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Workbook

PRIVATE
PILOT
LICENCE
AEROPLANE
TRAINING AND EXAMINATION WORKBOOK

WRITTEN BY
MATT RAYSON
DESIGNED FOR THE CIVIL AVIATION SAFETY AUTHORITY MANUAL OF STANDARDS
online practice exams

flightcrewexams.com.au
Contents
Topic Page

Important Information and Operational Restrictions 1

Linear Take-Off Performance Chart 2

Linear Landing Performance Chart 3

Boxed Take-Off Performance Chart 4

Boxed Landing Performance Chart 5

Loading System ALPHA 6

Loading System BRAVO 8

Loading System CHARLIE 10

Scribble Pad 13

Echo Take-Off Performance Chart 14

Echo Landing Performance Chart 15

Loading System Echo 16

Comments and Feedback


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Copyright © August 2015 Ground Effect Aviation. All rights reserved.


No part of this publication may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever or stored in a retrieval system
without the express written permission of Ground Effect Aviation.
PPL VOLUME 1

Important Information
All diagrammatic information, loading systems and performance data included are replicas of those used
by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority and are not for operational use. Additional copies of this workbook are
available as a free download at aviationibooks.com.au/workbooks.html.

This workbook also contains aeronautical information and data which remains copyright © 2012 Airservices
Australia. No part of this workbook may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written
consent of Airservices Australia. Airservices Australia does not guarantee that the aeronautical information
and data is current or free from errors, and disclaims all warranties in relation to its quality, performance or
suitability for any purpose. Not for operational use.

Operational Restrictions
Some of the examination questions are subject to interpretation and don’t necessarily comply with every
individual flying school’s daily operations. The following assumptions will be made in each examination:

• All fuel calculations shall be done in accordance with CAAP 234-1(1)


• Selection of and operation into landing areas other than licenced aerodromes, shall be
in accordance with CAAP 92-1(1)
• All flights shall plan to land 10 minutes before last light, unless otherwise stated
• Candidates can assume that all aircraft equipment is serviceable
• All air legislation, information and extracts are current as of the May 2014 updates, the use of
documents outside of this range may result in incorrect answers

Copyright © August 2015 Ground Effect Aviation. All rights reserved.


No part of this publication may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever or stored in a retrieval system
without the express written permission of Ground Effect Aviation.

COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION PAGE 1


LONG WET GRASS
SHORT DRY GRASS

REFERENCE LINE

REFERENCE LINE
HARD SEALED SURFACE

SHORT WET OR LONG DRY GRASS


CLIMB WEIGHT LIMIT - KG

850 2400
900 2200

COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION


00
60
LINEAR TAKE-OFF PERFORMANCE CHART

950 2000

TAKE-OFF DISTANCE AVAILABLE - METRES


00
50

1000 1800
00

1055 1600
40

AIRFIELD PRESSURE HEIGHT - FEET


00 1400
60
0 1200
400
0 1000
20 0
0
800
600
400
UP DOWN TAIL HEAD
200

1000

1055
-10 0 10 20 30 40 2 0 2 4 6 5 0 10 20

800

900
850

950
750
SHADE TEMPERATURE o- C SURFACE SLOPE - PERCENT AMBIENT WIND TAKE-OFF WEIGHT - KG
COMPONENT - KT
FLAP SETTING ZERO NOTE:
TAKE-OFF WEIGHT MUST NOT EXCEED
TAKE-OFF SAFETY SPEED 64 KT IAS
CLIMB WEIGHT LIMIT ABOVE
POWER SETTING FULL THROTTLE
RPM NOT LESS THAN 2350
CHART DISTANCE FACTOR 1.15
PPL VOLUME 1

2
PAGE
3
PPL VOLUME 1

PAGE
CLIMB WEIGHT LIMIT - KG

REFERENCE LINE

REFERENCE LINE
6000
1000
5000
1050
1055 1000
MAX
4000

COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION


900
LINEAR LANDING PERFORMANCE CHART

AIRFIELD PRESSURE

LANDING DISTANCE REQUIRED - METRES


HEIGHT - FEET
800
6000
4000 700
20 0 0
S.L. 600
500
400
300
DOWN UP TAIL HEAD
200
-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 2 0 2 4 6 5 0 10 20
SHADE TEMPERATURE o- C SLOPE - PERCENT AMBIENT WIND
COMPONENT - KT
NOTES: FLAP SETTING 40
o
LANDING WEIGHT MUST NOT
EXCEED CLIMB WEIGHT LIMIT ABOVE APPROACH SPEED 65 KT IAS
LANDING DISTANCE REQUIRED IS LANDING DISTANCE FACTOR 1.15
INDEPENDENT OF LANDING WEIGHT
PPL VOLUME 1

BOXED TAKE-OFF PERFORMANCE CHART

SLOPE - PERCENT
LEVEL 2

2
UP
TAKE-OFF DISTANCE AVAILABLE - METRES

1500
1400
1300
1200

1100

1000

900 DOWN

800 700 600 500 400


LONG WET GRASS SURFACE
SHORT WET OR LONG DRY GRASS SURFACE
CLIMB WEIGHT SHORT DRY GRASS SURFACE
LIMIT
1090 KG
1100

HEAD

8000 1050
AIRFIELD PRESSURE HEIGHT - FT

TAKE-OFF WEIGHT - KG

6000 1000

5 0 10 20

4000 950

40 30 20 10 0 -10

2000 900
SHADE
TEMP TAIL
o
C
SL 850

AMBIENT WIND COMPONENT - KT

NOTES:

(1) THE GROSS WEIGHT AT TAKE-OFF SHALL NOT EXCEED THE LESSER OF (A) AND (B)

(2) MAXIMUM TAKE-OFF WEIGHT = 1090 KG

POWER TO BE USED FULL THROTTLE


FLAP SETTING 10 DEGREES
TAKE-OFF SAFETY SPEED 60 KT IAS
TAKE-OFF DISTANCE FACTOR 1.15

PAGE 4 COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION


PPL VOLUME 1

BOXED LANDING PERFORMANCE CHART

SLOPE - PERCENT
2 LEVEL 2

4 DOWN
LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE - METRES

650

600

550

UP
500

450 400 5 0 10 20
TAIL HEAD
AMBIENT WIND COMPONENT - KNOTS

CLIMB WEIGHT LIMIT


AIRFIELD PRESSURE HEIGHT - FEET
AIRFIELD PRESSURE HEIGHT - FEET

8000 8000
1080
KG
6000 6000

4000 4000

40 30 20 10 0 -10

2000 2000
SHADE 800 900 1000 1100
TEMP
LANDING WEIGHT - KG
o
C
SL

NOTES:

(1) THE GROSS WEIGHT AT TAKE-OFF SHALL NOT EXCEED (A)

(2) LANDING WEIGHT DOES NOT VARY SIGNIFICANTLY WITH WEIGHT

FLAP SETTING 30 DEGREES


APPROACH SPEED 58 KT IAS
LANDING DISTANCE FACTOR 1.15

COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION PAGE 5


PPL VOLUME 1

TRAINING AND EXAMINATION WORKBOOK

Loading System Alpha


Configuration: 6/7 Seats
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF LOADING SYSTEM
1. Obtain Basic Empty Weight and Index Units from current section of 6.2 of Flight Manual.

2. M
 ark Basic Empty Weight index Units on top scale. Enter Basic Empty Weight at top of
right-hand column.

3. Enter weights of load items required for flight in appropriate squares of right-hand column.
Maximum weights for load items are indicated on Index Unit scales.

4. Total weights in right-hand column to obtain Zero Fuel Weight and Take-off Weight. **

5. Draw horizontal lines on CG envelope graph corresponding to Zero Fuel Weight and Take- Off Weight.

6. D
 raw a line vertically down from point marked on Basic Empty Weight Index Units scale to first load
item scale.
* Move to the left or right on this load item index scale as per arrow directions, and mark point as
appropriate to the load indicated in the right hand column.
(e.g. 154 kg load @ 77 kg/div. = 2 div.).

7. D
 raw a line vertically down from the point marked on the first load item index scale to the second load
item index scale and continue as per * above. Continue down the scales to “Rear Baggage”. Draw a
line vertically from the “Rear Baggage” point down to intersect the Zero Fuel Weight line and Take-Off
Weight line previously marked on the CG envelope graph.

8. T
 he two intersection points as per 7, above must not exceed the boundaries of the CG envelope graph. If
they do, re-organise the load in the aircraft and start again with steps 3 to 7.

** DO NOT EXCEED MAXIMUM TAKE-OFF WEIGHT AS SHOWN ON CG ENVELOPE DIAGRAM


OF THIS LOADING SYSTEM.

EXAMPLE:

Basic Empty Weight 1050 kg
Empty Index Units -260
Row 1 150 kg (2 persons)
Row 2 (forward facing) 160 kg (2 persons)
Row 3 120 kg (2 persons)
Nose baggage 40 kg ------------------- Zero Fuel Weight = 1520 kg
Rear baggage Fuel Nil
Fuel 113 kg ------------------ Take-Off Weight = 1633 kg

Note: Basic Empty Weight includes unusable fuel and full oil.

PAGE 6 COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION


PPL VOLUME 1

LOADING SYSTEM ALPHA

BASIC INDEX UNITS


-400 -300 -200 -100 0 +100 +200
WEIGHT (KG)

50 KG/DIV
ROW 1
OCCS
77 KG/DIV

(FORWARD FACING) 50 KG/DIV


ROW 2
OCCS
77 KG/DIV

(AFT FACING) 50 KG/DIV


ROW 2
OCCS
77 KG/DIV

50 KG/DIV
ROW 3
OCCS
77 KG/DIV

(45 KG MAXIMUM) 10 KG/DIV


NOSE
BAGGAGE

(45 KG MAXIMUM) 10 KG/DIV


REAR
BAGGAGE

ZERO FUEL WEIGHT

(MAXIMUM 356 LT 252 KG) NIL SCALE


FUEL

TAKE-OFF WEIGHT
1633 KG 1633 KG
MAXIMUM TAKE-OFF 1600 KG
WEIGHT

1500 KG

1400 KG

1300 KG
GROSS WEIGHT (KG)
1200 KG

1100 KG

COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION PAGE 7


PPL VOLUME 1

TRAINING AND EXAMINATION WORKBOOK

Loading System Bravo


Configuration: 4 Seats
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF LOADING SYSTEM
To check the loading of the aircraft before take-off, calculate the total weight and total moments as shown in
the example below.

Plot the total weight and moment on the “Centre of Gravity Envelope” chart, and if the intersection point lies
within the envelope, the loading is acceptable.

AIRCRAFT LIMITATIONS

Maximum Take-Off Weight


Normal category: 1000 kg / 2200 lb
Utility category: 841 kg / 1850 lb

Maximum baggage compartment 53 kg / 120 lb

NOTES:

1. The aircraft is fitted with standard tanks (37 US gallons @ 6 lb/gal)


2. Empty weight includes unusable fuel and undrainable oil
3. Obtain Moment / 1000 inch pounds from the loading graph

EXAMPLE:

ITEM WEIGHT (lb) ARM (in) MOMENT/1000 (in lb)
Empty weight 1260 80 100.80
Oil 15 32 0.48
Fuel (141 litres) 222 91 20.20
Pilot & Co-Pilot 320 91 29.19
Rear seat passengers 350 126 44.10
Baggage 25 151 3.78

Take-Off Weight 2192 198.30

Note: Check CG is within the envelope

PAGE 8 COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION


PPL VOLUME 1

LOADING SYSTEM BRAVO

Add weight of items to be carried to aeroplane licenced


empty weight. Add moment/1000 of items to be carried
to total aeroplane moment/1000. Use Centre of Gravity
Envelope to determine acceptability.

500
LOADING GRAPH
LOAD - WEIGHT IN POUNDS

PILOT AND COPILOT


400 CARGO

STD FUEL
300
OPT FUEL

REAR SEATS
200

100
BAGGAGE
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
MOMENT/1000 INCH POUNDS

LOADING GRAPH

2300
CENTRE OF GRAVITY
ENVELOPE
2200
LOADED AIRCRAFT WEIGHT POUNDS

2100

2000

1900

1800

1700

1600

1500

1400
120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220
MOMENT/1000 INCH POUNDS

CENTRE OF GRAVITY ENVELOPE

COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION PAGE 9


PPL VOLUME 1

TRAINING AND EXAMINATION WORKBOOK

Loading System Charlie


Configuration: 4 Seats
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF LOADING SYSTEM
To check the loading of the aircraft before take-off, carry out a summation of weight and index units as shown
in the example below. Check the centre of gravity of the aircraft at Zero Fuel Weight and Take- Off Weight by
use of the formula:

CG (mm aft of datum) = (Index unit x 100) ÷ Weight

AIRCRAFT LIMITATIONS

Maximum Take-Off Weight


Normal category: 1115 kg
Utility category: 925 kg

Maximum baggage compartment 122 kg

NOTES:

1. Aircraft empty weight includes unusable fuel and undrainable oil


2. All arms are in mm aft of datum
3. 1 index unit = 100 kg mm

EXAMPLE:

Aircraft empty weight 687 19,522


Full oil 7 86
1 pilot + 1 passenger (Row 1) 140 3,850
2 passengers (Row 2) 160 5,760
Baggage 20 842

Zero Fuel Weight 1,014 30,060

Fuel 140 litres 99 2,920

Take-Off Weight 1,113 32,980

CG CHECK:

1. At Zero Fuel Weight = (30,060 x 100) ÷ 1014 = 2965 mm OK


2. At Take-Off Weight = (32,980 x 100) ÷ 1113 = 2963 mm OK

PAGE 10 COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION


PPL VOLUME 1

TRAINING AND EXAMINATION WORKBOOK

Loading System Charlie


INDEX UNITS

FUEL BAGGAGE
ARM: 2950 ARM:4210
lt kg IU kg IU
20 14 413 10 421
40 28 826 20 842
60 43 1268 30 1263
80 57 1682 40 1684
100 71 2095 60 2526
120 85 2507 70 2947
140 99 2920 80 3368
160 114 3363 90 6789
080 129 3806 10 4210
200 142 4189 110 4631
216 153 4513 122 5136

OCCUPANTS ROW 1 ROW 2


ARM: 2750 ARM: 3600
kg IU IU
40 1,100 1,440
45 1,237 1,620
50 1,375 1,800
55 1,512 1,980
60 1,650 2,160
65 1,786 2,340
70 1,925 2,520
75 2,063 2,700
80 2,200 2,880
85 2,338 3,060
90 2,475 3,240

OIL
ARM:1230
US qt lt kg IU
6 5.7 5.0 62
7 6.6 6.0 74
8 7.6 7.0 86

COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION PAGE 11


PPL VOLUME 1

LOADING SYSTEM CHARLIE

1200

1150
MAX AUW 1115 KG

1100

1050
NORMAL
CATEGORY
1000
KILOGRAMS

AFT LIMIT 3004 MM


950

900

AFT LIMIT 2896 MM


850

UTILITY
800 CATEGORY
FWD LIMIT

750

700
2640 2680 2720 2760 2800 2840 2880 2920 2960 3000 3040
CENTRE OF GRAVITY POSITION (mm AFT OF DATUM)

ALLOWABLE CENTRE OF GRAVITY ENVELOPE

CONVERSION FACTORS
1 inch = 25.4 mm
1 foot = 0.305 m
1 pound = 0.454 kg
1 imperial gal = 1.201 US gal = 4.546 lt
AVGAS specific gravity = 0.71

PAGE 12 COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION


PPL VOLUME 1

COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION PAGE 13


PPL VOLUME 1

NAVIGATION DATA

TMG
A
FPT

D nm
Figure 1

D nm

FPT
A
TMG

B
Figure 2

D1 nm D2 nm

A P nm X

B
Figure 3

PAGE 14 COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION


PPL VOLUME 1

NAVIGATION DATA

A P nm X

D1 nm D2 nm

Figure 4

TMG P nm
A
Required Track

D nm

Figure 5

D nm

Required Track
A
TMG P nm

Figure 6

COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION PAGE 15


PPL VOLUME 1

NAVIGATION DATA

A X C

D1 nm D2 nm

Figure 7

A X C

D1 nm D2 nm

Figure 8

A B
D1 nm

D2 nm

D3 nm

CLL 1500 CLL 2500 CLL 3500 CLL 4500

Figure 9

PAGE 16 COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION


PPL VOLUME 1

COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION PAGE 17


PPL VOLUME 1

SYDNEY WAC (3456) EXTRACT

151 E
o
150 oE
149 oE
33 S
32 S

o
o

PAGE 18 COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION


PPL VOLUME 1

CANBERRA WAC (3457) EXTRACT

33o S

34o S

148 oE 149 oE

COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION PAGE 19


PPL VOLUME 1

TOTAL DRAG

LIFT TO DRAG RATIO


TAS ANGLE OF ATTACK
X X

Figure 1 Figure 2
POWER REQUIRED

LIFT COEFFICIENT

TAS ANGLE OF ATTACK


X Y X

Figure 3 Figure 4

PAGE 20 COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION


PPL VOLUME 1

COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION PAGE 21


PPL VOLUME 1

METEOROLOGY SYNOPTIC CHARTS

Figure 1

Figure 2

PAGE 22 COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION


PPL VOLUME 1

TRAINING AND EXAMINATION WORKBOOK

Meteorology Area Forecast


AMD ARFOR: AREA 21

OVERVIEW:
SURFACE TROUGH EXPECTED THROUGH YYNG/YMER AT 22Z, THROUGH YBTH/YSNW AT 05Z AND
EAST OF AREA AT 11Z. SCTATTERED SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS INCLUDING ISOLATED HAIL.
AREAS OF RAIN CONTRACTING EASTWARDS. ISOLATED FOG AFTER 11Z.
REFER: SIGMET RE SQUALLS AND HAIL.

SUBDIVISIONS:
A: E OF TROUGH
B: W OF TROUGH

AMD WIND:
2000 5000 7000 10000 14000 18500

A: 350/25 340/30 340/35 340/40 340/50 MS04 340/55 MS14


B: 260/25 260/30 60/30 280/30 ZERO 280/40 MS08 280/60 MS17

AMD CLOUD:
AREAS OF BKN ST 1000/3000 W SLOPES 3000/5000 RANGES
ALSO WITH PRECIPITATION 1000/3000 COAST/SEA
BKN CUSC 2500/10000 W SLOPES 4500/11000 W RANGES
SCT CUSC 2500/10000 COAST/SEA 4500/11000 E RANGES
ISOL CB 5000/35000
BKN ACAS ABV 10000 CONTRACTING E

AMD WEATHER:
RA CONTRACTING E, SH/TS WITH HAIL, FOG AFTER 11Z

AMD VISIBILITY:
5000M SH/RA, 3000 TS, 0500 FG

AND FREEZING LEVEL:


A: 12000
B: 9500

AMD ICING:
MOD IN CU 9500/11000 AND AC

AMD TURBULENCE:
MOD WITH CU AND AC
MOD TO ISOL SEV RANGES/COAST/60NM OFFSHORE
REFER: SIGMET RE SQUALLS AND HAIL

COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION PAGE 23


PPL VOLUME 1

PLANNING CHART AUSTRALIA EXTRACT

PAGE 24 COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION


PPL VOLUME 1

COPYRIGHT © AUGUST 2015 | GROUND EFFECT AVIATION PAGE 25