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Advanced Materials Research Vols 605-607 (2013) pp 1788-1791 Online: 2012-12-13

© (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland


The Flow Ratio Process Control System Design Based On Improved PID

Luo dongyun, Chen yanfang, Wang Ping,You Fang

JiuJiang University, JiuJiang In Jiangxi Province

Keywords: Flow; Ratio control; Steady-state error

Abstract. This paper mainly introduces a conventional PID algorithm quantity ratio control system.
With regulators for control center, combined with the sensors, flow meters, actuators, analog input
channel, analog output channel, explosion-proof gate of equipment such as flow ratio control system,
to two different liquid flow for example, its characteristic is to keep the Lord flow and vice flow ratio
must be objective. The ratio of the calculation of the parameters calculation after all set up changes no
longer, in the control system of main and auxiliary loop set respectively, Lord control device that
guarantee the ratio of output Settings coefficient and characterization of product quality index the
controlled variables is constant, through the practice and the simulation results show that the system
can not only meet the technological requirements, and with high control accuracy and stability.

1 Introduction
In the industrial process control is to point to to flow, liquid level, composition, pressure and
temperature of process parameters as the controlled variables to be automatic control, in control of
common are PID control, the optimal control, feed forward feedback control, ratio control, etc. In the
industrial production process, often need to several materials for certain mixing ratio to the chemical
reaction. If the ratio imbalance, it will lead to a drop in the quality of products, raw material waste,
serious when still can produce an accident. This used to realize more than two parameters to keep the
ratio of the relationship between certain process control system, all called ratio control system. Ratio
control system is a kind of material quantity with another kind of material and change of the automatic
adjustment system[1], according to the different requirements of actual production process, the
system in order to precise control flow, combined with improved PID algorithm and ratio control
algorithm, its structure is shown in figure 1 shows, this system has two branch, and is all the way from
electric regulator the flow of the slip road the 25 th, it is a main flow; The other way is from
converter-magnetic pump of branch flow Q2, it is the system vice flow. Ask the vice flow can follow
the 25 th Q2 flow changes, and both between maintain a fixed value relation, namely Q2 / Q1= K.
Among them 1, F1-F1-2, F1-8, F1-11, F2-1, F2-5 for the regulator.

Fig. 1 Flow ratio control structure

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Advanced Materials Research Vols. 605-607 1789

2 Hardware Design
2.1 TheInput Channel Module Design

The input channel AD0809 adopts chip, ADC0809 is the U.S. national semiconductor company
produces the CMOS technology channel 8, 8 successive approximation type A/D converter module.
The internal has A 8 channel multiple switch, it may, according to address decode latch after the
signal, choose only the analog input signals in 8 way an A/D conversion. Is the present domestic the
most widely used eight general A/D chip, D0 ~ D7: eight digital output terminals. A, B and C: three
address input line, IN0 ~ IN7:8 road analogue input terminal. EOC: A/D conversion end signals,
output, when A/D conversion is over, the end output A high level (during conversion has been for low
level). START: A/D conversion activate pulse input, enter A are pulse (at least 100 ns wide) make it
START (pulse rise to 0809 reset, and down along the START A/D conversion). Used to choose the
way of 8 analog input all ALE: address latch allow signals, input, high level and effective. OE: data
output allows signals, input, high level and effective. When A/D conversion is over, the end input A
high level, to open the output three states door and output the digital quantity.

Fig.2 The input channel module hardware design

2.2 Explosion-proof grid design

Electric instrument circuit of the strike may exist. If the circuit design began to consider the
explosion-proof, the circuit in a shorts-and-opens and wrong operation, etc. Various kinds of state
possible sparks on explosive gas in the ignition energy under, the instrument called safety spark
explosion-proof instrument. Safety spark explosion-proof instrument only guarantee the meter
internal not dangerous sparks, to other instruments through the signal lines of energy security is
introduced into whether can't guarantee. If in the attachment with other instrument circuit between the
security gate set, prevent dangerous energy into is completely did spark explosion-proof safety. There
are many kinds of security gate, a resistive security gate, relay amplification type security gate, zener
type security gate, photoelectric isolated type security gate, transformer isolation type safety bar and
so on. Fixed SFCL its size difficult to choose, choose smaller up less than very good current limiting
function, choose big and influence of the constant flow meter characteristics, the ideal of the limited
flow resistance should is variable, and that is in the current security range resistance to small enough,
and when the current is beyond the scope of security its resistance to large enough; Second, grounding
is not reasonable, usually a signal circuit only allow a little ground, if you have two points above
ground will make signal through the earth short circuit or form interference. The current limit circuit
with transistors replaced fixed resistance[2]. VT3 work to zero bias, as a constant current source to
VT1 provide enough onthe base current, ensure signal in 4 ~ 20 mA range VT1 in saturated state by
VD1, VD4 and F1 and F2 composition limited pressure circuit. Back-to-back zener tube halfway
point grounding, change for the protection of the ground directly grounded when, explosion-proof
grid hardware design as shown in figure 3 below.
1790 Advanced Designs and Researches for Manufacturing

Fig.3 Explosion-proof grid design

3 Software design
3.1 Improved PID algorithm
PID regulator differential effect of the system to overcome inertia, reduce overshoot and inhibit
oscillation play an important role. But in the digital PID regulator, differential part of the regulatory
role and not so obvious, and didn't even regulatory role. The output of a only in the first cycle up
incentive role for the time constant of the larger system, the control effect is small, can't reach the
purpose of advanced control error. And in the first cycle differential effect is too big, in the short
period of output time, actuator can not reach due corresponding opening, can make the output
distortion. For higher frequency interference, signal and is more sensitive, easy to cause oscillation
control process, reduce regulation quality, therefore, we need to improve differential item, the method
is as follows:
u (s)
D f (s) = / (1)
u ( s)
du (t )
Tf + u (t ) = u ′(t ) (2)
u (k ) − u (k − 1)
Tf + u (k ) = u ′(k ) (3)
 1
de(t ) 
u′(t ) = K p e(t ) + ∫ ed (t ) + TD  (4)
 TI 0 dt 
 T k T 
u′(k ) = K P e(k ) + ∑ e(i ) + D (e(k ) − e(k − 1))  (5)
 TI i = 0 T 
3.2 Ratio coefficient calculation
Set the output current flow transmitter input and a linear relationship between flow, and that is
when the flow by 0 ~ Qmax Q change, corresponding the transmitter output current for 4 ~ 20 mA. As
you can see, any instantaneous Lord 25 th and flow vice flow Q2 corresponding output current of
Q1max Q 2 max Q 2 max
transmitter, respectively.Type and respectively in the flow value, namely the
turbine flowmeter measurement limit, because two turbine flowmeter are exactly the same, so have
Q1max Q 2 max
= .

= I2 − 4 ×
Q 2 max
= I2 − 4 (6)
Q1 I1 − 4 Q1 max I1 − 4
Q1 max
K’=K× =K (7)
Q 2 max
Advanced Materials Research Vols. 605-607 1791

4 The simulation results

The simulation model and the results as shown in figure 4, figure 5 shows, this system has some
good robustness and controlling, and the controller is simple and relatively easy to implement, and has
the obvious engineering application value.

Fig.4 Simulation model

Fig.5 Simulation result

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Advanced Designs and Researches for Manufacturing

The Flow Ratio Process Control System Design Based on Improved PID Algorithm