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Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res.

, 80 (2), 2010, 97 – 106 97

Original Communication

The Effects of Yellow Soybean,


Black Soybean, and Sword
Bean on Lipid Levels and
Oxidative Stress in
Ovariectomized Rats
Jae Soon Byun, Young Sun Han and Sang Sun Lee
Department of Food & Nutrition, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea

Received for publication: May 11, 2009; Accepted for publication: January 19, 2010

Abstract: Soy isoflavones have been reported to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal
women. However, the effects of dietary consumption of soybean have not been explored. In this study,
we evaluated the effects of consuming yellow soybeans, black soybeans (Glycine max), or sword beans
(Canavalia gladiate) on lipid and oxidative stress levels in an ovariectomized rat model. Forty-seven
nine-week-old female rats were ovariectomized, randomly divided into four groups, and fed one of the
following diets for 10 weeks: a diet supplemented with casein (NC, n = 12), a diet supplemented with
yellow soybean (YS, n = 12), a diet supplemented with black soybean (BS, n = 12), or a diet supple-
mented with sword bean (SB, n = 11). Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels in the BS and SB groups were
significantly lower than that in the NC group. Notably, the BS group had significantly lower plasma
total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels than the other groups.
Hepatic total lipid levels were significantly lower in the YS and SB groups, and cholesterol levels were
significantly lower in the SB group than in the NC group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase
(CAT) activities were significantly higher in the groups fed beans compared to the NC group. Hepatic
thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were also significantly lower in the BS and SB
groups than the NC group. In conclusion, our results suggest that consumption of various types of beans
may inhibit oxidative stress in postmenopausal women by increasing antioxidant activity and improving
lipid profiles. Notably, intake of black soybean resulted in the greatest improvement in risk factors
associated with cardiovascular disease.

Key words: Yellow soybean, black soybean, sword bean, lipid metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activities.

DOI 10.1024/0300–9831/a000010 Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 80 (2), 2010, © Hogrefe & Huber Publishers
98 J.S. Byun et al.: Effect of Various Beans on Lipid Metabolism

Introduction antioxidant properties of certain colorful foods [17,


18]. In Korea, soybeans and their processed products
Hypercholesterolemia is regarded as a major risk are commonly eaten to supplement the low protein
factor for the development of atherosclerosis and content of rice. Koreans usually ingest at least one
coronary heart disease (CHD) [1]. Atherosclerotic or more types of soybean or soybean-products with
cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of mor- every meal [19].
tality in many societies throughout the world [2]. Black soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) are used
Free radical-induced lipid peroxidation is associated as medicinal materials in Asia, and contain natural
with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and reactive antioxidants, including anthocyanins, in their seed
oxygen molecules are known to be initiators of lipid coats [20,21]. Anthocyanins can scavenge free radicals
peroxidation [3]. Endogenous antioxidant enzymes, and inhibit lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. They
such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase may also decrease the risk of coronary heart disease
(CAT), as well as antioxidant nutrients, can help to and atherosclerosis by inhibiting the oxidation of low-
protect cells against free radical damage. Antioxidant density lipoprotein (LDL) [22, 23].
enzymes therefore play an important role in control- Sword beans (Canavalia gladiate) belong to the
ling lipid peroxidation [4]. Among premenopausal Leguminosae (Fabaceae) family, Phaseloeae tribe,
women, CHD is rare, and the overall incidence of Diocleinae subtribe, and originated either in Africa or
cardiovascular complications are much lower than in southern Asia [24]. Sword beans are excellent sources
men of similar age, but the incidence of CHD increases of starch (35 – 45 %) and protein (22 – 29 %), with a
considerably after menopause [5, 6]. Menopause is good balance of amino acids [25]. Sword beans have
associated with ovarian hormone deficiency, which numerous traits that are currently exploited, and have
results in many physiological changes, including in- the potential to be valuable in both the phytophar-
creased levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and maceutical and nutraceutical industries [26]. Despite
total cholesterol, leading to an increased risk of ath- their desirable traits, however, there has been little
erosclerotic cardiovascular disease [7, 8]. Soy protein agronomic development of sword beans, hence sword
has gained considerable attention because of its po- bean seeds are not universally utilized as a food source.
tential to improve risk factors for cardiovascular dis- We hypothesized that the different phytochemicals
ease. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) compositions of different beans would have different
approved labeling of food containing soy protein as effects on the lipid profiles, lipid peroxidation levels,
protective against CHD [9]. Whole soybeans contain and antioxidant enzyme activities of ovariectomized
large amounts of isoflavones, anthocyanins, and other rats. To address this hypothesis, we used whole beans
phytochemicals that have beneficial effects on the pre- rather than extracts in our experiments. Furthermore,
vention of menopause symptoms in humans and in an we focused on investigating beans that Koreans com-
ovariectomized rat model [10, 11]. monly consume.
Epidemiological studies have suggested that con-
sumption of soybeans has protective effects against
cardiovascular disease as demonstrated by the low
plasma cholesterol levels of East Asian populations Materials and Methods
[12]. While the cholesterol-lowering properties of soy-
bean are widely accepted, the cholesterol-lowering Animals and diets
mechanism is not yet fully understood. Neverthe-
less, it is presumed to be a result of the isoflavones Forty-seven eight-week-old female Sprague-Dawley
present in soybean, as well as other components [13, (SD) rats weighing between 163 and 164 g were pur-
14]. Isoflavones found in soybeans include daidzein chased from Daehan Biolink Co. Ltd. (Chungcheon-
and genistein, and these are good candidates for the gbuk-do, Korea). The animals were all individually
cardio-protective effects of soybean because of their housed in stainless steel cages. The temperature
biological and chemical similarities to estrogens [15]. (24 ± 2 °C) and humidity (60 ± 5 %) of the animal
Furthermore, anthocyanins are able to react with many room were kept constant and the rats were kept un-
active substances in the human body because of their der a 12-hour light/dark cycle (artificial light from
structure, particularly the presence of hydroxyl groups 07:00~19:00). They were acclimated for one week and
[16]. Anthocyanins, as one of the most abundant and fed a pelletized regular chow diet. At nine weeks of
widely distributed flavonoids in plants, give most fruits age, all 47 rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX)
an attractive color and also contribute greatly to the under anesthesia with ketamine (50 mg/kg b.w.) and

Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 80 (2), 2010, © Hogrefe & Huber Publishers
J.S. Byun et al.: Effect of Various Beans on Lipid Metabolism 99

xylazine (45 mg/kg b.w.). The abdominal area was to decrease their trypsin-inhibiting activity. After cool-
sterilized with 75 % ethanol and opened by a surgical ing, beans were converted to powder using a 60 mesh.
operation. The uterus and ovaries were taken out, and Each diet was prepared by mixing various quantities
only the ovary was ligated and cut off. Then, the uterus of the powdered beans with the AIN-93M-based diet.
and adipose tissue were put back into the abdomen The yellow soybean, black soybean, and sword bean
and sewn up. The OVX rats were randomly divided powders accounted for 35 %, 35 %, and 50 % of the
into four groups and fed one of four diets: a casein diet experimental diet, respectively, to ensure isonitroge-
without soybean addition (NC group, n = 12), a yellow neous contents (15 %). Since each bean has a different
soybean diet (YS group, n = 12), a black soybean diet protein content (34.4 % for yellow soybean, 35.2 % for
(BS group, n = 12), or a sword bean diet (SB group, black soybean, and 22.7 % for sword bean). Thus, the
n = 11) for 10 weeks. The beans were purchased from protein source in the diet was either casein or whole
a local market and autoclaved for 16 minutes at 121 °C soy powder (Table I). All diets were isonitrogeneous
and isocaloric, and the energy ratio of carbohydrates
to proteins to lipids was adjusted to be 65:15:20, re-
Table I: Compositions of casein, yellow soybean, black spectively. All rats received water and food ad libitum.
soybean and sword bean (g/100 g edible portion). The composition of the normal experimental diet is
Ingredients Water Protein Fat Carbohydrate
provided in Table II. During the experimental period,
body weight was measured once per week and food
1)
Casein 0.96 98.3 0.05 0.63 intake was measured three times a week. All animals
Yellow soybean2) 9.6 34.4 18.6 28.4 were housed and cared for in accordance with the US
National Institutes of Health (NIH) Guide for the
Black soybean3) 11.0 35.2 18.2 26.4 Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
Sword bean4) 10.4 22.7 3.2 52.2

1)
Lactic Acid Caseins (Nice Ltd., Ukraine)
Sample collection
2)
Powdered yellow soybean was autoclaved and dried
3)
Powdered black soybean was autoclaved and dried At the end of the experimental period, the rats were
4)
Powdered sword bean was autoclaved and dried deprived of food overnight and sacrificed under ethyl

Table II: Composition of experimental diet (g/kg).


Ingredient NC YS BS SB
Casein 150
Yellow soybeans 350
Black soybeans 350
Sword beans 500
D,L-methionine 3 3 3 3
Corn starch 350 240 240 65
Sucrose 300 300 300 300
Cellulose 50 30 30 10
Corn oil 100 30 30 75
1)
Mineral Mix 35 35 35 35
2)
Vitamin Mix 10 10 10 10
Choline bitartrate 2 2 2 2
1)
AIN-93M mineral mixture
2)
AIN-93M vitamin mixture
NC: ovariectomized rats fed a casein diet
YS: ovariectomized rats fed a yellow soybean diet
BS: ovariectomized rats fed a black soybean diet
SB: ovariectomized rats fed a sword bean diet

Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 80 (2), 2010, © Hogrefe & Huber Publishers
100 J.S. Byun et al.: Effect of Various Beans on Lipid Metabolism

ether anesthesia. Blood samples were collected im- filtration of extracts, the collected solution was cen-
mediately into heparin-coated sterile tubes by car- trifuged at 3,000 × g for 10 minutes. The chloroform
diac puncture. Plasma was obtained from the blood phase was collected and vacuum-concentrated. Total
samples by centrifugation (4000 × g for 10 minutes) at lipids were estimated by gravimetric analysis. The
4 °C and stored at –70 °C until further analysis. The liver cholesterol concentrations were measured using
livers were removed, washed with cold saline, patted a commercial diagnostic kit (SIMENSE Germany).
between paper towels, weighed, and then stored at
–70 °C for laboratory analysis.
Hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities
Plasma lipid profiles Two grams of liver tissue were homogenized in 10 mL
of a 0.25 M sucrose buffer, then the homogenates
The concentrations of triglycerides (TG), total cho- were centrifuged at 600 × g for 10 minutes to remove
lesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol the nuclear fraction, and the remaining separated
(HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol supernatant was centrifuged at 10,000 × g for 20
(LDL-C) were measured using a commercial diag- minutes to collect the mitochondrial fraction for a
nostic kit (SIMENSE Germany Co, UK) and a pho- catalase (CAT) assay. The supernatant was ultra-
tometric autoanalyzer (ADVIA 2400, Japan). The centrifuged at 105,000 × g for 1 hour to isolate the
TC and TG levels in the plasma were estimated by cytosolic fraction for the superoxide dismutase (SOD)
the COD-POD method and the GK-GPO method, assay. SOD activity was estimated according to the
respectively. The HDL-C level in plasma was deter- method of Marklund and Marklund [29], which uses
mined after precipitation of apoB-containing lipopro- a color change due to auto-oxidation of pyrogallol.
teins by sodium phosphotungstate and MgCl2. The One unit (U) of enzyme activity was calculated as the
LDL-C level in plasma was calculated using Friede- protein content inhibiting 50 % of the auto-oxidation
wald’s formulation [27]. of pyrogallol without an enzyme source. SOD activ-
ity was expressed as U/mg protein. CAT activity was
measured by the disappearance rate of H2O2 moni-
Liver lipid profiles tored spectrophotometrically at 240 nm according
to the method of Aebi with slight modification [30].
Total lipids in the liver were extracted according to the One unit (U) of enzyme activity was defined as the
Folch method [28]. One gram of liver tissue was ho- amount of enzyme catalyzing 1 μmol of H2O2 per
mogenized with chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v), and minute at 25 °C. The CAT activity was expressed as
then 2 mL of ice-cold distilled water was added. After U/mg protein.

Table III: The effects of various bean types on body weight, weight gain, food intake, and liver weight in ovariectomized
rats*.
Variables Groups

NC YS BS SB
Body weight (g)
Initial 164.83 ± 2.05NS 164.66 ± 2.83 164.08 ± 2.78 163.45 ± 1.42
a b b
Final 322.08 ± 11.69 288.75 ± 7.88 287.25 ± 9.70 221.40 ± 2.07c
Weight gain (g/day) 1.70 ± 0.12a 1.34 ± 0.08b 1.33 ± 0.11b 0.61 ± 0.02c
Food intake (g/day) 12.65 ± 0.33a 11.18 ± 0.19b 11.06 ± 0.35b 9.96 ± 0.05c
NS
Liver weight (g/100 g b.w.) 2.29 ± 0.09 2.48 ± 0.11 2.31 ± 0.07 2.25 ± 0.07
*
Data are expressed as mean ±S.E.M. of 11 to 12 rats per group. Values in the same row with different superscripts (a,
b, and c) are significantly different at a p-value less than 0.05 by one-way ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple-range test.
NS: Not significant
NC: ovariectomized rats fed a casein diet
YS: ovariectomized rats fed a yellow soybean diet
BS: ovariectomized rats fed a black soybean diet
SB: ovariectomized rats fed a sword bean diet

Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 80 (2), 2010, © Hogrefe & Huber Publishers
J.S. Byun et al.: Effect of Various Beans on Lipid Metabolism 101

Table IV: The effects of various bean types on plasma TG, TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C levels in ovariectomized rats* (mg/dL)..
Variables Groups

NC YS BS SB
a ab b
TG 54.58 ± 4.79 46.58 ± 4.29 36.75 ± 1.73 40.72 ± 2.60b
TC 53.36 ± 4.40a 40.33 ± 2.70b 27.50 ± 3.19c 34.54 ± 3.38bc
a b c
LDL-C 7.83 ± 0.68 6.50 ± 0.92 3.58 ± 0.65 4.54 ± 0.63bc
HDL-C 9.69 ± 0.54NS 10.51 ± 0.49 10.30 ± 0.90 11.02 ± 0.62
*
Data are expressed as mean ±S.E.M. of 11 to 12 rats per group. Values in the same row with different superscripts (a,
b, and c) are significantly different at a p-value less than 0.05 by one-way ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple-range test.
NS: Not significant
NC: ovariectomized rats fed a casein diet
YS: ovariectomized rats fed a yellow soybean diet
BS: ovariectomized rats fed a black soybean diet
SB: ovariectomized rats fed a sword bean diet

Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive sub- Results


stances (TBARS) assay
There were no significant differences in initial body
The concentrations of hepatic TBARS were deter- weight among rats in the four groups (Table III). How-
mined using the method of Ohkawa et al. with slight ever, at the end of the experiment, final weight, weight
modification [31]. Approximately 0.2 mL of 8.1 % gain, and food intake were the highest in the NC group
sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 1.5 mL of 20 % acetic and the lowest in the SB group. The weights of rats
acid, 1.5 mL of 0.8 % tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), and in the YS and BS groups were generally higher than
0.6 mL of distilled water were added to 0.2 mL of liver those in the SB group, but were generally lower than
tissue homogenate, and the solution was vortexed. The those in the NC group. Liver weight per body weight
reaction mixture was placed in a water bath at 95 °C was not significantly different between the various
for 1 hour. After cooling, 1.0 mL of distilled water bean groups and normal control group. Accordingly,
and 5.0 mL of an n-butanol/pyridine mixture (15:1 consumption of the various beans did not influence
v/v) were added and the solution was then vortexed. liver weight.
Then, after centrifugation at 800 × g for 10 minutes, Plasma TG, TC, and LDL-C levels were generally low-
the absorbance of the upper layer was measured at er in the groups fed a yellow soybean-, black soybean-,
535 nm. The quantity of TBARS is proportionate or sword bean-supplemented diet than the untreated
to the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid control group (Table IV). Plasma TG levels were gen-
peroxidation product generated by the oxidation of erally lower in the BS and SB groups than in the NC
membrane lipids by reactive oxygen species. The re- group. Plasma TC and LDL-C levels were generally
sults were expressed as nmol MDA/g liver. lower in the various groups fed beans than in the NC
group. Notably, both plasma TC and LDL-C levels in
the BS group were the lowest among the various bean
Statistical analysis groups. Plasma HDL-C levels were not significantly
different between the various bean groups and NC
Experimental results are presented as mean ± SEM group, although the various bean groups tended to
and statistical analyses were performed using the have higher plasma HDL-C levels than the NC group.
SPSS program (Statistical Package for the Social Sci- Hepatic total lipid and total cholesterol levels were
ences 12.0). Experimental groups were compared by generally lower in the groups fed yellow soybean-,
one-way ANOVA, and the significance of differences black soybean-, or sword bean-supplemented diets
between groups was validated by Duncan’s multiple- compared with the untreated control group (Table
range test (p < 0.05). V). Notably, hepatic total lipid levels were generally
lower in the YS and SB groups than in the NC group.
Hepatic total cholesterol levels were generally lower
in the SB groups than in the NC group, while total

Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 80 (2), 2010, © Hogrefe & Huber Publishers
102 J.S. Byun et al.: Effect of Various Beans on Lipid Metabolism

cholesterol levels were not significantly different be- weight gain in rats fed various bean diets is probably
tween the YS and BS groups. due to the lower food intake of these rats compared
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) ac- to rats fed casein diets. In addition to the lowest food
tivities were higher in the groups fed yellow soybean, intake, the SB group had the lowest body weight gain
black soybean, or sword bean than in the untreated among the various bean groups. This may be due to
control group (Table VI). Notably, SOD activities a difference in the taste and smell of the SB-supple-
were generally higher in the YS and BS groups than mented diet compared to the other experimental diets.
in the NC group. CAT activity was generally higher In previous studies [32, 33], levels of various lipids
in the groups fed various bean types than in the NC were significantly higher in OVX rats than in sham-
group, but there were no significant differences in operated rats. In fact, because of the possibility that
CAT activity among the various bean-fed groups. an ovariectomy might in itself increase the levels of
Hepatic TBARS levels were lower in the groups fed various lipids, we did not include a sham group in
beans than in the NC group. The SB group, and in our study. In this study, rats fed various bean types
particular the BS group, had lower TBARS levels showed a decrease in plasma TG, TC, and LDL-C
than the NC group. levels compared with the NC group. Plasma TG levels
in the BS and SB groups were significantly lower than
in the NC group. Both plasma TC and LDL-C levels
in the groups fed beans were significantly lower than
Discussion those in the NC group. Notably, the BS group had
the lowest plasma TC and LDL-C levels among the
We investigated the effects of consumption of three various bean-fed groups. Hepatic total lipid and total
bean types on lipid levels, lipid peroxidation, and an- cholesterol levels were also significantly lower in the
tioxidant enzyme activities in ovariectomized rats, various bean groups than in the NC group. Notably,
an animal model of the postmenopausal condition hepatic total lipid levels were significantly lower in
characterized by ovarian hormone deficiency. The the YS and SB groups, and hepatic total cholesterol
lipid profiles, lipid peroxidation levels, and antioxidant levels were significantly lower in the SB group, than
enzyme activities of OVX rats fed a diet supplemented the NC group.
with yellow soybeans, black soybeans, or sword beans Sirtori et al. [34] and Descovich et al. [35] found
were evaluated and compared with those of rats fed that diets high in soy protein (all animal protein re-
a casein diet. The parameters measured above are placed) substantially reduced blood LDL cholesterol
risk factors for cardiovascular disease, particularly by 20~30 % in animals with severe hypercholester-
atherosclerosis. olemia. When soy protein is substituted for animal
Rats in the NC group showed the greatest weight protein, hypercholesterolemia does not occur. Thus,
gain and food intake, followed by rats in the YS and either casein diets have a direct hypercholesterolemic
BS groups, and finally rats in the SB group. The re- action, or soy protein diets have a cholesterol-lowering
sults of this study indicate that consumption of beans action. In our study, consumption of various beans
significantly reduced body weight gain and food intake resulted in a decrease in levels of TG, TC, and LDL-
compared to consumption of casein. The lower body C. The soy protein contents of the experimental diets

Table V: The effects of various bean types on hepatic lipid profiles in ovariectomized rats*.
Variables Groups

NC YS BS SB
Lipid profiles (mg/g wet liver)
Total lipids 50.87 ± 9.07a 32.83 ± 2.37b 40.49 ± 3.75ab 29.88 ± 2.79b
Total cholesterol 4.84 ± 0.21a 4.53 ± 0.20ab 4.65 ± 0.16ab 4.16 ± 0.17b
*
Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. of 11 to 12 rats per group. Values in the same row with different superscripts (a,
b, and c) are significantly different at a p-value less than 0.05 by one-way ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple-range test.
NS: Not significant
NC: ovariectomized rats fed a casein diet
YS: ovariectomized rats fed a yellow soybean diet
BS: ovariectomized rats fed a black soybean diet
SB: ovariectomized rats fed a sword bean diet

Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 80 (2), 2010, © Hogrefe & Huber Publishers
J.S. Byun et al.: Effect of Various Beans on Lipid Metabolism 103

Table VI: The effects of various bean types on hepatic SOD and CAT activity and TBARS levels in ovariectomized rats*.
variables Groups

NC YS BS SB
Antioxidant status
SOD (U/mg protein) 3.44 ± 0.05b 3.82 ± 0.06a 3.82 ± 0.13 a 3.59 ± 0.05ab
CAT (U/mg protein) 22.75 ± 0.48b 26.87 ± 1.08a 30.10 ± 1.25a 28.23 ± 1.78a
Oxidant status TBARS
(nmol/g wet liver) 8.53 ± 0.49a 7.12 ± 0.33ab 5.10 ± 0.60c 6.29 ± 0.49bc
*
Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. of 11 to 12 rats per group. Values in the same row with different superscripts (a,
b, and c) are significantly different at a p-value less than 0.05 by one-way ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple-range test.
NC: ovariectomized rats fed a casein diet
YS: ovariectomized rats fed a yellow soybean diet
BS: ovariectomized rats fed a black soybean diet
SB: ovariectomized rats fed a sword bean diet

were the same (15 %) and the isoflavone contents of the reduction in lipids observed after the consump-
the experimental beans were similar (0.25 % for yel- tion of BS. Although the cholesterol-lowering effects
low soybean, 0.27 % for black soybean, and 0.22 % of soybeans are widely accepted, the mechanism(s)
for sword bean). Postmenopausal women are gener- underlying these effects is not well understood, but
ally at higher risk for cardiovascular disease because is postulated to be due to soy proteins, isoflavones,
ovarian hormone deficiency is associated with elevat- and anthocyanins, as well as other components [9, 13].
ed levels of circulating TC and LDL-C. In previous In addition, soybeans contain a wide range of phyto-
studies, dietary supplementation with soybean iso- chemicals that are currently being investigated. It is
flavones significantly decreased plasma TC, TG, and possible that the various phytochemicals interact syn-
especially LDL-C levels, and significantly increased ergistically to lower cholesterol. Our results suggest
HDL-C levels [36]. We hypothesize that the various that consumption of various types of beans, namely
isoflavone-containing beans investigated in this study soybeans and sword beans, has a beneficial effect on
may have lowered plasma cholesterol levels by their lipid profiles in OVX rats, as indicated by decreased
estrogenic activity. TG, TC, and LDL-C levels in both the blood and liver.
However, this hypocholesterolemic effect is not Antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and CAT can
simply an estrogenic effect, because soybeans are also effectively convert superoxide radicals to molecular
rich in anthocyanins and other phytochemicals. An- H2O2 and oxygen, and can consecutively decompose
thocyanins play important roles as dietary antioxidants H2O2 to molecular water and oxygen [41]. In fact, CAT
in the prevention of oxidative damage, and can reduce and SOD are capable of eliminating lipid peroxidation
the risk of coronary heart disease [37,38]. Black soy- products and reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby
beans have a stronger anti-oxidative effect than yellow directly protecting cells and tissues from deleterious
soybeans and sword beans. The anti-oxidative activity radicals [42].
of dark-colored soybeans may be higher than those of Ozgocmen et al. [43] reported that postmenopausal
light-colored soybeans [39]. In our study, the rats fed women appeared to have increased oxidative stress as
BS had lower plasma TG, TC, and LDL-C levels than evidenced by high MDA levels and low CAT activity,
the rats fed YS or SB. Although the different beans suggesting that lack of estrogen had a pro-oxidant
had similar isoflavone and soy protein contents, the effect due to an increase in free radical formation.
differential result may be because the BS seed coat Increased oxidative stress and reduced bioavailabil-
contains higher quantities of anthocyanins than the ity of antioxidants may induce oxidative damage in
SB and YS seed coats. LDL oxidation is one of the postmenopausal woman and OVX rats. In this study,
more well-studied free radical-mediated processes. SOD and CAT activities were higher in the groups
Oxidized LDL is responsible for the pathogenesis of fed various types of beans than the NC group. Our
atherosclerosis that can lead to the build-up of plaque results are consistent with previous studies that dem-
in arteries [40]. Therefore, consumption of food rich onstrated that various types of beans had antioxidant
in antioxidants may protect against cardiovascular capacity both in vivo and in vitro [44, 45]. The protec-
disease. Anthocyanins in BS appear to contribute to tive roles of various beans against oxidative damage

Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 80 (2), 2010, © Hogrefe & Huber Publishers
104 J.S. Byun et al.: Effect of Various Beans on Lipid Metabolism

in OVX rats might be due to their ability to decrease soybeans may protect against cardiovascular disease
lipid oxidation, as it is known that isoflavones have and atherosclerosis. Further studies are required to
antioxidant activity [46]. However, SOD and CAT determine the potential implications of the consump-
activities were not significantly different between the tion of sword beans on lipid metabolism.
bean-fed groups in our study. Phytochemicals may act
by different mechanisms to defend against harmful
free radicals. Recently, soybeans have attracted atten-
tion because of their strong antioxidant, anti-cancer, References
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Prof. Sang Sun Lee
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potential of pea beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J. Department of Food & Nutrition
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#17 Haengdang-dong
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1421. E-mail: leess@hanyang.ac.kr

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