
7879(i3L)2 + 1 + 1'
10. Parabolic
y = t(\-x/Lf S = (TTÜ/m{AB - (i/4f)ln[(4ffi/L) + A]}

A = 1 + (8f2/L2),

mg Q from gives a result in better agreement with exact numerical solutions for two-


Solution using F m 2
EXAMPLE 2.8 Cooling Fin for a Transistor
The required input in Sl units is:
An aluminum annular fin is used to cool a transistor. The inner and outer radii are 5 mm
and 20 mm, respectively, and the thickness is 0.2 mm. Calculate its efficiency and the heat Item number = 5
dissipated when its base is at 380 K, the ambient air temperature is 300 K, and the estimated Thermal conductivity and density of the fin = 205, 2700
heat transfer coefficient is 8.2 W/m^ K. Take the conductivity of aluminum as 205 W/m K. Heat transfer coefficient = 8.2
Base temperature and ambient temperature = 380, 300
Solution t = 0.0001
r, and r j = 0.005, 0.020
Given: Aluminum annular fin.
FIN2 gives the following output:
Required: Efficiency and heat dissipated.
Fin efficiency = 0.944
Assumptions: 1. Heat transfer coefficient constant over the fin surface. Base heat flow = 1.459 (watts)
2. Heat loss from tip negligible. Mass of fin = 6.362 x 10"'* (kilograms)

For an annular fin, = h,/kt: Comments

32 _ (8.2) 1. Notice that Table B.3b gives c"^ times loix) and Ii(x) to simplify the tabulation.
= 400 m-2
(205)(0.1 X 10-3)
2. The high efficiency suggests that the thickness of such fins is determined by rigidity
/3 = 20 m"-' 20 nun rather than by heat transfer considerations.
The fin effectiveness is given by Eq. (2.52): 3. Any consistent system of units can be used in FIN2. Since SI units were used here,
5 mm
the base heat flow is in watts, and the mass of the fin is in kilograms.
(2r,/;6) Ki(l3ri)Ii(pr2) - h{pri)K,{pr2)
{rl - r f ) Ko(l3r:)Ii(l3r2) + h{Pr{)Ky{pr2)

fa, = (20)(0.005) = 0.1; /3r2 = (20)(0.020) = 0.4

EXAMPLE 2.9 Heat Loss from a Parabolic Fin
From Appendix B, Table B.3b, the required values of Bessel functions
A straight Duralumin fin has a parabolic profile y = t(l —xlUf, with f = 3 mm and L = 20
mm. Determine the heat dissipation by the fin when its base temperature is 500 K and it is
exposed to fluid at 300 K with a heat transfer coefficient of 2800 W/m2 K. Also calculate the
fa /o K
fin mass.

- 0.1 1.0025 0.0501 2.4271 9.8538 Solution

0.4 0.2040 2.1843
Given: Straight fin with a parabolic profile.
Substituting in Eq. (2.52), Required: Heat dissipation, mass.

= (2)(0.005)/(20) (9.8538)(0.2040) - (0.0501)(2.1843) _ Assumptions: Constant heat transfer coefficient over fin surface.
(0.0202 - 0.0052) (2.4271 )(0.2040) + (1.0025)(2.1843) From Table A.1/?, the conductivity of Duralumin at a guessed
average fin temperature of (l/2)(500 + 300) = 400 K is 187
The heat dissipation is the efficiency times the dissipation for an isothermal fin: W/mK. Using Table 2.2, item 4,
Q = 7)f{h,){2){7r){rl " r^Ws - Z.) 2800
= 70.65 m -
= (0.944)(8.2)(2)(7r)(0.0202 - 0.0052)(380 - 300) \kt (187)(0.003)
20 mm-
= 1.46 W i3L = (70.65)(0.02) = 1.413

two dimensionless parameters: the fin efhciency rjj = Q/h,'/VL{TB - T,.), and a fin
Vf = 0.500 parameter x = (/Jc;-^'L'//tA,)"^ The similarity principle for this problem is simply
[40L)2 + + 1 [4(L413)2 + +1
the statement that Vf is a function of x only Thus, for example, if and A , are
0.003 both doubled, Vf remains the same. We say that all pin fins with the same value of
B = 1+ 4 1+4 = 1.044
0.02 X are similar, even though their sizes, materials, or heat transfer coefficients may
be quite different.
//2\ Ijf The dimensionless groups relevant to a given problem are required for use of
S' =LB+ ^ In j + B
the shnilarity principle. We can deduce tiiese dimensionless groups without actually
solving the goveming equations, as was done i n Section 2.4.1. For this purpose,
= (0.02)(1.044) + , ^ , n f ^ i i ^ +1.044 we use dimensional analysis, for which a number of methods are avaUable. The pin
2 X 0.003 "" \ 0.02 fin problem wiU be used to demonsttate a method that requhes a tiansformation of
= 0.0406 m variables to make the goveming equation and boundary conditions dimensionless.
The first step is to choose dimensionless forms o f the independent variable x and the
For a unit width of fin,
dependent variable T. For x, an obvious choice is ^ = x/L, where L is tiie length
Q = h,S'(TB - Z.)Vf = (2800)(0.0406)(500 - 300)(0.500) = 11,370 W/m of the fin; ^ then varies from zero to unity as x varies f r o m zero to L . For T we
w h l choose 6 = {T - T^TB - Te); 6 has a value of unity at the fin base and wiU
From Table A . l a the density of Duralumin is 2770 kg/ra^; thus, approach zero at the tip of an infinitely long fin. Next, we transform the problem
2 j2\ statement into the new variables. The mles of the transformation are
Fin mass = A„p = -tip = - (0.003)(0.02)(2770) = 0.1108 kg/m
X = Li T = (TB- Te)d +

Solution using FIN2 dx = Ldi dT = (TB-Te)de

The required input in SI units is: and Eq. (2.31) becomes

Item number = 4
Thermal conductivity and density ofthe fin = 187, 2770 kAe^'^'Tj'^^ - hc'^Ts - Te)e = 0
L^ d^^
Heat transfer coefficient = 2800
Base temperature and ambient temperature = 500, 300 or
t = 0.003
L = 0.02 kAr d^e _ ^ ^ Q
L2 d^
FIN2 gives the following output:
The boundary condition Eq. (2.32) becomes
Fin efficiency = 0.500
Base heat flow = 11,370 (watts/meter) ^ = 0: Ö = 1 (2.53a)
Mass of fin = 0.1108 (kilograms/meter)
and the boundary condition Eq. (2.33/?) becomes
. . 1 . ^TB-Te)dJ_^
Exercise 2-113 shows that this fin profile gives the maximum heat loss for a given weight ^ L di
of any profile.

^ = 0 (2-53^')
2.4.5 The Similarity Principle and Dimensional Analysis di
To conclude our analysis o f fins we use the pin fin problem of Section 2.4.1 to The differential equation is now put i n dimensionless form. Dividing by kAJL"^,
ihustrate the similarity principle and dimensional analysis. These are important
concepts used in the analysis o f more complex heat transfer problems. Equation
(2.42) showed tiiat tiie fin performance could be expressed as a relation between just de kAe

The Biot number B i = h,L/k was discussed in Section 1.5.1. This boundary con-
dition introduces a second parameter into the problem; the temperature distribution
must now be of the f o r m
J^z-X'e-O; x = PL, ^^ = ^ (2.54)
e = eii,x,Bi) (2.58)
and we see that the fin parameter x appears quhe naturahy i n the dimensionless and the fin efficiency is a function of both x and B i . Using physical intuition, we
f o r m of the goveming equation. The boundary conditions are already dimensionless would expect the tip heat loss to be significant only when the tip temperature is
Equation (2.54) is a differential equation for Ö as a function of ^ and contains one
shghtly less than that of the base, that is, when the fin parameter x is small. Then
dunensionless parameter, x; the boundary conditions contain no further parameters.
the ratio of the heat loss f r o m the tip to the heat loss f r o m the sides is on the
Thus, the solution must be of the form
order of the area ratio Ajy/'L. At first sight, this area ratio may appear to be a new
e = e(i,x) dimensionless parameter, but h is simply B i / / . The analytical solution for this case
is given as Exercise 2-69. It confirms that the tip loss is significant only f o r smah
We now tiansform Eq. (2.37) for the rate o f heat dissipation:
X, in which case the fractional tip loss is approximately Bi/x^.

Q= he'/Z'iT-Te)dx
= hc'J^L(TB - Te) edi In this chapter, the first law of thermodynamics and Fourier's law of heat conduction
. 0
were used to solve a variety of steady one-dimensional heat conduction problems.
or Simple analytical results were obtained for conduction through cylindrical and spher-
•1 ical shehs, and these can be used to build up thermal circuhs for more complicated
problems. The concept of a critical radius of insulation for a cylinder was introduced,
h-mTn-Te) ^"^'^1 (2.55) which showed that insulation should not be added to a small cylinder (or sphere) for
the purpose of reducing heat loss. The temperature distribution in a cylinder with
For this simple case, the fin efficiency appears quite naturally as the dimensionless
intemal heat generation was obtained, and the resuh was apphed to calculation of
form of the heat dissipation rate. Although e = ö(^, x), the definite integral i n Eq.
the maximum temperature i n a nuclear reactor fuel rod.
(2.55) is not a function of i , so that
Much of the chapter deah with the very important subject of extended surfaces,
Vf = Vf(x) (2.56) or fins. Cooling fins are widely used to reduce convective heat ttansfer resistance,
particularly when gases are involved. The fin efficiency of a pin fin and annular
which corresponds to the analytical solution, Eq. (2.42).
fin were obtained by analysis. The resuh for an annular fin is obtained i n terms
More complex heat ttansfer problems are often govemed by differential equations
of Bessel functions, which may be new to ithe student. Use of these functions is
that are difficult or impossible to solve analytically Use o f the above procedure
similar to use of the famihar tiigonometric functions, and Appendix B conveniently
allows the most concise form of tiie solution to be determined, which can be used as
specifies the required differentiation mles and provides tables. The efficiencies for
a basis for correlating experimental data or the results of numerical solutions. Also,
eight additional fin profiles are given i n Table 2.2 for engineering use. The key
when properly used, dimensional analysis fachitates the estimation of errors incurred
assumption i n the analysis of cooling fins was that the temperature variation across
m making shnplifying assumptions. Such an approach is especially important for the
the fin can be ignored. The same assumption is valid for a variety of other extended
analysis of convective heat ttansfer, as is shown i n advanced texts. As a rather simple
surfaces—for example, thermocouples and copper conductors. I n some cases, the
example o f error estimation, consider the pin fin problem when the tip heat loss is
results of the cooling fin analyses can be used directly; i n others, a new but shnilar
not neglected. The appropriate second boundary condition is then Eq. (2.33a), which
analysis is required. The discussion of fins conciuded by using the pin fin problem
ttansfqrms into
to demonstrate the use of dimensional analysis and the principle of simüarity both
^ - 1. ,(TB-Te)de , very important concepts that w i h be used throughout tiiis text.
Two computer programs were introduced i n Chapter 2. F I N I is primarily an
^ ~ L dï " ^^^^ ~ ^"^^
instmctional aid and allows the student to explore the effect of fin parameters and
or boundary conditions on the temperature profile along a rectangular fin and on the fin
de _ _ efficiency FIN2 is an engineering tool that gives the fin efficiency and fin mass for
di ~ (2.57) 10 different fin profiles, including straight fins, annular fins, and spines.
104 105

(channel, interface, plate) for this range o f interfacial conductances. Take k =

200 W / m K for the aluminum.

2-6. A test rig for the measurement of interfacial conductance is used to determine
the effect of surface anodizahon treatment on the interfacial conductance for
alummum-aluminum contact. The specimens themselves form the heat flux me-
ters because they are each fitted with a pah of thermocouples as shown. The
heat flux is determined from the measured temperature gradient and a known 2-7 Consider steady one-dimensional conduction through a plane wall. The figure
thermal conductivity of the aluminum of 185 W / m K as
shows the resulting temperature profiles for three materials. Explain how the
k(Ty - Tt) m - T,) 1 thermal conductivity k must vary with temperature to account for the behavior
? = ^ (^1 + qj) of these profiles for each material. Support your explanations with appropriate
^1 Lt
and the interfacial temperatures obtained by hnear exfi-apolahon,

r(Ti + Tt) (Tl - Tt);


T, = -(Ts + T,) + (T3 - T,)

The interfacial conductance is then obtained as

2-8 A 1 cm-thick A I S I 302 stainless steel wall is insulated with a 5 cm-thick layer
The main possible sources o f error i n the values of h, so determined are due to
uncertainty i n temperafiire measurement and thermocouple locations. Since only of fiberglass (28 kg/m^ density) on its outside surface. I n a test with ambient air
temperature differences are involved, the absolute uncertainty in the individual at 25°C, the temperature of the surface of the insulation is measured to be 40 C.
temperature measurements is not of concem; ratiier it is the relative uncertain- The outside convective heat tiansfer coefficient is estimated to be 6 W / m K,
ties. Previous calibrations of similar type and grade thermocouples indicate that and the emittance of the insulation can be taken as 0.8.
the relative uncertainties are ± 0 . 2 ° C . Also, the technician who drihed the ther-
(i) Draw the thermal circuh.
mocouple holes and installed the thermocouples estimates an uncertainty of (ii) Determine the temperature of the inner surface of the stamless steel.
± 0 . 5 mm in the thermocouple junction locations. A t a particular pressure the
temperatures recorded are T, = 338.7 K , Tt = 328.7 K n = 305 3 K 2-9. In order to prevent fogging, the 3 mm-thick rear window of an automobile has
T4 = 295.0 K. • ' a tiansparent film electrical heater bonded to the inside of the glass. During a
test 200 W are dissipated i n a 0.567 m^ area of window when the inside and
(i) Assuming that the uncertainties i n temperature measurement and thermocou- outside air temperatures are 22°C and 1°C, and the inside and outside heat
ple location can be ti-eated as random errors, estimate the uncertainty i n the
transfer coefficients are 9 W/m^ K and 22 W/m^ K , respectively Determine the
interfacial conductance.
temperature of the inside surface of the window.
(ii) In reality the uncertainties i n temperature and location are bias errors (for
2-10 A 2 cm-thick composite plate has electric heating wires arranged i n a grid i n hs
example, the location of a tiiermocouple does not vary from test to test).
centerplane. On one side there is air at 20°C, and on the other side there is air
Thus it is more appropriate to determine bounds on the possible error i n h;
by considering best and worst cases. Determine these bounds. at 100°C I f the heat ttansfer coefficient on both sides is 40 W/m" K , what is tbe
106 107

ature of the inner surface of the stainless steel shell. Take k = 16 W/m K for
the stainless steel.
^15 A 4 c m - 0 D . , 2 mm-wall-thickness stainless steel tube is insulated with a
• 5 cm-thick layer of cork. Chilled milk flows through the tube. At a given
T, = 20°C locahon the milk temperature is 5°C when the ambient ^ ^ ^ P f ature^^^^ C-^
-/,,, = 40 W/m^K
If the inside and outside heat transfer coefficients are estimated to be 50 and
5 W/m^ K , respectively, calculate the rate of heat gain per meter length of tube.
° ° ° ^ ° ° o = c 0 o o o 2 cm

2-16 Saturated steam at 200°C flows through an A I S I 1010 steel tube with an outer
-/,,. = 40 W/m2K diameter of 10 cm and a 4 mm wall thickness. It is proposed to add a 5 c m -
r<.= 100°C
thick layer of 85% magnesia insulation. Compare the heat loss from the insu-
lated tube to that from the bare tube when the ambient ah temperature is 20 C
m e outside heat transfer coefficients of 6 and 5 W/m^ K for the bare and msu-
lated tubes, respectively
2-17 A hollow cylinder, of inner and outer diameters 3 and 5 cm, respectively has
values ot each layer at the average temperature of the layer. ' an inner surface temperature of 400 K . The outer surface temperamre is 326 K
when exposed to fluid at 300 K with an outside heat transfer coefficient of 27
2-12. A composite wall consists o f a 1 mm-thick stainless steel plate 2 cm of 4
W/m^ K . What is the thermal conductivity of the cylinder?
S i l T s S T " " ' - ^ " ' ^ ' '^"^ °^ '-P'y laminated'sbestos papir The 2-18. Superheated steam at 500 K flows in Schedule 40 steel pipe of nominal size
6 i n Determine the effect of adding magnesia msulation to the pipe as a func-
c T f S n t o?5 w ^ ^ ^ with a co^bm^d and radiation heat transfer
tion of insulation thickness and outside heat transfer coefficient. Assume an
inside heat transfer coefficient of 7000 W/m^ K and surroundings at 300
Prepare a graph of heat loss per unh length as a function of msuk on thick-
n S , with the outside heat transfer coefficient (10 < K < 100 W/m^ K ) as a
(0 surfaces of constant x are isothermal, 2-19 A thermal conductivity cell consists of concentric thin-walled copper tubes with
(ii) no heat flow transverse to the .x-direchon. an electrical heater inside the inner tube and is used to measure the conductiv-
ity of granular materials. The inner and outer radu of the annular gap are 2 and
4 cm. I n a particular test the electrical power to the heater was 10.6 W per me-
ter length and the inner and outer tube temperatures were measured to be 321.4
K and 312.7 K , respectively Calculate the thermal conductivity of the sample.

2-20 A thick-walled cylindrical tube has inner and outer diameters of 2 cm and 5 cm,
respectively The tube is evacuated and contains a high-temperature radiation
source along its axis giving a net radiant heat flux into the inner surface of the
tube of 10^ W / m l The outer surface o f the tube is ^^^'^^^'^f^^^^'^fy^^
coolant at 300 K with a convective heat ttansfer coefficient of 120 W / m K. i t
2-14. A 2 m-long cylindrical chemical reactor has an inside diameter o f 5 cm has the conductivity of the tube material is 2.2 W / m K , determine the temperature
distribution r ( r ) i n the tube wah. Also determine the inner-surface temperature.

2-21. Modem fossh-fueled bohers i n power plants produce steam at J ^ ^ J

200 bar. The steam flows along steam lines to turbines for generation of
electrical power. These steam lines are insulated to reduce h^.^^T
ent air and to prevent skin bums due to accidental contact. Until the mid 1970s,
700 800 900
400 500 600
T, K
relatively inexpensive asbestos products were used as insulators because of their 0.069 0.089 0.105 0.120 0.132
fc, W / m K 0.048
low thermal conductivity and their resistance to wear and corrosion. However,
asbestos proved to be a carcinogen and substitutes are required. Apart from a 2_24. use of - h i l a y e r i n s u l a t i ^ n s ^ ^ ^ ^
low thermal conductivity, other desirable products include workability, high steam lines in P ^ T ^ ^ f^^^^"^^^^^^ withstand temperatures up to
sttength, and reusability. The table shows data for the thermal conductivity of sulattons such as fiberglass or miner surrounding a stronger,
candidate insulations at 600°F taken from the catalogs of U.S. companies. 180°C, so these insulations can be "^^^^as an outer y insulation
Brand high-temperature resistant - - r ^ y ^ ; ^ f 3 P ^ f X g l a s s Thermal conductivity
Name Material Company Btu in/hr ft^ °F Contiguration
Thermo-12 Calcium silicate Manville 0.46 Cylindrical block
Durablanket Ceramic fiber Standard Oil table for a candidate fiberglass insulatton.
0.48 Blanket
400 . /isn
Faroe-1200 Mineral wool Partek 0.52 Cylindrical block T, K 1 300 350
Kaylo Calcium silicate Owens/Corning 0.58 Cylindrical block 0.048 0.063 0.080
k, W/m K 0.035
CeraWool Ceramic fiber Manville 0.60 Blanket
Calcium sihcate
Fibrous glass
Cylindrical block
Cylindrical block
2_2S. insulated steam hnes in P - ^ - ^ - ^ i " ^ C^^^:^^
Micro-lok Fibrous glass Manville 0.72 Cylindrical block damage and to ^^^^^l^'^^^X-^^^^ aluminum is typically 1.5 m m
or thin aluminum sheet is currently use aluminum, with its
(i) Make a table of the fc-values in SI units. thick, whereas ^ h e ^ l ^ ^ ^ / j ; ^ ^ ^ / ^ / " ^ ^ surface temperature by 5
(h) Compare these fc-values with other insulations in Table A.3. In particular, low emittance, reduces the heat loss but increa . ^^fe lagging
make comparisons for magnesia pipe insulation, insulating brick, and fiber- to 15°C. To avoid skin burns ^^^^^^^
surface temperatures are 40 ^ for^^^^^^^^ J
for canvas Jackets,
^ i ^ ^ a 10 cm
glass batts used for home insulation. Comment on your observations.
A 36 cm-O.D., 7 cm-wah-thickness steel s^eam ^^.^^^
(iii) Typically, a 40 cm-O.D. steam hne w i h be insulated with a 13 cm-thick
layer of insulation. The temperature outside the insulation should be low
enough not to bum bare skin on contact. For a steam temperature of 560°C, thickness of calcium ^^^^^^^^^ ^^:^Z^^ is - g h g i h l e and the
give a rough estimate o f energy saved by insulating a 100 m length of pipe,
and hs value i f the cost to produce thermal energy is 3 cents/kWh. Assume
outside heat transfer coefficients for the insulated and bare pipes of 10 and (i) Calculate the rate of heat loss per meter and surface temperature for a
50 W/m" K, respectively.
2-22. Calcium silicate has replaced asbestos as the preferred insulation for steam hnes 3 mm-thick canvas lagging. Take^ a y lo emittance of 0.9,
in power plants. Consider a 40 cm-O.D., 4 cm-wall-thickness steel steam hne
insulated with a 12 cm thickness of calcium sihcate. The insulation is protected
from damage by an aluminum sheet lagging that is 2.5 mm thick. The steam use . = 0.1 for .luminum, k - 0.04 W/m K for canvas, and te da,a for t
temperature is 565°C and ambient air temperature in the power plant is 26°C. of Calsilite insulation from Exercise 2-22.
The inside convective resistance is negligible, the outside convective heat ttans- - - J „ ^ „ m n n 2 mm-wall-thickness, A l 6 i
fer coefficient can be taken as 11 W/m^ K , and the emittance of tiie aluminum is 2-26. Liquid oxygen at 90 K flows inside l^J^^-^^\Z-tUck
fiberglass insula-
0.1. Calculate the rate of heat loss per meter. The thermal conductivity of the 303 stainless steel tube The is i n ^ i ^eric water vapor con-
pipe wall is 40 W / m K, and the table gives values for Calsilite calcium sihcate tion of thermal conductivity «'«f ^e'^^^^^ ah temperature is 300
insulation blocks. dense on the outside of the f ^^^^^«"„g^^^^T^^^^ convective and ra¬
K and the dewpoint temperuur. f ^ ^ . T a k e ^ ^ ^ ^.^^i K , respectively,
T, K 500 600 700 800 900 diative heat ttansfer coefficients as D w / m
k, W/m K 0.074 0.096 0.142 0.211 0.303 t 19 .1 - 3 5 ° C flows in a copper tube of 8 mm outer diameter and
2-27. Refrigerant-12 at 35 c nows a insulation with an alu-
2-23. Repeat Exercise 2-22 for a ceramic fiber insulation, for which the following
thermal conductivity data for ManviUe's CeraWool insulation blanket can be L=t.~e;;e^rr:"ss.t^^^^^

inside and outside heat transfer coefhcients are taken as 300 and 5 W/m^ K , (ii) Would the presence of a contact resistance between the wire and insulation
respectively, and the surrounding ah is at 20°C, plot a graph of heat leakage of 5 X 10""^ [W/m" K ] ~ ' affect your conclusion?
per meter versus insulahon thickness. Should the insulahon be used'' Take 2-34. A n experimental boiling water reactor is spherical in shape and operates whh a
k = 0.035 W/m K for the insulahon. water temperature of 420 K . The shell is made from nickel alloy steel {k - 21
W/m K ) and has an inside radius of 0.7 m with a wall thickness of 7 cm. Tbe
2-28. A 1 in Schedule 10 copper pipe carries 10 GPM of brine at - 5 ° C . The ambient
reactor is surrounded by a layer of concrete 20 cm thick. I f the outside heat
air is at 20°C and has a dewpoint of 10°C. How thick a layer of insulahon
transfer coefficient is 8 W/m^ K and the ambient air is at 300 K , what are the
of thermal conductivity 0.2 W / m K is required to prevent condensation on the
temperatures of the intemal and extemal surfaces of the concrete? Also, i f the
outside ofthe insulation? Take the outside heat transfer coefhcient as 11.0 W/m^ K .
reactor operates at a power level of 30 kW, what fraction of the power gener-
2-29. A 1.5 mm-diameter wire is to be insulated with a plastic material of thermal ated is lost by heat transfer through the sheh? The resistance to heat flow from
conductivity 0.37 W / m K . h is found by experiment that a given current will the water to the sheU can be taken to be negligible.
heat the bare wire to 40°C when the ambient air temperature is 20°C. Plot the 2-35 (i) Derive an expression for the relation between heat loss and temperature
wire temperature and the surface temperature of the insulation as a function of
difference across the inner and outer surfaces of a hollow sphere, the con-
msulation thickness for tiie same current. The emittance of the insulation is 0.9
ductivity of which varies with temperature in manner given by = fco[l +
and that of the bare wire is 0.07. The convective heat transfer coefficient can '
a{T - To)], where To is a reference temperature.
be calculated from an_approximate relation for a horizontal cylinder in ah at
(h) Find the corresponding resuh for a hohow cyhnder.
normal temperamre, = 1.3(AT/Dy'^ W/m^ K , for AT in kelvins and D in
meters. (ih) Compare the expressions derived for parts (i) and (ii) for the special case
of the outside radius becoming infinite. Explain the different values
2-30. A 6 m m - O . D . tube is to be insulated with an insulation of thermal conductivity obtained.
0.08 W / m K and a very low surface emittance. Heat loss is by natural convec- 2-36. A 5 cm-high stainless steel truncated cone has a
tion, for which the heat transfer coefficient can be taken as = 1.3(Ar/D)'/'* base diameter of 10 cm and a top diameter o f
W/m- K for AT = T - in kelvins and the diameter D in meters. Determine 5 cm. The sides are insulated, and the base and
the critical radius o f the insulation and the corresponding heat loss for a tube top temperatiires are 100°C and 50°C, respectively
surface temperature of 350 K , and an ambient temperature of 300 K . Assuming one-dimensional heat flow, estimate the
heat flow. Take fc = 15 W / m K for the stainless
2-31. A 1 mm-diameter resistor has a sheath o f thermal conductivity A: = 0.12 W/m K steel.
and is located in an evacuated enclosure. Determine the radius of the sheath tiiat
2-37 The concept of a critical radius for maximum heat loss developed for a cylinder
maximizes the heat loss f r o m the resistor when it is maintained at 450 K and the
enclosure is at 300 K . The surface emittance o f the sheath is 0.85. in Section 2.3.2 also applies to a sphere. Derive expressions for critical radius
for the following conditions: :
2-32. A 2 mm-diameter resistor, for an electronic component on a space station, is
(i) The outside heat transfer coefficient has a constant value h„.
to have a sheath of thermal conductivity 0.1 W / m K. h is cooled by forced
(ii) The outside heat transfer coefficient is proportional to .
convection with h, - IAD~''^ W/m^ K , for diameter D in meters, and by
radiation with q^^ = ae(T* - T^). Determine the radius o f t h e sheath that 2-38. A 1 m-diameter hquid oxygen (LOX) tank is insulated with a 10 cm-thick
maximizes the heat loss when the resistor is at 400 K and the surroundings blanket of fiberglass insulation having a thermal conductivity of 0.022 W / m K.
are at 300 K . Take the value of the surface emittance e as The tank is vented to the atmosphere. Determine the boil-off rate i f the ambient
(i) 0.9. ah is at 310 K and the outside convective and radiative heat ttansfer coefficients
(ii) 0.5. are 3 W/m^ K and 2 W/m^ K, respectively. The boiling point of oxygen is 90 K,
and its enthalpy of vaporization is 0.213 X 10' J/kg.
2-33. A 2 mm-diameter electrical wire has a 1 mm-thick electrical insulation with a 2-39. Consider steady conduction across a cyhndrical or spherical shell. It is some-
thermal conductivity of 0.12 W / m K . The combined convection and radiation
times convenient to express the heat flow as
heat transfer coefficient on the outside o f the insulation is 12 W/m^ K .
• _ fcAefKTl - T.)
(i) Would increasing the thickness of tiie insulation to 3 mm increase or de-
crease the heat ttansfer? rz - r\

that is, i n the same f o m i as for a plane slab where Ae„ is an effective cross- (i) Ignore thermal radiation.
sectional area.
(ii) Account for thermal radiation i f the emhtance of the insulator is 0.8.
(i) Determine A^ff for a cylindrical shell. 2-45 Determine the allowable current in a 10 gage (2.59 mm diameter) copper wire
(ii) Repeat for a spherical shell.
that is insulated with a 1 c m - O . D . layer of rabber. The outside heat transfer
(iii) I f the arithmetic mean area A,„ = Vi{A, + A^) is used instead of A «• coefficient is 20 W/m^ K , and the ambient air is at 310 K . The allowable maxi-
determme the error in heat flow for r^lry = 1.5, 3, and 5. mum temperature of the rubber is 380 K . Take k = 0A5 W / m K for the rubber
2-40. A spherical metal tank has a 2.5 m outside diameter and is insulated with a 0 5 and an electrical resistance of 0.00328 O/m for the copper wire.
m-thick cork layer. The tank contains liquefied gas at - 6 0 ° C and the ambient 2-46 A n explosive is to be stored in large slabs of thickness 2L clad on both sides
air IS at 20°C. The inside heat transfer coefficient can be assumed to be large with a protective sheath. The rate at which heat is generated withm the explo-
and the combined convection and radiation outside heat transfer coefficient is' sive is temperature-dependent and can be approximated by the hnear relation
estimated to be 8 W/m K . Atmospheric water vapor diffuses into the cork and Q'" = a + b(T - Te) where Te is the prevailing ambient air temperature. If
a layer of ice forms adjacent to the tank wall. Determine the thickness of the ice the overall heat transfer'coefficient between the slab surface and the ambient ah
layer. Assume that tiie cork thermal conductivity of 0.06 W/m K is unaffected is U, show that the condition for an explosion is L = (k/b) - f a n lU/{kb) J.
by the ice and water, but comment on the validity of this assumption. Determine the slab thickness i f k = 0.9 W / m K, U ^ 0.20 W/m^ K , a = 60
W / m ^ b = 6.0 W/m^ K .
2-41. A thin-wall, spherical stainless steel vessel has an outside diameter of 40 cm
2-47 On the flight of Apollo 12, plutonium oxide (Pu^^^O^^) was used to generate
and contains biochemical reactants maintained at 160°C. The tank is located in a
electtical power. Heat was generated uniformly through the loss of kinetic en-
laboratory where the air is maintained at 20°C. A layer of insulation is to be
ergy from alpha particles emitted by the Pu'-^^ Consider a sphere of plutonium
added to prevent workers from being burned by accidental contact with the ves-
sel. The msulation chosen has a thermal conductivity o f 0.1 W / m K How thick oxide of 3 cm diameter covered with thermo-electtic elements for convertmg
should the layer be i f the threshold for a skin burn on a nonmetallic surface can heat to electricity The physical properties of these elements (tellurides) and heat
be taken as 55 C? Also calculate the heat loss. The combined convective and ra- rejection considerations suggest that the surface of the sphere be at 200 C. On
diative heat transfer coefficients on the outside of the insulation is estimated to the other hand, the ceramic nature of the plutonium oxide ahows a maximum
DC y w / m Jx. temperature of 1750°C. With these constraints, determine
(i) the maximum allowable volumetric heating rate.
2-42. (i) Heat is generated uniformly i n a plate 2L thick at a rate Q'" W/m^ I f the (ii) the electrical power generated, assuming a thermal efficiency of 4%.
surfaces are maintained at temperature T„ determine the temperature distri-
bution across the plate. Take fcpuo. = 4 W / m K .
(ii) A 1 cm-thick stainless steel plate is heated by an electric current giving an 2-48 In a laboratory experiment, a long, 2 cm-diameter, cylinder of fissionable mater-
/ R mtemal heat generation of 1 X 10^ W/m^. The plate is cooled by an ah ial is encased i n a 1 cm-thick graphite sheh. The unh is immersed m a coolant
stream at temperature T, = 300 K , and the ah velocity is adjusted to give a at 330 K and the convective heat ttansfer coefficient on the graphite surface is
maximum jdate temperature o f 360 K . What is the average convective heat estimated to be 1000 W/m^ K . I f heat is generated uniformly within the fission-
transfer coefficient? able material at a rate of 100 M W / m ^ determine the temperature at the center-
line of the cylinder. Allow for an interfacial conductance between the material
2-43. A n electrical cuirent of 15 A flows i n an 18 gage copper wire (1.02 m m diame- and the graphite sheh of 3000 W/m^ K , and take the thermal conductivities of
ter). I t the wire has an electrical resistance of 0.0209 ft/m, calculate the material and graphite as 4.1 W / m K and 50 W / m K , respectively
(i) the rate o f heat generation per meter length o f wire,
2-49 A slab of semittansparent material of thickness L has one surface irradiated by a
(h) the rate of heat generation per unit volume o f copper.
radiant energy flux G [ W / m ' ] f r o m a high-temperature source. The rate of ab-
(iii) the heat flux across the wire surface at steady state.
sorption of the radiation decays exponentiahy into the material: the resulting
2-44. A n electrical cable has a 2 mm-Kliameter copper wire encased i n a 4 mm-thick volumettic heating can be expressed as Q^'^KGC-'^ [W/m'] where « [m ] is
insulator of conductivity 0.2 W / m K . The cable is located i n stih ah at 25°C • the absorption coefficient I f the front and back surfaces are maintained at tem-
and the convective heat transfer coefficient can be approximated as K = ' peratures T and T2, respectively, with T > T2, derive an expression for the
1 . 3 ( A T / D ) W/m2 K I f the temperature limit for the insulator is 150°C deter- temperamre profile T{x). Also determine the location of the maximum tempera-
mine the maximum PR losses that can be allowed i n the wire ture, and show how it depends on the problem parameters.

2-50. A slab of U2O ceramic of beigbt 0.5 m and thickness 1 cm is part of a blanket cube copper heat sink and enclosed in a Dewar flask. The laser dissipates 2 W,
of an experimental fusion reactor. The purpose of the blanket is to produce tri- and a cryogenic refrigeration system maintains the copper block at a nearly uni-
tium through neutron interachon with lithium. The volumetric nuclear heating in form teniperature of 90 K. Estimate tbe top surface temperature of the laser chip
the U2O can be assumed uniform at 10 M W / m l The slab has a 1 mm-thick for the following models of the dissipation process:
cladding o f 304 stainless steel, and is cooled by water at 30°C on each side, (i) The energy is dissipated i n a 10 p.m-thick layer underneath the top surface
with a convective heat transfer coefficient of 290 W / m ' K. Determine the maxi-
of the laser. , _ , . ^,
mum temperature in the ceramic i f its conductivity is 3 W/m K.
(ii) The energy is dissipated i n a 10 (xm-thick layer at the midplane of the
2-51. Heat is generated at a rate g,'." i n a large slab of thickness 2L. The side surfaces chip.
lose heat by convection to a liquid at temperature T^. Obtain the steady-state (ih) The energy is dissipated uniformly through the chip.
temperature distributions for the following cases:
Take k = 170 W / m K for the chip, and neglect parasitic heat gains from the
(i) Q'!' is constant. Dewar flask.
(ii) öv" = QM [1 " {xlL)\ with x measured from tiie centerplane
(iii) Q': = a + b(T - T,).

2-52. Heat is generated at a rate g™ i n a long sohd cylinder of radius R. The cyhnder
has a thin metal sheath and is immersed in a liquid at temperature T^. Heat
tiansfer from the cyhnder surface to the hquid can be characterized by an over-
all heat transfer coefficient U. Obtain the steady-state temperature distributions
for the following cases:

(i) Qy is constant.
(ii) Ql" = èvo [1 - (r/Rfl
(iii) Q:' = a + b(T- Te).

2r-S3. A 5 k W eleetiic heater using Nichrome wire is to be designed to heat air to 400 2-57 Heat is generated uniformly i n a 8 cm-thick slab at a rate of 450 k W / m . One
K. The maximum allowable wire temperature is 1500 K , and a minimum heat face of tie slab is insulated and the other is cooled by water at 20°C, giving a
transfer coefficient of 600 W / m ' K is expected. A variable voltage power supply heat ttansfer coefficient of 800 W / m ' K . I f the conductivity of the slab is
up to 130 V is available. Determine the length of 1.0 mm-diameter wire re- 12.0 W / m K , determine the maximum temperature in the slab.
quired. Also check the current and voltage. Take the electrical resistivity of 2-58. Show that the temperature distribution along an infinitely long pin fin is given
Nichrome wire as 100 |xO cm and its thermal conductivity as 30 W / m K.
by '
2-54. A n electric heater consists of a thin ribbon of metal and is used to boil a dielec-
tric liquid. The liquid temperature T, is uniform at its boiling point, and the heat
tiansfer coefficient on the ribbon can be assumed to be uniform as_well. A resis-
tance measurement allows the average temperature of the ribbon T to be deter- Also find the heat dissipated by determining the base heat flow Compare this
mined. Obtain an expression for T - T, in terms of tiie ribbon dimensions resuh to Eq. (2.40) for an insulated tip and discuss.
(width W, thickness 2t\ tiie ribbon thermal conductivity k, the heat transfer co-
2-59. Show that the temperature distribution along a short pin fin, for which heat loss
efficient h,., and the ribbon electrical conductivity a [ f l ~ ' m ~ ' ] .
from the tip cannot be neglected, is
2-55. Radioactive wastes are stored in a spherical type 316 stainless steel tank of T-Te _ coshi6(L - x ) + (/z,/i6fc)sinh/3(L - x)
inner diameter 1 m and 1 cm wall thickness. Heat is generated uniformly i n the - Te ' coshjSL + (ha/pk) sinh 13L
wastes at a rate of 3 X 10* W / m l The outer surface of the tank is cooled by air
at 300 K with a heat ti-ansfer coefficient of 100 W / m ' K . Determine the maxi- where the heat ttansfer coefficient K is the same on the tip and sides.
mum temperature i n the tank. Take the thermal conductivity of the wastes as
2-60. A copper tube has a 2 cm inside diameter and a wah thickness of 1.5 mm.
2.0 W / m K.
Over the tube is an aluminum sleeve of 1.5 mm thickness havmg 100 pin fins
2-56. A 5 mm X 2 mm X 1 mm-thick semiconductor laser is mounted on a 1 cm per centimeter length. The pin fins are 1.5 mm in diameter and are 4 cm long.

ing a constant heat transfer coefficient, determine its value. Take k = 180 W / m
The fluid inside the tube is at 100°C, and the inside heat transfer coefficient is
5000 W / m K . The fluid outside the tube is at 250°C, and the heat transfer co- K for the aluminum.
efficient on the outer surface is 7 W/m^ K . Calculate the heat transfer per meter
length of tube. Take k = 204 W / m K for the aluminum.
r ^ l v m X u S n l : S ^ f i l l T , .0 W M ' K. If .he chip is no, .o cx-
2-61. A gas turbine rotor has 54 A I S I 302 stainless steel blades of dimensions L =
6 cm, A , = 4 X 10 m^, and /? = 0.1 m . When the gas stream is at 900°C, c i d ' a 75-C operating temperature, what is the allowable power rating of the
the temperature at the root of the blades is measured to be 500°C. I f the con- chip?
vective heat transfer coefficient is estimated to be 440 W/m^ K , calculate the
heat load on the rotor internal cooling system.

2-62. Aluminum ahoy straight rectangular fins for cooling a semiconductor device are
Q 1 cm long and 1 m m thick. Investigate the effect of choke of tip boundary
condition on heat loss as a function of convective heat transfer coefficient. Use
k = 175 W / m K for the ahoy and a range of he values from 10 to 200 W/m^ K .
15 mm
2-e. Inconel-X-750 stiaight rectangular fins are to be used i n an application where the
Q fins are 2 m m thick and the convective heat transfer coefficient is 300 W / m ' K .
Investigate tiie effect of tip boundary condition on estimated heat loss for fin lengths
L varying from 6 m m to 20 mm. Takers = 800 K , r , = 300K,fc = 18.8 W / m K .
2-69. K the heat loss f r o m the tip of a pin fin is not neglected, show that the fin effi¬
2-64. A straight rectangular fin has a constant incident radiation heat flux q,^i W/m^
on one side from a high-temperature source and loses heat by convection from ciency is given by
both sides. I f L = 10 cm, half-thickness f = 5 mm, fc = 30 W / m K , q,^^ = _ sinh ;^/A: + ^ cosh
30,000 W / m ' , and h, = 100 W/m^ K , determine the base temperature to give a
(1 +2:)(cosh;kf + ^A'sinh;^)
tip temperature of 400 K when tiie ambient fluid is at 300 K .

2-65. (i) Repeat the pin fin analysis of Section 2.4.1 using the exponential rather \ I ; .hit t t s s i J i m ^ x s f f o r
than the hyperbolic function form of the solution to the goveming differen-
tial equation. r ^ r i r o f r ^ S e ^ o f ^ ^ r ^ ; was t^ls condition met in Example
(ii) As for case (i), but locate the origin for x at the fin tip.
(iii) As in the text using hyperbolic functions, but locate the origin for x at tiie
fin tip.

Comment on the ease of solution using these different approaches.

2-66. In many situations the convective heat transfer coefficient on the tip of a fin is
different from that on the sides, owing to a different flow geometry Determine
the temperature distribution, heat loss, and fin efficiency for such a fin. Denote
the side and tip heat transfer coefficients as /t„ and h,.,, respectively

2-67. Calculation of heat transfer coefficients on finned surfaces is difficult because

tiie flow pattems are often complex and the resulting heat transfer coefficients
are not constant (as assumed i n conventional fin analyses). Experimentally deter-
mined effective average values of h^ are thus useful. A test rig maintains the fin
base temperatures at 100°C i n an ah flow at 20°C. Thermocouples are installed '
to allow measurement of the fin tip temperatures. I n a test the rectangular alu-
minum fins are 30 mm long and 0.3 mm thick, and are at a pitch o f 3 mm. For
a particular air velocity the tip temperatures are measured to be 61.2°C. Assum-

heat transfer coefficient between the rod and ah is taken to be 13 W/m^ K .

fin bemg 15 cm wide, 2.5 cm high, and 2 mm thick. A fan is an integral part
1 Sf w f T t ^ f ^ ^ ^^^"'^ity ^^^^ gi^^s a heat transfer coefficient 2-75. Jakob [8] suggests that Eq. (2.40) for the heat loss from a fin can be corrected
ot 50 W m K . I f the manufacturer's transistor temperature limit is 360 K , spec- m to account for heat loss from the tip by adding to the length L the tip size
Ï a"owable power dissipation per transistor. The mean ah temperature is
(A,/.#). Select a number of test cases and use F I N I to check the validity of this
310 K . I f the rise m air temperature is limited to 10 K , specify the requhed ca-
pacity of the fan i n m7min. rule.
2-71. 2-76. A rectangular fin has a length of 2 cm, a width of 4 cm and a thickness of
The dimensions o f a stiaight rectangular fin can be optimized to give maxi-
m 1 mm. h has a base temperature of 120°C and is exposed to air at 20 C with a
mum heat transfer for a given mass. I f the fin has thickness 2t and length L
convective heat transfer coefficient of 20 W / m ' K . Determine the fin efficiency,
the mass per unh width is pA„ where = 2tL is the profile area. For negh- heat loss and tip temperature for each of the three tip boundary conditions given
gible tip heat loss, show that the heat flow g is a maximum when by Eqs. (2.33a, b, c). Take the fin material as

tanh X (i) aluminum, k = 220 W / m K .

cosh'x (ii) stainless steel. A: = 15 W / m K .
where x ^A„/2t and = hjkt. Hence show that the optimal dimensions are 2-77. A test technique for measuring the
L 1/2 thermal conductivity of copper-nickel
t alloys is based on the measurement of
the tip temperature of pin fins made
Heat transfer coefficients o f 150 W/m^ K are typical for air-cooled reciprocating from the alloys. The standard fin di-
aircraft engines. What is the optimal length o f 1 mm-thick rectangular fins i f mensions are a diameter of 5 m m and
made from
a length of 20 cm. The test fin and a
(i) mild steel? reference brass fin (fe = 111 W / m K )
(ii) aluminum? are mounted on a copper base plate i n
a wind tunnel. The test data include
2-72. Some coohng fins lose heat predominantly by radiation. Show that the solution TB = 100°C, Te = 20°C, and tip tem-
for the temperature distiibution along a long pin fin, which loses heat by radi- peratures of 64.2°C and 49.7°C for the
ation only, can be given as an integral that can be evaluated numerically Also brass and test alloy fins, respectively
find the heat loss from a pin fin o f 1 cm diameter, 10 cm long, when the base
temperature is 1000 K and the surroundings are black at 300 K . The thermal (i) Determine the conductivity of the test alloy
conductivity o f the fin material is 10 W / m K . Assume a constant transfer factor (ii) I f the conductivity should be known tp ± 1 . 0 W / m K , how accurately should
:•'/' aiong the fin, with a value of 0.8. the tip temperatures be measured?
2-73. A long gas turbine blade receives heat from combustion gases by convection 2-78 Exercise 2-71 requires an analytical proof that the dimensions of a stiaight
and radiation. I f emission from the blade can be neglected (T, <§c J , ) , deter- B rectangular fin that result i n a maximum heat ttansfer for a given weight are
" (J /A = 1 419(fc/ft.f)'". For an aluminum alloy fin {k = 175 W / m K ) and a
mine the temperature disti-ibution along the blade. Assume
convective heat transfer coefficient of 200 W / m ' K , use F I N I to check this re-
(i) the blade tip is insulated.
suit using a 2 mm-thick fin as a base case.
(h) the heat ti-ansfer coefficient on the tip equals that on the blade sides.
2-79. The t e r m e n effectiveness is used i n two ways i n the heat transfer literature^ h
The cross-sectional area o f the blade may be taken to be constant.
a can be a synonym for fin efficiency and h may be defined as the ratio of the
A 60 cm-long, 3 cm-diameter
2-74. " fin heat transfer rate to the rate that would exist without the fin denoted Sf . A n
A I S I 1010 steel rod is welded to 1 ^ 2 0 cm—»|
AISI 302 stainless steel (k = 15 W / m K ) straight rectangular fin is 1 cm wide,
a furnace waU and passes tiurough
is 2 m m thick, and is cooled by an ah fiow giving a convective heat transfer
20 cm of insulation before emerg- ...insulation-ïi 3 cm diameter
AISI 1010 steel rod coefficient on the sides and tip of 25 W / m ' K . Calculate Q as a f^nctio" of
ing into the surrounding air. The
Furnace fin length, and hence prepare a graph or table of Sf versus L. Comment on the
fumace wall is at 300°C, and the wall
significance of this resuh to the design of such fins.
-60 cm-
ah temperature is 20°C. Estimate
the temperature o f the bar tip i f the Air

2-80. (i) A Straight rectangular fin has a conductivity of 40 W/m K , and the heat are aluminum (fc = 185 W/m K), and the fins have -^^^'^'^[^^^l^Z

* T l n o ' w P " T °" '""^"'^ W/m' K. The fin is required to dissi-

pate 100 W/m when the base and ambient temperamres differ by 40 K
Usmg the result of Exercise 2-71, determine the length and half-thickness
of the fin of mmimum mass.
nimde of the interfacial conductance (if sigmficant).
(ii) B. X . Zhang and B . T F . Chung [9] have demonstrated the use of fuzzy set
, 84 A mercury-in-glass thermometer is to be used to measure the temperatiire of a
theory for the optimization of a straight rectangular fin. The aim was to ob-
L S s flowing in a duct. To protect the thermometer, a pocket is made from a
tam a fin profile of a smaller aspect ratio (L/2t) than the optimal one in
f m m diarTeS 0 7 mm-wall-thickness stainless steel tube, with one end sealed
order to simphfy manufacture, ahowing the specified heat load to be'met
within a specified tolerance. For the data in part (i), they obtain a reduction
in aspect ratio from 20 to 8.5, but with a penalty of 33% increase in mass.
FIN2 ahows such smdies to be performed by simple parameter variation Bv
decreasmg L below the optimum value and adjusting t to give the deshed
heat load, determine a range of aspect ratios and corresponding fin masses
that might be useful.
on the outside of the pocket as 30 W/m K .
2-81. Electronic components are attached to a 10 cm-square, 2 mm-thick aluminum
plate, and the backface is cooled by a flow of air. The backface has rectangular
aluminum fins 25 mm long, 0.3 mm thick, at a pitch of 3 mm. If the cooling air
is at 20 C and the heat transfer coefficient on the fins is 30 W/m' K , what is the
allowable heat dissipation rate if the plate temperature should not exceed 70°C'?
Take fc = 180 W/m K for tiie aluminum. which the maximum wire temperature occurs,

2-82. A 1 cm-wide, 2 cm-long semiconductor device dissipates 5 W and is mounted

on a 2 cm-square, 2 mm-thick aluminum plate via a 0.1 mm-thick diamond
wafer that acts as a heat spreader. The underside of tbe plate is fitted with ten
15 mm-long, 0.2 mm-thick rectangular aluminum fins at a pitch of 2 mm
Coolmg air at 25°C flows through the fin array and gives a heat transfer coeffi- contacts a hot wall at 600 K .
cient of 28 W/m K . Estimate the temperamre of the base of the semiconductor
fake fc = 175 W/m K for the aluminum

High-temperature environment

Assuming that the heat transfer from the cold side of the brass Plate is neg-
S l e estimate the temperature of the hottest spot on the brass wah. Take
fc = o ' . l T W / m K for the asbestos and 111 W/m K for the brass.

2-87. A pressure ttansducer is connected to Pressure

-H H-2mm transducer
a high-temperature fumace by a cop-
per tube "pigtail" of 3 mm outer di-
2-83. In testing a prototype unit, a finned surface is found not to perform according to ameter and 0.5 mm waU thickness.
design specifications. The fins are press-fitted onto rectangular ducts, and a con- If the fumace operates at 1000 K and
tact resistance between the wall and the fin bases is suspected. The duct and fins the transducer must not exceed 340 K ,
how long should the tube be? Take the

over 180° of hs outer circumference;

ambient temperature as 300 K and assume a heat transfer coefhcient of 30
the remaining 180° is insulated. Water
at 300 K flows through the tube, and
2-88. An encapsulated semiconductor chip is connected by a brass lead 5 mm long the inside heat transfer coefficient is
and with a L25 X 0.25 mm cross section, to the end of a copper c o n d u c t 1000 W/m' K .
on a circuit board, as shown in Fig. 2.17. The board is 10 cm wide and 1 5
mm thick and has a conductivity of 0.2 W/m K . The conductors are 2 mm (i) Detennine the wah temperature
wide and 0.75 mm thick and are spaced at 12 mm intervals along the board If distribution around the tube.
(ii) If there is also a volumetric heat
k lh . 17'' '''^ di««ipated by the board, what source of 50 W/cm^ in the tube
IS the allowable rating for the chip if its temperature is not to exceed 35Ó S
The average cooling air temperature is 310 K , and the convective heat transfer wall due to neutron absorption,
find the new temperature distribu-
r - óüb
K S T wW/m
/ TK. "for the copper.
'"'^ ""^'^^^'i^^t^'i to be 5 W/m^ K . Take tion. Insulation

2-89. A copper-constantan (45% Ni) thermocouple is constmcted from 24 gage (0 510 Take k = 20.0 W/m K for the stain-
less steel.
Z^eT'l^""" n"^ ^'T^'' ' '"''"^ «team is al 320 K ,
and the chamber wall is at 300 K . The wires are bare and wdl separated 2-92 The absorber of a simple flat-plate solar collector with no coverplate consists
• of a 2 mm-thick aluminum plate with 6 mm-diameter aluminum water tubes
Steam spaced at a pitch of 10 cm, as shown.
Chamber walL

Copper 10 cm



5 cm-

5 'calculate the error due to conduction along On a clear summer day near the ocean, the ah temperature is 20 C and a steady
the wires for a heat transfer coefficient of 100 W/m' K . wind is blowing. The solar radiation absorbed by the plate is calculated to be
680 W/m', and the convective heat ttansfer coefficient is estimated to be 14
e1e?ind1o'c,^T"' ' ^°PP^^ 2 mm in diam- W/m^ K If water at 20°C enters the collector at 7 X lO'^ kg/meter width of
eter and 30 cm long, located m an ah stream at 20°C. I f the ends of the rod
collector and the collector is 3 m long, ëstimate the outiet water temperature^
For the aluminum take k = 200 W/m K and s = 0.20 (Hint. Evaluatie the ^^^^^
mated to be 30 W/m^ K , determine the maximum current that can be passed if
the midpoint temperature is not to exceed 50°C. lost by reradiation using E q . (1.19) with a constant value of correspond ng to
a guessed average plate temperature. Then apply the steady-flow equation to an
(i) Ignore thermal radiahon. elemental length of the collector, and so derive a differential equation goveming
(ii) Include the effect of thermal radiation. the water temperature increase along the collector.)

2-93 The end of a soldering iron consists of a 4 nun-diameter copper rod, 5 cm

L 7 2 x ' i T ' f l m . ' * ' '"^^ ^ ^ ^^"^ ^ ' ' = '""^ '•^«i^tivity of
* long If the tip must operate at 350°C when the ambient air temperature is
2-91. A stainless steel tube of 1 cm outer diameter and 1 mm wall thickness receives 20°C, deterniine the base temperature and heat flow The heat transfer coeffi-
a uniform radiative heat flux of 100 W/cm^ from a high-temperature p I a Z cient from the rod to the ak is estimated to be about 10 W/m- K . Take k -
386 W/m K for the copper.
2-94 A skin panel for an actively cooled hypersonic aircraft has square passages
through which supercritical hydrogen flows before being used as fuel m a

The cyhnder is installed i n a wind tunnel, and a second thermocouple is used

scramjet engine. Possible dimen- 9 = 100 kW/m2
to measure the ambient ah temperamre T,. The power input to heater is
sions are shown for a panel made
metered, from which the electrical heat generation per unit area Q/A can be
from Inconel-X-750 nickel alloy. I f calculated (A is the surface area of one side of the ribbon).
the heating load is 100 kW/m^ and
As a first approximation, the local heat transfer coefficient h,m can be ob-
the inside convective heat transfer
coefficient is 6000 W/m^ K , esti- tained from
mate the maximum skin tempera- _ Ö/A
ture at a location along the panel
where the bulk coolant temperature 0.8 mm
0.4 mm Hence bv rotating the cyhnder with the power held constant, the variation of
is 100 K. ? 2 i O (insulated)
f can be o b t L l from'the variation of T, where TAB) is low, h iB) is high,
2-95. A n exhaust stack thermocouple is inserted into a 20 cm-long weU made of and vice versa. A typical variation of TAB) is shown i n the graph A problem
5 m m - O . D . , 0.7 mm-wall-thickness A I S I 316 stainless steel tube and is held with this technique is that conduction around the circumference of the tube
in good thermal contact with the sealed end by a spring-loaded plug. The con- causes the local heat flux q^iB) to not exactiy equal Q/A.
vective heat transfer coefficient for tiie exhaust gases flowing across the tubing
(i) Derive a formula for h^B) that approximately accounts for circumferential
is estimated to be 65 W / m ' K . I f the thermocouple reading is 221°C when the
stack walls are at 178°C, determine the gas temperature.
(ii) The'^fohowing table gives values of TAB) i n a sector where circumferential
2-96. A 2 cm-O.D. stainless steel tube conduction effects are expected to be large. Use these values together with
with a 1 mm wall thickness re- QIA = 5900 W / m ' and T, = 25°C to estimate the conduction effect at
ceives a radiative heat flux from
e = 110°.
a high-temperature gas distributed
as ^ = ^ocos0 over 180° of its Angle (degrees) (°C)
circumference, as shown. The re- 100 65.9
maining 180° is insulated. Water 110 65.7
at 320 K flows inside the tube, and 120 64.4
the inside heat transfer coefficient
is 800 W / m ' K . Determine the wah (iii) Comment on the design of the cylinder. Would a 3 mm-thick brass tube,
temperature distribution around the directly heated by an electtic current, be a suitable alternative.^
tube for qo = 10^ W / m ' . Take k = Use k = 15 W / m K for the stainless steel and 0.38 W / m K for Teflon.
18.0 W / m K for the stainless steel. 2-98. A 4 mm-diameter, 25 cm-long aluminum alloy rod has an electric heater wound
2-97. over the central 5 cm length. The outside of the heater is well ^^ed
The convective heat transfer coefficient around a cylinder held perpendicular
to a flow varies in a comphcated manner. A test cylinder to investigate this be- two 10 cm-long exposed portions of rod are cooled by - au s t r e ^ at 300 K
havior consists of a 0.001 in-tiiick, 12.7 mm-wide stainless steel heater ribbon giving an average convective heat transfer coefficient of 50 W / m K. I f the
(cut from shim stock) wound around a 2 c m - O . D . , 2 mm-wall-thickness Teflon power input to L heater is 10 W deterniine the temperature at the ends of the
tube. A single thermocouple is located just underneath the ribbon and measures rod. Take = 190 W / m K for the aluminum alloy.
the local ribbon temperature r , ( ö ) .

I i
Y *
IOW Heater

? ? . 1
I 1 —1
L ^ 10 cm ^ 5 cm >« 10 cm ' »

2-99. A n electrical current is passed through a 1 mm-diameter, 20 cm-long copper

wire located i n an ah flow at 290 K . I f the ends of the wue are maintained at
0.0254 mm-thick
stainless steel

sulated, and the front sees outer space at 0 K. I f the aluminum surface is hard-
300 K, determine the maximum current that can be passed i f the midpoint tem- anodiz;d to give an emittance of 0.8, determine the fin ^ ^ e —
perature IS not to exceed 400 K. The convective heat transfer coefficient is esti-
ator and the rate of heat rejection per unit area. Take k = 200 W / m K for the
mated to be 20 W / m ' K . For the copper wire, take k = 386 W/m K T = 0 8
aluminum. (Hint: We do not expect the plate temperature to vary more than a
and an elecuical resistance of 2.2 X 1 0 " ' Wm.
Z kelvins; assume is constant at an average value to obtam an approxi¬
t i n e T ^ h ' " ^ n '-25 « ^ « n - t h i c k n e s s copper tube spans a 20 cm-wide wind mate analytical solution.)
tunnel. The 10 cm-long midsection is heated by a heater tape attached to the
T w Y t r n T ^ ^ I P ^ ^ ^ - d with 25 W power input and an air¬
flow at 300 K , givmg an average heat transfer coefficient of 145 W / m ' K on the Heatpipe
outside surface o f the cylinder. on me

(i) Use a fin-type analysis to find the temperature distribution along the tube
(11) Determine the temperature difference between the midplane and the end of
the heated section.

Take kj= 401 W / m K for the copper. Assume a negligible heat loss out of the
ends ot the tube. 2-104 h is proposed to redesign a cast-iron channel to have fins in the streaniwise di-
l l ection of approximately triangular cross section, with height, base width and
2-101. The absorber of a flat-plate solar collector with no coverplate consists of a
^ pitch ah of 2 cm. Determine the effect of adding the fins on the surface ther-
4 mm-thick aluminum plate with 8 mm-O.D. aluminum water tubes spaced at a
mal resistance i f the heat transfer coefficient on both the finned and unfinned
pitch of 12 cm, as shown. During a test the air temperamre is 22°C, and a
surfaces is
steady w m d gives an estimated convective heat ttansfer coefficient o f
w / 2 ™ ƒ • 7 ^ ^ ' ° ^ ^ 7 ^ ^ ' ^ t i ° " absorbed by the plate is estimated to be 750 (i) 1000 W / m ' K .
W/m . A t a location along the collector where the water is 40°C, calculate the (ii) 8000 W / m ' K .
temperature midway between two tubes, and the rate of heat ttansfer to the 2-105 Referring to Example 2.9, show that straight rectangular and triangular fins
water (per meter). Assume an emittance of 0.2 in order to calculate the radiation
a me same base thickness and mass per unh widtii as the parabolic fin, dissi¬
emitted by the plate. Take k = 200 W / m K for the aluminum.
pate less heat.

-12 cm •
2-106. A Sttaight Duralumin fin has a parabohc profile y = f (1 7
mm and L = 10 mm. Determine the heat dissipation by the fin when the base
temperature is 400 K and h is exposed to fluid at 300 K with a heat transfer
coefficient of 40 W / m ' K . Also calculatejflie fin mass.
2-107. (i) A n aluminum pin fin has a diameter of 4 m m and a lengtii of 20 n ^ . Cal¬
M ^-'-'^ h^^t " " ' ' " ^ ' ' ' ^ ^ ^ ' ' ^ base temper^ure «
" temperature is 400 K , and the heat transfer coefficient is 100 W / m K . Take
2-102. Two ah flows are separated by a 2 mm-thick
plastic wah. A 20.2 cm-long, 1 cm-diameter (ii) Compare I e te^t dissipation obtained above with that which would be ob^
aluminum rod ttansfers heat from one flow tained with parabolic and ttiangular spines (items 8, 9, 10 of Table 2.2) of
to the other as shown. The hot air flow is at the same base area and equal mass.
70°C, and tiie convective heat ttansfer coef-
2-108. A perforated-plate heat exchanger has a cross sec-
ficient to tiie rod is 48 W / m ' K ; the cold ah
tion as shown, with A = 5.00 cm, Dz - 5.30
flow is at 20°C and is at a lower velocity
cm, and A chosen to give equal flow areas for
giving a^heat transfer coefficient o f only'
each stream. The plates are 1 mm-thick aluminum
24 W / m ' K. Determine the rate o f heat transfer
with 1.5 mm-diameter holes taking up 30% of the
and the temperature of the midsection o f the
plate area. I f the convective heat transfer coeffi-
rod. Take k = 190 W/m K for the aluminum
cient is 300 W / m ' K , determine the overah heat
2-103. transfer coefficient. Take k = 190 W / m K for the
A space radiator is made o f 0.3^ mm-thick aluminum plate with heatpipes at a
tnnt fif ^ '^"^ ' ^ ^ « ^ i« fi«ed With a steel spiral f l + 2 z ^ - l i ' L \ T • T-) = 0; jS = (hc/kt)
dz^ dz
sTj, .'"^ '"'^ "^"^ * ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ « ' ^ o ™ d at a pitch of
I n Z s W ^ ^ T I f ' ° ' ^ ^ " ' " ' 2 ° W''"^' K ° ° bare tube where z = L - x. This is an Euler equation,
and 15 W / m K on the finned tube, determine the reduction in the outside ther- (ii) Show that a solution of the differential equation that satisfies the boundary
mal resistance achieved by adding the fins. Take k,^,, = 42 W / m K . condhions T = at x = 0 and T = at ;c = L is
2-110. A thin metal disk is insulated on one side and exposed to a jet of hot ah at T-Te = _ i + l ( l + 4 ^ W
temperature Tn I f he convective heat transfer coefficient h, can be taken to be
(ih) I f p = 1, the temperature profile is linear. Since is then constant, this
t h T d M . ' ^^-P-^t"^^ - " t - of fin proves to be the fin of least material and hence gives the maximum heat
dissipation for a given weight. Show that the efficiency of such a fin is
Jïf ^ ' ' ' " ' P ^ ' 2-^' ° ^ t ^ " temperature distribution 50% (see Example 2.9).
along a fin for which the temperature difference is constant. Assume A n annular fin of uniform thickness has an inner radius of 2 cm, an outer radius
the tip IS insulated. I f tiie fin efficiency is defined as r,. = Q / h M n - f ) 2-114.
of 4 cm, and a thickness of 2 mm. The material is steel with k = 60 W / m K .
show that rff = 1/[(^V3)+ 1]. Calculate tiie value o f ^ , appopriate\o Example
It is cooled by ah at 20°C, giving a convective heat ttansfer coefficient of 24
W / m ' K . When the fin base is at 110°C, determine the rate at which heat is
2-112. A transistor has a cylindrical cap of radius R and height L. dissipated by the fin.
A waU has hs surface maintained at 180°C and is in contact with a fluid at
2-115. 80°C Find the percent increase in the heat dissipation i f tnangular fins are
added to the surface. The fins are 6 m m thick at the base, are 30 mm long, and
are spaced at a pitch of 15 mm. Assume that the heat transfer coefficient is 20
W / m ' K for both the plain and finned surfaces, and tiiat the fin matenal thennal
conductivity is 50 W / m K .

2-116. A thin metal disk is insulated on one side, and the other side is exposed to a
high-temperature radiation source and convective cooling. Obtain an expression
for the difference between the temperature at the center and at the outer edge.
Ignore reradiation.

(i) Show that the heat dissipated is

Q = iTTkRtiTe - Te)l3 Io(l3R) sinh I3L + / , (/3/?) cosh/3L

, loi/SR) cosh I3L + ƒ, (I3R) sinh /SL J
where the metal thickness is t, p = {K/kty'\ and the heat transfer coeffi-
cient on the sides and top is assumed to be tiie same
(11) The cap is fabricated f r o m steel {k = 50 W / m K ) of thickness 0.3 m m and
fias a height of 9 m m and a diameter o f 8 mm. A h at 310 K blows over
the cap to give a heat tiransfer coefficient o f 25 W / m ' K . What is the base
tempera ure for 400 m W dissipation? Compare your answer to the manufac-
turer's allowable limit o f 370 K .
The straight fin with a parabolic profile y = / ( I - x/Lf is of particular interest
since It can give tiie maximum heat loss f o r a given weight of any profile. 2-117 Cylinders of air-cooled intemal combustion engines are provided with coo mg
m fins owing to the large amount of heat that must be dissipated. A two-stroke
(i) B y substituting appropriate values o f A , and•//>in Eq. (2.30), show that
motorcycle engine has a cast aluminum alloy 195 cyhnder of height 12 cm and
the goveming differential equation is

outside diameter 12 cm, with hyperbolic fins of base width 6 mm, pitch 12 where v = BL for p = (/i<./fcf)"'. Plot versus x for 0 < x < 5. Show
mm, and length 20 mm. hi a test simulating a road speed of 90 kmii, the fin that has a maximum value of 0.791 at x = 1-419, for which the corre-
base temperatures are measured to average 485 K for ambient ah at 300 K . If sponding fin efficiency is TI/ = 0.627.
(ii) Using Table 2.2, item 3, show tbat for a straight triangular tin,
the heat transfer coefficient is estimated to be 60 W / m ' K , determine the heat
lo s from the cyhnder. Under tiiese conditions, how does tiie efficiency and ^ ^2\'/3/,(2x)
and l e n g S ' " " ' P ' ' ' ""^'^ rectangular fin of the same base
.x' «2x)
2-118. So-called "compact" heat ex- Also plot Q* versus x, and show that Q^" has a maximum value of 0.895
changer cores often consist of at X = k309, for which y]f= 0.594.
finned passages between paral- (iii) Using Table 2.2, item 4, show that for a stiaight parabohc fin,
lel plates. A particularly sim-
ple configuration has square ^ 2(3x')"^ ^
passages witii the effective fin 1 + (1 + 4 x ' ) ' "
length equal to half the plate Also plot Q"- versus x, and show that Q"" has a maximum value of 0.909
spacing L. In a particular apph- at X = 1-414, for which r^j = 0.5. . «
cation with L = 5 mm, a con- (iv) Compare these results for rectangular, triangular, and parabolic fins.
vective heat transfer coefficient
2-121 For a given base thickness and weight, will a triangular fin always give a higher
they be if the ^core is constiucted from
'^^^^^"^ ^^'^'^^ how thick should m heat flow than a rectangular fin? To explore this question consider an aluminum
fin with fc = 180 W/m K , p = 2770 kg/m^ a base thickness of 3 mm, and a
(i) an aluminum aUoy with fc = 180 W / m K ?
heat tiansfer coefficient of 50 W/m' K . Consider fin lengths up to 25 cm, and
(ii) mild steel with fc = 64 W / m K ?
(ih) a plastic with fc = 0.33 W / m K ? use FIN2 to produce a graph of heat loss versus fin mass for both prohles. Dis-
cuss the implications of this resuh for the design of hnned surfaces. Plot numer-
Discuss the significance of your resuhs to tiie design of such cores. ical values for umt temperature difference and umt fin width.
2-122. An air-cooled R-22 condenser has 10 mm-O.D., 9 mm-I.D. aluminum tubes
^ ^ H t Z f r Tf"^^"' ^ ""^'^ a steel spiral a with 50 mm-O.D. annular rectangular aluminum fins of Jickness 0 2 mm at a
° T^t 0.4 mm, and wound at a pitch of
tube anJ 15 W / " 5 K ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ f ^ ^ / « ^ f A ' ^ - n t is 20 W/m^ K on the original bare " pitch of 2 mm. The heat transfer coefficient inside the tubes is 800 W m K , and
S i f f 7 V " ^""""^ ^^'^"^""^
thermal resistance achieved by adding the fins. Take fc,,,^! = 42 W / m K .
^«duction in the outside on the fins h is 20 W/m' K . If the R-22 is at 320 K and the air is at 300 K cal-
culate tiie heat transfer per unh length of^tube. Take fc = 180 W/m K for tiie
I t h ^ f f'^"'^ ™ ' "''^"^ ^'^"^ °P*™^1 proportions of fins are
sought that maximize the heat loss for a given mass. Shamsundar [10] suggests 2-123 Tbe fin model of Section 2.4 assumes a uniform temperamre across me fin and
that the fin heat loss be nondimensionalized as suggests
mat me base temperature is equal to the wall temperamre. An investigation of
the validity of these assumptions is planned using numerical simulation com-
puter software (see Section 3.5). A straight rectangular fin ot half thickness
2T 1/3
2kW(TB - T,Mp/2ik/hcf] 5^ = 1 mm and lengm L = 10 mm is of interest. However, to avoid some numer-
W h e r e A, ~ 2CtL is the profile area w i t h C = 1, '/2, and Vs for rectangular tri- ical error problems it is advisable to numerically simulate a larger hn of length,
angular, and parabohc profiles, respectively. For a given mass, A„ i s constat say 10 m The fin conductivity is fc = 100 W/m K , and the heat tiansfer coeffi-
and maximizing gives the corresponding maximum heat loss! cients of interest are 40, 1000, and 25,000 W/m' K . If the same conductivity is
used m the computer program, what values of t and h should be "««^ to obtain
(i) Show that the heat loss from a stmight rectangular fin w i t h an insulated tip a correct simulation of the 10 mm-long fin? For the tip boundary condition, use
Eq. (2.33a), that is, a convective heat loss.
tanhx 2-124. A 2 cm-long aluminum alloy pin fin has a reduction in diameter 2 m^, to
,1/3 1 mm at a location 8 mm from its base. Tbe fin is atiached to a wall at 200 C

S ^ ^""^f ^^^"«f^^ coefficients of 42 and

60 W/m K on the larger and smaller diameter portions, respectively. Calculate
the heat loss from the fin and the temperatures at the contrachon and tip. Take
fc - 185 W/m K for the alloy.

2 S tinned surfaces is usually a rather complicated task, with some
subtle issues involved. Exercise 2-121 is a simple demonstration that for a given
weight a triangular fin w i l l give a higher heat flow than a rectangular fin For
fius^puipose an aluminum fin with a 3 mm base thickness, fc = 180 W / m K, and
of 4~Q47 W ? n ^ ^ ^ 1 ^ ^ ° ° ^ ! ^ ^ ^ ^ d . A rectangular fin 6 cm long gives a heat flow
of 4.947 W for W = 1 m, - = 1 K , and has a mass of 0.499 kg/m A tri-
angular fin that gives the same heat flow proves to have a mass o f 0.288 kg/m
i.e., 57.7/o of the mass o f the rectangular fin. Although this is a useful resdt ' 3.2 T H E HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION
we should look deeper mto the problem and recognize that neither of these fins 3.3 MULTIDIMENSIONAL STEADY CONDUCTION
has been optimized to give a minimum mass for the desired heat flow Exercise
2-120 gives formulas for optimal dimensions of rectangular and triangular fins

Z'fl 1 o l V S ' ' i ! , ™ rectangular and triangular fins that dissi¬

pate 4.y4/ w, and discuss,
2-126. Low-weight, high-performance perforated-plate heat exchangers are required for
space vehicle cryogenic refrigeration systems. Current technology uses copper
or alummum plates with hole diameters of 1-2 mm (see Example 2.7). Smaller
t w T f ^^l'Jf^'^^''"'•^"^f^'• new manufacturing methods de-
veloped for MEMS apphcation (microelectromechanical systems) ahow hole di-
ameters down to 10 ^ m to be used. However, performance is then hmited by the
fin efficiency of the plates, and hence by the conductivity of the plate material
Use of single crystal sihcon becomes atti-active owing to its high thermal con-
ductivity and low density (compared with copper). Consider a redesign o f t h e
umt described m Example 2.7. Holes o f 90 ^ m diameter are to be arranged in a
square array of pitch 130 ^ m . The convective heat transfer coefficient is 800
W/m K at the nominal cold side operating temperature o f 50 K .

(i) Calculate the fin efficiency o f a copper plate (fc = 890 W/m K at 50 K )
(u) Repeat for smgle crystal silicon (fc = 2500 W / m K at 50 K ) .

Also compare the U A products with the value obtained i n Example 2.7.

INTRODUCTION 3.2.1 Fourier's Law as a Vector Equation

Chanter 2 used one-dimensional fomis of Fourier's law of conduction^ In general,
The analyses o f steady one-dimensional heat conduchon i n Chapter 2 were relahvely Se f e l e r r r e i n a body may vary i n ah three coordinate directions, which requires

of hiermal systems. I n general, however, heat conduction can be unsteady that is

temperatures change with time. A n example is heat flow through the cylinder waii
of an automobhe engme. Also, heat conduction can be multidimensional- that is
temperatures vary significantly in more than one coordinate direction. A n example is
heat loss from a hot o ü hne buried underneath the ground. Heat conduction can also
- I t i d i m e n s i o n a l , for example, when a rectangular
,3T_ (3.1)
In Chapter 2, each new analysis commenced with the application of the first law
to an elemental volume to yield the goveming differential equation. In Chapter 3
where is the component of the heat flux i n the x direction, STISx the / . - ^ f a /
our approach w t i l be different. We w i h derive a partial differential equatfonVa;
XhentrlTrT ^''^""f'^^ ' « « " ^ ""^er very general conditions; we
ZL2e of nx, y,z,t) with respect to and so on. As indicated m Fig. 3 . 1 , Eq.
(3 1) can be written more compactiy i n vector forai as
w i l l then start each analysis by choosing the form of this equation appropriate to tiie
problem under consideration. This general heat conduction equation is derived in (3.2)

diT^r A 7^'" "T'^f^ '"'^'^'^•'"'^^^'^^ «ol"tion methods are

discussed. Solution methods are broadly divided into two groups: (1) classical math!
q = -feVT
where q is the conduction heat flux vector, and V T is the gradient of the scalar
Z n n t T n ^? - ^ * o d s . Classical mathematical m e t h o d ' t e temperature field. I n Cartesian coordinates,
demonstrated in Section 3.3 for multidimensional steady conduction, and i n Section
3 4 for unsteady conduction. I n particular, the method of separation of variables is q = i?x+j%+k«z
used, which leads to the need to constmct Fourier series expansions. Results of the
.dT .dT ^,dT
analyses are presented m the form o f formulas and charts that find extensive use in
engineering practice Numerical methods commonly used to solve tiie heat conduc- ^ ^ - ' T x ^ ' T y ' ' ' ' T z
theVoS 1 ! the finite-difference method, the finite-element method, and where i, j , and k are the unh vectors i n the y, and z directions, respectively
d ^ a n ^ r , i " T T ' ^ ° t ^ ^ finite-difference method is
fonductiSi ' two-dimensional conduction and unsteady one-dimensional

n. f m a t h e m a t i c a l methods used to solve the heat conduction equation

might at firs app,e^ intimidating to the student. However, these methods rely on con-
cepts nomiahy studied m freshman- and sophomore-level mathematics courLs, such
ZL TJ ITT"^^ mtegration, and second-order ordinary differential equa-
tions. Sufficient detafl is given i n the analyses for the student to proceed step by step
^ ' ' f ° " "'^'^"'^^^ engineering mathematics. ThosI stu
sho^ d find r ' mathematics course
should find the mathematics stiaightforward (and even perhaps old-fashioned!).


In this section the energy conservation principle and Fourier's law of heat conduction 3 2 2 Derivation of the Heat Conduction Equation
are used to derive vanous fomis o f t h e differential equation goveming the temperaure

e t o Ï t e r e d " ' ^ ^ f T ^ T ' " ™ - ^'^^ ' ' ' ' ' "^-"^^^y fnitial coSd tio"
encountered m practical problems are then discussed and classified. Finally, various
methods available for solving the equation are introduced. coordinates.

Derivation in Cartesian Coordinates Similar terms arise from conduchon in the y and z directions. Thus, the net heat
transfer into tbe volume by conduction is
Figure 3.2 depicts an elemental volume A x by Ay by Az located in a .nHH Th.
_ ^ ^ _ ^ - ! ! ^ ) A x A y A z
\ dx dy dz j

The rate of generation of thermal energy within the volume Q,. is simply

where Ó ' " [W/m^] is the rate of intemal or volumetric heat generation imroduced in
Section 2.3.4. Subshtuting in Eq. (3.3) and dividing by A x A y A z gives

dT idq, , dqy dqA •„,

9;r|.tAyAz dt [dx dy dz

and the outflow across the face at x + A x is Introducing Fourier's law, Eq. (3.1), for q,, and q,,

P'^dt dx \ dxj dy\ dyj dz\ dzj

The net inflow in the x direction is then
Notice that the thermal conductivity k has been left inside the derivatives since in
i(lx\x - qx\x+tx)^yAz general, k is a function of temperature. However, we usually simplify heat conduction
The outflow heat flux can be expanded in a Taylor series as analysi; by taking k to be independent of temperature; k ,s then also independent of
position, and Eq. (3.4) becomes
qx\x+Lx = qx\x + ^ A x + Higher-order terms . d ' - T . d ^ ^ d ^ A -,,, (3.5)
dt " \dx'~ dy^ dz
Subshtuting and dropping the higher-order terms gives the net inflow in the x dhection
When there is no intemal heat generation, QU' = 0, and Eq. (3.5) reduces to

-^AxAyAz dT Id'T , d'-T ^ d'T] (3.6)

^ <9y' ^ dz'
where a - k/pc [m'/s] is a thermophysical property of tbe material called the ther-
m a r d i L i v i t J . Table 3.1 gives selected values of the thermal diffusivity Additional
7 1 1 given in Appendix A , as are values for k, p, and c, trom which a can be
calculated Equation (3.6) is called Fourier's equation (or the heat or diïfuswn equa-
i ^ d govT^^^^^^^ distiibution T ( x . y, z, 0 in a solid. The relevance
of me thermal diffusivity can be seen in Fourier's equation: when there is no intemal
heat generation, h is the only physical property that influences temperature changes
in the sohd. The thermal diffusivity is the ratio of thermal conductiv y to a vol-
umetric heat capacity: the larger a, the faster temperature changes w . l l propagate

" ^ ^ Ï S ' " steady state, = 0, and Eq. (3.5) reduces to Poisson's equa-
Figure 3.2 Three-dimensional tion:
Cartesian elemental volume
djr_ ^ , ^ ^ (3.7)
in a sohd for derivation of
the heat conduction equation. dx' ^ dy' dz' k
3.2 T H E H E A T C O N D U C T I O N E Q U A T I O N

Table 3.1 Selected values of thermal diffusivity at J ) 0 K (~25°C). (Other values may
be calculated from the data given in Appendix A.) "m, ..- ^

Material m^/s XlO**
Aluminum 84
Brass, 70% Cu, 30% Zn 34.2
Air at 1 atm pressure 22.5
Mild steel 18.8
Mercury 4.43
Stainless steel, 18-8 3.88
Fiberglass (medium density) 1.6
Concrete 0.75
Pyrex glass 0.51
Cork 0.16
Water 0.147
Engine oil, SAE 50 0.086
Neoprene rubber 0.079
White pine, perpendicular to grain 0.071
Refrigerant R-12 0.056
Polyvinylchloride (PVC) 0.051
Note: This table should be read as a X lO" mVs = Listed value; for example, for copper a
= 112 X IO-"* m^/s.

Finally for a steady state and no intemal heat generahon, d/dt = i0, Q:r = 0, so is to repeat our derivation using appropriate volume elements, as shown i n Fig. 3 3.
Ahernatively, we can transfortu the equations already denved in C — - ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
d'T d'T d'T
to cylindrical or spherical coordinates; Exercises 3 - 1 , 3-2, and 3-4 illustrate these
procedures To present the resuhs i n compact f o m i , we introduce the del-squared or
Laplacian operator. I n Cartesian coordmates,
which is Laplace's equation.
The Fourier, Poisson, and Laplace equations are partial differential equations and
have been thoroughly studied by mathematicians [1,2,3]. They are important because
^ ' dx' ^ dy' ^ dz'
each IS the goveming equahon for many different physical phenomena in fields
as diverse as heat conduction, mass diffusion, electrostatics, and fluid mechanics
and Eq. (3.5) becomes
Solutions of Laplace's equation are called potential or harmonic functions.

Other Coordinate Systems ^ dt

The solution o f partial differential equations is simpler when boundary conditions Writing the heat conduction equation i n any coordinate system then simply requires
are specified on coordinate surfaces, for example, x = Constant in the Cartesian the proper expression for V ' . For cylindrical coordinates r, z,
coordmate system. Thus, for conduction problems in cylindrical or spherical bod-
ies, the Cartesian coordinate system is inappropriate. Such problems require heat
„2 1 / \ ^ 1 + (3-10)
conduction equations in terms of the cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems
shown m Flg. 3.3. We can proceed in a number o f ways. The most direct approach

For spherical coordinates r, Ö, ( f ) ,

Two additional useful relahons are

^ d I d_\_ d' Id
K .drl
rdr V - - dr' + '
— rdr (3.12a)

1 d d' , 2 d
r'dr^ dr] dr' ^ r dr (3-12*)

As a hnal comment regarding the heat conduction equation, it is noted that

Founer s law, Eq. (3.2), is a vector equation; thus, the heat conduction equation
is most efficiently denved using the methods o f vector calculus. Such a derivation
IS required as Exercise 3-3.

3.2.3 Boundary and Initial Conditions

In solving heat conduction problems in Chapters 1 and 2, boundary and imtial

conditions were used to evaluate integration constants. We now classify the types o f
boundary and initial conditions required to solve heat conduction problems

Boundary Conditions
ïlgure 3.4 lypes of boundary conditions, (a) First kind, or Dirichlet. {b) Second kind,
or Neumann, (c) Third kind, or mixed, {d) Fourth kind, or radiation, (e) Phase change.
In Chapters 1 and 2, i t was shown how practical heat conduction problems involve
adjacent regions that may be quite different. For example, in Example 2.4, a uranium
oxide nuclear fuel rod is enclosed in a Zircaloy-4 sheath and cooled by flowing water.
Heat IS generated within the fuel and flows by conduction to the fuel-sheath interface Sometimes h is convenient to apply a boundary condition at a surface where the
by conduction across the sheath to the sheath-water interface, and by convection into
heat flux is known. Refening to Fig. 3.4^7,
the water. To analyze such problems, h is necessary to specify thermal conditions
at sohd-sohd and solid-liquid interfaces. In general, h is required that both the heat d_T_ (3.14)
Hux and the temperature be continuous across an interface (although when a contact -k
resistance model is used, as described in Section 2.2.2, the effect is to have a
discontinuity m temperature). Thus, the solutions o f t h e heat conduction equation in Which is called a second-kind or Neumann boundary condition. Often the known
each region are coupled. heat flux is zero, such as at a plane of symmetry, or approximately zero, such as
When analyzing more difficult heat transfer problems, we often find it conve- when the adjoining region is a good insulator.
nient to uncouple the regions and consider each region independentiy The boundary Another commonly encountered simation is one in which the adjacent region is
condition IS then simply one o f specified temperature. Considering the coordinate a fluid and we wish to describe heat transfer to the fluid using Newton's law of
surtace x = L and refening to Fig. 3.4a, cooling. Referring to Fig. 3.4c,
dT (3.15)
^1'=^ " (3.13) he { T l = L - T e )
'Jx x=L
which is called a first-kind or Dirichlet boundary condition.
3.2 T H E H E A T C O N D U C T I O N E Q U A T I O N

determined An exception is when the temperature varies periodically for example,

which is the third-kind or mixed boundary condidon. Notice that Eq. (3 15) involves
conduction in a spacecraft orbiting the earth. Then a periodic condition must be
both the value of the dependent variable and that of its derivative at the boundary
Similarly i f there is heat loss by thermal radiation into adjacent surroundings (see imposed on the solution.
Flg. 3 Ad), using Eq. (1.17), ^ ^
3.2.4 Solution Methods
, ST
-k — = ayA{T\U,-T: During the 19th cenmry considerable progress was made in developing mamemati-
dx (3.16)
x =L cal methods for solving me various forms of me heat conduction equation. The first
W h i c h IS a fourth-kmd or radiation boundary condition.'(Note, however, that some major contribution was by J. Fourier. His book, published in 1822 [ 4 ] , developed
texts refer to the third-kind boundary condition as a radiation boundary condition a the use of the method of separation of variables, which leads to the need to ex-
practice with historical precedent but preferably avoided.) press an arbitrary function in a Fourier series expansion. Subsequently transform
There are other, more complex boundary conditions encountered in practice The methods-particularly me use of the Laplace transformers well as other memods of
contact resistance described in Section 2.2.2 is one example. Another example is classical mathematics were widely used. The treatise on heat conduction by Carslaw
when there is a change of phase at the interface, such as k e melting or steam and Jaeger [5] contains an extensive compilation of solutions obtained using classical
condensing. Figure 3Ae represents the surface of a block of ice melting in warm mathematical methods. Use of these memods usually requires that (1) the bounding
water The s- and M-surfaces are on either side and infinitesimally close to the actual surfaces be of relatively simple shape, (2) the boundary conditions be of simple mam-
water-ice interface. Thus, the ..-surface is in water, and the ^-surface is in solid ice ematical form and (3) me mermophysical properties be constant. NotwUhstanding
Only the temperature is the same at the ^- and «-surfaces; in general, the physical these limitations, raany analytical resuhs have wide engineering utility Analytical
properties and temperature gradients are different. I f the ice is melting at a rate per solutions are useful benchmarks for checking me accuracy of numerical memods ot
unit area m " [kg/m- s] and the interface is imagined to be fixed in space, then ice solution. Also, me exercise of obtaining an analytical solution gives valuable msigbt
flows toward the interface, and water flows away at the melting rate. Application into the essential features of heat transfer by conduction. ^ . ,
of the steady-flow energy equation to the control volume bounded by tbe u- and More recently numerical memods, including finite-difference and finite-element
5-surfaces gives memods have been developed tbat allow solutions to be easily obtained for problems
involving unusual shapes, complicated boundary conditions, and variable thermo-
dT_ dT_ physical properties. An early example was me application of me numerical relaxation
m"ih, ~ h„) = -k -k-
Jx JI (3.17) memod to steady heat conduction by H . Emmons in,A943 [6]. However with the
advent of the modem high-speed computer in the 1960s, numerical memods have
for m" positive. Equation (3.17) can be rearranged as
been greatly improved. The wide availabhity of the personal computer m me 198ÜS
.dT dT has led to the marketing of versatile computer programs. These can be used to solve a
k ~ = k — -I- m"hfs great variety of heat conduction problems ^hhout requiring me user to have detailed
dx , dx (3.18)
knowledge of the numerical methods involved.
where K - h, h„ is the enthalpy of fusion of the ice. Equation (3.18) can be Some omer memods have been used to obtain solutions to heat conduction prob-
interpreted as stating that the heat conducted from the warm water to the interface lems Two graphical methods, me flux plotting memod and the Sclvnidt plot, are
must balance both the heat conducted away from the interface into the cold ice and described in some heat transfer texts. The first is used for steady two-dimensional
the heat required to melt the ice. conduction and involves the free-hand sketching of isomerms and lines of heat flow;
the latter is used for transient conduction and is me graphical equivalent to a hnite-
difference numerical method. A number of analog methods have also been used
Initial Conditions
Since Laplace's equation also governs electrical potential fields, two-dimensional
steady conduction problems have been solved by making voltage and current mea-
Transient heat conduction problems usually require specification of an initial con-
dition, which simply means that the temperamre mroughout me region must be surements in appropriate shapes cut out of graphite-coated paper of high electrical
known at some instant in time before its subsequent variation w i m time can be resistance [7]. Before digital computers were developed, me analog computer or
"differential analyzer" was used to solve heat conduction probkms [8].
Methods of mathematical analysis are demonstrated in Sections 3.3 and 3.4, and
' This simple form is stnctly valid only when the surroundings are isothermal and have a uniform emittance More
general situations are treated in Chapter 6. cmuidnce. More finite-difference methods are deah with in Section 3.5.
3.3 M U L T I D I M E N S I O N A L S T E A D Y C O N D U C T I O N


One-dimensiona! steady conduction was dealt with in Chapter 2. Although the sim-
ple analytical results obtained are very useful, they have obvious limitations. Often
the heat flow is multidimensional, that is, in two or three directions. For example,
consider the fumace shown in Fig. 3.5. I f the insulation is thin compared to the Rgure 3.6 Boundary conditions for
fumace dimensions, the assumption of one-dimensional heat flow is adequate (see two-dimensional steady conduction
Example 1.1). High-temperature fumaces, however, require thick insulation to re- in a rectangular plate.
duce heat loss; in these fumaces, the heat flow through the edges is two-dimensional,
and through the comers it is three-dimensional. Multidimensional steady conduction
The temperature distribution r ( x , y ) is then govemed by the two-dimensional form
with no intemal heat generation is govemed by Laplace's equation. The classical ap-
proach to solving Laplace's equation is the separation of variables method; Section of Laplace's equation:
3.3.1 uses a simple two-dimensional problem to demonstrate this approach. Often (3.19)
we are concemed with conduction between two isothermal surfaces, all other sur-
dx' dy'
faces present being adiabatic. A conduction shape factor can be defined for such
configurations, and a comphation of useful shape factors is given in Section 3.3.3.
^ j S s i t u X . T h m , we choose boundary condMom shown « F,g. 3,6,
;c=0, Q,<y<b: r =0
3; = 0, 0<x<a: T =0

x^a, 0<y<b: T =0
y = b, 0 < X < a: T = Ts

The zero values for the boundary conditions, Eqs. (3.20a), w i h '^^^^y^^l^'^^^l

Figure 3.5 An insulated fumace. makes

for theofTemperature
the problem quite difficuh.
To use the method of separation of variables, we first assume that the function
3.3.1 Steady Conduction in a Rectangular Plate r ( J ? y ) can te'xp^^^^^^^ a s L product of a function of . only, X ( . ) , and a function

The relatively simple problem of two-dimensional steady heat conduction i n a rec- of y only F(y):
tangular plate w h l be used to demonstrate the method of separation of variables for T{x,y) = X{x)Y{y)
solving Laplace's equation.
Substitution in Eq. (3.19) gives

The Governing Equation and Boundary Conditions = 0

dx' dy'
Figure 3.6 depicts a thin rectangular plate with negligible heat loss from hs
surface. Temperature variations across the plate in the z direction are assumed to
be zero {d'Tldz' = 0 ) , and the thermal conductivity is assumed to be constant.

Rearranging, Construction of a Fourier Series Expansion

In general, the temperature distribution along the boundary y = b w i h be some

X dx' ~ Y dy' (^-22) arbitrary function f ( x ) , and the required expansion is then

Since each side of Eq. (3.22) is a funchon of a single independent variable, the rnrx mrb (3.27)
f i x ) = ^ C n Sin
si • C„ = A„ sinh
equality can hold only i f both sides are equal to a constant, which can be positive,
negative, or zero. Using hindsight, the constant w i h be chosen to be a positive num- 11 = \
ber The reason for this choice w h l be discussed later. Two ordinary differential The constants C„ are determined as fohows. Multiply Eq. (3.27) by sinntrx/a, and
equations are thus obtained, integrate term by term from x = 0 to x - a:

riTTX , ' . TTX . ntrx Cn sin' I 1 dx

dx' dy' Cl sin — sm dx + • +
f i x ) sm dx a a
0 ^
which have the solutions
' . m-TTX . mrx
C, sin sm ÖX 4- (3.28)
X = B cos Xx + C sin Xx 7 = Z)e~^-^ + Ee''^ + ... +

Substituting in Eq. (3.21) gives a tentative solution for T(x, y):

Using standard integral tables, we find:
T(x, y) = (B cos Xx +C sin Ax)(De~'^>' + Ee^^) (3.23) sin(n7rx/a - mirx/a) _ sinimrx/a + mtrxla)
mrx . rriTTX
sm sm dx = 2in7T/a - mir/a) 2in'Trla + rmr/a)
Applying boundary conditions Eqs. (3.20a) and taking care to ensure that the x- and
y-dependences remain.
0 for n f m
X = 0 B{De-^y + Ee^y) = 0; thus, 5 = 0
HTTX ntrx 1 . 2n7rx a
y =0 C sin Xx(D +E) = 0; thus,£ = -D dx = -sm
sm 2 a 2
X = a CD sin Xa(e~^y - e^>') = -2CD sin Xa sinh Ay = 0
Thus, only the nth term on the right-hand side of Eq. (3.28) remains, and solving
T h i s r e q u i r e s t h a t s i n A a = 0 , which has tiie roots A „ = r t 7 r / a , for n = 0, 1, 2, 3 , . . . .
These values of A are called the eigenvalues or characteristic values o f the problem. for C„ gives
There is a distinct solution for each eigenvalue, each with hs own constant. Writing , ntrx ,
2 (3.29)
the constant -2CD for the nth solution as A„, Cn = - /(x)sm ax
a Jo
Tn(x, y) =-A„ sin smh — « = 0, 1, 2, 3, (3.24) The set of sine ftinctions sin irxta, sin 277x/a,. . . , svnnirxla . . is said to be
orthogonal over the interval 0 - x ^ a, because the integral of sin m 7 r x / a sm
Equation (3.19) is a linear differential equation, so hs general solution is a sum of niTxla is zero i f m # n . As shown i n texts on applied mathematics [2,3], i t
the series of solutions given by Eq. (3.24): the function ƒ ( x ) is piecewise continuous, h can always be expressed m terms ot
a uniformly converging series of orthogonal functions. The cosine function is also
orthogonal over an appropriate interval, as are many other functions, including Bessel
T(x,y) = A„ sm smh — - (3.25)
functions and Legendre polynomials.

where the solution for n = 0 has been deleted since sinhO = 0. We now apply tiie
Temperature Distribution for fix) = T,
last boundary condition, Eq. (3.20fc), which requires that at y =
For the function ƒ ( x ) equal to a constant value T,, the integral in Eq. (3.29) can
1 | v = è = Is = >A„ sm sinh (3.26)' be evaluated analytically:

2 T,a nTTX
that is, the constant must be expressed i n terms of an infinite series o f sine - —— cos = r,^[i-(-!)"]
functions, or a Fourier series. nTT a «77
3.3 M U L T I D I M E N S I O N A L S T E A D Y C O N D U C T I O N

and from Eq. (3.27), To hlustrate the procedure, consider a problem where the plate temperature is spec-
ified along two edges. I f the boundary conditions Eqs. (3.20) are replaced by those
shown in Fig. 3.8,
sinh(n7rè/a) mr sinh {mrb I a)
X =Q, 0<y <b: T = 0
Substimting into Eq. (3.25) gives the desired temperature distribution for steady
conduction i n a rectangular plate: •y = 0, 0<x <a: r = 0
X = a, 0<y <b: T = fiiy)
T{x,y) - > — - _ sm smh — - (3.30)
y = b, 0< X <a: T = fiix)

Lines of constant temperature, or isotherms, are shown i n Fig. 3.7. The tempera- the superposition principle can be used as follows. Let Tix, y) = Tyix,y)+T2ix,y),
ture discontinuities at the top comers are physically unrealistic since an infinite heat where Tx and T2 satisfy
flow is implied. I n fact, the heat flow across tiie plate edge aX y = b, evaluated
from Eq. (3.30) using Fourier's law, is infinite. Thus, the isotherms i n the vicinity of ^ + ^ - 0 ^^2 9y2
these comers correspond to a mathematical problem only; i n real physical problems,
there might be a very marked variation i n temperatiire along the edges near these ^ = 0, y = 0, y = f': r , = 0 x = 0, y = 0, x = a: = 0
comers, but there cannot be an actual discontinuity X = a:Tx = fxiy) y = b: T2 = f t i x )
Since the variables in the partial differential equation, Eq. (3.19), did separate,
and because a solution could be found to satisfy the boundary conditions, the method Addition of the equations and boundary conditions shows that T = T, + ^2 satisfies
of solution has been successful. I f a negative constant is chosen f o r Eq. (3.22), the the original problem. Clearly this approach can be extended to a problem where the
boundary conditions cannot be satisfied. Use of a negative constant just reverses the
temperature is specified on three or all four sides.
roles of the independent variables x and y , and tiie negative constant is appropriate
i f the temperature T, is specified on the edge x = a.


Figure 3.8 Rectangular plate wiüi

nonhomogeneous boundary conditions
specifled on two edges.

EXAMPLE 3.1 Heat Flow across a Neoprene Rubber Pad

A long neoprene mbber pad of width A = 2 cm and height = 4 cm is a component of
^spaeecTaft stmcture. Its sides and bottom are bonded to a metal channel at temperature
Figure 3.7 Isotherms for conduction T = 20°C and the temperature disttibution along the top can be approximated as a simple
in a rectangular plate obtained from sine curve, V = + r,„ sin(7n./a), where T„, = 80 K. Determine the heat flow across the
Eq. (3.30); fl = è = 10, = 100. pad per meter length.

Generalization Using the Principle of Superposition
Given: Long mbber pad with a rectangular cross section.
Laplace's equation is a linear differential equation. A useful consequence of this
Required: Heat flow across pad for given boundary conditions.
property is that the solution of a problem with complicated boundary condhions can
be constmcted by adding solutions for problems having simpler boundary conditions. Assumptions: Two-dimensional, steady conduction.
150 151
3.3 M U L T I D I M E N S I O N A L S T E A D Y C O N D U C T I O N

Tk . 2T.„k
= '-^ (cos 77 - COS 0) = rf^Tr\ "^'^
Ö = dy twhiTTb/ay tanh(77i>/a)

For r„, = 80 K, = 0.19 W/m K (Table A.2), and b/a = 2.0, the heat flow is

_ (2)(80)(0.19) ^ _JOA_ ^ _30 4 w/m

^ ~ tanh 277 1.0000

Notice that in the limit of large b/a, UnhMa ^ 1 and Ö is independent of b/a; even
forVsqua^e pad, b/a = 1, tanh 77 = 0.996. In the opposite limit of b/a - 0, we can use
the expansion tanh x = x - x'/3 + • • • to obtain
. _ _2r,„te ^ _(2)(80)(0.19)(0.02) ^ _4 §3 ^ / m
Ö ~ "1^ (7r)(0.04)
Ö =(1) q,\y^,dx = I - ^ ^ dx which is the result for one-dimensional heat flow across a thin waU. For a 1 m length of pad.
Jo Jo &y

dx = - l[T, + T,„sm—-T]dx
Q =

X = 0, X = a, y = 0: T = T,
sm—dx = —j—
b a TTO
y = b: r = r , + r „ sin —
a which agrees with tiie result obtained above.
Let r, =T -TA then T, satisfies the boundary conditions
X = 0, X = Ö, y = 0: J] = 0 3.3.2 Steady Conduction in a Rectangular Block

y = è: r, = r,„ sin — Consider a rectangular block with boundary conditions, which cause the temperature
a to vary in ah tiiree coordinate directions, )X, y, and z. For an assumed c o i ^ ^ n t
t h e r m i conductivity, the temperatiire distribution Tix, y, z) is govemed by the three-
d^fionσ ^-'^-^ • Applying the boundary eon- dimensional form of Laplace's equation:

r . U = r„ sin ^ = J;A„ sin ^ sinh ^ , ^ + ^ = 0 ^^-^^^

dx' dy' dz'
which can be satisfied if
Again the method of separation of variables can be used and Tix, y, z) taken to have
the form
' sinh(7rè/a)' M = A, = • • • = o Tix,y,z) = Xix)Yiy)Ziz)

The analysis proceeds as for the rectangular plate in Section 3 3 . 1 , but the math-
That is, only the first term of the infinite series is required. Hence,
ematics fs very cumbersome, even for the simplest of boundary conditions. I n
T ~ Tx = T„, sinTOT sinh(7rv/a)
a sinh(7rè/a) practice, one cannot expect a simple behavior of the boundary conditions over a
dT\ _ (7r/a)sin(7rx/a) three-dimensional object, and the numerical methods of solution descnbed in Sec-
dy J. = i tanh(77-è/a) tion 3.5 are more appropriate than analytical methods.

Table 3.2 Shape factors for steady-state conduction for use in Eq. (3.32) Ö = kSAT- AT = T -T
(See also the bibliography for Chapter 3.) M v /cozii , i , ^2 Table 3.2 (Concluded)
Shape Factor
Conflguration Configuration
Shape Factor
1. Plane waU A
7. Buried sphere 1 - n/2h
PQJ. /J 00, the result for item 3{b) is
-Area A recovered
2. Concentric cylinders 2TTL Medium at infinity also at T2
ln(r2/r,) 277L
8. Buried cyhnder cosh \h/r\)
Note there is no steady-state solution for
-> CO, i.e., for a cylinder in an infinite 277L
medium. for h > 3r,
For h/n 00, S 0 since steady flow
is impossible
3. Concentric spheres 477
(a) Medium at infinity also at T2
-0.59 / -0.078

ib) AiTTi for rj 2.756L In l - i - -

9. Buried rectangular beam a

4. Eccentric cylinders 277L

L:S> h,a,b
Medium at infinity also at r2
0.54W for W > L/5
10. The edge of adjoining walls
(W is the inner edge)

5. Concentric square cyhnders 277L a

0.93 ln(a/fe)-0.0502 ^ r - > 1.4
0.15L for W > L/5
27rL a 11. The comer of three adjoining walls
0.785ln(a/è) b ^

6. Concentric circular and square cylinders 277L

a>2r 12. Disk area on the adiabatic surface of a semi-infinite solid 4r

Medium at infinity at T2

3.3.3 Conduction Shape Factors
Given: Insulated laboratory furnace.
Many muhidimensional conduction problems involve heat flow between two sur-
Required: Power required for operation at 600 K.
faces, each of uniform temperature, with any other surfaces present being adiabatic.
The conduction shape factor, S, is defined such that the heat flow between the
Assuntptions: 1. ^ ^ - ^ I f ^ ' ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
surfaces, Q, is
Q = kSAT (3.32)
The shape factors given as items 1, ^ ' / " ^ U
where k is the thermal conductivity and AT is the difference in surface temperatures; Table 3 2 should be used, assuimng mdependent par
S is seen to have the dimensions of length. The results we have aheady obtained for lM;athsforheatflowthroughthe6si^^^^ 50 cm
one-dimensional conduction can also be expressed in terms of the shape factor. For and 8 comers of the enclosure. Thus if L
example, a plane slab of area A and thickness L has S = A/L from Eq. (1.9). Table insulation thickness and W the inside edge,
3.2 hsts shape factors for various configurations.
Q = fcATS
Some points to note when using Table 3.2 are:
= k(T - meW^L + (12)(0.54)W + (8)(0.15)L]
1. There is no intemal heat generation: g"' = 0.
: (0.11)(600 - 350)h6)(0.3)^/(0.1) F (12)(0.54)(0.3) + (8)(0.15)(0.1)]
2. The thennal conductivity, k, is constant.
= (0.11)(250)[5.40+ 1.94 + 0.12]
3. The two surfaces should be isothermal. I f these temperatures are not prescribed,
= 205 W
but are intermediate temperatures in a series thermal chcuit, the isothermal con-
dition may not be satisfied. The surfaces w i l l generally be isothermal when the
component in question has the dominant thermal resistance. Example 3.3 hlus- T : 1 . ™ «a .ea. »ew A . , is . e « n e . *e e,„ o — . a .
trates this point.
4. Special care must be taken with the configurations involving an infinite medium. . feAeff(Tl - T2)
For example, in item 7, not only the plane surface but also the medium at in- e = 1 —
finity must be at temperature T2.
cA.un ^ r8^m ISV^ = 0 746 m ^ Notice tiiat Aeff is significaiitly
5. Item 8 is often used inconectly for calculating heat loss or gain from buried
pipelines. I t is essential that the deep soil be at the same temperature as the
surface, which is a condition seldom met in reality. Also, the buried pipeline midway through the waU, 0.96 m .
problem often involves transient conduction.

6. The shape factors given i n items 10 and 11 were developed by the physicist I . FXAMPLE3.3 Heat Loss from a Buried O h Line
Langmuir and coworkers in 1913 for calculating the heat loss from fumaces.
Example 3.2 illustrates their use. . „ „ , p e » a . . a s a „ » . . ~ ^ » ' „ » - -

„a,let ,empen,.u« and i i e heac loss (0 » — ^ , ^ ^3 W/n. K. Talce *e soil themal

EXAMPLE 3.2 Heat Loss from a Laboratory Fumace l - d i » r f r r X - S J a . as .000 K.

A small laboratory furnace is in the form of a cube and is insulated with a 10 cm layer of
fiberglass insulation, with an inside edge 30 cm long. I f the only significant resistance to Solution
heat flow across the furnace wall is this insulation, determine the power required for steady
Given: Buried oil pipeline.
operation at a temperature of 600 K when the outer casing temperature is 350 K. The thermal
conductivity of the fiberglass insulation at the mean temperature of 475 K is approximately « „ „ i . . . . Oi, o..le. . n , p . r a . . » and n.a, loss if ( i , «, (ii,
0.11 W/mK.

Assumptions: 1. Steady state. However, to get some idea of the effect of the insulation, we will assume an isothermal
2. Deep ground temperature same as surface temperature. surface. Then for two resistances in series.
3. Negligible resistance of the pipe wall and for convection from the oil T -
4. Isothermal surface exposed to soil. mAh = AQ; AQ = ln(r2/ri) 1
27rfci„sAx ' fcsoiiAS
^ ^ U)
(i) The temperature difference between the oil and the ground sur- — = 3.33; hence A5 = 277Ax/ln(2/!/r2)
r2 0.3
face, A r = T-T,, decreases continuously in the flow direction, so
how do we use Eq. (3.32)? We need to derive a differential equation Proceeding as in part (i)
1 m
govemmg the change in the oil temperature. Consider an element of
pipe Ax long, as shown intiiefigure.Application ofthe steady-flow
energy equation, Eq. (1.4), gives T, = ( T i n - r , ) exp
ln(r2/ri) _^ ln(2/i/r2)
. , -30 era mc. 2Trki„sL ' 2iTfcsoiii
mAh = AQ
mcpiT - r I J = kAS(Ts - T) ln(r2/ri) ln(0.30/0.15) = 7.35 X 10-''(W/K)-'
2vki„sL " (27r)(0.03)(5000)

where A5' = lirAx/lnilh/ri) from Table 3.2, item 8, ln(2h/r2) ln(2X 1.0/0.3)
since Vr, = 1.0/0.15 = 6.67 > 3. Substituting for AS 2Trkaoi\L ^ (27r)(1.5)(5000)
and dividing by Ax,
Tout = 23 - (120 - 23)e"
\x+^x - T = 23-l-(120 - 23)e" 98.0°C
{Ts - T) m°c Tout
Ax ln(2/j/ri)
Q = (2.5)(2000)(120 -
Letting Ax 0 and rearranging gives the desired dif-
ferential equation for T{x),
dT iTTk The pipeline is located on a tropical island where the annual ground temperature variation
x= 0
:(Ts - r ) = 0
dx mcp\n{2h/ri) is relatively small, so a steady-state analysis is reasonably vaUd. Problems conceming the
Integrating with T = atx = 0, freezing of buried water pipes often require a transient analysis because of ground tempera-
ture variations (see Exercise 3-39).
T -T, = (Tir, ~ rje-P''*'m<^pln(2/,/r,)k

In particular, the oil outiet temperature is obtained for x = L, UNSTEADY CONDUCTION

To„t -Ts = (Tin - r,)e-2''*^*'^'''-'0''/ri)
In unsteady or transient conduction, temperature is a function of both time and spatial
27?-fcZ, ^ (2)(77-)(1.5)(5000) coordinates. I n tiie absence of intemal heat generation, tiie temperature response of a
mq,ln(2h/ri) (2.5)(2000)ln(2 X 1.0/0.15) ~ ^'^"^ body is governed by Fourier's equation. Again tiie method of J^'f^^^^l'^^'^l^'
is useful! and examples of hs use are given i n Sections 3.4.1 and 3.4.3. The me hod,
Tou, - 23 = (120 - 23)e-'-«'' = 2.546
however fahs under certain chcumstances-for example, when the medium extends
r„„, = 2.55 -I- 23 = 25.5°C to infinity Then possible methods include the use of üiplace transforms orj simi-
larity transformation of the partial differential equation into an ordinary differential
The heat loss is equal to tiie enthalpy given up by the oil,
equation. The latter method is demonstrated i n Section 3.4.2. Analytical resuhs of
Q = mCp(Tir, - r„„) = (2.5)(2000)(120 - 25.5) = 472 kW unsteady conduction tend to be complicated and awkward to use. Thus where possi-
ble approximate solutions of adequate accuracy w i h be indicated. Often the resuhs
(ii) This problem cannot be solved exactly using the shape factor concept, since, when are'convenientiy presented in graphical f o r m for rapid engineering calculations.
the insulation is added to the pipe, the outer surface of the insulation will not be isothermal.

3.4.1 The Slab with Negligible Surface Resistance Dimensional Analysis

Before an attempt is made to solve Eq. (3.33), i t is helpful to perform a di-
Figure 3.9 shows a slab 2L thick, ft is initially at a uniform temperature To, and at
mensional analysis. We begin by constmcting suitable dimensionless mdependent
time t = 0 the surfaces at x = + L and x = ~L are suddenly lowered to temper-
and dependent variables. Suhable choices for x and T are r, = x / L and i) -
ature r , . Such a situation is encountered in practice when a poorly conducting slab
( r - T V(Ta - T), since TI and 0 w i l l bom vary between zero and unity However,
IS suddenly immersed in a hquid for which the convective heat transfer coefficient
here is no obvious time scale for the problem that can be used to make t dimen-
IS very large that is, under conditions where the convective resistance to heat trans-
sionless, so we w i h let the differential equation hself indicate an appropriate choice.
fer IS negligible. Note that tiiis simation is the opposite l i m h to that considered in
Section 1.5, for which Ae lumped thermal capacity model was applicable. In mat Transforming Eq. (3.33) with
case, the Biot number B i = hcL/k had to be small; for this case, the Biot number X = LTJ; dx = Ldt]
must be large. In addition to its practical utility me solution of mis problem aUows
T = (To - T)0 + T; dT = (n~T,)de
a simple demonstration of some important features of transient conduction
The Governing Equation and Conditions se a(To - T) d'e
(To - T 'st
) - = L' dTf
With no intemal heat generation and an assumed constant mermal conductivity
Fourier s equation, Eq. (3.6), applies. Since the temperature does not vary in the y or
and z directions, ^ ^
de d'e
£r _ d'T diatIL') dri'
dt (3.33) Thus, we choose ^ = t/(LVa) as dimensionless time, and tbe resuh is
which is the goveming differential equation for T{x, t) and must be solved subiect de _ d^ (3.35)
to the initial condition

' = ^ = ^0 (3.34a) The initial and boundary conditions tiansform into

The symmetry of the problem allows me differential equation to be solved in the n 1 (3.36a)
region 0 < x < L , for which me appropriate boundary conditions are
de ^ (3.366)
7] = 0: u
f =0 (3.346) dr]
, = l: 0 = 0 (^•^^>
There are no parameters in the ttansfomaed statement of the problem, so «olutioii is
Equation (3.346) follows f r o m the symmetiy of the temperamre profile about the simuly en: V) The dimensionless time variable ^ is also commonly called the Fourier
plane x - 0, or eqmvalently, from the condition that there can be no heat flow number Fo = a ï / L ^ Notice that the Fourier number can also be written as Fo = t/t ;
across this plane. t = L'la is a characteristic time (time constant) for this conduction problem The
behavior of the solution w i h depend on the value of t relative to J . , that is, on whether
Fo is much smaller than unity of order unity, or much larger than unity ^^^^J^^
e = ea T,) is a statement of the similarity principle for this problem, a concept intio-
duced in Section 2.4.5. We now know mat the solution for the dimensionless temper-
ature e w h l be a function of dimensionless time I and dimensionless position rj only

Solution for the Temperature Response

As in Section 3.3.1, for steady conduction in a rectangular plate, the method of
-L () ^^^^^^^^^ +L separation of variables w i h be used to solve the partial differential equation. We
Hgure 3.9 Coordinate system for the analysis assume that the function 0(^, v) can be expressed as the product of a function of ^
of unsteady conduction in an infinite slab.

The constants A„ are determined f r o m the initial condition, Eq. (3.36a):

only, Z ( ^ ) , and a function of 17 only, H{r]):
» / I
ea, V) = ZaWir,) (3.37) ek=o = £ A „ c o s ( n + i 7rr,-l
« = 0

Substitution in Eq. (3.35) yields

dZ _ dHi_ ^ L r S n c t i o : o " L reqSred expansion is then

dl dv' (3.41)
where total derivatives have replaced partial derivahves, since Z is a function of ƒ(.,) = 2 ^ A„cos(« + , ^ ] ^ ^
independent variable ^ only, and H is a function of independent variable rj only n=0
on of o o n . » n « A . . „ o w s fc procedure d e — d . SeCion
Rearranging gives
3.3.1. The resuh is
l_dZ ^ 1 d'H (3.42)
Zdl H dv' ^^'^^^ A„=2 f{v)cos\n + ^ ^VdV
Since each side of Eq. (3.38) is a function of a single independent variable, the ^ ( - i r _
equality can hold only i f both sides are equal to a constant. To satisfy the boundary sin n + r TTV (nn72)7r
conditions, this constant must be a negative number, which w i h be written - A ^ . For ƒ (7?) . \ 2/ Jo
IVvo ordinary differential equations are obtained: u • , ^n Fa (3 40) gives the solution for the temperature distribution,
Substitutmg m Eq. ( 3 - ^ ; give / 1\

^ 2(-l)'' -(«+i/2)Vfcos n + i ^

which have the solutions or, i n terms of t e m p r e r ( . 0 , Fourier number Fo = . . L ' , and .L,
/ 1\ X (3.44)
Z = Cie""^'^ H = C2 cos Xv + C 3 sin Xv _2(^^ir_g-(«+i/2)VFO(,os „ + Ur-


V) = e~^^^{A cos Xv + B sin AT?) which is plotted i n Fig. 3.10.

where A = C C a and B = C 1 C 3 . Applying boundary condition Eq. (3.366),

de _,lr
__ = e " ' ( - A A sin A17 + SA cos A77),,=o = 0

which requires that B = 0. Next, applying boundary condition Eq. (3.36c) gives

= Ae-^'^cosAT,|^=,.= 0

which requires that cos A = 0, or A„ = (n + l/2)Tr, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, The A„ are

the eigenvalues for this problem, and the solution corresponding to the «th eigenvalue
may be written as

enit, V) = A„e-(«+'/2)'-'f cos in + ] \ TTTJ (3.39)

The general solution to Eq. (3.35) is the sum of the series o f solutions given by Eq.

ea, v) = ^ ^ " ^ " ' " ^ " " ' ' " ' ^ c o s ( « + ] \ TTv (3.40)

The Surface Heat Flux

^ ^ - ( „ + l/2)-7r-Fo ^ . • Fo 0

Of particular interest is the rate of heat transfer out of the slab. The surface heat 2./ 277'«Fo"-
flux at X = L is obtained from Fourier's law and Eq. (3.44) as Subshtuhng in Eq. (3.45) gives
dT _ kjTo - T) (3.47)
Jx .»• = £ (77aO"^
which can be used for Fo ^ 0.05. Equation (3.47) is thus a valid solution for short
2(-l)" -(n + I/2)-7r-Fo ^
cos n-i— 77— 7^es F gure 3 10 shows that for sufficiently short times, hie t e m p - a t u r e ^ h ^
+1/2)77' dx 2 L n a thS region near the surface only while the temperature of tiie slab intenor
rLains uSected. The heat conduction process is confined to this thm region, and
= -k(To - r,) V —?LJZL_e-(«+i/2)V2Fo -jn + l / 2 ) 7 7 ( - l ) "
r ^ ï k i e s s of the slab is of no consequence: notice that L does not appear m Eq.
(3 47) h Ï thYs fect that motivates the analysis of the semi-infinite solid m Section
Nonsymmetrical Boundary Conditions
In our analysis, we specified the same temperature on both sides of the slab.
2kiTo ~ T) S v l ^ t ^ allowed the problem to be solved i n the half slab, 0 < x ^ L ; upon
9. =
+ f r S Ï the b o u n l r y condition at . = 1 was 6 = 0 that ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
I f we now specify a temperature at x = L and T,, at x - L as shown in r i g ^
Table 3.3 gives the first four terms in the series for values of the Fourier number 3 11 Sow do we proceed? li is not possible to define a dhnensionless temperatiire 6
Fo = at/L' equal to 0.01, 0 . 1 , 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0. I t can be seen that the sTrie
such that Ö = 0 on both boundaries, and without homogeneous boundaiy conditions,
converges rapidly unless the Fourier number is very smah. For Fo S: 0.2 only the
t l not possible to obtain an eigenvalue problem as before. To get - o u n d this hur^^^^
first term m the senes need be retained, and '
we reduce the problem to the superposition of a steady and a transient problem. Let
Tix, t) = r i ( x ) + Ttix, t) such that
= 0 dt-1* .5v2
/oig °' ^ """^'^ ^'ï- ^'-^^^ ' «ol"tion valid for
X =L: T^T X = f, -L: = 0

m the liquid), the series converges slowly, and sufficient terms must be retained for x = -L: T = T,, t = 0: T2 = To - T

result " ^° '' ^ i - P l ^ mathemati;:; r - + T±±l£. T2 = y A „ e - ( " + ' ' ^ ' ' " ' ^ ' ' c o s ( n + ^ ] 7 7 ^
2 L 2 t^o \ ^/

sïfwfth^eJSbÏ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^•^^) -rface heat flux of a

Fo g-(jr/2)2Fo
g-(77r/2)2Fo T,,~
0.01 0.9756 0.8009 0.5396
0.1 0.7813 0.1085 0.0021 — 10-5
0.2 0.6105 0.0118 Figure 3.11 Schematic for the analysis of
~ io-«
0.3 0.4770 0.0013 unsteady conduction in a slab with unequal
1.0 0.0848 ~ IO-'" surface temperatures.
164 165

and the constants A„ must be determined from

(i) t = \0s:
V - tit - 10/1 33 X 10^ = 7.5 X 10-* < 0.05. Thus, Eq. (3.47) applies. The condensation
2]A„COS n + A ^ - T,~T,.^_Ts + T,,
f l l s Ï = I aiL where h,, is the enthalpy of vaporization of steam at 100°C. From steam
«=0 \ 2j L 2 L 2 (3.48)
SSes tfor e x C e , Table ; ! l 2 a ) . = 2.257 X 10^ J/kg. Also required i s the conductivity
Figure 3.12 ihustrates this supeiposition technique. of concrete, which from Table A.3 i s 1.4 W/m K.

q^A m - To)A __ (1.4)(100- 20)(160) ^ ^g/^

^2^ ^2l/=0 = ^ 0 - 7 ' i
« = 1^;- = " Ö ; ^ Ó ^ " [^(0-75 X 10-6)(10)]'«(2.257 X 10^)

(ii) t = 10 min:
P„ ^ = (10)(60)/1.33 X 10* = 0.0451 < 0.05. Thus, Eq. (3.47) remains valid. Since
q, and, hence, m decrease like r ' « , tiie condensation rate i s now
r 1 -1/2
+ /600
^ = 1 . 6 4 ^ =0.212 kg/s
\ 10 /

(iii) t = 3h:

+L Fo = t/t, = (3)(3600)/1.33 X 10* = 0.812 > 0.2. Equation (3.46) now applies, and the
Steady Transient condensation rate is
Droblem problem
2 f c ( T - r o ) A _,,,2,2p<, ^ (2)(1.4)(100-20)(160)^_(,,2)2(o.8i2, ^ 0.0214 kg/s
Kgure 3.12 Schematic of supeiposition of solutions for " L \ ^ (0.10)(2.257 X 106)
a slab with unequal surface temperatures.

These estimates may be regarded as upper limits: in practice the steam i« "^ely^^^^^^^^
EXAMPLE 3.4 Transient Steam Condensation on a Concrete Wall ' some noncondensables, such as air, and condense at a temperature lower tiian 100 C. The
; S e m ï I n one involving simultaneous heat and mass transfer at high mass transfer rates,
and is beyond the scope of this text.

3.4,2 The Semi-Infinite Solid

Solution In Section 3 4 . 1 , we saw that for sufficiently short times, temperature changes did not
Given: Concrete wall suddenly exposed to steam. Letrate far enough into the slab for the thickness of the slab to have any effect on
S a conduction process. Such situations are encountered in practice. One metiiod
Required: Rate of steam condensation at various times. ol^stZéenin, tool steel involves rapid quenching from a h ^ ^ ^ t - P ^ : / m :
Assumptions: 1. Thermal resistance of condensate negligible short time Only the metal close to the surface is rapidly cooled and hardened, the
2. Pure steam, T,,, (1 atm) = 100°C. -Ts = 100''C u t e l H o o l s s L l y after the quenching process and remains ductile. Thus, during
Q u e n c h i n g process, the interior temperature remains unchanged, and the precise
The first step is to calculate the time constant for the wall h L k n e r a n d shape of the tool is irtelevant. The conduction process is confined
tc = LVa. From Table A.3, we take a = 0.75 X IO"* mVs
for concrete. Then -2£,=0.20m o a thin S o n near the surface into which temperature changes have penetrated.
Ï h ^ h is useful to have formulas giving the temperature distribution and heat flow
(0.1)2 vahous kinds of boundary conditions that are applicable to these penetratton
tc = = 1.33 X lO's (3.7h)
0.75 X 10-6 problems.

The Governing Equation and Conditions We first normalize the dependent variable T(x,t) for algebraic convenience.
Dehning 0 = (T - To)/{T - W, the problem statement transforms mto

de _ d'd (3.51)
no intemal heat generation f n d n e . l i H h r T conductivity,
directions, Eq. ( s ' ö ) a g a i r r X e s T ' ^ ^ ^ ^ ^" ^ ^"d' Tt ~ dx'
? - 0: 0 = 0
~ (3.49) X = 0: 0 = 1
I f the solid is initially at a uniform temoeratnrP r ti, _^ ^ 00: 0 -> 0
is ™ temperature To, the appropnate initial condition
This mathematical problem can be reduced to the solution of an ordinary d i f f e r e n t ^
equation for 0. The independent variable in this equation is called a similarity
variable and is an appropriate combination of x and t. One way to d^cove^^^^^^^
combination is based on physical reasoning and dimensional <^«f f "^^^^^f. f f / ^ ^
3 13 shows the expected temperature prohles as a function of time as the hea
X = 0: r = penetrates into the solid. We can arbittarily define some penetration depth S, for
example, the location where 0 = 0.01 or 0.001. Then 8 is clearly a function of
t L f a n d themial diffusivity a: the larger a, the deeper the penetration at a given
It is the second boundary condition Ea n 5n^'> , , , (3.50cj t me Notice that the problem statement, Eqs. (3.51) and (3.52), contains no other
from the slab problem of Section 3 4 1 ^ ^' ' '"'^'^ P''^"!^"^ different q r n t i t i e s on which S can depend. Time has units [s], and thermal difhisivity has
u S m ^ / s ] The only combination of these two variables that wtil give the required
Solution for the Temperature Distribution un o?[m] for the penetration depth is [at^. For the temperature profile to be a
toction of a single variable, distances into the solid must be scaled to this penetration
depth. Thus, we w i h choose
differential equation, Eq. (3 49 Howe^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^P^^^le in the X (3.53)
the solution is that tiie bound2 c ^ n S of S ^ T ' ™ ^''^ ^"^P^^^ng (4a 0 ' ' '
on coordinate surfaces, J d 7 = l T Z ^W l " ^ Problem be specified where the factor of 4"^ has been inserted for fumre algebraic convenience Eq. (3.51)
coordinate system' W a d p r o c ^ a s fol^^^^^^^^^ '"^^'^ j r s f o m i e d by careful use of the rules of partial differentiation. The required
differential operators are

de de dt] _ de
dt ^ Jri dt . " dv \ 2K4aO"-j

de dd dr] _ de
i ' ]
dx dri dx , dr] \ ( 4 a f ) " 2 /

d'e 1 d'e dr] 1 d'e

dx' ~ (4a dr]' dx , ~ ( 4 a 0 dr]'

Notice that we have written the derivatives of 0 wim respect to r? as total derivatives
since we have assumed that 0 is a function of r, alone. Substitutmg in Eq. (3.51)
-—isL L_„^ gives
de d'e
'2ti4atV"dr] i4at) dr]'

The function (2/77''^) e'"'du is called the error function, erf T J . For our purposes,
which simplifies to
h is more convenient to use the complementary error function, erfc T, - 1 - erf T , ,
which is tabulated as Table B.4 i n Appendix B . Then
-2 — =
"^dv dv' (3.54) r - To (3.58)
erfc M/2
Equation (3.54) is a second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation which r,-To -"\4aty
requires two boundary conditions. Transforming Eqs. (3.52) gives '
Equation (3.58) is plotted as Fig. 3.14. Since the temperature profiles at any time
V = 0: 6=1, since 77 = 0 when x = 0 (3.SSa) M on a single curve when plotted as 0(T,), they are said to be self-similar, which
is why TJ is called the similarity variable for the problem.
77 00; 0 = 0, since r? 00 when x ^ 00, 01 t ^ 0 (3.556)

Since both the transformed equation and conditions do not depend on x or ? the The Surface Heat Flux
similarity transformation has been successful. Let dd/dv = p- then Ea (3 54^
becomes the first-order equation ^ ' The heat flux at the surface is found f r o m Eq. (3.58) using Fourier's law and the
chain rule of differentiation,
-2vp = -f¬
dr) dT
— = -2v dv = -dv"" du
77 1/2
Integrating once,
2 -.2
de 2 -k{Ts - To) {Aat) 1/2
77 1/2

Integrating again. _ k{Ts - To) (3.59)


= C, which is identical to the short-time solution for the slab problem, Eq (3.47)
S o l u i r o ^ ^ the semi-infinite solid problem for other kinds of boundary conditions
where u is a dummy vanable for the integration. The integration constants are evalu- are also useful. A selection follows.
/ /
ated from the boundary conditions, Eq. (3.55). From Eq. (3.55a), 0 = 1 at r, = 0-
hence, C2 = 1. From Eq. (3.556), 0 -> 0 as 77 - > oc ^ '

0 = C, e~" du +1 0.8
.0 9 = e rfc rj

f 0.6
The definite integral is given by standard integral tables as 7r"2/2; hence,
II 0.4
0 = c,-—+ 1 or c, = Figure 3.14 Dimensionless
2 ^1/2 0.2 temperature response in a
Substituting back in Eq. (3.56) gives tiie temperature distribution as I l l l 1 1 i^T"
semi-infinite solid with a step
I l l l
change in surface temperature,
0 = 1ZZO ^ i _ _ 2 _ V Eq. (3.58).
Similarity variable, r; = x/(4irt)^l^
Tv - To TT^r.

Constant Surface Heat Flux Surface Energy Pulse

I f an amount of energy E per umt area is released instantaneously on the surface
I f at time r - 0 the surface is suddenly exposed to a constant heat flux a ~
at ; = 0 (e g i f the surface is exposed to an energy pulse from a laser), and none
for example, by radiation from a high-temperature source-the resuhing temperature
response IS ijlj „,/).iij/nl''l;^ii A'AJ ){ U,
of this energy'is lost from the surface, the resulting temperature response is

as shown i n Fig. 3.17.

r(x,o) = 7-o Tix,t)

Um q^ht=E

Figure 3.17 Temperature response in a semi-infinite solid after an

instantaneous release of energy on the surface, Eq. (3.62).
Pïgure 3.15 Temperature response in a semi-infinite solid
exposed to a constant surface heat flux, Eq. (3.60).
Periodic Surface Temperature Variation

Convective Heat Transfer to the Surface The surface temperature varies periodically as {T, - TQ) = ( T , - ro)sin w?, as
shown i n Fig. 3.18. The resulting periodic (long-time) temperature response is
I f at time / = 0 the surface is suddenly exposed to a fluid at temperature T with
a convective heat transfer coefficient K, the resulting temperature response is' T-To ^ ^-xm'^ sin[üjf - x{(üllaf'\ (3-63)
T-TQ ^ . X
Notice how tiie amphtude of tiie temperatihe variation decays into tiie solid expo-
1/2 (3.61)
(4a 0 nentially while a phase lag x{o)llaf^ develops.
as shown in Fig. 3.16.

T{x,0) = Tg
r , - T o = (T*-ro)sin<
-kdT/dx\,^0 = h,[T,-T{0,t)] nx.t)i


Hgure 3.18 Periodic surface temperature variation for a semi-infinite

Figure 3.16 Temperature response in a semi-infinite
solid: instantaneous temperature profile at f = tx, Eq. (3.63).
solid suddenly exposed to a fluid, Eq. (3.61).
EXAMPLE 3.5 Cooling of a Concrete Slab
A thick concrete slab initially at 400 K is sprayed with a large quantity of water at 300 K.
How long will the location 5 cm below the surface take to cool to 320 K?

Figure 3.19 Contact of two

semi-infinite sofids: instantaneous |
temperature proflle at f = for | Given: Hot concrete slab sprayed with water at 300 K.
kB>h. I Required: Rate of cooling 5 cm below surface.

Contact of Two Semi-Infinite Solids \ Assumptions: 1. The rate of spraying is sufficient to maintain the surface at 300 K.
2. The slab can be treated as a semi-infinite solid.
Now consider two semi-infinite solids, A and B , of different materials with uni-
form temperatures TA and TB, brought together at time / = 0, as shown i n Fig. 3.19. Equation (3.58) applies and can be written as
The solution of this problem shows that the interface temperature T is constant in T -To
time and is given by = erfcTj where d (Aaty
TA - T ^ kB_l^Y'^ ^ Ukpc)B\"^ i 320 - 400
T-TB kJaB] [{kpc)^] (3.64) e = 300 - 400 = 0.8
with corresponding erfc function temperature distributions i n each sohd. For example, i Thus, 0.8 = erfcTj; from Table B.4, rj = 0.179.
i f sohd A is a carbon steel with ^ = 48 W / m K and a = 13.3 X lO""^ m^/s at 100°ci
and solid B is neoprene mbber with k = 0.19 W / m K and a = 0.079 x 10-« m^/s at
t =
0°C, the interface temperature T is calculated to be 95.1°C. This is much closer to
the initial temperature of the steel than to that of the rubber. Equation (3.64) shows 1 Frora Table A.3, ot for concrete is 0.75X10-* m^/s. Thus, the required time is
why a high-conductivity material at room temperature feels colder to the touch than '
does a low-conductivity material at the same temperature. | t = (4)(0.75 X 10-6)(o. 179)2 = 2.60 X 10" s = 7 h

The instantaneous heat flux at the surface q,{t) can be found f r o m Eqs. (3.61) '
through (3.63) by applying Fourier's law. The derivation of Eq. (3.63) is given as Ex- |
ereise 3-37. The other solutions are best obtained using Laplace transforms [5,9], • 1. A temperature penetration depth 8, may be defined
as the location where the tangent to the temperature
Computer Program CONDI \ profile at JC = 0 intercepts the line T = 400 K, as
shown in the figure. The temperature gradient at x =
C O N D I calculates the thermal response of a semi-infinite solid initiahy at tem- 0 is found by differentiating Eq. (3.58);
perature To. There is a choice of five boundary conditions imposed at time / = 0:
dT_ r, - To r, - To
1. The surface temperature is changed to T,. dx (iraO' 8,
2. A heat flux is imposed on the surface.
Hence, S, = 1.772(aO"' = 1.772(0.75 x 10"* X
2.60 X 10'*)"2 = 0.247 m.
3. The surface is exposed to a fluid at temperature T,, with a convective heat
tiansfer coefficient/lc. 2. Check t using CONDI.
4. A n amount of energy E is released instantaneously at the surface.
5. The surface temperature varies periodically as Ts - To = (T* - To) sin cot.
EXAMPLE 3.6 Radiative Heating of a Firewall
Plotting options include T(x), Tit), or qs(t), which can be chosen appropriately"
The analysis for boundary condition 1 was given in Section 3.4.2. The temperature A 15 cm-thick concrete firewall has a black silicone paint surface. The wall is suddenly
responses for boundary conditions 2 through 5 are given as Eqs. (3.60) through exposed to a radiant heat source that can be approximated as a blackbody at 1000 K. How
(3.63), respectively. long will it take for the surface to reach 500 K if the initial temperature of the wall is 300 K?

Solution Using CONDI

The required input in SI units is:
Givett: Concretefirewallexposed to radiant heat source.
Boundary condition = 2
Required: Temperature response of surface. Plot option = 2 (Ts versus t)
Assumptions: 1. Wall can be modeled as a semi-infinite solid. f-range for plot = 0, 60
2. Neghgible temperature drop across the paint layer. Thermal conductivity =1-4
3. Negligible heat capacity of the paint layer Thermal diffusivity = 0.75 x 10
4. An absorptance a = 0.9 for high-heat black silicone paint (Table A.5a): Initial temperature To = 300
negligible radiation emitted by the wall.
Surface heat flux <?, = 51.0 X 10'
Equation (3.60) evaluated at x = 0 is F„„ graph of r . versus , = 32 (seconds, when T. = 500 (teMhs).

qs (AatV"
Ts - To =
k TT Comments
1 A more accurate answer can be obtained from CONDI by adjusting the r-range.
2. Any consistent units can be used in CONDI. With SI units, temperature may be m
_ TT (Ts - To)k
a 2qs kelvins or degrees Celsius.

From Table A.3, the required concrete properties are

/fc = 1.4 W/m K and a = 0.75 X 10"* mVs.
EXAMPLE 3.7 Thermal Response of Soil
Since the surface temperature is low compared to the radiation source temperature, we can
neglect radiation emitted by the surface, so o n a tropical island, a large ^e«gerated ^^^^^^^^^^^
^ aaT' = (0.9)(5,67 X 10"'*)(1000)'' = 51.0 X lO' W/m' years. It is then put out f^^^^J,^ ^^^^'^^^^^^^^ tke for the ground 1 m below
allowed to circulate reely J^f.^tttf^^^^^^^^^^^ coefficient of 3 0 W/m^ K , and
(500-300)(1.4) the surface to reach 15 C? ^^^""^'"'1 2 6 W/mK a = 0.45 X 10"* mVs).
t = 0.75 X = 31.6 s
10-6 (2)(51.0 X 103) use thermal properties of a wet soil (fc - 2.6 W/m i>..

Comments Solution
Given: Ground inUially at 5°C, exposed to air f 27°C.
1. At most, fio-r* = (0.9)(5.67 x 10-^)(500*) = 3.19 X 10^ W/m^, which is only 6% of
qs and is justifiably neglected in making this engineering estimate. Required: Temperature response 1 m below surface.
2. Check to see if the temperature drop and heat capacity of the paint layer are negtigi-
Assumptions: 1. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ . ^ (i.e., 5 X for an app^eiable distance
ble. Choose an appropriate thickness and properties.
below the surface).
3. To check whether the assumption of a semi-infinite
solid is valid, we estimate a penetration depth 5,:
Equation (3.61) apphes:
8, =
qs/k 7 - - Tc _ 1 5 ^ ^ 0.4545; = |^ = ^ ' ^ ^ ^ ' = '
ÏWÏ;~27-5 k 2.6
500 300 • A h„t how do we make a reasonablefirstguess for f? A lower
(51.0 X 103)/(1.4) r r ; r h r r : f B,, o . . , , . . c h c o , . = s p o „ d s . » ^
= 0.0055 m (5.5 mm), which is small.

T = T At first it would appear that the analysis of Sec-

tion 3.4.2 does not apply to this problem. The \
0.4545 = erfc T? \
cylinder wall is not very thick, and since the outer \

From Table B.4, T? = 0.53. surface is cooled, there wiU be a temperature gra-
dient through the wall. However, if the tempera-
ture wave is damped out in a very short distance
" (Aatyi " ( 4 X 0 . 4 5 X lO-^O'^' ' = 2.0 X lO*^ s from the surface, Eq. (3.63) can be used to esti-
mate the amplitude decay and phase lag:
The actual time will be greater than 2.0 X 10" s; taking f = 4 X 10-^ s as a first guess the
followmg table summanzes the results: T - To
Time, t 1000 \ 104.7
0) = 277 = 104.7 rad/s; (a)/2a)' = 2089 ra-
s X10-6 _ 60 J (2)(12.0 X 10-6)

4 0.368 lf
If (T*
( r -- To)
To) is the amplitude of the temperature variation,
5 0.415 J*
T* -_ To
To _ g-,t(a./2a)"2
_,/,.,n„il/2 ^ g-(0.001X2089) _ 0.124
6 0.452
6.05 0.4540 T: - To
6.06 0.4545
Hence, t = 6.06 X 10* s (~70 days) 0.79
r; - To = = 6.38°C
0.124 0.124
The phase lag is x(ft)/2a)"2 ^ 2.09 rad = 120 degrees.
1. If the solution is done by hand, care must be taken to evaluate the erfc function accu-
rately CONDI will perform the required calculations rapidly and reliably Comments
2. The long time required suggests that problems involving conduction into the ground are Use CONDI to examine some spatial and temporal temperatore profiles.
almost always transient problems.

3.4.3 Convective Cooling of Slabs, Cylinders, and Spheres

We now consider the more general problem öf ttansient conduction i n three common
EXAMPLE 3.8 , Temperature Fluctuations i n a Diesel Engine Cylinder Wall
shapes: the infinhe slab, the infinite cylinder, and the sphere, with surface cooling
A thermocouple is installed in die 5 mm-thick cylinder wall of a stationary diesel engine (or heating) by convection. The slab problem w i h be analyzed first, and the resuhs
1 mm below the inner surface. In a particular test, the engine operates at 1000 rpm, and w h l be generahzed to tiie cyhnder and sphere.
n^o?nTt°"^ ^°""d to have a mean value of 322°C and an amplitude of
0.79 C. If the teniperature variation can be assumed to be approximately sinusoidal, estimate
he amphtude and phase difference of the inner-surface temperature variation. Take a = Analysis for the Slab
12.0 X 10-6 jjj2/3 ^ ^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^j ^^^^
In Section 3.4.1, we considered the temperature response T(x, t) of a slab sud-
denly immersed i n a fluid under conditions where the convective heat transfer re-
sistance is negligible, that is, B i == hcL/lc is large. On the other hand, the lumped
Given: Thermocouple installed in diesel engine cylinder wall. thermal capacity model of Section 1.5 applies when the conduction resistance in the
slab is neghgible, that is, the Biot number is small. We now consider the general
Required: Amplitude and phase difference of inner-surface temperature. case where the convection and conduction resistances are of comparable magnitudes,
Assumptions: Model wall as a semi-infinite solid. giving a Biot number of order unity The slab and coordinate system are shown i n
Fluid Fluid
aXTg at Te

-L 0 L X

Figure 3.20 Schematic of a slab

suddenly immersed in a fluid.

Flg. 3.20. We again define 17 = x/L and ^ = at/L', but now we define the Rgure 3.21 Graphical solution of tiie transcendental equation, Eq. (3.67): cot A - A/Bi.
dimensionless temperature Ö in terms of the initial slab temperature Jo and fluid
temperature T, as 0 = ( r - r,)/(ro - T,). The analysis proceeds as in Section 3.4 1
to obtain Figure 3.21 shows a plot of Eq. (3.67); for a given value of the Biot number, the
e S v a l u e s A in = I, 2,3,...) can be calculated. To each of the eigenva ues
Oil, 17) = e ^'^(ACOSAT7 +fisinA77) c o ^ p t d s '"solution with eigenfunction cos A„., and arbitrary constant A„. Their
The boundaiy condition, Eq. (3.36è), is as before; namely, dd/d-qL^o = 0, so sum is the general solution:
= 0 and

BiC, v) = Ae-^'fcosAr7 (3.65) n= l

However, the second boundary condition is now obtained from the requirement that The constants A„ are evaluated f r o m the initial condition, Eq. (3.36a):
the heat conduction at tiie surface of the solid equal the heat convection into the
0(0,1?) = 2 A „ C O S A „ 7 7 = 1

-k ;i = l
dx \x = L
Thus a Fourier series expansion in terms of the eigenfunctions cos Kv is required.
which transforms into The detahs are required as Exercise 3-56, and the result is
k_de_ 2 sin A„ (3.69)
= heBl^
r, = l A„ = A„ + sin A„ cos A„ '
or The solution in terms of temperature, Fourier number, and x/L is

T~T ^ 2sinA„
. -cosA„^ (3.70)
= Bi0 7)=1 (3.66) A„ + sin A„ cos A„ L
n= l

We see once again how the Biot number B i = heUk occurs natiirally when tiie Figure 3.22 shows a plot of Eq. (3.70) for B i = 3.0. Notice how the tangents to
convective boundary condition is put i n dimensionless form. Substituting Eq. (3.65) the temperature curves at the surface ah intersect at a common point, the location of
into Eq. (3,66) gives which is given by boundary condition, Eq. (3.66). , 0, ,

Ae^^'^AsinA = B i A ^ ^ ^ ' ^ c o s A f a d d i t i o n to tiie temperature distribution, h is often " - f ^ ^ ^ ^ ^n^w^^^^^^^^^^^^^

enersv loss which is the actual energy loss in time t divided by the total loss in
or c o S compktely to tiie ambient temperature. A n energy balance on unit area of
the half slab gives
cotA = —
Bl (3.67) T-Te
- In'g-^^ = P^-^(ro - T) ^ ^
~ pcL(To - Te) pcLiTo - Te) Tn - Te
which is a transcendental equation with an infinite number of roots or eigenvalues.

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 LO 1.333

Dimensionless coordinate, rj =x/L

Eigure 3.22 Temperature profiles for convective cooling

of a slab calculated from Eq. (3.70); Bi = 3.0.
Generalized Form ofthe Solution

where T is the volume-averaged temperature. Evaluating T from Eq. (3.70) gives It is convenient to have a general f o m i of the solution applicable to a slab, cylinder.
or sphere. Referring to Fig. 3.24,
,-A2FO 2sinA„ sinA„
(3.71) (3.72)
„ =i A„-I-sin A„ cos A„ A„ Q = J^A„.-^"'^V«(A„i])

Figure 3.23 shows a plot of Eq. (3.71) for various values of the Biot number. (3.73)
n = l ^0

1.0 with the eigenvalues given by

Slab: B i cos A - A sin A = 0) (3.74a)
e 0.8
/ / ly Cylinder: A7,(A) - B i / o ( A ) = 0 (3.74ft)
I Bi=0.3^ Sphere: AcosA-t-(Bi-l)sinA = 0 (3.74c)
^ u , u - v/r Fo = a f / L ^ and B i = haUk, as before; for the cylinder
For the slab, r, " ; j B i = h j l k . Table 3.4 gives A„, ƒ „ , and
1 OA B f E r ( ? . 7 4 . t r ^ d 7. aifB'esTel function; of the first kind, of orders 0 and
l%e7pectively These functions are defined and tabulated m Appendix B .

<^ 0.2

0.0" 2 4 6 10
Fourier number, Fo = at/L^
I " a S sphèt' VIA = m and R/3. ..spectively, and the Biot number definruons
Figure 3.23 Fractional energy loss <I) as a function of Fourier number a til} for convective
are different.
cooling of a slab calculated from Eq. (3.71). Biot number Bi = 0.3, 1, 3, and 10.

Table 3.5 Constants in the one-term approximation for convective cooling of slabs,
Table 3.4 The constants A„ and B„ and the function/, for the transient thermal response
of slabs, cylinders, and spheres. cylinders,
and spheres.

Geometry A„(A„) B„(K) MKv) Slab

Bi Af A, Bi A? A,
^ sinA„ sin A„
A„ + sin A„ cos A„
COS(A„|) 0.02 0.01989 1.0033 0.9967 2 1.160 1.180 0.8176
0.04 0.03948 1.0066 0.9934 4 1.600 1.229 0.7540
7,(A„) 0.06 0.05881 1.0098 0.9902 6 1.821 1.248 0.7229
A„ [/o'(A„) + /f(A„)] ' A„
7O(A„^) 0.08 0.07790 1.0130 0.9871 8 1.954 1.257 0.7047
0.10 0.09678 1.016 0.9839 10 2.042 1.262 0.6928
^ sin A„ — A„ cos A„ ^ sin A„ — A„ cos A„ sin[A„(r/i?)] 1.031 0.9691 20 2.238 1.270 0.6665
Sphere 0.2 0.1873
A„ — sin A„ cos A„ Kim 0.4 0.3519 1.058 0.9424 30 2.311 1.272 0.6570
0.6 0.4972 1.081 0.9192 40 2.321 1.272 0.6521
0.8 0.6257 1.102 0.8989 50 2.371 1.273 0.6490
1.0 0.7401 1.119 0.8811 100 2.419 1.273 0.6429
Computer Program COND2 CO 2.467 1.273 0.6366
The generalized form of the solution described above is implemented i n C 0 N D 2 .
The program computes the eigenvalues from Eqs. (3.74) using Newton's method. Bi A, Bl
Bi A? A, Bl A?
Up to 40 eigenvalues are calculated in order to meet a specihed accuracy of lO""^
in the dimensionless temperature 6. For very short times, more than 40 eigenvalues 1.0051 0.9950 2 2.558 1.338 0.7125
0.02 0.03980
are required to obtain the desired accuracy. Thus, for Fourier number Fo < 10"^, 0.04 0.07919 1.010 0.9896 4 3.641 1.470 0.6088
C O N D I should be used, since the semi-inhnite solid model is quite appropriate 0.06 0.1182 1.015 0.9844 6 4.198 1.526 0.5589
for such short times. The output can be obtained as numerical data, a plot of the 0.08 0.1568 1.020 0.9804 8 4.531 1.553 0.5306
temperature prohle, 0(17), or a plot of the fractional energy loss as a function of 0.10 0.1951 1.025 0.9749 10 4.750 1.568 0.5125
0.2 0.3807 1.049 0.9526 20 5.235 1.593 0.4736
time, $(Fo).
0.4 0.7552 1.094 0.9112 30 5.411 1.598 0.4598
0.6 1.037 1.135 0.8753 40 5.501 1.600 0.4527
Approximate Solutions for Long Times 0.8 1.320 1.173 0.8430 50 5.556 1.601 0.4485
1.0 1.577 1.208 0.8147 100 5.669 1.602 0.4401
In Section 3.4.1, h was shown that the series solution converged rapidly for long 00 5.784 1.602 0.4317
times, and for Fo > 0.2, only the first term of the series need be retained for 2%
accuracy. Usually we are most interested i n the temperature at the center of the body Sphere
ix = 0 or r = 0), where the response is slowest. Denoting the dimensionless center A, B, Bi A? Al B,
Bi A?
temperature as Oc = iT, - Te)liTo - Te) and retaining only the first term of Eq. 1.479 0.6445
0.02 0.05978 1.0060 0.9940 2 4.116
(3.72) gives 4 6.030 1.720 0.5133
0.04 0.1190 1.012 0.9881
de ^ Axe-'^^^°, Fo>0.2 (3.75) 0.06 0.1778 1.018 0.9823 6 7.042 1.834 0.4516
0.08 0.2362 1.024 0.9766 8 7.647 1.892 0.4170
since /I(AIÏ7) = 1 for 77 = 0. When only the first term of the series is retained, the 0.10 0.2941 1.030 0.9710 10 8.045 1.925 0.3952
shape of the temperature distribution is unchanging with time. Thus, the temperature 0.2 0.5765 1.059 0.9435 20 8.914 1.978 0.3500
at any location is simply related to the center temperature as 0.4 1.108 1.116 0.8935 30 9.225 1.990 0.3346
0.6 1.599 1.171 0.8490 40 9.383 1.994 0.3269
Ö = Ö,/,(A,77), FO>0.2 (3.76)
0.8 2.051 1.224 0.8094 50 9.479 1.996 0.3223
1.0 2.467 1.273 0.7740 100 9.673 1.999 0.3131
Simharly retaining only one term i n Eq. (3.73), the fractional energy loss is
00 9.869 2.000 0.3040
* = 1 - Bxde, Fo > 0.2 (3.77)'
Table 3.5 gives values o f \\, Ax, and 5 , as a function of Biot number.

such charts have three major hmitations:

1. Tbe charts are invalid for Fo < 0.2.

2 The charts are often difficuh to read accurately for Fo :S 1.

3 The cooling process is nearly complete over a large region of the charts. For
Ixan^ple, for'a sphere with B i ^ 1, U is 90% complete for Fo ^ 1.
Appendix C contains temperature response charts -"^^^^^^

types'of charts for the slab, cyhnder, and sphere ^ g - ^ . / S C Hiies

a prescribed surface temperature T, - T-

Problem-Solving Strategy
Figure 3.25 Fractional energy loss <I) at a Fourier number (dimensionless time) of
Fo = 0.2 for the slab, cyhnder, and sphere: effect of Biot number Bi. The one-term
approximation is valid above each curve.

The single-term approximation is useful because it is valid during much of the 1 Calculate the lumped thermal capacity model Biot number.^ I f B K 0 . 1 , the
cooling period. Figure 3.25 shows the fractional energy loss $ at Fo = 0.2 as a
' lumped thermal capacity solution of Section 1.5 applies.
function of B i for the three shapes. The fraction of the cooling period over which
the approximation is vahd increases as the Biot number and surface-area/volume ^ T f R i > 0 1 calculate the Fourier number. I f F o < 0.05, the semi-infinite sohd
ratio (sphere-cylinder-slab) decrease. The single-term approximation is also used for folution, Eq. ( t b t applies. A handheld calculator or C O N D I can be used.
problems in which the fluid temperature changes slowly with time. I t is then ^ Tf Ri > 0 1 and 0 05 < Fo < 0.2, the complete series solution, Eqs. (3^72)
useful to define an interior heat transfer coefficient for conduction into the body and (3 73), a^hes C 0 N D 2 or the temperature response charts m Appendix C
for use iii a thermal-circuit representation of the complete system. This concept is
should be used.^
developed and used i n Exercises 3-81 through 3-84.
4 Tf Ri > 0 1 and Fo > 0.2, the long-time approximate solution, Eqs. (3.75)
hroigh (3". 7 t applies. COND2 can be used h avahable^Otherwise, the tem,
Temperature Response Charts p e Z r e response charts or a handheld calculator w i h suffice.
Graphs of the various solutions for convective coohng, known as temperature
response charts, were indispensable to engineers until handheld calculators and per-
sonal computers became standard tools. Charts for the series solution were given by
Gumey and Lurie [10] as early as 1923, but better examples are now available. Per-
haps the best widely avahable selection o f charts is found i n the Handbook of Heat
Transfer Fundamentals [11]. I n addition to charts for the convective cooling problem
discussed here, Reference [11] gives charts f o r numerous other cooling and heating
7 3 — - ^ / , . ViA = L for an infinite slab, « / 2 for an infinite cylinder, and RB for a sphere.
problems. For example, there are charts for radiation heating, conduction with i n -
3 plrVrie're" -red value of B i was calculated in step 1. Por a cylinder and sphere, the r e , u r e d values
temal heat generation, and composite sohds. These charts were first published by
are two and three times larger, respectively.
Schneider i n 1963 [12].

the real engineering problem. The major source of error here is i n the specification Solution Using COND2
of the heat transfer coefficient. Not only is it difficult to specify a value of h, with The required inputs are:
less than 10% error, but in many cooling problems, A, is not a constant as assumed
by the model. For example, when the cooling is by natural convection, Eq (1 23) Geometry = 1 (slab)
shows that h, is proportional to (T, - T,) to the 1/4 power for laminar flow, and Bi = 0.2
to the 1/3 power for turbulent flow. Thus, must be estimated at some average Output option = 2 (Ö vs. 17 plot)
temperature difference. Fo = (must guess and iterate)
7] range = 0, 1
A few iterations will give Fo = 3.9 for 0^ = 0.50.

EXAMPLE 3.9 Annealing of Steel Plate

When steel plates are thinned by rolling, periodic reheating is required. Plain carbon steel EXAMPLE 3.10 A Pebble Bed A h Heater
plate 8 cm thick, imtially at 440°C, is to be reheated to a minimum temperature of 520''C
in a fumace maintained at 600°C. I f the sum of the convective and radiative heat transfer A pebble bed for storing thermal energy in a solar heating system has pebbles that can be
coefficients is estimated to be 200 W/n} K , how long will the reheating take"? Take fc = 40 approximated as 6 cm-diameter spheres. The bed is initially at 350 K before cold air at
W/m K and a = 8.0 X IQ-" m^/s for the steel. 280 K is admitted to the bed. I f the heat transfer coefficient is 80 W/m^ K, how long will it
take the pebbles at the inlet of tiie bed to lose 90% of their available energy? Take fc - 1.6
Solution W/m K and a = 0.7 X 10"" m^/s for the pebbles.

Given: Steel plate, thickness 2L = 8 cm.

Required: Temperature response of the center of the plate. Given: Hot pebbles suddenly exposed to a cold air stream.
Assumptions: The heat transfer coefficient is constant at 200 W/n} K. Required: Time for pebbles at inlet to lose 90% of their avaUable energy
We first calculate the time constant for the heating process:
Assumptions: Pebbles are spherical.
^ 0.06 m diameter
' ' • " = 8 7 1 0 ^ = 200s
280 K air
which tells us the order of magnitude of the time required, namely a few minutes (not seconds o
and not hours). Next we calculate the Biot number:

Bi = ^ = (200)(0.040) _
'k 40 We first calculate the time constant for the cooling process:

Since Bi > 0.1, the lumped thernial capacity model should not be used. Since we cannot
calculate the Fourier number yet (it is the answer to the problem), the complete series solution
will be used. The minimum temperature is at the center of the plate, and the desired value
f = ^
a= ^Q-"^^'
0.7 X 10-6
= 1286 s (21 min)

of 0 is Next we calculate the lumped tiiermal capacity model Biot number:

- Tc - 520 - 600 • _ ^^(^^3) ^ (80)(0.03/3) ^

Oc - =- = TTT TT- = 0.50 k 1.6
To - T, 440 - 600 Since B i > 0.1, the lumped tiiermal capacity method cannot be used. Although we suspect
that Fo > 0 2 for <Ê> = 0.9, we can conveniently use the complete series solution givm as
Using the temperature response chart. Fig. in Appendix C,
the temperature response chart. Fig. C.2c of Appendix C. For Bi = h,R/k = (3)(0.5) - 1.5
Fo = 3.9; t = t, Fo = (200)(3.9) = 780 s (13 min) and O = 0.9, the chart gives Bi^Fo = 1.5. Thus,

Since Fo > 0.2, we could have used the one-term approximation, Eq. (3.75): Fo = 1.5/Bi^ = 1.5/(1.5)^ = 0.67
6, = 0.5 = A,e'-'^?''° Ï = r,Fo = (1286)(0.67) = 860 s ( - 1 4 min)
From Table 3.5 for Bi = 0.2, k] = 0.1873 and A, = 1.031. Solving, Fo = 3.86.

I f the separation of variables method is to be used, one might assume a product

''""^'^ '"^"^ "'^'^ * ^ one-term approximate solution as follows. From Eq
(3.77), <P - 1 - B.ö,.. For Bi = 1.5, interpolation in Table 3.5 gives fi, = 0.70. Thus, solution of the form
0.9 = 1 - (0.70)e, or =0.143 eit,x,y) = yrit)Xix)ny)
where the functions -/(t), Xix), and F ( y ) are to be detennined as before. However,
By Eq. (3.75), 8, = A . e - ^ F » . For Bi = 1.5, interpolation in Table 3.5 gives Af = 3.33
Aj — 1.38. ' it w i h now be shown that the solution can be expressed as the product of known
solutions for the infinite slab. Consider two slabs of thickness 2L, and 2 1 . for
0.143 = (1.38)c-("3)P" or Fo = 0.68
which the dimensionless temperature goveming equations and boundary conditions
which agrees well with fhe chart solution. are

Solution Using COND2 T-Te Tl -Te

62 — rr -Te
The required input is; '' " To-Te

dei d'ei dBi d'e2 (3.79a,Z»)

Geometry = 3 (sphere)
= a— = a dy'
Bi = 1.5 dt dx' dt
Output option = 1 (Numerical data), or 3 (<ï) vs. Fo plot)
t = 0: = 1 t = 0: 62 = 1
Fo range = 0, 1 Ö1

d6i y =0:
Fo = 0.67 for $ = 0.9.
X =0: ^ = 0 dy
X = Lx: -Ic—- = hcxBx y = L2: - k ' - ^ = he262
The relatively short time of 14 min does not meantiiatwarm air cannot be obtamed for a dx dy
long penod. The bed is a regenerative heat exchanger: a temperature "wave" passes slowly
through the bed, and the useful operating time is the time taken for this wave to break tiiroueh The product of the solutions of these two problems satisfies the original problem.
the outlet end of the bed. Let
dit,x,y) = 6xit,x)d2it,y)

3.4.4 Product Solutions for Multidimensional Unsteady Conduction Then

Consider a long rectangular bar, with sides 2Li and ILt wide, tiiat is initially at d'e ^ d'ex ^ = ^ (3.80a,é)
temperature To and suddenly immersed i n a fluid at temperature 7,. The heat tiansfer
coefficients on the sides are /z,, and h^. The task is to detennine the temperature
distribution T(x, y, t). Again, a dimensionless temperature 6 = (T — Te)/{To ~ Te) de ^ ^ „ dex (3.81)
is defined. The goveming equation and appropriate initial and boundar^ conditions
in a coordinate system such that - L ] ^ x ^ L^, - L a < y < L j are
Substituting Eqs. (3.79a,&) into Eq. (3.81),
de _ I d'e d'e]
dt - ^\dx'
" I in:? +' ^dy' (3.78) ^ ^ a { e x ^ + e2—2

t = 0: 6 = 1 Then substituting f r o m Eqs. (3.80a,è) gives

de ^ Id^ ^
dt'''[dx' dy'
which is the original differential equation, Eq. (3.78). Also, the initial and boundary
conditions become
t = 0: e{Q,x,y) = , T,K,e 3 6 Shapes amenable to product solutions. Caution: The dimensionless temperatures 5, P,
(1)(1) = 1 2 C are evaluated at the same value of actual time (not Founer number).
de _ dei
X = 0:
dx ~ ^'17 Qisic solutions
sipmi-infinite solid Infinite plane slab Infinite cylinder
de ^ 362 P{x,t) C{r,t)
y =0: — -
= 6>, X 0 = 0 Six,t)
dy dy (T -To) Eq. (3.72)
Eq. (3.70)
de Eq. (3.61); 1 ^j,^ -To)
X = Ll.
• Ö2(hciei) = h,ie
dl dx
, de det'
y = L2:
Öl(/ïc2Ö2) = he2e
• dy

sd^tfon"' "''"'^ ^^^"^^ ^ -hematic of the product

[14] ha recently shown how the product rule can be applied to obtain the f r a c S
t?eT^"v'w*' f'^' " intersection'of two b o i e s for e ' l Z t
the short cyhnder of item 4 i n Table 3.6, the fractional energy lossTs ' '
5. Semi-infinite rectangular bar Rectangular block
Finite cylinder d = P{,x,t)P{y,t)P{z,t)
* = * i + $2(1 - = + $ 2 - $.4>2 (3 82a) e = S{z,t)P{x,t)Piy,t)
e = P{x,t)C{r,t)
where subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the infinite slab and infinite cylinder respectively I f

^a) (3.82Z>)

7. Tvo-dimensional comer 8. Three-dimensional comer 9. F f r ^ ' " ^ ™

Ö = 5(.r,0S(y,/) Ö = S{x,t)S(y,t)S{i.t) Ö - P(j:,OS(3',05(z,0

Notice that these product solutions are not apphcable when

1. The initial temperature of the body is nonuniform.
2i, 2. The fluid temperature T, is not the same on all sides of the body.
3. The surface boundary conditions are of the second kind.
The requirement that the initial temperature of the body be uniform is, of course,
the specifled initial condition for tiie solutions given by Eqs. (3.72) and (3./3).
Figure 3.26 Schematic of fiie product solution procedure for tiie However the beginning student often overlooks this point in problem solvmg.
temperature response of a convectively cooled long rectangular bar.

EXAMPLE 3.11 Sterilization of a Can o f Vegetables ^~ ~ Comments

Although the heat transfer coefficient for condensing steam is large (see Chapter 7), it
is noHnfiSte using the curves for the largest values of Bi available m the charts gives
fn s T u r Ï e d T e l m Tt lo5°C f " T , ' " ' ' '^^'^ ^^^'^^ — o n
satisfactory estimates for this problem.



Give«; Can of vegetables to be sterilized in steam. Although many simple steady-state and transient heat conduction problems can be
twed anaTytically, Llutions for more complex problems are best obtained numer-
Required: (i) Minimum temperature in can after 80 minutes, and c a i f T m e r i c a l olution methods are particularly useful when the shape of the
(tl) total heat transfer.
sohd "is irregular, when themial properties are temperature- or position-dependent
and wLn bounda^^ conditions are nonlinear. Numerical methods commonly used
Asmmptions: 1. The heat transfer coefficient for condensing 0.08 m
steam is very large; hence, Bi oo. i n c l u r t L V h e - i r < ^ r ^ ^ ^ ^ method,finite-elementmethod, and the houndary-
2. No circulation inside can. 1 eZent method. Thefinite-differencemethod was the first numerical method to be
3. Therma] diffusivity of contents approximates u s e T r i r n s i v e l y for heat conduction, h remains a popular method not because it
that of water. Tsuperior to other methods for heat conduction, but because it is easier to im-
p l e m r a n d is also the most useful numerical solution method for heat convection
?fi!nnll^' t J i ! '""'P^'* '^^P'^^^^y ' " O ' l ^ l 'cannot be used. Item 4 of Table
3.6 apphes, with the mimmum temperature at the center of the can Th^ h.^.x A^l
' ' ? h e " f i r s t step in afinite-differencesolution procedure is to discretize the spatial
and timfcoordLtes to f o r m a mesh of nodes. Next,finite-differenceapproximations
<0.676y(967X4200) - 0.166 X IO"'. rf*. The F o . r i t T i " m^de to t r d e r i v a t i v e s appearing in the heat conduction equation to conyert the
7ffZnm.<,..txon to an algebraic difference equation. Alternatively the d i t a c e
Slab with 4 cm half-width: Fo, = M _ (0.166 X 10-«)(4800)
e f i S c a n be constructed by applying the energy conservation principle di ectly
(0.04)2 = 0.498 o a volume element surrounding tiie node. I n ^t-^y-state problems a set o m^^^^
algebraic equations is obtained with as many unknowns as the "'J'^ber of no^^^^^^
Infinite cylinder of 5 cm radius: p„ _ (0.166 X 10-6)(4800) mesh These equations can be solved by matiix inversion or by iteration. For transient
^ " ^ W = Eduction temperatures at the current time step may be found directly using values
a H h r p r e c k n g time step. I n some fomiulations, iteration may be required since
valuesTthe current thne'step are also inVolved. I n the fi-^/PPl-^^ ^
difference methods to heat conduction, the calculations were done by hand, limiting
c f s deSion to a coarse mesh with relatively few nodes. Because the accuracy of a
Ö, = = ^(0, OC(0, t) firJS-dSerence approximation increases with number of nodes, these solutions were

Tc - 105 ' " I h r a v a i l a b i h t y of mainframe digital computers i n the late 1950s completely
40 - 105 (0.38)(0.27); solving, T, = 98.3°C changed^ picture, and by the 1960s, engineers could use asfinea grid as was nec-
essTto meet theh requirements. The 1970s saw increased use of the P-grammable
(ii) The total heat transfer is related to fiie fractional energy gain as ca c X o r to obtainfinite-differencesolutions to heat conduction problems, which
e = *pcF(7', - To) n ^ a n f S a t an engineer would write a computer program for the specific problem
TcS- con ideration. I n the 1980s and 1990s, powerful personal computers have be-
where V is the volume ofthe can and = (I), +<!) - d , <f, fi. n ,i o^^ s • ™ m e S a b l e . Furthermore, there is no longer the need,
engineers to write theh own computer programs to implement ^ fi^tie-difte^^^^
or Fig. C.2a and b with B i = 50, 4> = 0 VS^^J = O.ts. ?hus '^^ ""^"^
O) = 0.75 + 0.88 - (0.75)(0.88) = 0.97 fon method. There are many standard - - P ^ S ^ T M I ^ m
Some examples are PHOENICS, SINDA, M I T A S , and MICROCOMPACT Thus
e = (0.97)(967)(4200)(7r)(0.05)2(0.08)(105 - 40) = 161 kJ fn Sis s e c S finite-difference methods are presented with the modest objective of

g m n g the student an appreciation of the essential ideas involved, so that the avail m,n + l

\m~\,n \y m + \,n
the most common three-dimensional element is the t e t r a h e d ™ ^ . « , , ' (x,y) E
method allows the heat eonduefon equation t o L „T„ ^ r — Z Z t

Figure 3.27 Finite control volume

Ac by Ay by 1 surrounding node
(m,w) at tiie location {x,y) used to
derive the difference equation for
-Ax- -hx- two-dimensional steady conduction.

since the sign convention in Eq. (1.2) requhes heat ttansfer into the system to be
positive. The heat conduction across the left-hand face of the element is

Ay • 1

To approximate the derivative of r ( x , y ) we w i h assume a linear temperatiire gradient

between the nodes (m - 1, n) and (m, n); then

3.5.1 A Knite-Difference Method for IVo-Dimensional Steady Conduction which is seen to be poshive for 7;„_i,„ > 7W« • Shnharly, for tiie right-hand, bottom,
and top faqes,

The m and « L ^ c e f d e n o t f x T n H '^^^ suiroundmg node (m, „ ) within the solid,

to tiie finit: l';i';o!uL'?edu^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^"^^P^^' ^PP^^^

0 = ë + év ö . k =

The heat transfer Q is by conduction across the four faces of the element; tixus, The intemal heat generation is simply Q'^ thnes the volume of the element:

Aèv = Ö:"AxAy • 1

Substituting in Eq. (3.83), multiplying by A x / M y , and rearranging,

2(1 + p)T^,^ = r„_, „ + + ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 3 ^^^^^^

where 13 = (AA:/Ay)2 is a geometric mesh factor. For a square mesh A r - A,,

^ = 1, and no internal heat generation, - Ay,

47',„,„ = r„,„+, + T„+i,„ + r „ + ^^^^^^

which simply states that the temperature at each node is the arithmetic average of
the temperatures at the four nearest neighboring nodes. ^ ^
Figure 3.29. Finite control volume used
to derive the difference equation for a
convective boundary condition at x = 0:
two-dimensional steady conduction.
^ '• •— x = (i

As before,

1 ,„. Q.\E =
1 1 T Ax
1 - 1
3 -i Ti,n - T i , „ - i Ax
Qyls =
= -fe A^^ 2

2 TM+1 - Ti,„ Ax
Qy\N == -fc Ay 2

2 3 X
x= x
Q^lo = hciTe - Ti,„)Ay i
Figure 3.28 Nodal mesh for steady conduction in a rectangular plate.
Substituting i n the energy balance and taking Ax = A y ,

he Ax
Boundary Conditions
n.. + i m , . - + w - 2 ' - . . . + ^ ( ' - . = "
TK^'^"'^ I f 'ï'''^' ^ """"P^^*^ "^^^h a rectangular plate o f dimensions X Y
There are M node points i n the x direction and A^node points i n t r ; T e c ^ i o n Biot number is defined as B i = /i.Ax/fe; then solving for n„ gives
I f tiie boundaiy condition is one of prescribed temperature , the t e m p e r a t o r a 2 A mesh
boundaiy nodes are known. I f the boundary condition is o n ; of p S S heat flux
1 T2.„ + k T i , „ - i + T i , „ + i ) + B i r , (3.86)
or convection, then tiie finite-difference f o r m o f the condition is T t Z d by m S
Tl.n = 2 - H B i
an energy balance on a finite contiol volume adjacent to the boundary F ^ L ^ p l e ^

Net heat conduction Heat convection across

into tiie volume face at x = 0 ~ ^ clarity.

Table 3.7 Finite-difference approximations for steady-state conduction, square mesh.

1. Interior node no,y)

Lx T{X,y)
Figure 3.30 Schematic of rectangular
plate with prescribed edge temperatures.

Solution Procedures
2. Plane surface,
convection Consider the simplest case of a rectangular plate with prescribed boundary temper-
&x atures, as shown in Fig. 3.30. Referring to Fig. 3.28, the p ate has d-enston^^^^^^^
To 'T, Bi = hcAx Y with M and N nodes in the x and y directions, respectively; then Ax - X/{M 1),
l : = Y/(N --1). Equation (3.85) is a set of ( M - 2) X (iV - 2) linear algebraic equa-
tions in the ( M - 2) X (/V - 2) unknown interior nodal temperatures T„,,„. I f a coarse
mesh IS chosen so that there are relatively few nodes, matrix inversion or Gaussian
M m Z i can be used to solve the equation set. In writing a computer program to
3. Plane wall,
e ™ h e solution, ah that is required is to cah on a standard subroutine. However,
known heat flux &x
h i ac u a y of a knite-dhference method w i h increase as the mesh size is reduced
To 9s (for an adiabatic surface or plane of symmetry (provided round-off error i n the numerical computations is not intioduced). Thus,
set = 0) yTahy many nodes w i h be used, perhaps 100 or more Then matrix mversion is
l e c o n o m i c a h and more sophisticated ehmination methods shou d be used o take
advantage of he sparseness of the matrix generated by the simple finite-difference
approxSiations described here. Such methods are widely used m practice. Alter-
4. Exterior comer, 1 S y iteratiye solution methods can be used. A simple and easily programmed
To (Ti + T2) + Bir,
convection Ax
'T, l-fBi iterative method is Gauss-Seidel iteration, which proceeds as fohows:
h,Ax 1. A reasonable initial guess T»,,, is made for each of the unknown interior nodal
temperatures. This is iteration zero.

2 New values T^, „ are calculated by applying Eq. (3.85) to each node sequen-
Interior comer,
To ^ ^ [ 7 - 2 + 7-3 + 1(11 + ^4) +Bir,, tially Inhial r " values or, i f avahable, new P values are substituted m the
right-hand side of the equation.
Bi 3 The mesh .is swept repeatedly until, at iteration k, tiie temperatures at each
node are seèn to change by less than a prescribed smaU amount,

1 _

6. Interior node 1 m,n

To =
near a curved (l/a + 1/b) 1 + a + 1 + b' Thefinite-differencesolution is then said to have converged to the exact solu-
non-isothermal tion of the difference equation.
surface a + è(l + b)
a(l + a) The system of linear algebraic equations, Eq. (3.85), is diagonally dominant,
that is when written in matrix form, the largest elements on each row of the co-
IfMent m trirare on the main diagonal. The Gauss-Seidel procedure apphed to

Substituting in the energy balance, taking Ax = Ay, and solving for gives
such a system always converges uniformly to the proper soluhon and never becomes
unstable; however, for a large number of equations, the convergence can be slow
2r,,, - T2,„ - -^(Tx,„^y + 2^u.+i) (3.88)
Many methods have been devised to obtain faster convergence, for example the Ax
alternating-direction implicit and successive over-relaxation methods. Such methods
Equation (3.88) is simply item 3 of Table 3.7 reananged to give q Equation (3.88)
are descnbed m the references hsted in the bibliography at the end of the text.
fs quhe general; however, for a convective boundary condition, the suiface heat can
be just as easily calculated from Newton's law of cooling as q^ - h^Ie i i, J -
Surface Heat Flux

Once the temperature field is obtained, it is sometimes necessary to detennine

the heat flux at a boundary surface. We make an energy balance on a finite control
volume adjacent to the boundary as shown in Fig. 3.31, and proceed as in the EXAMPLE 3.12 Steady Conduction in a Square Plate
denvation of the boundary condition, E q . (3.86). An 8 X 8 cm square plate has one edge maintained at 100°C; tiie other three edges are
maintaLd a"o°C Use'thefinite-differencemethod to deterniine the temperature distribution
Net heat conduction Heat flux across
in the plate. Compare the result with the exact solution given in Secüon 3.3.1.
into the volume face at x = 0 ~
As before, Solution
Given: Square plate with edge temperatures prescribed.
Required: Steady-state temperature distribution using thefinite-differencemethod.
Assumpft-onsXremperatures are constant across the thickness of tiie plate to give a two-
Ay 2 dimensional problem.

Qy\^ = _ f c A " + i - ^ i . « A x The fisure shows the mesh and the prescribed temperatures along the edges. There are nine
Serior nodes bu symmetry about ihe centerline results in only six unknown temperatures,
Ay 2 w S aretbdedVf, 7 . . , T, as shown. From Eq. (3.85), these temperatures are given
and by
Qx\o = ?sAy y
r, = 1(7-3 + 73 + 0+100) 100 100 100
T, = 1(74 + T, + r, + 100)
of-- --40
T, 17-2

T, = 1(75 + 7 4 + 0 + 1.) I
74 = 1(76 + 73 + 73 + 7^) 1 I
7-3 = 1(0 + 76 + 0 + 73)

0 X
T, = 1(0 + 75 + 75 + 74)

For an initial guess, a linear variation in y is assumed, and tiie preceding equations are
evLated in ofder using latest available values. For example, when 7, is evaluated, the
new Sue o f T just obtained is used. The process is repeated until the convergence is
Hgure 3.31 Finite control volume used to s i f l e t o " . The following table shows 16 iterations. Also shown istiieexact solution obtained
derive a difference equation for the surface by evaluating Eq. (3.30).
x=0 heat flux: steady two-dimensional conduction.

Temperature 7, T2 T4 T5 ^6
Initial guess, °C 75 75 50 50 25 25
Iteration level: i+l
k = 1 56.25 65.62 32.81 39.06 14.45 16.99
k =2 49.61 59.57 25.78 32.03 10.69 13.35 TL
k =4 44.61 54.43 20.51 26.76 8.02 10.70
k =8 42.97 52.79 18.86 25.11 7.20 9.88
k = 16 42.86 52.68 18.75 25.00 7.14 9.82
Exact solution 43.20 54.05 18.20 25.00 6.80 9.54 T
Percent error 0.80 2.54 3.01 0.00 5.08 2.93 At

Comments J
1. Notice that the center temperature, T,, is the average of the edge temperatures.
2. At the comers where the temperature is discontinuous, the average value of 50°C can be
assigned. Assigning the average value of 50°C at the comers ensures a zero net heat flow Figure 3.33 Nodal mesh
mto the corner control volume; however these values are not used in the calculations for one-dimensional unsteady
= 0 1 conduction.

3.5.2 Finite-Difference Methods for One-Dimensional Unsteady Conduction

dividing by A f , and rearranging gives
Consider one-dimensional unsteady conduction with no intemal heat generatfon and
t:' =Fo(r,u, + TU,) + a - 2 F o ) r : (3.90)
constant properties. Figure 3.32 shows a finite control volume AJC • 1 • 1 surrounding
node m at location x in the solid. Figure 3.33 shows the mesh where the time where Fo = a At IAx' is the mesh Fourier number. Equation (3.90) is an explich
coordmate is discretized i n steps At and the index / denotes time. The energy relation f o r the temperature of node m at the {i + \)th time step, in terms
conservation principle, Eq. (1.1), is apphed to tiie finite control volume over a time of temperatures at tiie previous time step. In this explicit method, no iteration is
interval At, from time step / to step (i + 1): required. Using given initial temperatures at time f = 0, T » , the new temperatures,
AU = QAt (3 Tl, can be calculated. Temperatures at the boundary nodes 0 and M are fixed by
the'specified boundary conditions. The process is then repeated, marching forward
The increase i n intemal energy f r o m time step / to step (i + 1) is in time.
AU = pc(Ax • 1 • l)(rj,+i - r j , ) Although simple, the explich method has a major drawback: the allowable size
of time step is limited by stability requirements. To avoid divergent oscillations i n
The conduction over the time interval At is taken as the solution, the coefficient for T ; in Eq. (3.90) must not be negative. That is,

QxlwAt = -k- (1 • V)At F o . i (3.91)

T' Since the spatial discretization step Ax is usually chosen to give a desired spatial
QAFM = K l • l)At resolution of the temperature profile, Eq. (3.91) sets a limh on the time step:
^ (3.92)
where the fluxes have been evaluated at time step /. Substituting in Eq. (3.89), Af
I f the boundary condition is other than that of prescribed temperature, the associ-
ated stabihty requirement is more stringent than Eq. (3.92). Consider the convective
m - l boundary condition illustrated i n Fig. 3.34. A n energy balance requires that, dunng
w m+1 Eïgure 3.32 Finite control volume-
Ax Ac by 1 by 1 surrounding node the time step At,
m at location x used to derive Increase in intemal ^ Net conduction ^ Convection across
-Ax- -Ax- the difference equation for one- energy within volume into volume boundary
dimensional unsteady conduction.

1 Rgure 3.34 Finite control volume used
.u ,1. Ax
J.' 1 2 * to derive the difference equation for a
1 convective boundary condition at x = 0:
x=0 one-dimensional unsteady conduction.


p c — ( 1 • i ) ( r j + ' - r ^ ) = fed . 1 ) ^- J ^^0^ t + K(l • 1)(T' - T')At

Rearranging and solving for the new nodal temperature,

r j + ' = 2 F o ( r / + B i j ; ; ) + ( i - 2FO - 2 F o B i ) r J (3.93)

where again B i = h,Ax/k. For stabihty, the coefficient of must not be negative:
C ^2 cs
1 -2Fo -2FoBi> 0 .2
or 3
O T—1
Fo< U
>> 1
2(1 + Bi) (3.94) T3
+ f;2
« — I(S
Since the Biot number is positive, Eq. (3.94) is always a more stringent stabihty B -t-
3 -1-
condition than Eq. (3.91).
The stability criterion limits At to no more than ( A x f / l a , and less i f the mesh c
.2 + cs
Biot number is not small. Thus, i f we wish to improve accuracy by halving the mesh
c ^2 1^ - liN
tl ICS
size A x , the time step At must be divided by four. For accurate solutions using a fine II ll
I f2
spatial mesh size, altemative metiiods are avahable. The implicit method evaluates '•3 + +
(O ^2
the conduction fluxes at time step (i + 1) rather than at step i: O

f i + l _ rpi-tx
QxlwAt = ~k '" " - ' - ( 1 • l)At B

QLAt = - f e l ^ (1 • l)At
The new form of Eq. (3.90) is ll 'tt

j i + l ^ Fo(Ti,\\+Ti„t\) + T' I
c a I
1 + 2Fo ~ (3.95) ë
o o

There are three unknown temperatures i n each nodal equation. The set o f algebraic

equations is tridiagonal; that is, when written i n matrix form, ah the elements of O

the coefficient matrix are zero except f o r those tiiat are on or to either side of tiie U
mam diagonal. To advance the solution through each time step, Gauss-Seidel iter: ao

ation works weh.'» A t time step (/ + 1), the nodal equations are swept repeatedly
' Direct methods, such as successive substitution, may also be used when the equation set is tridiagonal.
until convergence to sufficient accuracy is obtained. Tbe implicit method is uncon-
Sh onally stable, and the choice of the time step size At is dictated by accuracy
m her 2 n stabi ity considerations. As mentioned in Section 3.5.1, there are itera-
f r s c b e m e s that give faster convergence than Gauss-Seidel iteration, and these may
be found in numerical methods texts. When the boundary condition is other than tha
of prescribed temperature, an energy balance must be used at the boundary cont ol
volumes, as was shown for the explich method, but with spatial derivatives evalu-
Ited at time step (i + 1). Table 3.8 lists both explich and implicit forms for a vanety
of boundary conditions. Table 3.9 hsts corresponding results for two-dimensional

' T l X n t o t : explich and implich methods, a third method often used is the
Crank-Nicolson method. Whereas the exphch method evaluates conduction fluxes
at the old time step / , and the implich method uses the new time step (i + I), the
Crank-Nicolson method uses an average of the values at time steps i and (i + 1).
The nodal equation is then more comphcated (see Exercise 3-117). For a given mesh
si^e the Crank-Nicolson method gives more accurate results than either the exphcit
or imphcit methods. Although oscillahons can occur, they never become unstable.

EXAMPLE 3.13 Convective Heating of a Resin Slab

An 8 cm-thick slab of resin is to be cured under an array of air jets at 100°C, as shown
fn the accompanying sketch. If the initial temperature of tiie resin is 20°C d e ™ e the
ïïniperature of thi back face after one hour. Take tiie heat transfer coefficient as 40 W/m K,
and for the resin p = 2600 kg/m\ c = 800 J/kg K, k = 1.0 W/m K.

Given: Slab, convectively heated on one face.
Required: Back face temperature after one hour.;
AssM/Mprions; 1. The back face is weU insulated.
Assumpno ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ coefficient /z,. is uniform over the surface, and k p, and
c are constant.
3. Edge losses are negligible.


2 Ax =2 cm

8 cm I

7, 72 7, 74 7o (exact)
Time Time 7„
The exphcitfinite-differencemethod will be used. Let Ax = 2 cm; then the mesh size-based °C °C °C °C
Biot number is step min °C °C

20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00

0 0.00
Bi = = W(0-02) ^ „ „ I 3.47 52.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 46.32
2 6.93 55.20 28.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 53.30
k 1.0
3 10.40 59.52 32.80 22.00 20.00 20.00 57.68
The stability criterion, Eq. (3.94), is 4 13.87 62.35 36.78 24.20 20.50 20.00 60.85
5 17.33 64.63 40.03 26.42 21.30 20.25 63.32
F < i ^ 1 _
° 2(1 + Bi) 2(1 + 0.8) " 6 20.80 66.48 42.78 28.54 22.32 20.78 65.33
7 24.27 68.04 45.14 30.54 23.49 21.55 67.01
Choose Fo = 0.25, so that the time step is 8 27.73 69.37 47.22 32.43 24.77 22.52 68.45
9 31.20 70.55 49.06 34.21 26.12 23.64 69.71
_ FO(AA-)^ (0.25)(0.02)2 50.72 35.90 27.52 24.88 70.82
10 34.67 71.58
- = T:Ö/(2600 X 800) = s (3.47 min) 72.52 52.23 37.51 28.96 26.20 71.81
11 38.13
12 41.60 73.37 53.62 39.05 30.41 27.58 72.72
Equation (3.90) for the interior nodes becomes 40.53 31.86 28.99 73.54
13 45.07 74.15 54.92
48.53 74.87 56.13 41.96 33.31 30.43 74.31
r„r = [1 - (2)(o.25)]r,;, + o.25(ri_, +TLd 14
43.34 34.75 31.87 75.02
15 52.00 75.55 57.27
= o.5r,;;+o.25(7;;,_, +r,u,) 16 55.47 76.19 58.36 44.68 36.18 33.31 75.69
17 58.93 76.80 59.40 45.97 37.59 34.75 76.32
and Eq. (3.93) for the surface node is 77.38 60.39 47.23 38.97 36.17 76.92
18 62.40
19 65.87 77.93 61.35 48.46 40.34 37.57 77.50
rj^' = (2)(o.25)(r; + o.srj + [i - 2(0.25) - 2(o.25)(o.8)]7;;-
20 69.33 78.47 62.27 49.65 41.67 38.95 78.05
= 0.5(7/+ 0.87-,,)-^ 0.1 r^'

To obtain an appropriate equation for node 4 at the adiabatic surface, we simply set Bi = 0 Comments
in Eq. (3.93) to obtain Notice that, for this cmde calculation using AJC = 2 cm, the stability criterion is not
a significant limitation on the time step. However, if Ax were reduced to, say 0.5 cm to
T[^' = (2)(0.25)ri + [1 - (2)(0.25)]ri = 0.5(7{- + T,)
improve spatial resolution of the temperature profile, At becomes only 13 s. Even this time
The initial condition is 7 = 20°C; thus, the temperatures at the first time step are step poses no problem to present-day personal computers.

Tl = 0.5[20 + (0.8)(100)] + 0.1(20) = 52

7,' = 0.5(20) -f- 0.25(20 + 20) = 20
Tl = 0.5(20) + 0.25(20 + 20) = 20
EXAMPLE 3.14 Quenching of a Slab with Nucleate Boiling
Tl = 0.5(20) + 0.25(20 + 20) = 20
A 4 cm-thick slab of steel initially at 500 K is immersed in a water batii at 310 K and latm.
Tl = 0.5(20 + 20) = 20 Under these conditions, nucleate hailing (see Chapter 7) occurs on the slab surface; the heat
and at the second time step. transfer coefficient is very large and is strongly dependent on temperature difference. An ap-
propriate empirical equation for h, under these conditions is ix, = 140(7 - 7»„,) W/m K,
= 0.5[20 + (0.8)(100)] +0.1(52) = 55.2 where 7,„, is the saturation temperature (boihng point). Determine the temperature profile across
7f = 0.5(20) + 0.25(52 + 20) the slab for a period of 30 s. For the steel, take k = 54 W/m K, a = 1.5 x 10"^ m^/s.
^2 = 0.5(20) + 0.25(20 + 20) 20
= 0.5(20) + 0.25(20 + 20) 20 Solution
rp2 = 0.5(20 + 20) 20 Given: Slab immersed in water; nucleate boiling on surface.

and so on. The results for 20 time steps obtained using a programmable hand calculator Required: Temperature profiles.
are given in the following table. Also shown is the surface temperature 7o, calculated using
Assumption: Edge effects negligible to give a one-dimensional problem.
computer program COND2, which is essentially exact.

The imphcitfinite-differencemethod will be used for this problem and the results will h . K START J
tamed using a computer. Since the prob- ^
lem is symmetrical about the center plane . . . . ,
1 ( Read initial values
ofthe slab, node M = 21 is located on 1
the center plane as shown. Choosing a 1 T
time step of 1 s, the mesh Fourier num- 1 2 3 \
' f
|M=21 Begin Gauss-Seidel
ber is 20 j j iteration
Fo = ~ = (1-5 X 10-^)(1)
Ax2 ^
(0.02/20)2 • = 15 ^ = 1,2,3 M ^ -

Temperatures at the interior nodes m = 2. . . . , M - 1 are given by Eq. (3.95); if m = l X if '"=-'*^

7''+' = 1 + (2)(15)
1 l+2Fo + 2FoBi 1+2 Fo
31 mnv,+T;„t\)+T<] Compute nonlinear boundary
condition by Newton iteration
The temperature at node M is given in Table 3.8, item 4:

T' + l — 1
[(2)(15)71,f, + r ^ ^
1 + (2)(15)
-'21 —

^^e^temperature at the surfaee node . = 1 is given in Table 3.8. item 2, with replaced

? ( l £ ) ( 7 r i + B i r , „ ) + T{
1 + 2(15) + (2)(15)Bi

Bi = AcAx ^ 140(7'/+> - 7;j2(o.o2/20)

^ 54"~ • 2.59 X 10'

3 0 ( 7 r M ^ 2 ^ 1 0 - ( ^ T . ^ l T ^ T[
31 -f- 7.78 X 10-2(r/+' 7, J 2
Since r,''+'


Node 1. The effect of Ax and Lt on the accuracy of the solution should be explored.
1 6 11 16 71
2. The task of writing a computer program is given as Exercise 3-119.
Location x, cm 0 0.5 1.0 0 n
1.5 L.K}
Nodal temperatures, K:
r — 0 s 500.0 500.0 500.0 500.0 son n
1 394.9 471.0 492.0 497.6
2 390.8 451.2 481.2 492.8 The temperature distribution i n a solid is govemed by the general heat conduction
5 387.6 425.8 455.1 472.4 n
H / O.U equation This partial differential equation can be solved usmg classical mathematical
10 385.4
20 r \ 382.5
442.4 AAl
methods or using numerical methods. I n either case, considerable effort is required
408.2 41 n O
to obtain the solution for a particular problem.
30 380.5 385.6 389.8 392.6 393.5

Kayan, C. F , " A n electrical geometrical analogue for complex heat flow" Trans.
ASME, 67, 713-718 (1945).
method of superpositionof s o h S Z ""^^^'^'^y one-dimensional conduction. The
with comphcate?b:ur4^^^^^^^^^ *f 1 ° ' " * - " ^ P-'^lem Karplus, W. J., and Soroka, W W , Analog Methods: Computation and Simula-
A useful product mle ahows ^ t e ™ ^ r ' ' " " " ^ ^ conditions, tion, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hih, New York (1959).
dimensions to be obtained a fVoSnUU ""'"''^^ '^^P'' finite Myers, G. E., Analytical Methods in Heat Conduction, Genium Publishing
dimensions. For examme th « e f S a Z r ^ ^ ^ 1 ' ^ " ? ^ ^ ^^^P^^ -«-te Corporation, Schenectady, N.Y. (1987).
the response of an infinite c X d S r H « ^ " " f "length cyhnder is obtained from
convenient for cal^l^gTwo^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^'^'H ^^^P^ ^ - ^ ^ Gumey H . P , and Lurie, J., "Charts for estimating ^c^^'^^atu're di^^^^^^^ in
surfaces. Solutions for conrtionTrrsem'^^^^^^^ '^'r" ^^«*^™-l heating and cooling sohd shapes," Ind. Eng. Chem., 15, 1170-1172 (1923).
times short enough fortiiepenetot m o f ? ^ ^ " ^ ^ apphcable for Rohsenow, W M . , Hartnett, J. R, and Ganic \ N ds ^ ^ „ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ of Heat
to the body dimLsions The c ™ ' ' ' P ™ ' ^ ' ° ''^ ^'"«'l '^«'"Pared
Transfer Fundamentals, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hih, New York (1985).
calculation' D e t e S n g I t e Z r t l ' Z r T " " ' ^ ""^"^
slabs, cylinders, and sphe es Z ^ s ^ S Schneider, R J., Temperature Response Charts, John Wiley & Sons, New York
by the availabihty o f results in Z h i c T f o l '. ^ P"''' ^^^02 and (1963).
When the shape of a sohdTs u '^""P''^'^'^ ^^^Ponse charts, Heisler M . P , "Temperature charts for induction and constant temperature heat-
solutions to t h e L t ' c r d u c i r S^^^^^^
ing," Trans. ASME, 69, 227-236 (1947).
computer programs for this p u i p o s e ^ e WMX S i r W e a n . " T " ' ' " " " '^'"'^^^'^
be used for any serious t h e m a l design S h v T h t f '^«"^^ Langston, L . S., "Heat transfer from multidimensional objects using one-
presented in great detah. Only the finhe S f f e l n 7 I.T'"'^' ^ ^ ' ^ "ot dimensional solutions for heat loss," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 25, 149-150
only with the objective of Z^nX elZZlST T T''''''^' '""^ (1982).
conduction equation is one of the e l t l ' ^'^^"^"y'heat
the Simplest Lthods ZlZ:^'^^^^^^^' Mitra. K . , Kumar S., Vedavarz, A., and Moallemi, M . K " ^ - P ^ ^ ^ J Y l l
dence of hyperbolic heat conduction m processed meat, / . Heat Transfer, 11 /,
are almost intuitive. However anv seriou. e f f L V T , ' ^ '^^^ mvolved
computer programs to solve the heat ^ 3 , f ""^"P ' ' " ' " ' " ' ' l " «^^^^1^"* 568-573 (1995).
appropriate course i n nurnerical anatsis . T . '^""^'^ P^^'^^ded by an
of convergence, and ^co::^V:XXi^Z''"''''

REFERENCES " Derive tiie general heat conduction equation i n cylindrical coordinates by apply-
ing the first law to the volume element shown i n Fig. 3.3fl.
Derive the general heat conduction equation i n spherical coordinates by apply-
ing the first law to the volume element shown i n Fig. 3.3ij.
Use the methods of vector calculus to derive the general heat conduction equa-
tion (Hint: Apply the first law to a volume V with surface S, and use the Gauss
Mergence theorem to convert the surface integral of heat flow across 5 to a
'o"" Wi'ey & Sons, volume integral over V.)
The cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems are examples of orthogonal
curvilinear coordinates. I n general, we can denote these coordmates by „ «2, "3,
which are deflned by specifying the Cartesian coordinates ;c, y, z as

X = x i U u U l , Ms)

y = y(M|, U2, M3)

Z = Ziu\, Ul, U3)


A coordinate system is orthogonal when the three families of surfaces M, = r = 300 + 200 sin (nx/d) K
Const, U2 = Const, U3 = Const are orthogonal to one another. The figure
shows an elemental parallepiped whose faces coincide with planes M, or «2
r=300 +100 sin (ny/b) K
or U3 = Const, with edge lengths A, JM,, hjduj, hdu^ where hj are r=300 K
called the metric coefficients. The length of a diagonal is given by
nl — ' »•
ds' = h^du] + hjdul + hjdul "0 T=300 K fl Jt

In terms of these coordinates, the components of the (i) Determine the steady-state temperature distribution i f there is negligible heat
temperature gradient are loss from the sides.
(ii) I f a = b, determine the center temperature.
j _ dT_
hi dui A thin 20 cm-square plate, with negligible heat loss from its sides, has three
hi dui hs ÓU3
h^du- Al du. edges maintained at 20°C, and a fourth edge has a temperature distribution
The divergence of the heat flux is given by r = 20(1 + sin77;c/L)°C, where L = 20 cm, and x [cm] is mea-
sured from one comer.
V q = (i) Determine the temperature at the midpoint of the plate.
hi hih^ ~(h2h3gi)+-£-(h3hiqi)+^^(hihiq3)
(ii) I f t h e plate is 3 mm-thick stainless steel with k = 16 W / m K , determine
and V'T is the rate of heat supply required to maintain a steady state.
A thin rectangular plate, 0 < x < a, 0 < y ^ i ' , has the following boundary
V'T = conditions:
hi hihi [ h i d U i ] dUi \ hi dUi] dU3 h3 dU3l
^ = 0, 0 < y < : T = 300 K
(i) Identify the metric coefficients for the cyhndrical coordinate system, and ;t: = a, 0 < y < & : r = 300 K
hence write down V'T in cylindrical coordinates,
(h) Repeat for the spherical coordinate system. • y = 0 : 0< X <a : qy = 0 (insulated)
y ^ b: 0 < X < a : T = 300 + 300 sin(7r;c/a)
3-5. One face of a block of ice is observed to recede at a rate of 0.22 mm/min. I f
the ice has been melting for some time, calculate the temperature gradient in (i) Determine the temperatore distribution in the plate i f h has negligible heat
the water adjacent to the ice surface. The density and enthalpy o f fusion of ice loss from hs surface.
at 0 ° C are 9)0 kg/m^ and 0.335 X 10*^ J/kg, respectively (ii) I f a = ^7, find the center temperature.
A thin rectangular plate, 0 < x < a, 0 < y ^ ^ has the following temperature
3-6. A thin rectangular plate, 0 < < a, 0 < y < è , with neghgible heat loss from
distribution around its boundary:
tis sides, has a linear temperature variation along the edge at y = b given by
T = 2 0 + 1 0 0 ( ; c / a ) ° C . The other three edges are maintained at 20°C. Determine X = 0, 0<y < b : T = 300K
the temperature distribution T(x, y).
X = a, 0<y <b: T = 400K

3-7. A thin rectangular plate 0 < x < a, 0 < y < è has the following temperature y ^0, 0<x<a:T = 320 K
distnbution around its boundary:
y = b, 0<x <a: T = 3S0K
X = 0, 0 <y < b : T = 300K Determine the temperature distribution in the plate i f h has neghgible heat loss
X = a, 0<y <b: T = 300+ 100sin(7ry/è) K from hs surface.
y = 0, 0 < < a : r = 300 K A thin rectangular plate, 0 < x < a, 0 < y < ^ with negligible heat loss from
its sides, has the following boundary conditions:
y = è, 0 < x < a : r = 300 + 200 sin(7rj;/a) K

fl, 0 < y ^ and fl, <C L, the bar length, is

-17. A long rectangular bar 0
X = 0, 0 < y < b : T = 300 K heated with a uniform heat flux q. on the surface y = b. The other surfaces are
X = a, 0 < y < b : T = 400K cooled by steam condensing at temperature T,,. Determine the temperature dis-
tribution Tix, y) and the maximum temperature.
y = 0, 0 < X < a : qy = 0 (insulated)
(i) Show that the heat dissipated by a straight rectangular fin of thickness 2t,
y = b, 0 < X < a : T = 500K -18.
allowing for two-dimensional heat conduction, with boundary conditions
(i) Determine the steady-state temperature distribution. r = at X = 0 and dT/dx = 0 at x = L , is
(ii) If a = b, determine the center temperature. tanh mrtl2L h£
Bi =
3-12. A n 8 X 8 cm square plate^with negligible heat mr k
n odd UTT tanh — + 1
loss from its sides has boundary conditions as 2 BiL
indicated. Obtain an analytical solution for the
temperature distribution, and evaluate the center (ii) Write a computer program to evaluate QIDIQXD, with Ö m given by Eq^
temperature. r=o''c
(2 40). Explore the error incurred by using the one-dimensional fin model
as a function of B i and tIL.
Copper plate, r=300 K
-19. I n a natural convection test rig, a glass
partition 1 cm thick and 4 cm high sep-
3-13. A thin rectangular plate 0 < x < a, 0 < y < è, has a constant heat flux q, arates two copper plates. The lower
through die edge at y = b, and ah other edges are isothermal at temperature T,. plate is maintained at 340 K , while the
Determine the temperature distribution and also the heat flow through the edge upper plate is maintained at 300 K . The
at y = 0 for fl = ah temperature on each side of the par-
1 cm Copper plate, r=340 K
tition is 320 K , and the heat transfer
coefficient is 6.0 W/m^ K .

Determine the heat flow at the bottom and the top of the partition

(i) assuming one-dimensional conduction.

(ii) assuming two-dimensional conduction.
Take k = 0 78 W / m K for the glass. You w i h need the roots of Eq. (3.67)
wWch are given i n the following table for an appropriate range of Biot number.

Bi A, A2 A3 A4
0.100 3.145 6.285 9.426
3-14. A long rectangular b a r O < x < f l , -b < y < b with a = 2b, and a, b <^ L, 3.148 6.286 9.427
0.02 0.141
the bar length, is heated at x = 0 with a uniform heat flux and is insulated at 0.05 0.222 3.157 6.291 9.430
X = a and y = 0. The side at y = Z? loses heat by convection to a fluid at tem- 0.1 0.311 3.173 6.299 9.435
perature T,. Determine the temperature distribution T{x, y). 0.2 0.433 3.204 6.315 9.446
0.5 0.653 3.292 6.362 9.477
3-15. A long square bar has three sides maintained at temperature T,, and the fourth 3.426 6.437 9.529
1.0 0.861
loses heat by convection to surroundings at temperature T^. Determine the tem-
perature distribution over the bar cross section. 20. Radioactive wastes dissipating 500 W are tempormly stored m a 2J^-diameter
spherical container, the center of which is buried 5 m below the ground in a
3-16. Determine the temperature distribution i n a thick, long rectangular fin by formu- ocation where the soh is relatively dry I f the ground-level te-perature does ^
lating and solving the appropriate two-dimensional conduction problem. (Use not exceed 30°C at any time, estimate the maximum temperatiire the container
Eq. (2.33c) as the tip boundary condition.) Also determine the base heat flow might attain. Take k for the soh as 0.6 W / m K .
and compare it to the result for a long thin fin, namely, Q = 2Wtk(TB - 7^^)^-

S 25 A 15 cm-O D . pipe is buried with its centeriine 1 m below the surface of the
high, 90 cm square on the mside, with a waU thickness of 30 cm The gas inlet l u n d A n oh of specific gravity 0.8 and specific heat 1950 J/kg K flows m the
temperature is 500 K , and the ambient ah temperature is 300 K D e t e X "he j r a t 0 "m3/min.'lf the 'ground surface temperature is 25°C and the pipe wah
gas outlet condition for wind conditions that give an outside heat tra ™ o S ? temperamre is 95°C, estimate the oh temperature drop, m kelvins per meter.
Take k = 1 W / m K for the soh.
?5 W m" I ' "^'"^ t i a n s f e r S S e n t as
15 W/m K , the specihc heat o f t h e gas mixture as 1100 J/kg K , and the con- 3-26. A buried insulated power cable has an outside diameter of \ c m and is l m be-
crete conductivity as 1.13 W / m K .
low the surface of the ground. What is the maximum allowable d^sipation^^^^
unh length i f the outer surface of the insulation must not exceed 350 K when
L r L * ^ ! " / " ' f °^ P'^"'^"'^*^ dimensions 1 m wide, 1 m T e ground surface and the deep soh are at 300 K? Take = 1 W / m K for the
high and 1.5 m deep. The walls are 50 cm thick and made of zirconia brick
At steady operating conditions the inside temperature is 700°C, and the ambient soil.
3-27 A 25 cm-diameter o ü line is buried with its centerline 60 cm below the ground.
5 W/m K , estimate the heat loss from the kiln. Take ;t = 2 4 W m K for Assuming a soh temperature of 10°C and a soU thermal conductivity of 0.8
zircoma bnck. rv/m jv ior
W / m K estimate the'steady-state heat loss from the pipe (in W/m) when the oh
is at 90°C.
tures r, and T, respectively ' is,
^ ^ from
" ' ^ Eq. (2.14), ^^'^^ '•^ ^ ' ^ ' i ^ tempera-
(i) Ignore the inside thermal resistance. ^« • , • onn sc
(ii) Recalculate your resuh i f the inside heat ttansfer coefficient is 300 W / m K .
^ ^ 2 ^ r ^ L ( W ) è , r
3-28 A 20 c m - O . D . steam pipe is buried 1.5 m below the ground surface in dry
ln(r/.,) - ~ IM'^'T; soh. Steam flows through the pipe at 1.2 kg/s. Assuming a grourid surface tem-
perature of 15°C and saturated steam at 1.1 X 10= Pa, estmaate the steam con-
which can be interpreted as the temperature
densation rate per 100 m of pipeline.
due to a line source of strength g at r = 0 ,

expressed in terms of the temperature T, 3-29 A smah laboratory oven is cubical in shape with an inside edge 20 cm long.
at a reference radius n. Derive the shape It i^nsulated J h 6 cm of medium-density fiberglass. What power supply is
factor 5" given by item 8 of Table 3.2 by requhed to maintain an interior temperature of 440 K wheti the ^ambient temper-
a ature is 20°C and the outside heat transfer coefficient is 7 W / m
superimposing the temperature fields of a
line source Q below the ground and a line 3-30. A 20 c m - O . D . pipe is buried 1 m below tiie surface of the grotind. Hot water
sink -Q above the ground, in a mhror i m -
/ ,. flows in the pipe at 500 gal/min. Assuming a pipe wah temperature of 70 C,
age position as shown. Define an excess
estimate tiie lengtii of pipe m which the water tetnperami^ decreases by 1 C
temperature T - T2, where T2 is the ground
when the ground surface is at 10°C. Take the soh thermal conductivity as
surface temperature, and show that the i
isotherms are concentric circles with origins 1 W/m K.
a t x = 0, y = a(l + c ) / ( l - c), and 3-31 A n electrical power cable has a 20 cm-O.D. sheath and is buried with its center
radu 2c'/2a/(i - c), where c is a constant ^ 2 m below ground level. The trench is back-fihed with Fire VaheY toal
parameter. Also show that the ground sand, which has a thermal conductivity 0 1.1 W / m K dry, ^X) W / m K
surface is an isotherm. when saturated with water. Note that this latter value is an effective one. it is
Wgher than the thermal conductivity of water (~ 0.6 W / m K)^ I n the presence of
3-24. A n 8 c m - O . D . pipe, 200 m long, is enclosed a Temperature gradient, water evaporates i n hotter regions and condenses in
m 15 cm-square concrete and submerged i n
ofd7regions,'thereby ttansporting enthalpy of vaporization that augments the
seawater at 10°C. Although originally used as
ordinary fhermal conduction. I f the ahowable outside ^ m p e f ure of f;^^^
a fresh water pipeline, h is under consideration
is 60°C, determine the maximum power dissipation per umt length for a ground
as a temporary o i l pipeline. I f the oh flow rate
surface temperature of 25°C.
IS 0.6 kg/s and the inlet temperature is 120°C,
estimate the oh outlet temperature. The oil --r-4:'Concrete>V::-i 3-32. A slab 2L thick, initially at a uniform temperature To, has its ^"^^^^s sud^^^^^^^
specific heat can be taken as 2000 J/kg K . lowered to temperature T,. Simuhaneously a volumetnc heat source is acti-
vated within the slab. Show how you would analyze this problem to determine dU_ pudx =
or qs-0 = pc{T - TQ)dx (1)
the temperature response. {Hint: Try a superposition of a steady and a transient Q = dt dt dt
where the initial temperature To is chosen as the datum state for intemal energy
3-33. Show why the constant for Eq. (3.38) cannot be positive or zero. (i) Assume that the temperature profile is parabolic, T = A + Bx + Cx' with
3-34. A thick slab of Pyrex glass, initially at 350 K , has the temperature on one sur- constants obtained from boundary conditions, and hence show that
face suddenly dropped to 300 K . Calculate the time needed for the location
1 cm below the surface to decrease in temperature by 5 K. X } 2k {2a,b)
'-{Ts - To)
3-35. A 4 cm-thick slab has an initial teniperature of 100°C. At time r = 0 the tem Ts - To
perature of the one surface is lowered to 50°C and the other to 0°C. Determine (ii) By substituting Eqs. (2) in Eq. (1), show that the thermal penetration 5
the heat flux out the colder side at t = 2000 s. Take k = 0.35 W/m K a =
satisfies the differential equation
0.15 X 10-^ m'/s for the slab material.
^ 6a (3)
^"jIlT^f^f Louis a sudden storm reduces the ambient air to dt - 8
Q - 1 5 C . If the ground was at a uniform temperature of 20°C before the storm
(ih) Finally, show that the heat flow into the solid is given by
what IS the surface temperature after 4 hours, and to what depth below the sur-
face wtil the freezmg temperature have penetrated? Take = 1 2 W/m K k{Ts - To)
a = 0.40 X 10-Ö m'/s, = 20 W/m' K . Ignore any phase change effects'. (3a 0 1/2
3-37. Derive Eq. (3.63) by assuming a solution that has the functional form and compare this result with the exact solution, E q . (3.59).
T - Csxp(-px)sm(a>t - qx) + D, and determine C , p, and g by sub- At a ski resort in the Sierra Nevada mountains, the winter ground-surface tem-
stituting back mto the goveming equation. 3-42. peratui Jpically varies between - 1 0 and 12°C each day, while the in-depth
3-38. To determine whether a new composite material can withstand thermal cycling L ü tempemture is +1°C. How far below the surface should a water pipe be
wtihout degradmg, a thick slab is subjected to heating, which causes the surface buried to prevent freezing?
temperature to vary m an approximate sinusoidal manner with an amphtude of
A thennocouple is installed in the cylinder wah of a two-stroke internal com-
200 C and a penod 50 s. I f the thennal conductivity and diffusivity of the com 3-43.
bu tiorrngine 1.0 mm below the inner surface. In a particular test the engine
L T n ' h r " ^ ^ T / ^ ^ ^ ^ n S n Z h ' Z ^ ^ i oïemtes at 2500 rpm, and the thennocouple reading is found to have a mean
and phase lag of the temperature variation 1 cm below the surface. vafufof 290.0°C and an amplitude of 1.08°C. If the temperatiire variation is
3-39. Water pipes are to be buried in a geographical area that has a mean winter tem- stm^d to be sinusoidal, estimate the amplitude of the ^ y ^ ^ f ^ ^ T ^ ^ , ,
perature of about 5 C but is subject to sudden drops m ah temperature to about temperature variation and the phase difference. Take a = 12.0 x 10 m / s for
- 1 0 C for a maximum duration of 48 hours. Estimate the minimum depth of the carbon steel wall.
the pipes needed to prevent freezing. Take a = 0.5 X lO-^ m'/s for the soil.
3-44. A thin, flat electrical resistance strip heater
is sandwiched between a firebrick wah and a 1—AISI 1010 steel
3-40. A 5 mm-thick steel firewah is suddenly exposed to a radiant heat source that can

to reach 500 K t?h " f
K if the initial
V ''''
temperature of tiie wall ''^"^
is 300 K ? ^^'^^ the surface
thick AISI 1010 steel plate, both initially at
300 K The heater is switched on and gener-
ates heat at a rate of 50,000 Wm'. Plot the
*— Electrical heater

3-41. The integral method can be used to solve the prob- temperature of the steel surface adjacent to the
lem of conduction in a semi-infinite solid subject heater as a function of time for 10 seconds.
to a step change in surface temperature. If it is as-
sumed that temperature changes peneti-ate only to A long rod is weh insulated along hs.sides. A heater varies ^e temperature
X = 5, the first law applied to a control volume of one end face sinusoidally from 100 to 200°C with a penod of 90.9 s. Two
of unit cross-sectional area located between x = 0 thennocouples, 10 and 70 cm from the heated - d , record te^p^^^^^^^ T^e
and X = S gives phase difference between the peak temperatures is found to be 15.0 mm. It the

density of the rod material is 8300 kg/m^ and hs specihc heat 470 J/kg K what
is its thermal conductivhy? '

3-46. Estimate the depth below the ground at which the annual temperature variation
w i l l be 10% of that at the surface for
(i) dry soh, k = 1.0 W / m K .
(ii) wet soh, k = 2.0 W / m K .

Repeat for the diurnal temperature yariation.

3-47. A mrbine component in the preburner section of a turbopump for a rocket mo- 10Ü 150 200 250 30Ü

tor is made from Inconel X-750. A "thermal barrier" coating of 0.3 mm-thick Time, s

YSZ (yttrium-stabilized zirconia) is plasma-sprayed on the surface. This coating

has a high reflectance and can significantly reduce the radiation heat loads on 3-51 A method for experimentally determining convective heat transfer coefflcients
cooled surfaces. Upon start-up, the surfaces are initially at 30°C and are sud- m involves use of a plastic model coated with a liquid crystal paint. The liquid
denly exposed to hot gases at 800°C, with an estimated effective heat transfer crystal is chosen to have a color transition at a convenient temperature The
coefficient of 180 W/m" K . Plot the surface and interface temperature as a func- model is initially isothermal at temperature To, and is suddenly exposed to the
tion of time for short times. Take k = 5.0 W/m K for YSZ.
gas flow at temperature T,. The time elapsed tiU the color transition is observed
is recorded. Conduction into the plastic is modeled as conduction into a semi-in¬
3-48. Associated with the annual variation o f the weather, the average ground sur- finite solid i n order to relate the observed temperature response to the heat ttans-
face temperature at a given location w ü l have a maximum i n summer and a fer coefficient. I n a particular experiment, To = 20°C, T, = 45°C, and the color
mimmum m winter. I f you dig a hole exactly six months after the maximum transition temperature is 38.0°C. I f the time measured is 9 3 s, determine he
occurs, how deep w i l l you have to dig to reach the peak of the resulting tem- heat ttansfer coefficient. Take k = 0.24 W / m K and a - 0.12 X 10 m / s for
perature response, and what w i h be the percent decay of the amplimde'? Take
the plastic.
a = 1.2 X 10 « mVs for the soh diffusivity

3-49. The temperature of the outer 2 m m of skin on the forearm can be taken to be
32°C when the ambient a h is at 25°C. I f your arm suddenly contacts a slab
of alummum at 100°C, what is the skin surface temperature untü blood flow
responds to the change i n conditions? Repeat for slabs of 18-8 stainless steel
Pyrex ghss, -and Teflon. For skin tissue take k = 0.37 W / m K , a = 0.1 X
10 mVs.

3-50. The Fourier heat conduction equation has been used to obtain tbe temperatare-
time response during cooking of meat (see, for example, Exercise 3-69) How-
ever, recent experimental smdies [15] have found processed bologna meat to ex-
hibit an anomalous behavior. I n one experiment, two identical samples at
different temperatures were brought into contact with each other. One sample 3-52 A proposed procedure f o r measuring convective heat ttansfer coefficients
was refrigerated at 8.2°C, the other was at a room temperature o f 23 1°C Ther¬ m underneath an impinging j e t uses the end o f a copper rod as the heat trans¬
mocouples were inserted at the interface and in the room temperature sample fer surface. The end of the rod is coated w i t h a thin layer of material tor
at a distance of 6.3 m m f r o m the interface. The graph shows the measured which the mehing temperature is precisely known. The surface is suddenly
temperature-time response. Compare this response with a predicted response ' exposed to a hot gas f l o w and time to melting measured. B y embedding the
based on the heat conduction equation. Measured properties o f bologna meat are rod i n a low-conductivity insulator, conduction out the sides of the rod can
k = 0.80 ± 0.04 W / m K , p = 1230 ± 10 kg/m^ = 4660 ± 200 J/kg K
224 225

V56 Derive Eq. (3.69); that is, show that the constants A„ in the solution for the
feSperature response of a slab with flnite surface resistance are given by
ture o f 300°C
" ^ , and
ana aa rnaHn<r
coatmg ^meltmg
u- pomt° o f 55 5°c
C, a gas stream tempera¬
2 sin A„
^" " kn + sin A„ cos A„

solid mode] to be a d ™ . ^ ' ' ^ " ' ' " ' ^ ^^'^ ^^mi-infinite where A„ are the roots of cot A - A / B i .
(u) Repeat the calculations for a tvoe AIST 309 =fpi„i The nozzle of an experimental rocket motor is fabricated from 5 mm-thick al-
3-57. l y steel The combustion gases are at 2100 K , and the effective heat transfer
of s t o l e s ., tap„ve ,he ^ e " "
(..,) Repea. calculations for a Teflon rod and comment o„ ,he,, coefhcient is 6000 W / m ' K . I f the nozzle is initially at 300 K - d he maxi-
mum allowable operating temperature for the steel is specified as 1300 K ,
Evaluate properties at 300 K.
is the allowable duration of firing? To obtain . conservative estin^te^ ne-
Gas flow
glect the heat loss f r o m the outer surface of the nozzle. Take k = 43 W / m K ,
a = 12.0 X 10"* m'/s for the steel.
I f the pebble bed air heater of Example 3.10 were packed with 6 cm iron
Melt layer 3-58.
spheres, what would be the resuh?
A 2 cm-thick ceramic slab has a thin metal sheath for protection. The contact
resistance between the ceramic and metal gives an interfacial conductance of
1600 W / m ' K . The slab is initially at 300 K and
is suddenly exposed to a hot ah stream at 1500
K with a convective heat transfer coefficient of ^ ^
800 W / m ' K . How long w i h h take for the cen-
ter of the slab to reach 1200 K? The ceramic ^ = «oo w/m^ k
properties are Tc = 150Ü K
i ^ : : : ^ ^ . y i b r c ^ r ^ r t h ^ ^ ^ T ; ^ ^« - - - ^ -
of 20°C, how long w i 1 it ta^r^nr ,h T / ' ^ '^'^ ^"^^ial temperature p = 2600 kg/m^
- Metal sheath
c = 1150J/kgK

' a X ™ . i ' r : h i ï r i t ï ï i ^ f - ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ i - k = 3.0W/mK

give a heat transfer coeffic
back face after
o f 2000 f' T' WSK S ^ "^^'^^
^ ™ ^ ' ^^^^^ is the temperature of the
(i) 5 minutes? 3-60. A 1 cm-thick slab of hard rubber, initially at 15°C, Seated by s.tura^^^^^^^^^
(ii) 1 hour? at 140°C. As soon as the center temperamre reaches 125 C, the «lab is removed
and allowed to cool in 25°C ah until the center temperature falls to 35 C How
Repeat for a chrome brick slab long Z each stage take? Assume a very large heat transfer coefficient for the
heating process, and a value of 8 W / m ' K for the cooling process.
3-61 A 3 cm-diameter rod of a composite material is initially at 30°C. h is immersed
r.:S'"^ for ,he sphere .o lose 90% o f e n ^ ^ ^ ^ ; S ~ L o a^hamber in which saturated steam at 120°C condenses on the rod and
heats it When the centerline temperature reaches 1 l O X , the rod is removed and
(i) cork aflowed to cool in 20°C ah unth the center fahs to 30°C. How long does each
(ii) Teflon g l tate? Assume a very large heat transfer coefficient for the heating process,
(hi) A I S I 302 stainless steel and a value o f 15 W / m ' K for the cooling process. Properties of the composite
(iv) pure aluminum include p = 1500 kg/m-\ c = 1800 J/kg K , = 1.2 W / m K .
3-62. A slab ~L < r < T • • • • i
to maintain a steady state w i l l be measured and Table 3.2, item 7 used to calcu-
late k. Evaluate the practicality of this procedure.

3 69 A 4 kg beef roast, roughly spherical i n shape with a diameter of 20 cm, is re¬

SS?r—^^^^^^^ -I m moved from a 5°C refrigerator and placed i n a 150°C oven, h is desired to raise
the center temperature to 70°C. How long should the roast be cooked? Assume
that the meat has the thermal properties of water and that the heat transfer coef-
hcient is 12 W / m ' K . I f the roast lost 0.4 kg of its mass by evaporation, make
a rough estimate of the entiialpy of vaporization absorbed and compare this to
the sensible enthalpy change of the roast.

3-70 A blank for a telescope mirror is a 25 cm-diameter, 5 cm-thick disk of glass.

M The blank is at room temperature, 20°C, and is placed i n an oven at 420 C
3-64. A long bar of AIST ^Tft * • i f for stress reheving. I f the heat transfer coefficient is 12 W/m'K, how long
w h l h be before the minimum temperature i n the glass is 400°C? Take k -
1.09 W / m K , a = 0.51 X 10"* m'/s for the glass.

3-71 A 15 cm-diameter, 30 cm-long 18-8 stainless steel billet at 20°C is placed

É in an oh bath at 300°C. The heat transfer coefficient may be taken to be 400
W / m ' K . Determine the center temperature after 500 s have elapsed
c ™ ,0 be IOO W / . ^ K , a„d * = , <; ' t f / x T o ' ^ S T r f
(i) using the lumped thermal capacity model.
(ii) assuming the billet is long compared to hs diameter,
(hi) accounting for the flnite length of the cylinder.

tVSr"'- ' ^ P ™ " » M o h e s 85-C I slab k ï ^» 3-72 Plywood is to be cured between plates maintained at 105°C by condensing
H steam. How long w i h h take to cure a sheet 1 cm thick i f the mmimum tem-
perature must reach 95°C and hs initial temperature is 25°C?

.a, - - / . o e « S f . - C r ; r b e ^ i „
3-73. Rework Exercise 3-65 for h, = 200 W / i n ' K.
3-67. A can of beer at 300 JC is i
3-74 A n egg which may be modeled as a 4 cm-diameter sphere with the thermal
a properties of water, is initially at 5°C and is immersed in boihng water. Deter-
- P 0 - . ..O. . w f s . . ^ e r i x r r ^ ™ mine the temperature at the center of the egg after

(i) 4 minutes,
(h) 7 minutes.
Take the outside heat transfer coefficient as 1200 W / m ' K .

3-75 A large rectangular safe has a 10 cm-thick asbestos insulation. I n a fire the out-
B side of the insulation is estimated to be 800°C. How long must the fire last to
destroy papers that char at 150°C contained i n the safe? At the outbreak of the
fire the safe was at 20°C. Take a = 0.4 x 10"* m'/s for the asbestos.

3-76. A cylindrical A I S I 302 stainless steel pin 83. Repeat Exercise 3-81 for a sphere.
2 cm j n diameter and 10 cm high initially A regenerative heat exchanger (see Section 8.2) has a matrix in the form of
at 20°C is suddenly exposed to saturated : 2 cm diameter parallel plates of plastic 6 mm thick, at a
steam at 1 atm pressure. A thermocouple
is located on the centerhne of the cylinder i Tliermocouple n
1^- ll cm;:
spacing of h m m . I f the convective heat
transfer coefficient for the fluid flow is ap- Plastic vN
6 mm
1 cm from the top of the pin. What tem- n;::; location;;;;;;;
proximately 4fe/fc, where k is the gas con- 'b
perature will the thermocouple record after ; 10 cm; ductivity, estimate the overah heat transfer —
(i) 10 s? coefficient for heat ttansfer from the fluid
;;Saturated steam;;
(ii) 100 s? ;;;;•;; at l atm;;;;;;;; into the plates. Tabulate your resuhs for h =
1, 2, , . . , 10 m m . Take = 0.15 W / m K for
3-77. Repeat Exercise 3-76 for a 2 cm-square the plastic and 0.10 W / m K for the fluid.
Transient heat conduction i n chrus fruits is of concem to famiers who must de-
ve op strategies to prevent freezing during cold weather. A relatively simple
3-^ A 20 cm-long, 25 cm-O.D. fused silica glass cylinder initially at 30°C is procedure for detennining the themial diffusivity of a citnis fruit evolves ^n-
^ fnwf '2 ' ^""^"'^^ I f the heat transfer coefficient is estimated to be stTlhng a thennocouple at the center of the f r u h and detemuning the tempera-
20 W / m K , prepare a graph o f the center temperature as a function of time. M p o n s e when the f r u h is placed in a rapidly stined water bath maintained
3-79. A water stomge tank for a nuclear power plant in Tennessee is 10 m high and at 0°C. The following table gives some typical data for a 6.8 cm-diamete
has a 13.5 m diameter. It is insulated on the top and sides with a 7.6 cm-thick grapefmh. Estimate the thernial diffusivity and compare your value to that of
msulation of k = 0.05 W / m K . The water is maintained at 22°C by four immer- water at 10°C.
sion heaters. I f the power to the heaters is switched olf, how long w i l l i t take 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
t, mm 0 5 10
'^'Tru T F " ' T ^ ^^^^^g^ ^"^W^'^t air temperature is 18.0 15.8 13.0 10.8 8,4 7.2 5.8
Tr°C 20.0 20.0 19.6
5 C? The tank is located m a sheltered position adjacent to some large build-
ings. (Hint: A rough estimate of tiie outside heat transfer coefficient w i l l suffice.) (i) A slab of thickness L is initially at a unifonn temperature To. The face at
3-80. A 10 cm cube of Inconel-X alloy is removed from an oven at 810°C and X = 0 is perfectly insulated. At time f = 0, a constant heat flux is
imposed on the face at x L . Show that the temperature response is
quenched in coolant at 40°C, giving a heat transfer coefficient of 800 W / m ' K
Calculate the time required for T-To 3x'-L' ^. at _ i 2_ ^V ( - 1 ) " e - (-« " ' ' ' ' / —
talu?"*^' temperature to undergo 95% o f its decrease to the equihbrium q^LIk " „=1
(Ü) I f a negative heat flux equal tii - g . iS subsequentiy imposed at time t tl,
(ii) a 95% fractional energy loss.
show that the temperature response for f > ?i is
Compare the two results and comment. ntrx
T-TQ ah _ (-1)"
3-81. A n interior heat transfer coefficient h can be defined for heat conduction out of qsL/k L' n = ^l
a convectively cooled slab of thickness 2L as
^ ^ -k(dT/dx%^:^
T - r,

f^fpo ÏOTM'^Ï^ dimensionless Nusselt number Nu = h(lL)lk.

tor Po > 0.2, Nu has a constant value
Show that

2A.f sin A.,

Nu = ;
sm A., - X, cos A.1
which for B i 0 0 is 7r^/2 = 4.934.
(Hint: Use the principle of superposition for a linear differential equation.)
3-82. Repeat Exercise 3-81 for a cylinder.
230 231

3-87. (ii) Using a node spacing of Ax = 0.5 cm, use Gauss-Seidel iteration to obtain
(i) A slab of thickness L is initially at a uniform temperature TQ The back
face at X = 0 is perfechy insulated. At time ? = 0, a laser deposits an temperatures T2 through T5 for five iterations.
amount of energy E per unit area on the face at x = L. Determine the Take fc = 15 W / m K for the stainless steel. Neglect the tip heat loss.
temperature response. {Hint: Let ö ( x , t) be the temperature response for a
unit uniform surface heat flux obtained by setting = l i n the resuh of T,,= 20°C
Exercise 3-86, part (i). Then, following part (ii) of Exercise 3-86, show that
Ax = 0.5 cm ["^
tne required temperature response is
,dd{x, t)
by imposing a heat flux for time At and then letting At 0 such that
qsAt — E.) 3-94. Write a computer program to solve Exercise 3-93. Explore the effect of node
(ii) Hence show that the time for the back-face temperature rise to equal half of spacing on the accuracy of the solution.
its maximum rise is t^ = 139L'/Tr'a. 3-95 A 2 mm-thick, 4 cm-long, sttaight rectangular composite material fin has a
3-88. The analysis o f Exercise 3-87 forms the basis of a technique for measuring the base temperature of 400 K and is located i n a vacuum system. The fin has an
thermal diffusivity of thm samples. I n an experiment on a 1 mm-thick lami- emittance of 0.85 and sees nearly black vessel wahs at 360 K.
nate, a CU2 gas laser is used to deposh approximately 0.2 X lO^^ iim' of en- (i) Develop a finite-difference formulation of this steady one-dimensional con-
ergy over a period o f 200 nanoseconds. The back-face temperature is measured
duction problem. Use a radiation heat transfer coefficient to account for the
using a type K thermocouple, and the /xV-time trace is as shown. Estimate the
thermal diffusivity of the sample. radiation heat transfer. u ^ f
(ii) Using a mesh size of Ax = 1 cm, obtain temperatures T2 through T5 for the
first iteration.
50 Take fc = 4 W/m K for the composite material. Neglect the tip heat loss.

T 1 20

r„. = 360K

—5.] AJT = 1 cm
3-89. Write a computer program to solve Example 3.12.
= 4JX1K ;
3-90. Write a computer program to solve the problem of Example 3.12, but allow for
- £, = 4 cm -
of^he soZtn ^''^^'''^ ^^^''^ ^ ^""""^"^ ' ' ^ ^ ° f convergence

3-9L M o d i f y the computer program of Exercise 3-90 to solve Exercise 3-10 numeri- 3-96. Write a computer program to solve Exercise 3-95. Explore the effect of mesh
CHlly. laRe uib — 2.
size on the accuracy of the solution.
3-92. A n 8 X 8 cm square plate has one edge maintained at 100°C, whereas the other 3-97. Write a computer program to calculate the shape factor given as item 5 of Table
toee^edges are exposed to a fluid at 0°C with a heat transfer coefficient of 10 3.2. Take alb = 2.0. Check the formulas given i n the table.
W/m K. M o d i f y the computer program of Exercise 3-90 to obtain the tempera-
3-98. Derive the finite-difference approximation formulas for steady conduction given
ture disttibution in the plate. Take fc = 1.0 W/m K.
as items 3, 4, and 5 of Table 3.7.
3-93. A S t t a i g h t rectangular stainless steel fin is 2 mm thick and 2 cm long h has a
3-99. For steady conduction, derive the finite-difference approximation for an interior
base temperature of 100°C and is exposed to an airflow at 20°C with a convec-
tive heat transfer coefficient o f 300 W / m ' K. node near a curved nonisothermal surface. (See item 6 of Table 3.7.)
3-100 Write a computer program to solve for the temperature disttibution and fin ef-
(i) Develop a finite-difference formulation of this steady one-dimensional heat
conduction problem. ficiency of a straight rectangular fin, ahowing for two-dimensional conduction.
232 233

3-105. A n 8 cm X 4 cm plate has edge temperatures maintained at 40°C, 20°C, 20"C,

Compare your numerical results with the analytical formula given i n Exercise
3-18 for t = 0.5 cm, L = 3 cm,fc= 1.0 W/m K, / i , = 4 W / m ' K. and 0°C, as shown. The faces are well insulated. Write a computer program to
solve for the temperature distiibution using Gauss-Seidel iteration. Allow for an
3-101. Modify the finite-difference approximation fonnula for a convective boundary arbitiary mesh size. I f the plate is 1 cm thick and has a thermal conductivity of
condition, given as Eq. (3.86), to include the effect of intemal heat generation 200 W / m K, attempt to calculate the heat flow across tbe edge at 40°C. Obtain
Qv • results for mesh sizes of 2 cm X 1 cm, 1 cm X 0.5 cm, and 0.25 cm X 0.125
3-102. A 4 cm-square plate has edge temperatures maintained at 60°C 40°C 20°C cm. Explain the anomalous behavior of the heat flow. (Hint: Determme the cor-
and 0°C, as shown. The faces o f the plate are well insulated. Use Gauss-Seidel ner temperamres by requiring that the net heat flow into a corner control volume
Iteration on a 1 cm-square mesh to solve for the steady-state temperature distri- is zero.)
bution. Give the interior node temperamres after the first and second iterations.
T= 40°C
r = 60°c
' ^~ —^-— 1
1 1
11 1 r=o°c 1. Ill
T 8 cm

1 till

! T= 20°C -v

T= 20°C

1 1
3-106 A long 4 cm-square bar has opposite sides maintained at 100°C and 0°C, and
the other two sides lose heat by convection to a fluid at 0°C. The conductivity
1 of the bar material is 2 W / m K , and the convective heat transfer coefficient is
1 100 W / m ' K. For the given mesh use Gauss-Seidel iteration to determine the
I 1
T= o°c temperatures through T; after the first and second iterations.

3-103. Wnte a computer program to solve Exercise 3-102, allowing for an arbitrary r= iüo°c

mesh size. Also attempt to calculate the heat flow out the edge at 0°C i f the
plate is 3 mm thick and has a thermal conductivity of 200 W / m K Explore the
effect o f mesh size on the calculated heat flow by obtaining results for mesh
sizes of 1 cm, 0.5 cm, 0.2 cm, and 0.1 cm: explain the anomalous behavior ob¬

1 cm J

1 r, = o°c
r,. = o ° c • i •
3-104. ;,,.= 100W/m2K
I,, = 100 w/m- K
A n 8 cm X 4 cm plate has edge temperatures maintained at 40°C 20°C 20°C
and 0°C, as shown. The faces of the plate are well insulated. Use Gauss-Seidel
Iteration on a 2 cm X 1 cm mesh to solve for the steady-state temperamre dis-
lïl, I
tnbution. Give the interior node temperatures after the first and second itera-
tions. I I
4 L

= 40°C
3-107. Write a computer program to solve Exercise 3-106, allowing for an arbitrary
mesh size. Also determine the heat flow into the side at 100°C. Explore the
effect of mesh size on the calculated heat flow for mesh sizes of 5 mm, 3 mm,
and 1 mm.
3-108 A long 8 cm-square bar is heated uniformly at 80 W / m ' on one side; the oppo-
site side is maintained at 0°C, and the other two sides lose heat by convection to
234 235

3-111 A 3 cm-square plate has its edge temperatures maintamed at 30°C, 20 C, 10 C,

and 0°C as shown. The faces of the plate are well insulated. Use Gauss-Seidel
iteration'on a 1 cm-square mesh to obtain the steady-state temperature distribu-
tion. Give the interior node temperatures after the first four iterations.


</.v = 80W/m2

1/, 10°C
f 20°C
I -) an ->

r,, = 0°C
/i<=20W/m2K 7,
( ~ — -— „4
..,.,-1.— -4- r,. = o''c O'C
\h /i,=20W/m2K

i 3-112. Repeat Exercise 3-111 using a direct method to solve the finite-difference equa¬
3-113. A long, 3 cm-square bar has one side maintained at 50°C, the opposite side is
4 -4 —1-
well insulated, and the other two sides lose heat by convection to a fluid at 0 C.
The conductivity of the bar material is 2 W / m K , and the convective heat tians-
3-109. Write a computer program to solve Exercise 3-108, allowing for an arbitrary fer coefhcient is 200 W / m ' K .
(i) Derive finite-difference approximations at the bottom comers for steady
conduction. , T
(ii) For the given mesh, use Gauss-Seidel iteration to obtain temperamres T,
0°C a r r o t h e r . ' ' ' "^r""' ' " " ^ ^ ' ^ temperatures maintained at 60°C and through Tft for three iterations.
u c, and the other two surfaces are maintained at 30°C.
(iii) After the third iteration, perform an energy balance on the bar.
(i) Use Gauss-Seidel iteration on a 1 cm-square mesh to solve for the steadv
state^temperature distribution. Iterate until the solution has c ^ e d whMn r=5o''c

(ii) I f the conductivity o f the bar is 1 W / m K , obtain the heat flow across each
surface and show that energy is conserved. ^
T, = 0°C r<. = o°c
/i,. = 200W/m2K = 200 W/m^ K


3-114 Equation (3.88) gives a finite-difference approximation for the surface heat flux
valid for steady two-dimensional conduction. Extend this result to account for
an intemal heat generation Q'".


3-115. A long, 4 cm-square bar has opposite faces maintained at 80°C and 0°C re- 3-120. For one-dimensional unsteady conduction, derive the implich form of the finite-
spectively, and tbe other two lose heat by convechon to a fluid at 0°C An elec- difference formula for the convective boundary condition given as item 2 of
tnc cun-entflowsin the bar and causes a resistance heating of 3 X 10* W / m ' Table 3.8.
3 121 For one-dimensional unsteady conduction, derive both the explich and implicit
SLoemSnt isTSo W / m - r ^ ^^"^ ^ ' ^'^^ "
forms of the finite-difference formula for a boundary where the surface heat flux
is known (item 3 of Table 3.8). In the case of the explich f o n n , also denve the
stability criterion.
3 122 For two-dimensional unsteady conduction, derive both the explich and implich
fornis of the finite-difference approximation for a convective boundary condition
at a plane surface. For the explicit case, also derive the stabhity criterion. (See
Table 3.9, item 2.)
7-= 80°C
3 123 For two-dimensional unsteady conduction, derive both the explich and implicit
forms of the finite-difference approximation for a known heat flux boundary
condhion at a plane surface. For the explich case, also derive the stability cnte-

r r rion. (See Table 3.9, item 3.)



r,, = o°c
/i,.= ISOOW/m^K
3-124 For two-dimensional unsteady conduction, derive both the explich and implich
forms of the hnite-difference approximation for a convective boundary condition
at an exterior comer. For the explich case, also derive the stabhity criterion.
(See Table 3.9, item 4.)

! i 3-125 For two-dimensional unsteady conduction, derive both the explich and implich
4- 1 i. forms of the finite-difference approximation for a convective boundary condition
7'= 0"C
at an interior comer. For the explich case, also derive the stability criterion.
(See Table 3.9, item 5.)

3-116. Write a computer program to solve Exercise 3-115, allowing for an arbitrarv 3-126 A large slab of polyvinylchloride 1 cm thick is i n contact with fluid on cither
mesh size and resistance heating rate Q';. Also calculate the heat loss toTe side On one side the heat transfer coefficient is 20 W/m' K , and on the other
it is 40 W/m' K . Initially both fluids are at 20°C, and the system is m thermal
oft cmlTcm a^d^^^^^^^ T ^^''^"^^^^^ for mesh L s equilibrium. Suddenly the fluid temperatures are raised to 100°C. Determine the
t^Vlo^c^tiSnX'^^^^^^^ ^ m p l m ^ f '''''' — ^ on time required for the center of-the plate to reach 80°C.
3-127 A large slab of 5 cm-thick Pyrex glass is to be cooled slowly from an initial
3-117. The Crank-Nicolson method has been widely used for finite-difference numeri
uniform temperature of 400°C by an an-ay of air jets impinging on each side
cal solution of unsteady heat conduction problems. Whereas the e x Z h ^^^^
of the slab The ducting of the air is such that on one side the air is at 20 C,
evaluates conduction fluxes at the old time step, and the i m y f c h meAod u^ f ^
he new time step, this method uses an average of the old and t t new D e ^ e whereas on the other side h is at 70°C. The convective heat transfer coefhcient
the nodal equations conesponding to Eqs. (3.90) and (3.95). on both sides can be taken as 30 W/m' K . Determine the temperature at the
center of the slab after 3 hours have elapsed.
3-118. Write a computer program to solve Example 3.13. Allow for an arbitrarv mesh
3-128 A plate-glass slab with initial temperature To is suddenly exposed to a gas and
surroundings at temperature T,. The slab loses heat by forced convection and
radiation The convective heat transfer coefficient can be assumed constant, and
radiation can be calculated for a small gray body in large, nearly black sur-
(i) he = 280(r - T,,if W/m' K . (i) Give the equations required to solve for the temperature response using the
(ii) he = 600(7 - 7:,,,)' '* W/m2 K . explich finite-difference method. Discuss the appropriate stability cntenon.

3 132 A 3 cm-thick A I S I 302 stainless steel plate coated with black oxide is suddenly
(n) Obtain numerical results for two time steps with a mesh size of 1 cm and a exposed to a solar radiation flux of 900 W / m ' , of which it absorbs 89%. The
mesh Fourier number of 0.1. Numerical values of the parameters are k = back side of the plate is insulated. The exposed side loses heat by convection to
1.75 W / m K , a = 0.75 X 10"* m'/s, slab thickness 2 1 = 8 cm Ta = air at 20°C with a heat tiansfer coefficient of 6 W / m ' K , and by reradiation to
600°C, = 0°C, A, = 50 W / m ' K , s = 0.91. the sunoundings also at 20°C. The emittance of the surface is 0.75. The initial
3-129. A large slab of 8 cm-thick soda lime glass is to be cooled slowly from an initial temperature of tbe plate is 20°C.
temperature of 300°C by an array of air jets impinging on each side of the plate (i) Derive tbe explicit form and stability criterion for the finite-difference
The air temperature is 30°C, and the convective heat tiansfer coefficient on both approximation of one-dimensional conduction at the surface node T^.
sides IS 44 W / m K. On the given mesh, use the explicit method to calculate the (ii) For the given mesh, calculate the nodal temperamres for tbe first four time
nodal temperamres for the first five time steps. Use a mesh Fourier number of steps by the explicit method. Use a Fourier number of 0.4 but show that it
0.3 but show that it satisfies the appropriate stability criterion. satisfies the appropriate stability criterion.
{Hint: Use a radiation heat transfer coefficient to account for reradiation.)


;,,. = 44W/m2K 71, ?, 7, Ï, 7;j /,,. = 44W/ni2K

3-130. Write a computer program to solve Exercise 3-129, allowing for an arbitiary
number of nodes. Obtain tbe temperature distribution at ? = 20 minutes using 5, 3-133 A type 316 stainless steel bar is 20 cm long, 3 cm wide, and 4 mm thick. Water
10, 20, and 40 nodes. Compare your result to the exact solution obtained from ' at 20°C impinges on each side face of the bar, giving a convective heat transfer
coefficient of 6500 W / m ' K. The initial temperature of the bar is also 20°C, and
at time ? = 0 an electric cunent is passed through the bar, givmg a volumetiic
3-131. A large slab o f 3 cm-thick Teflon at 20°C is exposed to a radiative heat flux heat generation of 86.7 MW/m^.
from a high temperature heat source of 3500 W / m ' on one side, and is cooled
by an array of air jets on the other side. The jet air temperature is 10°C, and the (i) Derive exphcit finite-difference approximations for nodes TQ, TI, and T,.
convective heat transfer coefficient is 35 W / m ' K . For the given mesh, calculate (ii) For the given mesh, calculate the nodal temperamres for the first four time
the nodal temperatures for the first four time steps using the explich method steps by the explicit method. Use a Fourier number of 0.3 but show that it
Use a Founer number of 0.2 but show that it satisfies appropriate stability crite- satisfies the appropriate stability criterion.
ria. Neglect radiative heat ti-ansfer from the slab surfaces to the sunoundings • r.

— — 3 t'm ——

9,ad = 3500W/m2
- a.—..- r,,= io°c
/i,. = 35 W/m-K
r, 7-,
240 241

tno^V cm-thick glass is to be cooled from an initial temperature of

4UÜ L by an array of air jets impinging on each side of the slab. The air tem-
peramre is 20°C, and the convective heat transfer coefficient on both sides is es- 3500 W/m2 1 cm - »j

tim^ated to be 30 W / m ' K . The glass properties can be taken as fc = 1.5 W / m K

a - 0.8 X 10 ' m / s . On the given mesh, use the explicit method to obtain the
node temperatures for five time steps. Use a mesh Fourier number of 0 4 but
show that It satisfies the appropriate stability criterion.

3 140 Write a computer program (or use a spreadsheet) to implement the solution pro-
cedure of Exercise 3-139. Ahow for an arbitrary mesh size and length of time
step. Investigate the effect of number of nodes and length of time step on the
temperature profile at f = 100 s.

7-,. = 20"C 3-141 Repeat Exercise 3-132 using the imphcit method. Give the finite-difference ap-
= 2o°c
/!,. = 30W/m2K proximations for the given mesh, and use Gauss-Seidel iteration to perform
•'•(! r, /i<=.30W/m2K

three iterations at the first time step. Also check the temperatures at the first
time step using a direct method.
3-142 Write a computer program (or use a spreadsheet) to implement the solution pro-
cedure of Exercise 3-132. Ahow for an arbittary mesh size and length of time
step. Investigate the effect of mesh size and time step length on the temperature
profile at t = 1000 s.
3-135. Write a computer program (or use a spreadsheet) to implement the soluhon
3-143 Repeat Exercise 3-133 using the imphch method. Give the finite-difference ap-
procedure of Exercise 3-134. Allow for an arbitrary mesh size and mesh Fourier
proximations for the specified mesh, and use Gauss-Seidel iteration to perform
number. Explore Üie effect o f mesh size on the temperature profile at f =
five iterations at the first time step. Also check the temperatures at the first time
1000 s. Also compare your results with the exact solution from COND2.
step using a direct method.
3-136. Repeat Exercise 3-134 using the imphcit method. Give the finite-difference ap- 3-144 Write a computer program (or use a spreadsheet) to implement the solution pro-
proximation for the given mesh, and by Gauss-Seidel iteration perform five iter-
cedure of Exercise 3-143. Allow for an arbittary mesh size and length of time
ations at the first time step. Use Fo = 0.4.
step. Investigate the effect of mesh size and time step length on the temperature
3-137. Write a computer program (or use a spreadsheet) to implement the solution pro- profile at f = 100 s.
cedure of Exercise 3-136. Allow for an arbitrary number of nodes and length of
time step. Investigate the effect of number of nodes and size of time step on the
temperature profile at t = 1000 s. Also compare your results with the analytical
solution usmg C 0 N D 2 .

3-138. Repeat Exercise 3-136 using a direct method to solve the finite-difference equa-
tions at the first time step.

3-139. A large slab of 3 cm-thick Teflon at 20°C is suddenly exposed to a radiative

heat flux of 3500 W / m ' from a high temperature source on one side, and is i n -
sulated on the other. Reradiation and convection from the exposed side can be
assumed to be negligible. Using the implicit method, give the finite-difference
approximations for the 1 cm mesh shown, and perform five iterations at the first
time step usmg Gauss-Seidel iteration. Also check the temperatures at the first
time step by direct solution o f the difference equations. Use Fo = 0 4


244 245

INTRODUCTION 4.2.1 The Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient

Fluid motion past a surface increases the rate of heat transfer between the surface
In the preceding chapters, we have seen that engineering calculations of heat rnn and the fluid. We are ah aware of how a brisk wind increases our discomfort on a
cold day A flowing fluid transports thermal energy by virtue of its motion and it
does so veVy effectLly Resulting convective heat transfer coefficients can be very
large. To define the heat transfer coefficient, we consider three tYP^s « f J l o - ^^^^
an extemal forced flow, (2) an intemal natural-convection flow, and (3) an intemal
forced flow.

Forced Flow over a Cylinder

Figure 4 1 shows isotherms around a heated cylinder mounted ttansversely in
a wind tunnel. As tiie ah velocity increases, the isotherms on the windward side
move c l o ^ r together. At a sufficiently high velocity, the heated fluid is confined
to a very thin tlermal boundary layer, which has approximately the same thick-
ness as the hydrodynamic boundary layer. The flow on the leeward side of the
cXder Ts mo're complex, and when flow separation occurs, large-scale vortices
a ^ shed from the cylinder. Fourier's law is not only valid m a « y solid bu
h also applies in a moving fluid. Thus, as the isotherms move closer together and the

any other program in the software package Before CONV k 3 H , '^"^"^^y ^''f"


Figure 4.1 Flow over a heated

cylinder: the effect of velocity on
isotherms, (a) Re = 23, {b) Re =
120, (c) Re = 597. (Photograph by
E . Soehngen, courtesy Professor
<4 J. R Holman, Southem Methodist
University Dallas.)
temperature gradient normal to die cylinder surface increases, so does the resulting Tc
1. Stationary fluid
heat conduction. Indeed, the fluid i n contact witii the cylinder is stationary due
V I S C O U S action, and heat can be transferred from the cylinder surface into the fluS
Evenly spaced
by conduction only Thus, tiie local convective heat transfer rate is given by isotherms since
conduction only

= -k —
.v=o (4.1)
where y is the coordinate direction normal to the surface and k is the fluid thermal 2. Cellular flow
conductivity On the other hand, Newton's law of cooling, Eq. (1.20) defined The
convective heat transfer coefficient by the relation Iff'rr
J III 1.' (a) Streamlines

where is the surface temperature and is the fluid temperature i n the free stream
Combinmg Eqs. (4.1) and (4.2), Tc

^ ^ ~k{dT/dy)l^o
T - Te (4.3) (b) Isotherms

The effect of increasing the fluid velocity is to steepen the temperature gradient at
the surface, thereby increasing the heat transfer coefficient. «

Natural Convection between Two Horizontal Plates 3. Turbulent mixing

Figure 4.2 shows an intemal natural-convection flow A layer o f fluid of thickness Isotherms are close
T ^ " '"^^ isothermal plates and heated from below For small values together in the
viscous sublayers
andTl f T r T ' P^'^' t^^^Peratures ( J , - Tc), the fluid is stationaiy,
and the heat transfer through the layer is by conduction only However i f (T^ - Tr )
IS increased to a critical value, the fluid becomes unstable, and a cellular flow
pattem is set up. The circulation o f fluid i n a cell convects warm fluid upward and
the l a v e f '
""V"" ^ " " ^ ^ ^ ^ higher rate of heat transfer across
the layer, the isotherms adjacent to each plate move closer together. I f (Tf, - Tr)
Figure 4.2 Natural-convection fiow regimes for a layer of fluid between
two horizontal isothermal plates. The temperature difference (TH - Tc)
IS further increased there are transitions to increasingly more complex flows unti increases from regime (1) through regime (3). Cellular flow streamlines
cellular flow is replaced by a chaotic turbulent motion. The core of the fluid layer and isotherms courtesy Professor G. Mallinson, University of Auckland.
IS then almost isothermal, with the major temperature variation confined to a very
thm VISCOUS sublayer adjacent to each plate, where viscosity serves to damp the rather than i n terms of some fluid temperature. A n average heat ttansfer coefficient
turbulence motions. The engineer is usually concemed with heat transfer froni one
is appropriate since for cellular flow is not constant over each plate. As before,
plate to the other, as, for example, i n a covered flat-plate solar collector, rather than
the heat flow can be expressed i n terms of conduction i n tiie fluid adjacent to the
from one of the plates into the fluid. Thus, h is usual to define tiie average heat
tiansfer coefficient for such configurations i n terms of (T^ - Tc), that is, plate surfaces at y = 0 and y = L:

dT_ (4.5)
qsdA = dA = dA
Q A dy
(4.4) dy

Insulation >

. yT(r)

/ ^ ( r ) ! \
Kgure 4.3 Temperature profiles for f 1 >
0 r R 0 r R
0 r R
laminar and turbulent flow in a tube.
(a) Laminar flow, (b) Hirbulent flow. Figure 4.4 An adiabatic mixing chamber for measuring the bulk temperature.

where hb is the bulk enthalpy I f we assume constant properties (p and Cp) and an
enthalpy datum state of / i = 0 at T = 0, we can write h = CpT, and
Flow in a Tube
Figure 4.3Ö shows a temperature profile for laminar flow in a tube some distance puCpTlTTr dr = puCpTblTvr dr = CpTbih
f r o m the entrance. I n this case, the thermal boundary layer extends to the centerline
of the tube, and hs tiiickness is independent o f velocity As a resuh, the temperature from Eq. (4.6), since Tb is not a function of r. Canceling Cp gives
gradient at the wall is also independent of velocity, as is the heat transfer coefficient
(cf Eq. 1.21). Turbulent flow is shown i n Fig. 4.3b. I n this case, an increase in _ p»r27rr dr
velocity produces a more vigorous turbulent mixing in the core o f flow, and there Tb =
is a resuhing thinning of the viscous sublayer adjacent to the wah, with an increase
which allows the bulk temperature to be calculated i f the velocity and temperature
in the heat transfer coefficient (cf Eq. 1.22). For an intemal flow, such as flow in
profiles across the flow are known. Now consider an element of tube Ax long, as
a tube or annulus, it is customary to deflne the heat transfer coefficient i n terms of
shown in Fig. 4.5, and once again apply the steady-flow energy equation:
the bulk temperature, which is the temperature the fluid would attain at a given axial
location i f it were diverted into an adiabatic mixing chamber and thoroughly mixed, rR rR

as shown in Fig. 4,4 for flow in a mbe. The velocity profile u(r) w h l be parabolic q^lTTRAx = puCpTlTTr dr — puCpTlirr dr
0 x+Ax J0
i f the flow is laminar, or much flatter i f the flow is turbulent. The mass flow rate m
[kg/s] is obtained by integrating over the cross section, where qs is the wah heat flux. Using Eq. (4.7),

qslTTRAx = mCpTb\x+Ax - rnCpTb\x

m = [ pulTvrdr ^ i ' ^ ' ^ .4
Dividing by Ax and letting Ax ^ 0 ,
Jo ~ ^ '
dTb (4.8)
and, by mass conservation, is the same entering and leaving the chamber. Application
qslTvR = mcp —
of the steady-flow energy equation, Eq. (1.4), to the chamber requires simply tbat
the rate at which enthalpy h, enters and leaves the chamber be equal: I f we deflne the heat transfer coefficient in terms of bulk temperature, that is,
•R rR
, _ qs (4.9)
puhlirrdr = puhtlrrr dr
• 0 Jo ' T - Tb

ficient is seen to be equivalent to Eq. (1.26) for an extemal flow on an isothermal

qs2nRhx wah. Equation (4.11) w i l l prove useful for problem solving. When the exponent
hc2TTRL/mCp is much less than unity the fluid temperature change is small, r,,,out
Th in- On the other hand, when it is greater than about 3, the fluid outlet temperature
approaches the wall temperature, r/,,out — T^..
Table 4.1 summarizes the three dehnitions of the convective heat transfer coeffi-