You are on page 1of 14

Journal of Hazardous Materials 341 (2018) 424–437

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Hazardous Materials


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jhazmat

Invited Review

Oil sorbents from plastic wastes and polymers: A review


Junaid Saleem a,b,∗ , Muhammad Adil Riaz c , Gordon McKay a
a
Division of Sustainability, College of Science and Engineering, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar
b
HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
c
School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia

h i g h l i g h t s

• Polymers such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, etc. are major components of municipal solid waste.
• This review is the first of its kind reporting and compiling various methods of producing oil sorbents from plastics.
• One method of combating plastic wastes as well as oil spill is through the use of sorbents.
• Producing oil sorbents from plastic wastes and polymers can also fulfill waste management purposes.
• Synthesis methods and characterization of oil sorbents have been reviewed from virgin polymers as well as plastic wastes.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A large volume of the waste produced across the world is composed of polymers from plastic wastes such
Received 19 April 2017 as polyethylene (HDPE or LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) amongst oth-
Received in revised form 5 July 2017 ers. For years, environmentalists have been looking for various ways to overcome the problems of such
Accepted 31 July 2017
large quantities of plastic wastes being disposed of into landfill sites. On the other hand, the usage of syn-
Available online 6 August 2017
thetic polymers as oil sorbents in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene
(PE) have been reported. In recent years, the idea of using plastic wastes as the feed for the production
Keywords:
of oil sorbents has gained momentum. However, the studies undertaking such feasibility are rather scat-
Plastic wastes
Oil sorption
tered. This review paper is the first of its kind reporting, compiling and reviewing these various processes.
Polymers The production of an oil sorbent from plastic wastes is being seen to be satisfactorily achievable through
Sorbent a variety of methods Nevertheless, much work needs to be done regarding further investigation of the
numerous parameters influencing production yields and sorbent qualities. For example, differences in
results are seen due to varying operating conditions, experimental setups, and virgin or waste plastics
being used as feeds. The field of producing oil sorbents from plastic wastes is still very open for further
research, and seems to be a promising route for both waste reduction, and the synthesis of value-added
products such as oil sorbents. In this review, the research related to the production of various oil sorbents
based on plastics (plastic waste and virgin polymer) has been discussed. Further oil sorbent efficiency in
terms of oil sorption capacity has been described.
© 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
2. Ways of combating oil spills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
2.1. Burning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
2.2. Booms and skimmers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
2.3. Chemical dispersants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
2.4. Sorbents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

∗ Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: Junaidupm@gmail.com, Jsaleem@hbku.edu.qa (J. Saleem).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.07.072
0304-3894/© 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
J. Saleem et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 341 (2018) 424–437 425

3. Desired properties of oil sorbents made from plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426


3.1. Good mutual solubility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
3.2. High surface area (and/or high surface to thickness ratio) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
3.3. Porous structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
3.4. Penetration into network structure (swelling) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
3.5. Low degree of cross linking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
4. Fabrication strategies of oil sorbents from plastic wastes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
4.1. Chemical conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
4.2. Grafting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
4.3. Gamma radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
4.4. Mechanical method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
4.5. Porous films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
4.5.1. Dry-Stretch process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
4.5.2. Particle stretch process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
4.5.3. Wet process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
4.6. Aerogels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
5. Sorbents based on plastics types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
5.1. Polyurethane oil sorbents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
5.2. Polystyrene oil sorbents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
5.3. Polyethylene and polypropylene based oil sorbents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
5.4. Methacrylate polymers (polyacrylates or acrylics) oil sorbents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
5.5. Oil sorbents based on miscellaneous polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
6. Future prospects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

1. Introduction Table 1
Classification of Plastic Wastes

Plastic products opened a new era in industrial history ever since Polymer % Plastic Waste
synthetic polymers were first introduced into industrial scale pro- LDPE/LLDPE 20.6
duction in the 1940s [1]. Booming research and utilization of plastic PP 20
products considerably and profoundly changed the structure of HDPE 17.4
material research and application. This originated from the fasci- PET 11.7
PS 10.9
nating character of plastics including high resistance to corrosion,
PVC 10.9
high flexibility to process applications and low manufacturing cost. PU 2.7
Apart from their wide use in decoration, electronics industry and Others 9.8
construction applications [2], they are extensively used as shopping LLDPE Linear low density polyethylene
bags, bottles, and pipes. Due to their extensive scale of production, LDPE low density polyethylene
the waste generated by plastic is also alarming. There are many
species that are directly affected by plastic wastes. Seabirds are
amongst the most vulnerable creature and are observed to consume lis et al. studied the thermal degradation of HDPE in a reactive
floating plastics [3]. Another problem associated with plastic waste extruder to obtain oily products with future potential to refine
is related to the screening or presence of different grades of plastic fuels [10]. The production of alkane gases from the pyrolysis of
waste. Plastics need greater processing in order to be recycled than HDPE using a fluidized bed reactor was also studied [11]. Further-
glass or metal. They must often be of nearly identical composition more in order to obtain valuable products, appropriate catalysts
to become mixed efficiently. When different grades of plastics are can be applied to improve the thermal degradation efficiency of
melted together they tend to separate and resist being reformed. waste plastic. The application of waste plastic to produce porous
Even plastic of the same type creates problems. This information carbon is another option for reclaiming of PSW (plastic solid waste)
reveals that beneath the convenient use of plastic products, one since porous carbons investigated in research perform consid-
should be consciously aware about the challenges of white pollu- erably more impressively than commercially available activated
tion and the accompanying environmental issues created by plastic carbon [12], however the yields are low (less than 20%) due to
waste. Hence there is a need to utilize plastic waste effectively. large volatilization and the burn-off effect under vacuum condition.
The classification of plastic waste is a good start to understand and This is accompanied with the high energy intensive process which
start to solve the waste problem. Table 1 shows the classification restricts the widespread application of plastic waste pyrolysis [4].
of plastic waste [4,5]. Recycling is a promising way to utilize plastic waste as it pro-
Current methods for the disposal of plastic wastes include land- vides benefits of waste minimization, reduction of carbon dioxide
fill, incineration (burning to ashes), plastic recycling, and energy emissions and value added products [6]. It is believed that the
production. At present, the high cost of producing electricity from application of plastic waste is focused on its elimination in a low-
wastes prohibits this route [6]. Traditionally due to the increasing cost approach rather than its beneficial, value-added reuse. Due to
growth of plastic solid waste (PSW), and so far landfill or inciner- the importance of cleaning of oil spills, many reviews have been
ation have the most utilized application for post-consumer plastic written in recent years about advanced sorbent materials [13–15].
treatment [7,8]. Landfilling will eventually be phased out due to However, this review paper is the first of its kind reporting, com-
the scarcity of space and its ever increasing cost [4]. Likewise, piling and reviewing the various methods of producing oil sorbents
incineration generates emissions of toxic fumes and fly ash that from plastics. This includes studies utilizing plastic waste as well as
require further disposal [9]. Among the industrial utilizations of virgin polymers that are components of plastics materials. In this
plastic waste, pyrolysis is one of the favorable approaches. Wal- review, we are concerned with oil sorbents mainly for oils from
petroleum sources.
426 J. Saleem et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 341 (2018) 424–437

2. Ways of combating oil spills

Every year, oil spills cause significant environment and eco-


nomic damage, for example, the Erika spill in France in 1999 [16]
and the Gulf of Mexico oil leak in 2010 [17]. Spilled oil on sea
spreads quickly over the water and undergoes various processes
such as emulsion formation and degradation of oil [18]. To deal
with oil spills, various strategies have been employed which are
explained briefly in this section [19].

2.1. Burning

In-situ burning of an oil layer can remove oil slicks but results
in the pollution from the burning in the environment [20].

2.2. Booms and skimmers

Booms can help in the control and spread of oil slicks by physi-
cally containing it by forming a barrier around it and then the oil can
be picked up by skimmers (mechanical devices), however, this can
expensive for large spills due to the requirement of a lot of equip-
ment and labor and ineffective for oil on turbulent seas or rivers. Fig. 1. Properties of an ideal oil sorbent made from plastics.
[19,21,22].
The qualities for ideal oil sorbent for cleaning oil spills are (See
2.3. Chemical dispersants also Fig. 1):

These disperse oil from the sea surface as they reduce the inter- 3.1. Good mutual solubility
facial tension at the oil/water interface and increase the natural
biodegradation process [23]. Bio-surfactants can also be used (pro- This property is related with the structure i.e. the chain structure
duced by micro-organisms) which can degrade oil spills as well of both oil and absorbent should be similar [36].
[24]. However, both these approaches involve the addition of chem-
ical materials to the sea. 3.2. High surface area (and/or high surface to thickness ratio)

2.4. Sorbents This maximizes the sorption surface available. Usage of


the thinnest substrate permitting sufficient mechanical strength
Various sorbent materials which are hydrophobic in nature have results in maximized value of absorption capacity (g/g) per unit
been used to remove oil from the sea water surface. In the case of mass of sorbent [36–38].
natural sorbents, various vegetable products can be used such as
rice, straw, cotton, wood fiber or wool but most of them have a 3.3. Porous structure
poor adsorption capacity [25,26]. Many mineral products such as
Zeolites or natural clays [26,27] are hydrophilic in nature, how- Pore structure and void spaces will provide further facilitation
ever, their surface can be modified hence they adsorb oil as well. of oil into the plastic structure [36,39].
In recent years, nanotechnology based solutions have been used
for oil spills [28] and various nanomaterials have been synthesized 3.4. Penetration into network structure (swelling)
which have shown better performance than conventional sorbents.
Some examples include nanowire membranes [29] and nanoparti- It allows oil to penetrate into the network structure which
cles such as Fe2 O3 /C [30]. Carbon nanomaterials such as graphene results in the increase in the volume of sorbent often known as
and carbon nanotubs have also been extensively used [31]. the swelling phenomena [36].
Despite the advent of nanotechnology, most commercially avail-
able sorbents are polypropylene and polyurethane based as they 3.5. Low degree of cross linking
possess not only much higher sorption capacities but also have
recyclability potential that many sorbents do not possess, hence A low degree of cross linking will improve the swelling of a
they can be regenerated using various post treatment strategies plastic structure and hence improve its sorption capacity. High
for reuse. Also, robustness of these sorbents render them useful in cross-linked polymers are rigid regardless of chain flexibility [36].
harsh environments typical of oil spills. One of the most attractive
properties of these sorbents is that they can be manufactured from 4. Fabrication strategies of oil sorbents from plastic wastes
waste plastics as well [32–35] hence they help to combat environ-
mental problems of oils spills and waste pollution simultaneously. 4.1. Chemical conversion

3. Desired properties of oil sorbents made from plastics Atta et al. [40] used a two-step chemical conversion route to
synthesize an oil sorbent where polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
The absorption capacity of a sorbent is defined as [31]. waste was first glycolized using trimethylolpropane (TMp) or pen-
Absorption capacity (g/g) = (weight of sorbent after adsorption taerytheritol (PEr) resulting in the formation of polyol oligomers.
− weight of sorbent before adsorption)/weight of sorbent before These intermediates were then further reacted with 2,4-toluene
adsorption diisocyanate which resulted in the synthesis of several types of
J. Saleem et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 341 (2018) 424–437 427

Fig. 2. Oil-sorbent films from waste HDPE bottles for oil spill remediation (a) Blended sorbent film, named HD-75 (size 3 × 3 cm2 ) before being immersed in corn oil bath,
(b) after immersing, (c) after 20 min, (d) after 60 min, (e) after 8 h, (f) film was hanged in the air to drip off the oil on the surface for 2 h before taking photo: Adhesion and
cohesion phenomena at the surface and near the edge of sorbent film, (g) film immersed in water, and (h) film in water after 8 h. Small black line near the bottom left of film
was used as a reference to show the extent of oil uptake, (i) SEM image of HD-75 sorbent film. (j) Full isotherm and pore size distribution of HD-75, (k) Oil uptake capacities
recorded after 60 min of dripping using HD-75 as sorbent with different sorbates. Reproduced from Ref. [35].

Polyurethane PU foams which were used to investigate the kinetics dose) and these were found to possess good sorption capacity for
of oil uptake. light and heavy crude oils. This low dose of gamma radiation pro-
duces with a low degree of cross-linked structures which allows
4.2. Grafting greater penetration and sorption of crude oils into the polymer
sheets. Scanning electron microscope SEM photographs and dif-
Tanobe et al. [41] investigated the effect of grafting polystyrene ferential scanning calorimetric DSC plots were used to investigate
polymer onto waste polyurethane foams for oil sorption per- structural changes in the sheets including their behavior towards
formance. In the first step, morphology (porous structure and crude oil [43].
pore size) and physical chemical properties (density and surface
hydrophobicity) were altered to get foams with the best sorption
4.4. Mechanical method
ability which were then further grafted with polystyrene. In this
second step, different conditions were tested in a set of experiments
Sharma et al. [44] synthesized fibers from polystyrene waste
by varying reaction time, styrene volume and initiator concentra-
using citrus peel extracts as solvent via a simple mechanical route
tion and results indicated that grafting rendered foams with better
without any addition of chemical. These fibers were micro to
sorption capacity, fast uptake kinetics and good recyclability. In a
nanometers in dimension and were highly hydrophobic in nature.
similar study, an oil sorbent material (with a sorption capacity of
20.8 g/g) was obtained by grafting methacrylic acid on polypropy-
lene fibers by using divinylbenzene as a cross-linking agent [42]. 4.5. Porous films

4.3. Gamma radiation 4.5.1. Dry-Stretch process


Pore formation results from stretching non-porous, semi-
Here waste plastic sheets of polyethylene (PE) and polypropy- crystalline, extruded polymer precursor in the machine direction
lene (PP) were subjected to low doses of gamma irradiation (3 Mrad [45].
428 J. Saleem et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 341 (2018) 424–437

Fig. 3. Sorption properties of Polypropylene Sponge (PP) (a) schematics showing important synthesis steps. (b) The absorption and recycling process of diethyl ether (dyed
with oil red) and the recovery of the PP sponge by washing with volatile organic liquid (ethanol) and drying in air. (c) Absorption capacities of the PP sponge toward different
organic liquids and oils. Reproduced from Ref. [64].

sorbent [46]. Saleem et al. applied this methodology with some


modifications to prepare an oil sorbent film. The polymer–solvent
wt. ratio of 10:90 was used in which HDPE and UHMWPE constitute
7.5 and 2.5 wt% respectively. The HDPE bottle was cut into small
pieces and then washed with detergent. It was further washed with
acetone and then dried in an oven for several hours to remove traces
of solvent. The blends were prepared via melt mixing in a static-
mixer which is equipped with roller rotors. HDPE pellets were first
charged into the chamber at 180 ◦ C and at a mixing speed of 25 rpm.
A mixture of dispersed UHMWPE in solvent (mineral oil and petro-
latum wax with equal wt%) was slowly added to the chamber. The
mixture was allowed to mix for 30 min at a mixing speed of 25 rpm
at 180 ◦ C. The partial gel obtained from the chamber was cut into
fine pieces and was put back into the static-mixer for round 2 under
the same operating conditions in order to achieve uniform mix-
ing. Then, it was hot-pressed at 180 ◦ C in order to achieve a flat
sheet followed by solvent extraction in a hexane bath for 20 min
at room temperature to remove around 50–60% of the solvent. The
sheet was later stretched by using a successive biaxial stretching
technique at a stretching ratio of 12:12 using a crosshead speed
of 400 mm/min at 121 ◦ C. The stretched film was placed in boiling
Fig. 4. Plastics used as oil sorbents.
hexane to extract and remove the residual solvent and then dried to
obtain the porous film and was named as HD-75 [35]. Fig. 2 depicts
4.5.2. Particle stretch process properties and characterization of oil sorbent film produced from
In this method, the polymeric raw material is mixed with the waste HDPE bottles.
particulate material, and then extruded. The pores are formed dur-
ing stretching when the interface between the polymer and the 4.5.3.1. Hypothesis of preparing efficient sorbent film using plastic
particulate fracture due to the stretching forces [45]. waste. Saleem et al., [35], [32] explained why plastic waste has
not often been used as oil sorbent films. In order to make a strong
4.5.3. Wet process porous polymer film [47] that can be subsequently used as an oil
In the wet phase inversion process or extraction process, the sorbent, the popular method (wet process) is followed in which a
polymeric raw material and oil are mixed and extruded together solvent is added that diffuses into the polymer matrix and makes it
and the processing oil is removed eventually to make pores in swell, thus creating a gel sheet [48]. Later, the solvent is extracted
J. Saleem et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 341 (2018) 424–437 429

Table 2
Polyurethane based oil sorbents.

S.N. Product Origin Discussion Reference

1 Polyurethane Foams Polyurethane foams used as Polyurethane foam grafted by Tanobe et. al., 2009 [41]
Mattresses polystyrene; Oil uptake (19–58 g/g),
Retention values (50-18 g/g)
2 Polyurethane Foams Recycled PET (polyethylene Limited oil uptake (25–35 g/g), Atta et. al. 2013 [40]
terephthalate) Retention values not presented
3 Polyurethane sponge material Polyurethane The absorption capacity was 100 g/g Wu et al 2014 [72]
treated with silica sol and sorbent for motor oil. After 15
gasoline successively successive sorption-squeezing cycles,
about 70 % sorption capacity was left.
4 Co-axial electrospun Polystyrene and polyurethane The absorption capacity: about 64 g/g Lin et al 2013 [73]
polystyrene/polyurethane (motor oil) and 47 g/g (sun flower oil).
fibers
5 Treated polyurethane sponges Polyurethane High sorption capacity and excellent Wang & Uyama 2016 [64]
oil/water selectivity.
6 Polyurethane PU Foams Polyurethane foam Oleophilic PU foams formed by graft Li et al 2013 [74]
copolymerization on PU foams using
lauryl methacrylate monomer,
divinylbenzene as a cross-linking
agent, benzoyl peroxide as an initiator
and toluene as the solvent.
The oil sorption capacity: about 47 g/g
(diesel) and 41 g/g (kerosene).
7 Post-consumed polyurethane Polyurethane post-use waste Post-consumed PU foams Tanobe et al 2009 [41]
PU foams modified by (environmental concern) modified by
polystyrene grafting with polystyrene to increase
its oil sorption capacity and were
characterized using FTIR-ATR, XPS and
SEM. The oil sorption was about 50 g
oil /g PU foam for Brazilian crude oil.
8 Polyurethane Foam modified Polyurethane Foam The modified foam (with bird’s Ouda et al 2015 [75]
by Fulica Atra feather feather) possessed high absorption
capacity for both light and heavy crude
oils. Five minutes contact period with
oil was sufficient.
9 Polypropylene, polyurethane, Polypropylene, polyurethane, In non- quiescent (non-quiet) Myers 2016 [76]
and polyester) and natural polyester, cotton, straw and conditions, cotton most effectively
organic (cotton, straw, and sawdust sorbents removed oil from water, followed by
sawdust) sorbents polypropylene, polyurethane and
straw.
10 Polyurethane (PU) foam Polyurethane Highly hydrophobic and oleophilic Su 2009 [77]
foam obtained which can reclaim oils
from polluted natural water area as the
contact angle of the foam was large as
152.28.

from the gel sheet. This addition and removal of solvent not only (wet process) is to achieve a thin film with uniform thickness and
creates void spaces in the polymer film, but also decreases the chain good physical properties [46,50].
entanglements (physical cross-linking) that hinders the better pen-
etration of oil between the chains. In this process, thermoplastics 4.5.3.2. Mechanism of high oil uptake. Saleem et al. [32–35,51] pre-
which are capable of being swollen with a solvent and forming a sented the key criteria for preparing highly efficient sorbent films.
pseudo-gel state are used. Polymers, which meet these require- The mechanism of oil uptake may follow adsorption, absorption,
ments, must be linear and have a high molecular weight of at least or both. In addition, adhesion between sorbent and oil surface
300,000 g/mol [49]. Plastic bottles, on the other hand, are made up and cohesion between oil molecules may also increase the uptake
of lower grades of polyethylene with relatively smaller molecu- capacity of the sorbent considerably. When the sorbent is taken out
lar weight (much less than 100,000 g/mol) and molecular chains from the spill site, some oil may drip from its surface while part of
[33,34] (See also Fig. 4 for the structures of plastics). These chains the oil remains in the surface due to absorption and adsorption phe-
would not be swollen significantly with the solvent and could not nomena. At the same time some oil adheres to the surface due to
be converted into a pseudo-gel state; hence most of the solvent adhesion and does not drip off the film while some oil sticks to the
remains unmixed resulting in an inhomogeneous gel sheet. As these edge of the sorbent film due to cohesion and adhesion forces. Over-
grades of plastic do not fulfill the required criteria, hence not much all, the combination of adsorption, absorption, adhesion (due to
research has been conducted to use them as oil sorbents. pores and voids, and large surface to thickness ratio), and cohesion
Recently, an innovative way to solve this problem was identified give exceptionally high oil uptake capacities.
[35] by blending plastic waste bottles with much higher molecu- From the BET analysis, it was found that sorbent film has the
lar weight polyethylene. Young-Keun et al. (2007) also explained surface area 114 m2 /g. When compared with waste plastic bottle
the process of making microporous films using different molecu- this is a hundred fold increment in surface area. Also it should be
lar weights of HDPE [48]. As there are other methods (dry-stretch noted that the unprocessed plastic waste bottle has a negligible
process and particle stretch process) [46] available to create porous surface area. The generation of pores was also confirmed by SEM
polymer films, the reason for using the solvent extraction method images.
430
Table 3
Polystyrene based oil sorbents.

S. N. Product Origin Discussion Reference

1 Oil Sorbent Fibers Polystyrene Sub-micron fibers from polystyrene waste. Oil Sandra S and Shital 2016
uptake measurements not presented [44]
2 Nanoporous polystyrene (PS) fibers PS Prepared via a one-step electrospinning Lin et al 2012 [82]

J. Saleem et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 341 (2018) 424–437


process.
The absorption capacity: about 114 g/g (motor
oil), 112 g/g (bean oil) and 97 g/g (sun flower
oil).
3 Electrospun Polystyrene (PS) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) The mechanical strength of PS fibers improved Li et al 2015 [83]
PS/PAN due to PAN. The oil sorption increases with
fibers decreasing fiber diameter. The sorbent
possessed quick oil sorption speed along with
high buoyancy (ability to float on water). The
absorption capacity: about 195 g/g (pump oil),
132 g/g (peanut oil), 67 g/g (diesel) and 44 g/g
(gasoline).
4 Polystyrene fibers Polystyrene Polystyrene fibers fabricated by a facile Wu et al 2012 [39]
electrospinning method. The absorption
capacity for PS fibers: about 7 g/g (diesel),
82 g/g (silicon oil), 112 g/g (peanut oil) and
131 g/g (motor oil).
5 Magnetic Polystyrene and divinylbenzene Porous hydrophobic monolith material with a Zhang et al 2015 [84]
polystyrene-divinylbenzene 142◦ water contact angle, with an oil intake
monolith capacity of about 23 times its own mass.
Addition of carbonyl iron powder made the
material magnetic as the oil soaked material
can be readily collected by the use of magnet.
6 Magnetic polystyrene foam Polystyrene The foam possessed high efficiency for the Liuhua et al 2017 [70]
removal of oil from the surface of water.
7 Electrospun polystyrene PS fibers PS The fibrous PS mats possessed higher oil Lin et al 2012 [85]
absorption capacities than commercial
non-woven polypropylene fibers.
J. Saleem et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 341 (2018) 424–437 431

Fig. 5. Schematic diagram illustrating the formation process of porous polystyrene fibers during electrospinning. Reproduced from Ref. [85].

4.6. Aerogels 5. Sorbents based on plastics types

One effective strategy to increase the sorption capacity of poly- The plastic derived oil sorbents are usually based on one plas-
mer sorbent materials is to make three dimensional structures of tic or a mixture of plastics [40,71]. In a few studies, plastic waste
them in the form of an aerogel, foam or sponge as these struc- has been investigated as oil sorbents however most of the studies
tures possess a high surface area and pore volume. This technique consume virgin plastic polymers to form oil sorbents.
has been extensively used for two dimensional graphene films as Plastics can be divided into thermoplastics and thermoset
reported in various recent works [52–55]. Other foam type materi- plastics. Thermoplastics (polypropylene, low density polyethylene
als include carbon fiber sorbent aerogel derived from bamboo [56], LDPE, high density polyethylene HDPE, polyethylene terephtha-
CNT Sponges [57], composite CNT-Graphene sponges [58–60], Fe/C late PET, polyamide/nylon, polystyrene, poly methyl methacrylate)
macroporous monoliths [61] and Silicon sponge made via sol-gel are those which can be recycled while thermoset plastics
polymerization having high affinity for organic liquids [62]. (polyurethane, polyester resin, urea formaldehyde, melamine
A similar strategy has been effective for polymer based sor- formaldehyde, epoxy resin, phenol-formaldehyde/Bakelite) per-
bents as well e.g. Pinto et al., [63] synthesized a polymer sponge manently deform on heating and therefore, cannot be recycled.
for oil remediation instead of making films and demonstrated that Fig. 4 illustrates plastics that are used in oil sorption applications.
pores of the polymeric structure play a key role in increasing the oil It is worthwhile to discuss oil sorbents based on various plastics
absorption capacities. In another work, Wang et al. [64] synthesized types.
polypropylene (PP) sponge by thermally-induced phase separa-
tion (TIPS) technique having promising oil sorbent properties as 5.1. Polyurethane oil sorbents
illustrated in Fig. 3. Similarly various polymer based aerogels were
synthesized and applied for oil clean-up that include PDMS (poly- Wu et al. prepared oil sorbent material with an absorption
dimethylsiloxane) sponge [65], polyurethane [66–69], melamine capacity of 100 g/g sorbent for motor oil by treating polyurethane
sponges [66] and polystyrene foams [70]. sponges with silica sol and then with gasoline [72]. By co-
axial electro-spinning of polyurethane and polystyrene fibers, the
excellent oil sorbent material was obtained having a better per-
432 J. Saleem et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 341 (2018) 424–437

Table 4
PP and PE based oil sorbents.

S.N. Product[ Origin Discussion Reference

1 PP and PE powder and sheets Plastic Wastes No oil uptake and retention values measured, Gheit et. al.,2006
Focused only on oil-water separation efficiency [43]
2 Oil absorbent foam Extruded polyethylene EPE Oil uptake (30 g/g) Gong et. al., 2011 [91]
(low cost shock proof foam
sheets) used in packing
3 Oil Sorbent film waste HDPE bottles Oil uptake capacity, 100 g/g Saleem and Mckay 2016 [32]
4 Oil Sorbent film Ultrahigh-molecular-weight Oil sorption capacities, 42–290 g/g after 2 min Saleem et. al., 2015 [35]
polyethylene of dripping for a range of petroleum solvents.
5 Methacrylic Acid MAA- grafted polypropylene fibers (PP) Graft polymerization of MAA was done on PP Ha et al 2016 [42]
Polypropylene PP Fibers done using divinylbenzene as a cross linking
agent and 2, 2- azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as
an initiator. Optimum reaction conditions
were: temp 80 ◦ C, time 5 h, MAA conc 2%, AIBN
conc 0.025 mol/L. Maximum oil sorption
capacity (qmax) for crude oil, about 21 g/g for
crude oil.
6 Polypropylene PP nonwoven PP The PP based material possessed ability to Zhou et al 2016 [92]
fabricated material with clean organic pollutants from water surfaces.
hydrophilic and hydrophobic
sites
7 PP/kapok blended nonwoven Propylene and Kapok The PP/kapok blend (50/50) possessed the Lee et al 2013 [86]
fabrics lowest bulk density of all the blends. The
absorption capacity for PP/kapok blend
(50/50): about 21 g/g (kerosene) and 27 g/g
(soybean oil).
8 Fiber assemblies made from Polypropylene or kapok or The polypropylene fiber assembly exhibited Rengasamy et al 2011 [87]
polypropylene, kapok and milkweed fibers the highest sorption capacity followed by the
milkweed fibers kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies at
porosity <0.98. All fibers showed higher
absorption capacity for high diesel oil than
diesel oil.
Fibers from Kapok (a natural cellulosic
material from kapok plant) are lightweight,
soft, strong and water-repellant. Milkweed
fibers (from seeds of Milkweed) are alternative
to kapok fibers.
9 Polypropylene fibrous syndiotactic polypropylene Electrospun material was superhydrophobic Patel and Chase 2014 [88]
membrane with water contact angles greater than 150.
The material successfully removed water from
diesel (ultra low sulfur diesel ULSD) samples.
10 Polypropylene sorbent booms Polypropylene Comparative study of the commercially Schrader 1991 [21]
available propylene based oil sorbent booms
was made.
11 Nonwoven polypropylene oil Polypropylene Oil sorption capacity of propylene depends on Wei et al 2003 [90]
sorbents fiber diameter, sorbent porosity and oil
property.
12 Polypropylene, polyurethane, Polypropylene, polyurethane, In non- quiescent (non-quiet) conditions, Myers 2016
and polyester) and natural polyester, cotton, straw and cotton most effectively removed oil from [76]
organic (cotton, straw, and sawdust sorbents water, followed by polypropylene,
sawdust) sorbents polyurethane and straw. Sorption capacities
for pure oil without water underneath were
not reported.
13 Absorbent Materials including 2 Propylene and four other A comparative study on the absorption Teas et al 2001 [89]
propylene fibers, processed absorbents capacity of these materials to clean oil spills
wood and three commercial was done and the best performing material
materials based on perlite was polypropylene with capacity of 10 g/g
(amorphous volcanic glass). compared to 3–4 g/g other 3 materials.

formance than commercially available polypropylene sorbents synthesized the polyurethane foams to study the effect of pore size
[73]. Oleophilic polyurethane foam with oil sorption capacity for on adsorption capacity and found that foams with interconnected
kerosene of 41 g/g was formed by graft polymerization [74] which porous structures and pore sizes below 500 mm have oil absorption
was modified by a birds feathers and the material so produced capacities up to 30 g/g, whereas chemical functionalization of the
also possessed a good oil sorption capacity for oils [75]. A study foam does not increase the sorption capacity but only increases the
was done to assess the effectiveness of various natural and syn- selectivity of the foam highlighting the importance of morpholog-
thetic sorbents in non-quiet conditions using wave tank having ical properties of foam type polymeric materials for their sorption
20 L of water and results showed that polyester and sawdust sank performance [61]. Some composite polyurethane sponge materials
rendering them useless for oil spills whereas among those sor- were also reported. In one such study it was found that the sor-
bents which remained on water, cotton recovered most oil with bent possessed excellent separation efficiency (of about 99%) for
mean oil sorbent mass ratio of 10.6, followed by polypropylene the continuous separation of oil/water mixtures due to fastening
(9.5), polyurethane (6.8), and straw (5.5) [76]. Su et al. reported the of graphene sheets into polyurethane PU sponge [78]. Similarly,
hydrophobic polyurethane foam with water contact angle of about a strong superhydrophobic polyurethane sponge anchored with
152◦ which can reclaim oil from water [77]. Similarly Pinto et al. SiO2 nanoparticles was reported [79]. In another investigation,
J. Saleem et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 341 (2018) 424–437 433

Table 5
Acrylates based oil sorbents.

S.N. Product Origin Discussion Reference

1 Butyl methacrylate-lauryl Butyl methacrylate and lauryl Hydroethyl methacrylate was used as a Feng and Xiao 2006 [93]
methacrylate copolymeric methacrylate cross-linker. The maximum absorption
(CPMA) fibers capacities of the fibers were about 8 g/g
(kerosene), 15 g/g (toluene), and 35 g/g
(chloroform).
2 Co-polymer from ST (styrene), ST, MBA and SMA The oil absorption capacity was about 13 g/g Fang et al 2014 [94]
MBA (butyl methacrylate) and for ST/MBA and 23 g/g for ST/MBA/SMA.
SMA (stearyl methacrylate) Benzoyl peroxide as an initiator and
divinylbenzene as a cross-linking agent were
used.
3 Macroporous ST/BMA Styrene and butyl methacrylate The macroporous resin possessed oil Du et al 2016 [95]
copolymer absorbency (about 9 g/g) to crude oil.
4 Butyl methacrylate (BMA) and BMA and MMA High oil-absorption resins were prepared by Ji et al 2011 [96]
short-chain methyl suspended emulsion polymerization process.
methacrylate (MMA)
copolymer
5 Stearyl methacrylate-butyl Stearyl methacrylate and butyl Porous oil-absorbent microsphere possessed Duan et al 2016 [97]
acrylate copolymer acrylate above 95% oil retention for four organic liquids
(toluene, gasoline, diesel and chloroform). The
material can be used at least 12 times with
little decrease in oil absorbency capacity.
6 Electrospun fibrous mat based Polymethacrylate Contact angle of a water drop on the surface of Mo et al 2014 [98]
on polymethacrylate the sample was 102.3.

Table 6
Oil sorbents based on miscellaneous polymers.

S.N. Product Origin Discussion Reference

1 Polyester staple fiber PSF Recycled PET flakes Oil uptake capacity not reported Zha, 2012 [103]
2 Oil sorbent powder PET Oil uptake capacity, 1.5-2.5 g/g Bukharova et. al., 2015 [99]
3 Nylon 6, 6 Nonwoven Fabric Nylon The absorption capacity for low area mass Ortega et al 2016 [100]
density spun bond nylon: 16 time’s absorbent
mass in low viscosity crude oil.
4 Electrospun copolymer of Styrene and butyl acrylate The produced fibrous material possessed large Xu et al 2016 [104]
styrene and butyl acrylate specific surface area and fast oil absorption
rate.
5 PDMS/MWNT Sponge The PDMS prepolymer, curing Magnetic recyclable macroporous PDMS/3% Turco et al (2015) [101]
agent, Magnetic Multiwalled MWNT sponge with sorption capacity of
Carbon Nanotubes, glucose 6–12 g/g.

polyurethane sponge containing attapulgite (a superhydrophobic of about 80 g/g compared to 20 g/g of commercial polypropylene
material) was formed which separated oil droplets from oil-in- mats [85]. Fig. 5 depicts the schematic diagram illustrating the for-
water emulsions with high separation efficiency of about 98% under mation process of porous polystyrene fibers during electrospinning
harsh turbulent sea conditions [80]. A bag made from a superhy- while Table 3 summarizes polystyrene based oil sorbents.
drophobic fabric and pristine polyuretahne sponge was found to be
effective in removing 40 L kerosene from water surfaces under vac-
uum conditions in 2 h and 30 min and no escape of oil occurred even 5.3. Polyethylene and polypropylene based oil sorbents
under harsh conditions such as mechanical abrasion [81]. Table 2
summarizes polyurethane based oil sorbents. Most of the commercial oil sorbents available in the market
are composed of polyethylene and polypropylene. Saleem et al.
5.2. Polystyrene oil sorbents [32,35] synthesized oil sorbent films using waste polyethylene
which possessed not only a high sorption capacity but also fast
Lin et al. prepared nanoporous polystyrene (PS) fibers via an uptake. kinetics. Lee et al. prepared pads of polypropylene/Kapok
electro-spinning process for oil accident remediation [82]. The elec- by a needle punching process where the 50/50 blend possessed high
tro spinning of polystyrene and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) together sorbent potential for oils [86]. Similarly, fiber assemblies made from
resulted in a material with high oil sorption capacity of about polypropylene, kapok and milkweed fibers were shown to possess
195 g/g for pump oil. Further this material was also mechanically high sorption capacities [87]. Superhydrophobic mats prepared
strong with high buoyancy [83]. In another work, Polystyrene (PS) from polypropylene by electrospinning were able to remove water
film was fabricated by a facile electro-spinning method [36]. Mag- effectively from fuel with high removal efficiency (up to 99%) [88].
netic poly (styrene-divinylbenzene) foam was also reported that A study to assess the oil sorption abilities of polypropylene fibers,
possessed an oil intake capacity of about 23 times the weight of the cellulosic material from wood and three commercial preparations
sorbent [84]. Similarly Liuhua et al. reported magnetic polystyrene of perlite (volcanic glass) were made [89] whereas another such
foam with oil removing capacity from the surface of water [70]. Lin comparative study evaluated commercially available polypropy-
et al. investigated tuning the morphology of the polystyrene fibers lene sorbent booms [21]. Wei et al. prepared an oil sorbent material
using different polymer sources and solvent compositions dur- based on propylene and found that the oil sorbent performance is
ing the electrospinning process and the results indicated that the related to the propylene fiber diameter, sorbent porosity and oil
porosity of fibers play a key role to achieve better oil adsorption per- property [90]. Table 4 summarizes the characteristics PP and PE
formance as porous PS fibrous mats showed oil adsorption capacity based oil sorbents.
434 J. Saleem et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 341 (2018) 424–437

Fig. 6. (a) Schematics of the synthesis of the PDMS–MWNT sponge (b) Oil adsorption capacities of the PDMS–3% MWNT sponge (c-d) Magnetic removal of oil red O colored
hexane on the water surface and oil red O colored chloroform (e) Adsorbed oil recovery from the PDMS–3% MWNT sponge by squeezing (the colorless solvent is ethanol and
the red one is oil red O colored chloroform). Reproduced from Ref. [101].

5.4. Methacrylate polymers (polyacrylates or acrylics) oil tion for oil sorption [96]. Table 5 illustrates the features of acrylate
sorbents based oil sorbents.

Feng and Xiao prepared co-polymer fibers from butyl methacry-


late and lauryl methacrylate which showed positive oil absorbency 5.5. Oil sorbents based on miscellaneous polymers
for different oils [93]. A ternary co-polymer (styrene/butyl
methacrylate/stearyl methacrylate) with oil sorption capacities Bukharova et al., used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) for oil
for combating oil spills was investigated by Feng et al. [94]. sorption. Although capacity values of about 1.5–2.5 g/g were much
A porous co-polymer from styrene and butyl methacrylate (as lower than commercial oil sorbents but this study had addressed
monomers) was reported having oil absorbency for crude oil of the issue of utilization of waste plastic [99]. In another work,
about 9 g/g [95]. Similarly, a high oil-absorption co-polymer from nylon bags were able to separate more than 95% of contaminated
butyl methacrylate (BMA) and short-chain methyl methacrylate gear oil from a 4.5% oil-in-water emulsion [100]. A copolymer of
(MMA) (as monomers) was prepared by suspension emulsion styrene and butyl acrylate was electro-spun to get fibrous mem-
polymerization [96]. Porous microspheres were prepared by co- branes which had the capacity to sorb high viscosity oils [101].
polymerization of stearyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate having Magnetic sponges made up of composite polydimethylsiloxane
an oil absorbency of about 28 g/g for diesel oil and material can be PDMS/MWNT were synthesized which had sorption capacity of
used up to 12 times [97]. The electro-spun fibrous mat based on 6–12 g/g comparable to commercial sorbents as illustrated in Fig. 6.
polymethacrylate was also prepared via suspension polymeriza- Moreover, it has good recyclability and selectivity for oils and
organic solvents [101]. In another study, oil sorbent based on cotton
J. Saleem et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 341 (2018) 424–437 435

coated with polydimethylsiloxane was reported which possessed used newspaper fibers, Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 37 (2006)
a water contact angle of more than 150◦ and was able to absorb 1613–1625, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2005.10.012.
[6] J. Hopewell, R. Dvorak, E. Kosior, Plastics recycling: challenges and
30–65 times oil relative to their weight [102]. Table 6 summarizes opportunities, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 364 (2009) 2115–2126, http://
the properties of oil sorbents based on miscellaneous polymers. dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0311.
[7] H. Merrild, A.W. Larsen, T.H. Christensen, Assessing recycling versus
incineration of key materials in municipal waste: the importance of efficient
6. Future prospects energy recovery and transport distances, Waste Manage. 32 (2012)
1009–1018, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2011.12.025.
Plastic waste degrades slowly and special equipment and pro- [8] C. Zhou, W. Fang, W. Xu, A. Cao, R. Wang, Characteristics and the recovery
potential of plastic wastes obtained from landfill mining, J. Clean. Prod. 80
cessing plants are needed to recover the energy and useful products (2014) 80–86, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.05.083.
from these wastes. Plastic based waste materials are based on var- [9] R. Siddique, J. Khatib, I. Kaur, Use of recycled plastic in concrete: a review,
ious polymers such as polypropylene, polyurethane, polystyrene, Waste Manage. 28 (2008) 1835–1852, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.
2007.09.011.
polyethylene, etc. The plastic based oil sorbents are light weight, [10] M. Wallis, S.K. Bhatia, Kinetic study of the thermal degradation of high
porous, hydrophobic materials which possess buoyancy and the density polyethylene, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 91 (2006) 1476–1483, http://dx.
required mechanical strengths for repeated use for cleaning oil doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2005.10.003.
[11] J.a. Conesa, A. Marcilla, R. Font, Pyrolysis of polyethylene in a fluidized bed
slicks from the surface of sea water.
reactor, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 30 (1994) 101–120, http://dx.doi.org/10.
It is anticipated that the research on the cleaning of oil spills on 1016/0165-2370(94)00806-X.
oceans using plastic materials will continue as they provide two [12] M. Bernardo, N. Lapa, M. Gonçalves, B. Mendes, F. Pinto, I. Fonseca, H. Lopes,
major benefits: (a) control and clean oil spills and (b) vastly reduce Physico-chemical properties of chars obtained in the co-pyrolysis of waste
mixtures, J. Hazard. Mater. 219–220 (2012) 196–202, http://dx.doi.org/10.
the huge debris produced by plastics. However more research 1016/j.jhazmat.2012.03.077.
is needed to develop oil sorbents which are low cost with high [13] J.S. Acevedo, C. Boris, I.K. Thelma, E.S. Quezada, Micro- and nanoporous
reusability. materials capable of absorbing solvents and oils reversibly: the state of the
art, Pet. Sci. 14 (2017) 84–104, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12182-016-0143-
The recycling of plastic wastes is an energy intensive process. 0.
Therefore research is also needed to produce new useful products [14] Y. Si, Z. Guo, Superwetting materials of oil water emulsion separat ion,
with minimum use of energy. Moreover, the recycling of plastic Chem. Lett. 44 (2015) 874–883, http://dx.doi.org/10.1246/cl.150223.
[15] J. Ge, H. Zhao, H. Zhu, J. Huang, L. Shi, S. Yu, Advanced sorbents for oil-spill
materials involves lengthy/complex steps and is more difficult than cleanup: recent advances and future perspectives, Advances Material (2016)
the recovery of metals such as iron, copper etc. from metal wastes. 10459–10490, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201601812.
The chemical research should be done to make the recycling of [16] A.A. Al-Majed, A.R. Adebayo, M.E. Hossain, A novel technology for
sustainable oil spills control, Environ. Eng. Manage. J. 13 (2014) 265–274.
plastic easier, straight forward and environmentally friendly so that [17] T. Crone, T. Maya, Magnitude of the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil leak, Science
such units can be installed in every city. (80-.) 330 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1195840.
Another important challenge in this research is the heterogene- [18] J. Rogowska, J. Namie, Reviews of Environmental Contamination and
Toxicology, vol. 206, Springer, New York, New York, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/
ity of plastic waste composition and the unavailability of reliable
10.1007/978-1-4419-6260-7.
data of waste composition which hinders the reproducibility of var- [19] A.A. Al-Majed, A.R. Adebayo, M.E. Hossain, A sustainable approach to
ious studies done to convert plastic wastes into useful oil sorbents. controlling oil spills, J. Environ. Manage. 113 (2012) 213–227, http://dx.doi.
To synthesize oil sorbents from plastic polymers involves various org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.07.034.
[20] J.V. Mullin, M. a Champ, Introduction/overview to in situ burning of oil
complex steps, equipment (e.g. mixers, extruders and hot press) spills, Spill Sci. Technol. Bull. 8 (2003) 323–330, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
and high temperature conditions. Hence more effort should be S1353-2561(03)00076-8.
devoted to find facile and low temperature safe synthesis methods [21] E.L. Schrader, Remediation of floating, open water oil spills: comparative
efficacy of commercially available polypropylene sorbent booms, Environ.
in future. Geol. Water Sci. 17 (1991) 157–166, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01701571.
With the advent of nanotechnology, various nanomaterials are [22] R. Schultz, Oil Spill Response Performance Review of Skimmers, vol. 34,
recently fabricated with sorption capacities much higher than poly- ASTM, International, 1998, pp. 34.
[23] E.B. Kujawinski, M.C. Kido Soule, D.L. Valentine, A.K. Boysen, K. Longnecker,
mer based sorbents hence further work is required to increase their M.C. Redmond, Fate of dispersants associated with the Deepwater Horizon
capacity values. Various useful properties of nanomaterials e.g. high oil spill, Environ. Sci. Technol. 45 (2011) 1298–1306, http://dx.doi.org/10.
mechanical strength of CNTs can be harnessed by making compos- 1021/es103838p.
[24] R. de C.F.S. Silva, D.G. Almeida, R.D. Rufino, J.M. Luna, V.A. Santos, L.A.
ite structures of polymers with them so that these sorbents can Sarubbo, Applications of biosurfactants in the petroleum industry and the
work in harsh environments. Many previous studies also neglected remediation of oil spills, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15 (2014) 12523–12542, http://dx.
to determine the uptake kinetics of sorption which should be incor- doi.org/10.3390/ijms150712523.
[25] H.M. Choi, R.M. Cloud, Natural sorbents in oil spill cleanup, Environ. Sci.
porated in future studies. The morphology of the sorbent plays an
Technol. 26 (1992) 772–776.
important role in determining the sorption properties of the mate- [26] M.O. Adebajo, R.L. Frost, J.T. Kloprogge, O. Carmody, S. Kokot, Porous
rial especially in sponge type sorbents having a three dimensional materials for oil spill cleanup: a review of synthesis and absorbing
porous structure so an effort should be made to understand struc- properties, J. Porous Mater. 10 (2003) 159–170.
[27] O. Carmody, R. Frost, Y. Xi, S. Kokot, Adsorption of hydrocarbons on
tural property relationships of these porous materials such as effect organo-clays–implications for oil spill remediation, J. Colloid Interface Sci.
of pore size, shape and porosity on uptake capacity and kinetics of 305 (2007) 17–24, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2006.09.032.
various oils and organic solvents. [28] Y.R. Mahajan, Nanotechnology based solutions for oil spills, Nanotechnol.
Insights 2 (2011) 1–19.
[29] J. Yuan, X. Liu, O. Akbulut, J. Hu, S.L. Suib, J. Kong, F. Stellacci, Superwetting
References nanowire membranes for selective absorption, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3 (2008)
332–336, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2008.136.
[1] S.M. Al-Salem, P. Lettieri, J. Baeyens, Recycling and recovery routes of plastic [30] Q. Zhu, F. Tao, Q. Pan, Fast and selective removal of oils from water surface
solid waste (PSW): a review, Waste Manage. 29 (2009) 2625–2643, http:// via highly hydrophobic core-shell Fe2O3@C nanoparticles under magnetic
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2009.06.004. field, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2 (2010) 3141–3146, http://dx.doi.org/10.
[2] P. Subramanian, Plastics recycling and waste management in the US, Resour. 1021/am1006194.
Conserv. Recycl. 28 (2000) 253–263, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921- [31] S. Gupta, N.-H. Tai, Carbon materials as oil sorbents: a review on the
3449(99)00049-X. synthesis and performance, J. Mater. Chem. A 4 (2016) 1550–1565, http://
[3] C. Wilcoxa, E. Van Sebilleb, B.D. Hardesty, Threat of plastic pollution to dx.doi.org/10.1039/C5TA08321D.
seabirds is global pervasive, and increasing, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112 [32] J. Saleem, G. Mckay, Waste HDPE bottles for selective oil sorption, Asia-Pac.
(2015) 11899–11904. J. Chem. Eng. 11 (2016) 642–645, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/apj.1989.
[4] A. Bazargan, C.W. Hui, G. McKay, Porous carbons from plastic waste, Adv. [33] J. Saleem, A. Bazargan, J. Barford, G. McKay, Application of strong porous
Polym. Sci. (2015) 1–26, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/12. polymer sheets for superior oil spill recovery, Chem. Eng. Technol. 38 (2015)
[5] I. Baroulaki, O. Karakasi, G. Pappa, P.A. Tarantili, D. Economides, K. Magoulas, 482–488, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ceat.201400068.
Preparation and study of plastic compounds containing polyolefins and post
436 J. Saleem et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 341 (2018) 424–437

[34] J. Saleem, A. Bazargan, J. Barford, G. Mckay, Super-fast oil uptake using removal, Carbon N. Y. 80 (2014) 523–533, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.
porous ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene sheets, Polym. Adv. carbon.2014.08.092.
Technol. 25 (2014) 1181–1185, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pat.3376. [61] Y. Chu, Q. Pan, Three-dimensionally macroporous Fe/C nanocomposites as
[35] J. Saleem, C. Ning, J. Barford, G. McKay, Combating oil spill problem using highly selective oil-absorption materials, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4
plastic waste, Waste Manage. 44 (2015) 34–38, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. (2012) 2420–2425, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am3000825.
wasman.2015.06.003. [62] L. Mu, S. Yang, B. Hao, P.-C. Ma, Ternary silicone sponge with enhanced
[36] James C. Fletcher, Harold E. Marsh, Jr., Oil and fat absorbing polymers, U.S. mechanical properties for oil–water separation, Polym. Chem. 6 (2015)
Patent No. 4,039,489, 1977. https://www.google.com/patents/US4039489. 5869–5875, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C5PY00861A.
[37] W. Herkenberg, Method for the removal of oil from oil spills, U.S. Patent No. [63] J. Pinto, A. Athanassiou, D. Fragouli, Effect of the porous structure of polymer
5, 451, 325, 1995. https://www.google.com/patents/US5451325. foams on the remediation of oil spills, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49 (2016)
[38] W. Herkenberg, Thin Flexible Sheet Sorption Material for the Removal of Oil 145601, http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/49/14/145601.
from Oil Spills, EP 0507784 B1, 1991 https://www.google.com/patents/ [64] G. Wang, H. Uyama, Facile synthesis of flexible macroporous polypropylene
WO1991008347A1?cl=en. sponges for separation of oil and water, Sci. Rep. 6 (2016) 21265, http://dx.
[39] J. Wu, N. Wang, L. Wang, H. Dong, Y. Zhao, L. Jiang, Electrospun porous doi.org/10.1038/srep21265.
structure fibrous film with high oil adsorption capacity, ACS Appl. Mater. [65] S.-J. Choi, T.-H. Kwon, H. Im, D.-I. Moon, D.J. Baek, M.-L. Seol, J.P. Duarte, Y.-K.
Interfaces 4 (2012) 3207–3212, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am300544d. Choi, A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sponge for the selective absorption of
[40] A.M. Atta, W. Brostow, T. Datashvili, R.A. El-Ghazawy, H.E.H. Lobland, A.R.M. oil from water, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3 (2011) 4552–4556, http://dx.
Hasan, J.M. Perez, Porous polyurethane foams based on recycled doi.org/10.1021/am201352w.
poly(ethylene terephthalate) for oil sorption, Polym. Int. 62 (2013) 116–126, [66] C. Ruan, K. Ai, X. Li, L. Lu, A superhydrophobic sponge with excellent
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pi.4325. absorbency and flame retardancy, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53 (2014)
[41] V.O.A. Tanobe, T.H.D. Sydenstricker, S.C. Amico, J.V.C. Vargas, S.F. Zawadzki, 5556–5560, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201400775.
Evaluation of flexible postconsumed polyurethane foams modified by [67] C. Wang, S. Lin, Robust superhydrophobic/superoleophilic sponge for
polystyrene grafting as sorbent material for oil spills, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 111 effective continuous absorption and expulsion of oil pollutants from
(2009) 1842–1849, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/a. waterACS, ACS Appl. Mater. & Interface 5 (2013) 8861–8864.
[42] H.T. Ha, L.T. Son, N.T.B. Viet, N.T. Dung, N.V. Khoi, N.T. Tung, T.D. Minh, Oil [68] Q. Zhu, Q. Pan, F. Liu, Facile removal and collection of oils from water
sorbents based on methacrylic acid – grafted polypropylene fibers: surfaces through superhydrophobic and superoleophilic sponges, J. Phys.
synthesis and characterization, J. Chem. Eng. Process Technol. 7 (2016), Chem. C 115 (2011) 17464–17470, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp2043027.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7048.1000292. [69] Y. Liu, J. Ma, T. Wu, X. Wang, G. Huang, Y. Liu, H. Qiu, Y. Li, W. Wang, J. Gao,
[43] A.K. Aboul-Gheit, F.H. Khalil, T. Abdel-Moghny, Adsorption of spilled oil Cost effective reduced graphene oxide-coated polyurethane sponge as
from seawater by waste plastic, Oil Gas Sci. Technol. 61 (2006) 259–268, highly efficient and reusable oil-absorbent, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5
http://dx.doi.org/10.2516/ogst:2006019x. (2013) 10018–10026.
[44] S. Sharma, S. Yadav, Process of Fabrication of Submicron Aligned [70] L. Yu, G. Hao, L. Xiao, Q. Yin, M. Xia, W. Jiang, Robust magnetic polystyrene
Hydrophobic and Oleophilic Fibre from Polystyrene Waste with Controllable foam for high efficiency and removal oil from water surface, Sep. Purif.
Geometry Using-Citrus Peel Extract as Solvent, 2016 https://www.google. Technol. 173 (2017) 121–128, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2016.09.
com/patents/WO2016083883A3?cl=en. 022.
[45] Xiaomin Zhang, Gerald P. Rumierz, Karl F. Humiston, Charles E. Haire, [71] C. Guo, L. Zhou, J. Lv, Effects of expandable graphite and modified
Tyrone S. Fields, Michael A. Braswell, Ronald A. Proctor, Biaxially oriented ammonium polyphosphate on the flame-retardant and mechanical
porous membranes, composites, and methods of manufacture and use, U.S. properties of wood flour-polypropylene composites, Polym. Polym. Compos.
Patent Application No. 13/044, 708, 2011. https://www.google.com/patents/ 21 (2013) 449–456, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.
US20110223486. [72] D. Wu, L. Fang, Y. Qin, W. Wu, C. Mao, H. Zhu, Oil sorbents with high
[46] X. Zhang, G. Rumierz, Biaxially oriented porous membranes, composites, sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup,
and methods of manufacture and use, US 2011/0223486 A1. (2011). Mar. Pollut. Bull. 84 (2014) 263–267, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.
[47] K. Kono, R. Okamoto, Process for Producing Microporous 2014.05.005.
Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyolefin Membrane, 1989 https://www. [73] J. Lin, F. Tian, Y. Shang, F. Wang, B. Ding, J. Yu, Z. Guo, Co-axial electrospun
google.com/patents/US4873034. polystyrene/polyurethane fibres for oil collection from water surface,
[48] Microporous High Density Polyethylene Film and Preparing Method Nanoscale 5 (2013) 2745–2755, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3nr34008b.
Thereof, 2013 https://www.google.com/patents/CN101223216B?cl=en. [74] H. Li, L. Liu, F. Yang, Oleophilic polyurethane foams for oil spill cleanup,
[49] A. Zachariades, P. Shukla, Process for obtaining ultra-high modulus line Procedia Environ. Sci. 18 (2013) 528–533, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.
products with enhanced mechanical properties, US Pat. 5,407,623. (1995). proenv.2013.04.071.
[50] L. Young-Keun, R. Jang-Weon, S. Jung-Moon, J. Byoung-Cheon, Microporous [75] Y.W. Ouda, The effect of fulica atra feather on oil sorption capacity of
High Density Polyethylene film and Preparing method, US 2007/0218271 polyurethane foam, Polyurethane 5 (2015) 90–94.
A1, 2007. [76] A.L. Myers, Aquatic oil spill clean-up in non-quiescent conditions, in: AAAS
[51] J. Saleem, P. Gao, J. Barford, G. McKay, Development and characterization of Annu Meet., washington, 2016.
novel composite membranes for fuel cell applications, J. Mater. Chem. A 1 [77] C. Su, Highly hydrophobic and oleophilic foam for selective absorption, Appl.
(2013) 14335, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3ta13855k. Surf. Sci. 256 (2009) 1413–1418, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.08.
[52] H. Bi, X. Xie, K. Yin, Y. Zhou, S. Wan, R.S. Ruoff, L. Sun, Highly enhanced 098.
performance of spongy graphene as an oil sorbent, J. Mater. Chem. A 2 [78] Z. Kong, J. Wang, X. Lu, Y. Zhu, L. Jiang, In situ fastening graphene sheets into
(2014) 1652–1656, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C3TA14112H. a polyurethane sponge for the highly efficient continuous cleanup of oil
[53] R. Li, C. Chen, J. Li, L. Xu, G. Xiao, D. Yan, A facile approach to spills, Nano Res. 10 (2017) 1756–1766, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12274-
superhydrophobic and superoleophilic graphene/polymer aerogels, J. Mater. 017-1484-8.
Chem. A 2 (2014) 3057, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3ta14262k. [79] X. Zhang, D. Zhi, W. Zhu, S. Sathasivam, I.P. Parkin, Facile fabrication of
[54] H. Hu, Z. Zhao, W. Wan, Y. Gogotsi, J. Qiu, Polymer/graphene hybrid aerogel durable superhydrophobic SiO2/polyurethane composite sponge for
with high compressibility, conductivity, and sticky superhydrophobicity, continuous separation of oil from water, RSC Adv. 7 (2017) 11362–11366,
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6 (2014) 3242–3249, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C7RA00020K.
am4050647. [80] J. Li, C. Xu, Y. Zhang, R. Wang, F. Zha, H. She, Robust superhydrophobic
[55] J. Zhao, W. Ren, H.-M. Cheng, Graphene sponge for efficient and repeatable attapulgite coated polyurethane sponge for efficient immiscible oil/water
adsorption and desorption of water contaminations, J. Mater. Chem. 22 mixture and emulsion separation, J. Mater. Chem. A 4 (2016) 15546–15553,
(2012) 20197, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2jm34128j. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C6TA07535E.
[56] S. Yang, L. Chen, L. Mu, B. Hao, P.C. Ma, Low cost carbon fiber aerogel derived [81] J. Li, L. Yan, X. Tang, H. Feng, D. Hu, F. Zha, Robust superhydrophobic fabric
from bamboo for the adsorption of oils and organic solvents with excellent bag filled with polyurethane sponges used for vacuum-assisted continuous
performances, RSC Adv. 5 (2015) 37943–37956, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/ and ultrafast absorption and collection of oils from water, Adv. Mater.
C5RA03701H. Interfaces 3 (2016) 3–10, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/admi.201500770.
[57] X. Gui, H. Li, K. Wang, J. Wei, Y. Jia, Z. Li, L. Fan, A. Cao, H. Zhu, D. Wu, [82] J. Lin, Y. Shang, B. Ding, J. Yang, J. Yu, S.S. Al-Deyab, Nanoporous polystyrene
Recyclable carbon nanotube sponges for oil absorption, Acta Mater. 59 fibers for oil spill cleanup, Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64 (2012) 347–352, http://dx.
(2011) 4798–4804, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2011.04.022. doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.11.002.
[58] X. Dong, J. Chen, Y. Ma, J. Wang, M.B. Chan-Park, X. Liu, L. Wang, W. Huang, [83] P. Li, Y. Qiao, L. Zhao, D. Yao, H. Sun, Y. Hou, S. Li, Q. Li, Electrospun PS/PAN
P. Chen, Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic hybrid foam of graphene fibers with improved mechanical property for removal of oil from water,
and carbon nanotube for selective removal of oils or organic solvents from Mar. Pollut. Bull. 93 (2015) 75–80, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.
the surface of water, Chem. Commun. (Camb). 48 (2012) 10660–10662, 2015.02.012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2cc35844a. [84] N. Zhang, W. Jiang, T. Wang, J. Gu, S. Zhong, S. Zhou, T. Xie, J. Fu, Facile
[59] H. Hu, Z. Zhao, Y. Gogotsi, J. Qiu, Compressible carbon nanotube-graphene preparation of magnetic poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) foam and its
hybrid aerogels with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity for oil application as an oil absorbent, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 54 (2015)
sorption, Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 1 (2014) 214–220, http://dx.doi.org/10. 11033–11039, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.5b01847.
1021/ez500021w. [85] J. Lin, B. Ding, J. Yang, J. Yu, G. Sun, Subtle regulation of the micro- and
[60] S. Kabiri, D.N.H. Tran, T. Altalhi, D. Losic, Outstanding adsorption nanostructures of electrospun polystyrene fibers and their application in oil
performance of graphene-carbon nanotube aerogels for continuous oil absorption, Nanoscale 4 (2012) 176, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c1nr10895f.
J. Saleem et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 341 (2018) 424–437 437

[86] Y.-H. Lee, J.-S. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M.-S. Shin, Y.-J. Jung, D.-J. Lee, H.-D. Kim, [96] N. Ji, H. Chen, M. Yu, R. Qu, C. Wang, Synthesis of high oil-absorption resins
Effect of blend ratio of PP/kapok blend nonwoven fabrics on oil sorption of poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl methacrylate) by suspended emulsion
capacity, Environ. Technol. 34 (2013) 3169–3175, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ polymerization, Polym. Adv. Technol. 22 (2011) 1898–1904, http://dx.doi.
09593330.2013.808242. org/10.1002/pat.1689.
[87] R.S. Rengasamy, D. Das, C. Praba Karan, Study of oil sorption behavior of [97] Y. Duan, F. Bian, H. Huang, Facile fabrication of porous oil-absorbent
filled and structured fiber assemblies made from polypropylene, kapok and microspheres with high oil absorbency and fast oil absorption speed, Polym.
milkweed fibers, J. Hazard. Mater. 186 (2011) 526–532, http://dx.doi.org/10. Adv. Technol. 27 (2016) 228–234, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pat.3625.
1016/j.jhazmat.2010.11.031. [98] J. Mo, N. Xu, C. Xiao, X. Han, Y. Liu, Structure and property of electrospun
[88] S.U. Patel, G.G. Chase, Separation of water droplets from water-in-diesel fibrous mat based on polymethacrylate, J. Mater. Sci. 49 (2014) 4816–4824,
dispersion using superhydrophobic polypropylene fibrous membranes, Sep. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10853-014-8181-8.
Purif. Technol. 126 (2014) 62–68, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2014. [99] E.A. Bukharova, E.A. Tatarintseva, L.N. Ol’Shanskaya, Production of
02.009. polyethylene terephthalate based sorbent and its use for waste and surface
[89] C. Teas, S. Kalligeros, F. Zanikos, S. Stournas, E. Lois, G. Anastopoulos, water cleaning from oil products, Chem. Pet. Eng. 50 (2014) 595–599, http://
Investigation of the effectiveness of absorbent materials in oil spills clean dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10556-014-9947-1.
up, Desalination 140 (2001) 259–264, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0011- [100] R.A. Ortega, E.S. Carter, A.E. Ortega, Nylon 6,6 nonwoven fabric separates oil
9164(01)00375-7. contaminates from oil-in-water emulsions, PLoS One 11 (2016) 1–9, http://
[90] Q.F. Wei, R.R. Mather, A.F. Fotheringham, R.D. Yang, Evaluation of nonwoven dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158493.
polypropylene oil sorbents in marine oil-spill recovery, Mar. Pollut. Bull. 46 [101] A. Turco, C. Malitesta, G. Barillaro, A. Greco, A. Maffezzoli, E. Mazzotta, A
(2003) 780–783, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(03)00042-0. magnetic and highly reusable macroporous
[91] Y.J. Gong, S.S. Qiu, Y. Zhang, J.P. Wei, Study on the oil-absorbing materials superhydrophobic/superoleophilic PDMS/MWNT nanocomposite for oil
with waste plastics, Adv. Mater. Res. 306-307 (2011) 1604–1608, http://dx. sorption from water, J. Mater. Chem. A. 3 (2015) 17685–17696, http://dx.
doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.306-307.1604. doi.org/10.1039/C5TA04353K.
[92] X. Zhou, F. Wang, Y. Ji, W. Chen, J. Wei, Fabrication of hydrophilic and [102] J.H. Lee, D.H. Kim, Y.D. Kim, High-performance, recyclable and
hydrophobic sites on polypropylene nonwoven for oil spill cleanup: two superhydrophobic oil absorbents consisting of cotton with a
dilemmas affecting oil sorption, Environ. Sci. Technol. 50 (2016) 3860–3865, polydimethylsiloxane shell, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 35 (2016) 140–145.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b06007. [103] A.X. Zha, Study on production process of PSF from recycled bottle PET flakes
[93] Y. Feng, C.F. Xiao, Research on butyl methacrylate-lauryl methacrylate for waterproof felt, Adv. Mater. Res. 441 (2012) 764–766, http://dx.doi.org/
copolymeric fibers for oil absorbency, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 101 (2006) 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.441.764.
1248–1251, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.22798. [104] N. Xu, J. Cao, Y. Lu, The electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and
[94] P. Fang, P. Mao, J. Chen, Y. Du, X. Hou, Synthesis and properties of a ternary butyl acrylate for its application as oil absorbent, Springerplus 5 (2016)
polyacrylate copolymer resin for the absorption of oil spills, J. Appl. Polym. 1383, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2845-6.
Sci. 131 (2014) 1–9, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.40180.
[95] Y. Du, P. Fang, J. Chen, X. Hou, Synthesis of reusable macroporous St/BMA
copolymer resin and its absorbency to organic solvent and oil, Polym. Adv.
Technol. 27 (2016) 393–403, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pat.3679.