You are on page 1of 11



&KDSWHU
7ZLWWHULQ+LJKHU(GXFDWLRQ
1HZ3HGDJRJ\LQWKH.QRZOHGJH
(UDRI*OREDOL]DWLRQ

Krishna Bista
University of Louisiana – Monroe, USA

$%675$&7
Twitter as a micro-blog in higher education has been considered a new pedagogical tool for social and
academic communications among educators and students since its inception in 2006. Twitter provides
space and opportunities for students and faculty to engage in social and academic activities as a new
pedagogical tool. Despite the limited research on Twitter as a learning tool, a significant number of
educators in the US, the UK, Australia, and other parts of the world have used Twitter to interact with
students, to share course information, and to collaborate research among educators. This chapter pres-
ents existing literature on Twitter and debates on the usage of Twitter in higher education as a learning
pedagogy.

,1752'8&7,21 on social network sites (e.g., Facebook, Twitter,


LinkedIn, YouTube, and foursquare) has explored
In the past few years, researchers and educa- the relationship between educational outcomes and
tors have significantly used and participated in social networking (Gouseti, 2010; Kirschner &
online social networking in higher education. Karpinski, 2010), student and faculty relationships
Online social media has strengthened the digital (Malesky & Peters, 2012; Veletsianos, 2012), and
knowledge of educators at the global level. Digital student engagement and social presence (Dunlap
invention mainly in the field of Web-based literacy & Lowenthal, 2009; Junco, Elavsky, & Heiberger,
has bridged the gap between the technologically 2013).
advanced and less-advanced countries . Research

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4757-2.ch010

Copyright © 2014, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.
7ZLWWHULQ+LJKHU(GXFDWLRQ

In this digital era, younger students and a Twitter can be used for promoting and dissemi-
growing number of instructors are technologically nating opinions, articles, and quotes (Grosseck &
driven to engage in social media (Veletsianos, Holotescu, 2008).
2012). These students and their faculty are socially This chapter briefly discusses the use of Twit-
networked among peers and friends. According to ter as social media pedagogy in disseminating
the Pearson research, about 60 percent of faculty information concerning higher education. It also
out of 1921 participants reported using at least includes a comparative analysis of positive and
one social media site monthly (Moran, Seaman, negative perceptions regarding the application of
& Tinti-Kane, 2011). In the Faculty Focus survey, Twitter in higher education classrooms, student
16.5 percent of higher education faculty out of engagement inside and outside the classroom,
840 participants reported using Twitter daily com- and research on collaborative interactions among
pared to 44.6 percent of faculty using Facebook education in research application.
(Bart, 2011). In another study, about nearly half
(46.5 percent) of faculty out of 831 never used
Twitter, but 11.4 percent of them were willing to 5(/$7('/,7(5$785(
use Twitter in the future (Faculty Focus, 2010).
However, there are debates on the effectiveness In the age of digital literacy, there are differ-
of the use of different social networking sites in ent academic and non-academic communities,
an educational context. Through the use of online cultures and sub-cultures across the globe. The
learning spaces, scholars and educators have ad- techno-literate practice is not well defined as
vocated ways to engage diverse students of the young people are becoming digital natives, and old
21st century. Opinion varies regarding the use of people are becoming digital immigrants (Prensky,
social networking sites as instructional tools with 2001). In less than a decade of history of social
a promotional purpose to socially connect with media (LinkedIn was founded in 2002, Facebook
students and alumni. Although in the past few in 2004 and Twitter in 2006), academic societies
years, social networking in higher education has are gradually experiencing social media and their
been a rapidly growing phenomenon, research on effectiveness in higher education as pedagogical
Twitter is in its early stages (Veletsianos, 2012). tools. Today’s learners are socially, culturally,
Twitter is a fairly new social networking site and technologically different from the learners of
that offers micro blogging services. It offers past decades because of the rapid digital innova-
learners and educators opportunities to interact tion in higher education. Learning communities
via Twitter posts, also called Tweets, on Smart- inside and outside the classroom are more diverse
phones, laptops, iPods, and any devices with linguistically and demographically. To engage
Internet access. Twitter is the most popular free technically savvy learners in the 21st century,
application, with almost one million users who researchers have advocated the importance of
can send and receive messages via the Web, short incorporating social media as pedagogical tools
message service (SMS), instant message clients, (Blair, 2013; Limbu, 2011; Rockinson-Szapkiw
and through third party applications (Grosseck & Szapkiw, 2011).
& Holotescu, 2008). When Twitter is used for In this context of Web 2.0 classroom practices
class discussion, it facilitates students’ skills of to meet the competing demands and challenges led
summarization by consolidating their thoughts by globalization and evaluation in social media
with concise and precise syntactic structure and usages in teaching and learning, Twitter has been
vocabulary in their tweets (Bart, 2010). Moreover, used distinctively in college education across dis-


7ZLWWHULQ+LJKHU(GXFDWLRQ

ciplines. Existing studies have shown a significant past few years, professors have become interested
positive role of social sites in communicating in using Twitter in their classrooms. For instance,
with students as a learning tool in the classroom two professors of economics at the University of
(Blair, 2013; Junco, Elavsky, & Heiberger, 2013; Bristol in the United Kingdom have experimented
Veletsianos, 2012). with Twitter in the classroom. They used Twitter
There are limited studies on the use of Twitter to teach history to undergraduate students where
in higher education. A few researchers and edu- professors can tweet links, announcements and
cators have begun considering the use of Twitter discussions on Twitter. In the United States, a
for educational purposes (Ahrenfelt, 2009; Fac- few professors at the University of Texas at Dal-
ulty Focus, 2010; Hart, 2009; Ramsden, 2009). las and at Liberty University have experimented
According to the research conducted by Faculty with Twitter in the classroom (Ramdsen, 2009).
Focus (2009), more than half of nearly 2000 fac- Professors found greater student participation
ulty participants responded that they had never while using Twitter in a large class of 90 or more
used Twitter. Of the total, 30.7 percent of faculty students.
reported using Twitter, and less than half of them Twitter has been used in teaching numerous
used Twitter to communicate with students. The courses including history, geography, business and
remaining 12.9 percent of respondents said they language learning. Yuan (2012) explored whether
tried Twitter in the past but no longer use it. The using Twitter made any impact on students’
majority of participants who did not use Twitter performance in English writing and reading in
questioned the educational relevance of Twitter a Taiwanese college as a doctoral research proj-
and “expressed concerns that it creates poor writ- ect. The researchers provided the same learning
ing skills,” and faculty also expressed the fact that materials to the sample 56 students in the Twitter
they did not know how to use Twitter or didn’t user group as in the non-Twitter group. The results
have time to use it (Faculty Focus, 2009, p. 2). The indicated that the different learning approaches
faculty who used Twitter, according to the Faculty did not make a signification impact on the learn-
Focus (2010) survey, gave a variety of reasons for ers’ reading and writing performance, but Twitter
using it: “to share information with peers” and assisted learning had a significant positive influ-
“as a real-time news source,” instructional uses ence on the learning attitudes (Yuan, 2012). In a
such as “to communicate with students” and “as qualitative study, Veletsianos (2012) examined
a learning tool in the classroom” (p. 2). In the about 4500 tweets from 45 faculty participants
survey, 56.8 percent of faculty reported that they who held a doctorate and actively used Twit-
were likely to use it in the coming academic year, ter for educational purposes. The results of the
and 2.5 percent would be likely to decrease their study showed that the participants used Twitter
usage of Twitter in the coming year. to share information, resources and media related
Since Twitter’s launch in 2006, educators in to professional practices (Veletsianos, 2012).
higher education seem to use the on-line social Dunlap and Lowenthal (2009) found that Twitter
media platform more and more in teaching and was a helpful information exchange platform to
learning. Researchers and educators have been increase students’ learning. Luttrell (2012) found
constantly seeing its maximum potential usage as a positive correlation between the effectiveness
a pedagogical tool, as a tool for advertisements, of Twitter in comprehension and application of
and a tool for making social connections. Twitter course material and students.
can be included on Blackboard (as this is the most Educators have also used Twitter to enhance the
popular teaching platform in U.S. colleges) and social presence of students. In a study conducted
both students and instructors find it helpful. In the at the University of Colorado at Denver, the in-


7ZLWWHULQ+LJKHU(GXFDWLRQ

structors used Twitter to encourage their students micro-feedback and responses in real time (Priego,
to post in a variety of ways: to post questions and 2011). Other research has also indicated the role
queries to one another, to send student to student of Twitter in establishing a learning relationship
direct messages, to share resources, to link to stu- between students and instructors through the pro-
dent blogs, to comment on conferences that their cess of sharing ideas, resources and reflections
friends were attending, and to exchange personal (Blair, 2013; Ebner, Lienhardt, & Meyer, 2010).
information (Dunlap & Lowenthal, 2009). The Twitter has bridged a gap between the personal
authors have reported that Twitter can enhance and professional lives of students and educators.
students’ perceptions of a sense of “social pres- For instance, researchers in China and Hong Kong
ence” that helps promote student involvement, investigated Tweets posted by 26 users to see the
commitment, and retention. The flexibility of relationship between Twitter in social capital and
Twitter illustrates how Twitter enables students its outside and inside worlds, and they found that
to participate in a wide range of interactions from Twitter activities have significant impacts on the
private messages between peers to arranging lives of people (Ye, Fang, He, & Hsieh, 2012).
meetings and to engaging in learning processes. Within a short time span, Twitter has been used
A team of researchers used Twitter to collect as both a pedagogical and research tool in various
data on student learning activities at Sheffield educational disciplines. Students and teachers are
Hallam University (Aspden & Thorpe, 2009). In not only socially connected, but also increasingly
that study, 15 students were recruited to participate finding a sense of belonging through interactions
in a two-week experiment in which students were in social sites.
required to Tweet three times a day on average
about their learning activities and the spaces they
were using (http://twitter.com/learningspaces). :+$7,67:,77(5$1'+2:
When Twitter was used as an informal platform, 726(783)257+(&/$66"
students were more comfortable sharing informa-
tion while using it as a data collection tool. The Launched in October 2006, Twitter is an infor-
researchers and students used the direct message mation networking tool that allows its users to
function to send the information. The researchers post a topic or a discussion no longer than 140
reported that Twitter was a data collection tool characters. Twitter requires the users to create an
with “the ability for participants to update any- account like on Facebook. Twitter includes several
time, almost anywhere and through a variety of features for sharing information such as timeline
devices that are integral to their lives (cell phones, (chronological display of messages) and other
laptops, desktop PCs)” (Aspden & Thorpe, 2009, settings, either private or public. In addition to
p. 24). They also found that the 140 character sharing short messages and “Retweet” services,
limit on Twitter forced students to tweet concise it allows users to share Web links, photos, videos
and focused information. Such case studies sug- and other media content. In 140 characters or less,
gest the possibility for Twitter as a research and people share ideas and resources, ask and answer
pedagogical tool of higher education. questions, and collaborate on problems of practice.
Salter (2012) has offered a number of tips Creating a Twitter account for a classroom
about using Twitter in the conference backchan- purpose may take a few minutes if the faculty
nels (i.e., include a Twitter handle on every member has not had an account before. First,
slide, use Twitter-friendly links). Twitter enables you need to sign-up by clicking the following
conference participants and speakers to actively link https://twitter.com/ and by filling out the re-
engage in discussion, since the users can Tweet quired information (e.g., name, e-mail, password,


7ZLWWHULQ+LJKHU(GXFDWLRQ

department or college link, a brief bio.). Second, this, the teacher has to create quiz on a different
select the options under the profile setting which Website such as Twtpll (http://twtpoll.com/) or
allow the user to select whom to share informa- Poll Daddy (http://polldaddy.com/) or Twitter Fall
tion with and how to protect information from (http://twitterfall.com/) or any other survey link
people outside of the class. Finally, the teacher and incorporate the link within Twitter where us-
can share the Twitter class account with students ers can participate. By using the links for quizzes
and ask them to follow the class twitter feed for and polling on the platform of Twitter, the teacher
the course. This can be accomplished by inviting can display instant results to the class. The teacher
students in the course to use Twitter either by can ask students a question that is projected onto
sending an email message or directly posting a a screen, and have them tweet their answers.
message from Twitter. As students in today’s higher education are
technology-driven and the majority of them are on
social networking sites, teachers can see a higher
7:,77(5,03/(0(17$7,21 percentage of student participation in their classes.
,17+(&/$66 By using Twitter for quizzes, for instance, instruc-
tors can give immediate feedback concerning
On Twitter, an educator can perform a number of student thoughts and answers. Moreover, student
personal and professional activities with students participation in such learning activities may in-
and colleagues including: asking for help or advice crease while using Twitter because it gives students
about a professional question, tweeting a useful privacy and confidentiality, since responses from
Web resource, sharing new studies of interest, students are anonymous (Rockinson-Szapkiw &
inviting people to an event (online or offline), Szapkiw, 2011). Also, the instructors can create
participating in online debates and talks and so live charts and graphs to organize and display
on. Twitter can be used for the following educa- student responses on screen or on PowerPoint
tional purposes: slides by using Twitter. Researchers argue that
the use of Twitter for in and out of class quiz-
zing and polling may allow for greater accuracy
7:,77(5)2548,==(6$1' and transparency when compared to traditional
,00(',$7()(('%$&. teaching (Rockinson-Szapkiw & Szapkiw, 2011).

Twitter can be used in a variety of activities in


higher education classrooms. Once students and 7:,77(5)25&/$66',6&866,21
teachers create a Twitter account for the course, the $1'5(6($5&+&2//$%25$7,216
teacher can use it not only for inviting students in
class to take a quiz, to participate in class discus- Twitter can foster class discussion when the in-
sion and to remind them of the assignment, but structor encourages students to tweet questions,
also to get an instant response. Student engagement thoughts, links and photos related to the current
in learning activities and assessment can be seen topic in class. Students collaborate in and out-
instantly when using Twitter. Unlike traditional side the classroom discussion forming different
teacher-centered instruction, the teacher does not groups, best applicable when the class size is
have to ask the students to raise their hands nor large. Educators and researchers have suggested
wait a long time to assess learning. rigid guidelines and expectations for the class
Teachers in higher education can use Twit- while assigning groups and moderators from each
ter for instant student quizzing and polling. For group (Matteson, 2010; Rockinson-Szapkiw &


7ZLWWHULQ+LJKHU(GXFDWLRQ

Szapkiw, 2011). Both the moderator and instruc- attributes relating to Twitter in higher education
tor can control the posts and appropriateness of such as for academic collaboration (between col-
the Tweets. Students also can participate outside leagues, in group meetings), for communication
the class discussion using the Twitter application between teacher and student, student and student,
for mobile phones or computers in which teach- teacher and parents, for conference backchannel,
ers should ask students to use the hashtag (#) in and for job posting and circulating departmental
order to organize topics brought up in the class. news. In addition, educators can use Twitter to
For instance, to Tweet topics related to a Global track attendance of students, or as a virtual office
Education class, the keywords with hashtag will where they can monitor students’ posting and
be (#globalEd) which enables the students and assignments. Twitter is a technological tool that
instructor to search for the post if needed in fu- offers a synchronous communication medium
ture. In addition to students, educators can set up for students and educators interested in the field
research or writing project collaboration across (Al-Khalifa, 2010).
the region or country. For instance, Chickester
(2010) writes about cross-country collaboration
among dynamic educators related to her special *8,'(/,1(67286(7:,77(5
education course where she received professional )257+(&/$6652206
support from educators located in various parts
of the United States. Based on their experiences, Dunlap and Lowen-
thal, (2009) have offered the following guidelines
while using Twitter with students in higher educa-
7:,77(5)25*5283 tion classes:
352-(&76$77(1'$1&(
$1'9,578$/2)),&(6 1. Establish Relevance for Students: Instructors
of the course should share a clear purpose
Twitter is a helpful tool for assigning group proj- of using Twitter for the class. Students may
ects. Outside the traditional classroom students not participate in Twitter if they do not see
may not have easy access to physically meet. For academically meaningful ways of doing so
instance, in online classes students may reside (Dunlap & Lowenthal, 2009).
in different locations. Twitter is also helpful for 2. Define Clear Expectations for Participation:
group projects when individual ideas may go Instructors should encourage participating
unheard because of different personalities or students to share their tweets instead of
circumstances. Instructors may find monitoring designing it as a requirement. Dunlap and
activities and grading them easy while using the Lowenthal (2009) have reported that they
Twitter platform. Based on the assigned topics and defined their expectations with students,
the objectives of the class, the instructors can make and asked them to log into Twitter three
groups of students and assign a topic to each group. times a day for two weeks to examine how
Students from each group can tweet Web links, valuable these students find Twitter in their
information, images and videos related to the topic. learning process. As instructors, they posted
The instructor can also set up certain expectations important questions if they had them when
such as number of tweets and quality of information the course was on.
to ensure active participation as well as standards 3. Model Effective Twitter Use: Throughout the
of work (Rockinson-Szapkiw & Szapkiw, 2011). course, teachers can show an active participa-
Al-Khalifa (2010) has listed a number of positive tion in Twitter. The effective strategies can be


7ZLWWHULQ+LJKHU(GXFDWLRQ

connecting with other professionals, asking Similarly, Junco, Elavsky and Heiberger (2013)
questions, and sharing resources (Dunlap & reported positive relationships between Twitter
Lowenthal, 2009). use and student engagement where students used
4. Build Twitter-derived Results into Twitter in educationally relevant and productive
Assessment: To award credit to students ways. In another mixed method study, Junco, Hei-
and let them value Twitter as a professional bergert, and Loket (2011) examined the impact of
resource, Dunlap and Lowenthal (2009) as- Twitter use on student learning and engagement
sessed quality and frequency of Tweets that in their teaching classes, and they found that the
students developed during the course. experimental group had greater engagement as
5. Continue to Actively Participate in Twitter: well as higher semester grade point averages than
Educators can ask students to continue their the control group. Using Twitter as an educational
presence in the Twitter community after tool, they found that students and faculty were also
courses are completed. As Dunlap and “highly engaged in the learning process in ways
Lowenthal (2009) believed Twitter was a that transcended traditional classroom activities”
valuable resource tool, they encouraged their (Junco et al., 2011, p. 119).
students to engage in Twitter to build their The Faculty Focus survey (2010) results show
own professional and academic connections that a third (35.2 percent) of the 1,372 faculty
with friends, peers, and professionals. respondents used Twitter. But, the percentage
of educators who never used Twitter decreased
from 56.4 percent (out of 1,958) in 2009 to 47.9
'(%$7(6,17:,77(5 percent in 2010. About 17 percent of faculty re-
$33/,&$7,216 ported that they tried Twitter but stopped using
it (Faulty Focus, 2010). The participants shared
With so much positive aspects of using Twitter in the comments as to how they were using Twitter
the classroom, some educators are also looking at in their personal and professional lives (Faculty
the cons of its use and as to whether social media Focus, 2010, pp. 9-10):
is an appropriate application for the classroom..
Some faculty have adopted a zero tolerance of I teach a segment in my marketing class on Twitter
technology policy, especially the use of Facebook & student use is a requirement.
and Twitter in the classroom.
I’ve found Twitter useful for increasing students’
time thinking about course related content through
326,7,9($5*80(176 tweeting supplemental content links and for some
very limited student interaction. I’m hoping to
While some practitioners view positive aspects of encourage more student input.
such social media for keeping students actively
engaged in learning activities (Galagan, 2010), I integrate Twitter fully in all my online courses.
Twitter, like any other social media, helps students I require students to do the same as well.
engaged using a media application in which they
are interested. Rockinson-Szapkiw and Szapkiw I take a lot of MBA students overseas and Twitter
(2011) mentioned that Twitter had encouraged is a great way to provide them with links about
students in “critical thinking, synthesis and news in the destinations.
evaluation throughout learning process” (p. 360).


7ZLWWHULQ+LJKHU(GXFDWLRQ

1(*$7,9($5*80(176 Don’t know how to use it,” (11.7 percent);

Twitter may not be appropriate for all instructional Don’t have time to use it,” (4.7 percent);
situations based on the nature and demand of the
courses. Grosseck and Holotescu (2008) have Question its educational relevance; (2.3 percent)
identified Twitter as time-consuming, addictive, and
and possibly even a way to encourage bad gram-
mar as a result of its 140-character limit. In ad- Unsure of whether students use it.” (22.7 percent)
dition, students and faculty may be charged data
fees if they access Twitter on their cell phones. The Faculty Focus (2010, pp. 11-12) catego-
Sometimes, online surveys that faculty want to rized the comments into the following categories:
connect on to their Twitter pages, for example,
survey polls, may require a subscription fee. • Concern it creates poor writing skills/has
Furthermore, participants in a study who used little educational value
Twitter in the classroom have expressed frustration
and anxiety (Faculty Focus, 2009). The faculty Like texting, it encourages poor grammar and
participants reported several negative comments atrocious spelling.
about the use of Twitter such as (Faculty Focus,
2009, pp. 5-6), Hard to see how Twitter can engage critical
thinking.
It’s mostly a waste of time and energy.
• Students aren’t using it
I have enough other ways to waste time.
Students of traditional age at my college do not
It seems to be a stupid time-eating worthless use Twitter. They text, Facebook, blog, and more,
pursuit. but they do not use Twitter.

It’s beneath my dignity. Most of the students I talk to don’t use it. They text.

I am sick of student writing that is unprofessional. • Don’t need another communication tool
I am also tired of receiving student work that has
incomplete sentences, fragments, subject-verb I think Twitter is a distraction and a time waster.
agreement mistakes, point of views mistakes,
tense mistakes. I have no interest in adding yet another commu-
nication tool to my overloaded life.
The faculty participants questioned the deter-
ring academic literacy practices as a result of
Twitter. Faculty participants found Tweets posted &21&/86,21
by students were below the academic standards
such as written and oral communication skills Twitter can be educational micro-blogging for in-
(Bart, 2011). In the 2010 Faculty Focus survey, structional purposes as it has potential for making
47.9 percent of 1385 faculty participants reported educational experiences engaging and creative for
that they never used Twitter, and these educators learners in higher education. Although there are
gave a variety of reasons for not using Twitter clear debates between the educational rhetoric and
(Faculty Focus, 2010, p. 12): the use of social spaces (e.g. Twitter, Facebook,


7ZLWWHULQ+LJKHU(GXFDWLRQ

and LinkedIn), the careful and creative use of classroom setting. Social media (e.g., Facebook,
such social media can strengthen the educational Twitter or YouTube) cannot replace the academic
interest and academic success of students. As expectations and pedagogical varieties; however, it
seen in the existing literature, Twitter is a new may certainly contribute to emerging pedagogical
pedagogical tool that may add positive attributes roles. The use of Twitter may not change the con-
in addition to the traditional instructional mode ventional academic literacy practices. However,
because it offers active collaborative and student it certainly invites students to participate in the
participation in teaching and learning activities. learning process, since the younger generation is
Social media like Twitter is rich in engaging emerged in latest technology and their lives are
students and teachers, and educators across the attached to smart technologies like iPhones and
disciplines have widely used it. iPods and using attractive social media like Twit-
Scholars and educators have used online social ter and Facebook. More empirical research in the
networks for various personal and professional field is needed to answer the quires of educational
reasons (Blair, 2013; Junco at el., 2011). Because gains about the significant role of Twitter for the
the reasons are so varied, it is complex to define future generation of learners.
such academic pursuits and identities. The debate
concerning how non-scholarly social interactions
build the academic rigor of students is complicated 5()(5(1&(6
as well. Some educators have found Twitter benefi-
cial to relate both professional and personal lives Al-Khalifa, H. S. (2010). Finding a place for Twit-
(Lalonde, 2011; Wilkinson & Thelwall, 2012), ter in higher education. Education and Technologi-
whereas others are exploring the possibility of cal Perspectives. Retrieved from http://elearnmag.
social media (e.g. Twitter) in educational domains acm.org/archive.cfm?aid=1821980
(Hytten, 2010; Junco, Elavsky, & Heiberger, 2013). Aspden, E. J., & Thorpe, L. P. (2009). Where do
It is hard to determine the facts about whether you learn? Tweeting to inform learning space
scholars are sharing information using Twitter development. EDUCASE Quarterly, 32(1).
to build intellectual growth or to develop a brand
around themselves (Veletsianos, 2012). There Bart, M. (Ed.). (2011). Social media usage trends
are no definite answers about whether Twitter among higher education faculty: Faculty focus
has been creating more social and educational special report. Madison, WI: Magna Publica-
opportunities for scholarly practice or educators tions, Inc.
who, with the use of Twitter in their personal lives,
Blair, A. (2013). Democratizing the learning
are arguing the possibility of Twitter in academic
process: The use of Twitter in the teaching of
endeavors. The only prediction is that Twitter
politics and international relations. Politics, 33(2),
is one of emerging online spaces for social and
135–145. doi:10.1111/1467-9256.12008
scholarly participation and it needs future inquiry
for other possibilities. Chichester, K. (2010, August 27). Cross-county
Twitter is an emerging social media, and fac- collaboration: It all started with Twitter. National
ulty has experimented with how to use it in their Writing Project. Retrieved from http://iditalis/
classrooms. Age of students, number of students, nwp.org/resource/716
and nature of classroom setting and technological
Dunlap, J. C., & Lowenthal, P. R. (2009). Tweeting
knowledge of students can be some of the variables
the night away: Using Twitter to enhance social
that the teacher has to consider while using Twit-
presence. Journal of Information Systems Educa-
ter in the classroom. Also, Twitter can be used
tion, 20(2), 129–135.
differently in online teaching than in a traditional


7ZLWWHULQ+LJKHU(GXFDWLRQ

Ebner, M., Lienhardt, C., Rohs, M., & Meyer, Lalonde, C. (2011). The Twitter experience: The
I. (2010). Micro-blogs in higher education: A role of the Twitter in the formation and mainte-
chance to facilitate informal and process-oriented nance of personal learning network. (Master’s
learning. Computers & Education, 55, 92–100. Thesis). Royal Roads University, Canada.
doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.12.006
Limbu, M. (2011). Processing first-year college
Faculty Focus. (2009). Twitter in higher educa- writing via Facebook pedagogy in linguistically
tion: Usage habits and trends of today’s college and culturally diverse first-year composition class-
faculty. Madison, WI: Magna Publications, Inc. es. Journal of International Students, 1(2), 59–63.
Faculty Focus. (2010). Twitter in higher education Metteson, A. (2010). Tweacher: The Twitter en-
2010: Usage habits and trends of today’s college hanced teacher. School Library Monthly, 27(1),
faculty. Madison, WI: Magna Publications, Inc. 22–23.
Galagan, P. (2010). Ready or not? Training & Parry, D. (2008, January 8). Twitter for academia.
Development, 64(5), 29–31. Retrieved from http://academhack.outsidethetext.
com/home/2008/twitter-for-academia/
Gouseti, A. (2010). Web 2.0 and education. Learn-
ing, Media and Technology, 35(3), 351–356. doi: Priego, E. (2011, September 11). How Twitter
10.1080/17439884.2010.509353 will revolutionize academic research and teaching.
The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.guard-
Grosseck, G., & Holotescu, C. (2008). Can we use
ian.co.uk/higher-education-network/blog/2011/
Twitter for educational activities? In Proceedings
sep/12/twitter-revolutionise-academia-research
of the 4th International Scientific Conference
eLSE: eLearning and Software for Education. Ramsden, A. (2009). Using micro-blogging
Retrieved from http://adl.unap.ro/else/ (Twitter) in your teaching and learning: An in-
troductory guide. Retrieved from http://opus.bath.
Hytten, K. J. (2010). Facebook’s contribution to
ac.uk/15319/1/intro_to_microblogging_09.pdf
educationally purposeful activities and college
student engagement. (Unpublished Doctoral Dis- Rockingson-Szapkiw, A. J., & Szapkiw, M. (2011).
sertation). University of Vermont, Burlington, VT. Engaging higher education students using Twitter.
In Proceedings of Global Learn Asia Pacific, (pp.
Junco, R., Elavsky, M., & Heiberger, G. (2013).
360-364). Retrieved from http://works.bepress.
Putting twitter to the test: Assessing outcomes for
com/amanda_rockinson_szapkiw/31/
student collaboration, engagement and success.
British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(2), Salter, A. (2012, October 8). Presenting for
273–287. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01284.x Twitter at conferences. The Chronicle of Higher
Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.
Junco, R., Heiberger, G., & Loken, E. (2011).
com/blogs/profhacker/presenting-for-twitter-at-
The effect of Twitter on college student engage-
conference/43176
ment and grades. Journal of Computer Assisted
Learning, 27(2), 119–132. doi:10.1111/j.1365- Veletsianos, G. (2012). Higher education scholars’
2729.2010.00387.x participation and practices on Twitter. Journal
of Computer Assisted Learning, 28, 336–349.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00449.x


7ZLWWHULQ+LJKHU(GXFDWLRQ

Wilkinson, D., & Thelwall, M. (2012). Trend- Higher education: Commonly known as
ing Twitter topics in English: An international post-secondary or tertiary level of education that
comparison. Journal of the American Society includes teaching, research and social services.
for Information Science and Technology, 63(8)¸ Higher Education is a program of study that re-
1631-1646. doi: 10.1002/asi.22713 ports on developments in both public and private
higher education sectors, issues and challenges of
Ye, Q., Fang, B., He, W., & Hsieh, J. P. (2012).
teachers, students, administrators, and educators.
Can social capital be transferred cross the bound-
Twitter: Launched in October 2006, Twitter
ary of the real and virtual world? An empirical
is an information networking tool that allows its
investigation of Twitter. Journal of Electronic
users to post a topic or a discussion no longer than
Commerce Research, 13(2), 145–155.
140 characters. Twitter is the most popular free
Yuan, H. (2012). Applying Twitter to EFL read- application, with almost one million users who
ing and writing in a Taiwanese college setting. can send and receive messages via the web, short
(Doctoral dissertation). Indiana State University, message service (SMS), instant message clients,
Bloomington, IN. and through third party applications.
Web 2.0 Pedagogy: This refers to web-based
teaching learning resources where students and
instructors use technological tools such as as
.(<7(506$1''(),1,7,216
social networks, text messaging, blogs, wikis,
e-portfolios, and other applications to commu-
Globalization: It primarily means the emer-
nicate and collaborate. Web 2.0 pedagogy is a
gence of world views, ideas, cultures, social media,
contemporary educational shift from traditional
technology, and interactions within and across
instructions towards student-centered collabora-
the local cultural settings. This is a measuring
tive approach.
framework to examine or re-examine the global
fundamental changes, educational policies and
practices, and advancement in societies.