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You are on page 1of 36

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supporting the sign shown is subjected

simultaneously to compression, bending,

and torsion. In this chapter you will

learn to determine the stresses created

by such combined loadings in structures

and machine components.

512

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C H A P T E R

8

Given Loading

513

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under a Given Loading

In the first part of this chapter, you will apply to the design of beams

*8.1 Introduction and shafts the knowledge that you acquired in Chap. 7 on the trans-

*8.2 Principal Stresses in a Beam formation of stresses. In the second part of the chapter, you will learn

*8.3 Design of Transmission Shafts how to determine the principal stresses in structural members and

*8.4 Stresses under Combined machine elements under given loading conditions.

Loadings In Chap. 5 you learned to calculate the maximum normal stress

sm occurring in a beam under a transverse loading (Fig. 8.1a) and

check whether this value exceeded the allowable stress sall for the

given material. If it did, the design of the beam was not acceptable.

While the danger for a brittle material is actually to fail in tension,

the danger for a ductile material is to fail in shear (Fig. 8.1b). The

fact that sm . sall indicates that |M|max is too large for the cross sec-

tion selected, but does not provide any information on the actual

max mechanism of failure. Similarly, the fact that tm . tall simply indi-

m m cates that |V|max is too large for the cross section selected. While the

' danger for a ductile material is actually to fail in shear (Fig. 8.2a),

the danger for a brittle material is to fail in tension under the prin-

(a) (b)

cipal stresses (Fig. 8.2b). The distribution of the principal stresses in

a beam will be discussed in Sec. 8.2.

Fig. 8.1

Depending upon the shape of the cross section of the beam and

the value of the shear V in the critical section where |M| 5 |M|max, it

m

may happen that the largest value of the normal stress will not occur

'

at the top or bottom of the section, but at some other point within the

' section. As you will see in Sec. 8.2, a combination of large values of sx

and txy near the junction of the web and the flanges of a W-beam or

(a) (b) an S-beam can result in a value of the principal stress smax (Fig. 8.3)

Fig. 8.2 that is larger than the value of sm on the surface of the beam.

max

junction of a flange and web in

an I-shaped beam.

subjected to transverse loads as well as to torques. The effect of both

the normal stresses due to bending and the shearing stresses due to

torsion will be taken into account.

In Sec. 8.4 you will learn to determine the stresses at a given

point K of a body of arbitrary shape subjected to a combined loading.

First, you will reduce the given loading to forces and couples in the

section containing K. Next, you will calculate the normal and shearing

stresses at K. Finally, using one of the methods for the transformation

of stresses that you learned in Chap. 7, you will determine the principal

planes, principal stresses, and maximum shearing stress at K.

514

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515

Consider a prismatic beam AB subjected to some arbitrary transverse P w

loading (Fig. 8.4). We denote by V and M, respectively, the shear

and bending moment in a section through a given point C. We recall C

A B

from Chaps. 5 and 6 that, within the elastic limit, the stresses exerted D

on a small element with faces perpendicular, respectively, to the x

and y axes reduce to the normal stresses sm 5 McyI if the element Fig. 8.4 Transversely loaded prismatic

is at the free surface of the beam, and to the shearing stresses tm 5 beam.

VQyIt if the element is at the neutral surface (Fig. 8.5).

y

c m m

x x

xy y

O x

m

m m

c

selected points of a beam.

is subjected simultaneously to the normal stresses

y

My

sx 5 2 (8.1) c m m

I min max

where y is the distance from the neutral surface and I the centroidal

max y

moment of inertia of the section, and to the shearing stresses

O x

VQ min

txy 5 2 (8.2)

It

where Q is the first moment about the neutral axis of the portion of m m

c

the cross-sectional area located above the point where the stresses are

computed, and t the width of the cross section at that point. Using

either of the methods of analysis presented in Chap. 7, we can obtain Fig. 8.6 Principal stresses at

the principal stresses at any point of the cross section (Fig. 8.6). selected points of a beam.

The following question now arises: Can the maximum normal

stress smax at some point within the cross section be larger than

the value of sm 5 McyI computed at the surface of the beam? If

it can, then the determination of the largest normal stress in the

beam will involve a great deal more than the computation of |M|max

and the use of Eq. (8.1). We can obtain an answer to this question

by investigating the distribution of the principal stresses in a narrow

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516 Principal Stresses under a Given Loading rectangular cantilever beam subjected to a concentrated load P at

its free end (Fig. 8.7). We recall from Sec. 6.5 that the normal and

P shearing stresses at a distance x from the load P and a distance y

above the neutral surface are given, respectively, by Eq. (6.13) and

c

Eq. (6.12). Since the moment of inertia of the cross section is

x xy y bh3 1bh2 12c2 2 Ac2

c I5 5 5

12 12 3

where A is the cross-sectional area and c the half-depth of the beam,

x we write

b

Pxy Pxy P xy

Fig. 8.7 Narrow rectangular sx 5 5 53 (8.3)

cantilever beam supporting a single I 1

3 Ac 2

A c2

concentrated load.

and

3P y2

txy 5 a1 2 2 b (8.4)

2A c

Using the method of Sec. 7.3 or Sec. 7.4, the value of smax can

be determined at any point of the beam. Figure 8.8 shows the results

of the computation of the ratios smaxysm and sminysm in two sections

of the beam, corresponding respectively to x 5 2c and x 5 8c. In

x 2c x 8c

y/c min /m max /m min /m max /m

P

0.8 0.010 0.810 0.001 0.801

yc

y0 0.6 0.040 0.640 0.003 0.603

yc

x 2c x 8c 0.4 0.090 0.490 0.007 0.407

Fig. 8.8 Distribution of principal stresses in two transverse sections of a rectangular cantilever beam supporting a single

concentrated load.

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each section, these ratios have been determined at 11 different 8.2 Principal Stresses in a Beam

517

points, and the orientation of the principal axes has been indicated

at each point.†

It is clear that smax does not exceed sm in either of the two

sections considered in Fig. 8.8 and that, if it does exceed sm else-

where, it will be in sections close to the load P, where sm is small

compared to tm.‡ But, for sections close to the load P, Saint-Venant’s

principle does not apply, Eqs. (8.3) and (8.4) cease to be valid, except

in the very unlikely case of a load distributed parabolically over the

end section (cf. Sec. 6.5), and more advanced methods of analysis

taking into account the effect of stress concentrations should be

used. We thus conclude that, for beams of rectangular cross section,

and within the scope of the theory presented in this text, the maxi-

mum normal stress can be obtained from Eq. (8.1).

In Fig. 8.8 the directions of the principal axes were determined

at 11 points in each of the two sections considered. If this analysis

were extended to a larger number of sections and a larger number P Tensile

of points in each section, it would be possible to draw two orthogonal

systems of curves on the side of the beam (Fig. 8.9). One system

would consist of curves tangent to the principal axes corresponding

to smax and the other of curves tangent to the principal axes corre-

sponding to smin. The curves obtained in this manner are known as

the stress trajectories. A trajectory of the first group (solid lines)

defines at each of its points the direction of the largest tensile stress,

while a trajectory of the second group (dashed lines) defines the Compressive

direction of the largest compressive stress.§ Fig. 8.9 Stress trajectories.

The conclusion we have reached for beams of rectangular cross

section, that the maximum normal stress in the beam can be obtained

from Eq. (8.1), remains valid for many beams of nonrectangular cross

section. However, when the width of the cross section varies in such

a way that large shearing stresses txy will occur at points close to the

surface of the beam, where sx is also large, a value of the principal

stress smax larger than sm may result at such points. One should be a

particularly aware of this possibility when selecting W-beams or

b

S-beams, and calculate the principal stress smax at the junctions b and

d of the web with the flanges of the beam (Fig. 8.10). This is done

by determining sx and txy at that point from Eqs. (8.1) and (8.2), c

respectively, and using either of the methods of analysis of Chap. 7

to obtain smax (see Sample Prob. 8.1). An alternative procedure, used d

in design to select an acceptable section, consists of using for txy the e

maximum value of the shearing stress in the section, tmax 5 VyAweb,

Fig. 8.10 Key stress

given by Eq. (6.11) of Sec. 6.4. This leads to a slightly larger, and thus analysis locations

conservative, value of the principal stress smax at the junction of the in I-shaped beams.

web with the flanges of the beam (see Sample Prob. 8.2).

†See Prob. 8.C2, which refers to a program that can be written to obtain the results shown

in Fig. 8.8.

‡As will be verified in Prob. 8.C2, smax exceeds sm if x # 0.544c.

§A brittle material, such as concrete, will fail in tension along planes that are perpendicular

to the tensile-stress trajectories. Thus, to be effective, steel reinforcing bars should be

placed so that they intersect these planes. On the other hand, stiffeners attached to the

web of a plate girder will be effective in preventing buckling only if they intersect planes

perpendicular to the compressive-stress trajectories.

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*8.3 DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION SHAFTS

When we discussed the design of transmission shafts in Sec. 3.7, we

considered only the stresses due to the torques exerted on the shafts.

However, if the power is transferred to and from the shaft by means

of gears or sprocket wheels (Fig. 8.11a), the forces exerted on the

gear teeth or sprockets are equivalent to force-couple systems applied

at the centers of the corresponding cross sections (Fig. 8.11b). This

means that the shaft is subjected to a transverse loading, as well as

to a torsional loading.

P3

C

(a) B

P1 C

P2

y

P1

T1

Az T2

T3

z C

Ay P3

(b)

C Bz

P2 x

By

Fig. 8.11 Loadings on gear-shaft systems.

loads are usually much smaller than those produced by the torques

and will be neglected in this analysis.† The normal stresses due to

the transverse loads, however, may be quite large and, as you will

see presently, their contribution to the maximum shearing stress tmax

should be taken into account.

†For an application where the shearing stresses produced by the transverse loads must be

considered, see Probs. 8.21 and 8.22.

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Consider the cross section of the shaft at some point C. We 8.3 Design of Transmission Shafts

519

represent the torque T and the bending couples My and Mz acting,

respectively, in a horizontal and a vertical plane by the couple vec- M

tors shown (Fig. 8.12a). Since any diameter of the section is a prin- My

cipal axis of inertia for the section, we can replace My and Mz by Mz

their resultant M (Fig. 8.12b) in order to compute the normal C C

stresses sx exerted on the section. We thus find that sx is maximum

at the end of the diameter perpendicular to the vector representing T T

M (Fig. 8.13). Recalling that the values of the normal stresses at

(a) (b)

that point are, respectively, sm 5 McyI and zero, while the shearing

stress is tm 5 TcyJ, we plot the corresponding points X and Y on a Fig. 8.12 Resultant loading on the cross

section of a shaft.

Mohr-circle diagram (Fig. 8.14) and determine the value of the

maximum shearing stress:

m

M

2 2 2

sm Mc Tc m

tmax 5 R 5 a b 1 1tm 2 2 5 a b 1a b m

B 2 B 2I J

T

Recalling that, for a circular or annular cross section, 2I 5 J, we

write Fig. 8.13 Maximum

stress element.

c

tmax 5 2M2 1 T 2 (8.5)

J

D

It follows that the minimum allowable value of the ratio Jyc for X

the cross section of the shaft is m max

J A2M2 1 T 2 Bmax B O C A

5 (8.6)

c tall

Y

m

where the numerator in the right-hand member of the expression

obtained represents the maximum value of 2M2 1 T 2 in the shaft, Fig. 8.14 Mohr’s circle analysis.

and tall the allowable shearing stress. Expressing the bending moment

M in terms of its components in the two coordinate planes, we can

also write

5 (8.7)

c tall

Equations (8.6) and (8.7) can be used to design both solid and hollow

circular shafts and should be compared with Eq. (3.22) of Sec. 3.7,

which was obtained under the assumption of a torsional loading only.

The determination of the maximum value of 2M2y 1 M2z 1 T 2

will be facilitated if the bending-moment diagrams corresponding

to My and Mz are drawn, as well as a third diagram representing the

values of T along the shaft (see Sample Prob. 8.3).

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160 kN

A' SAMPLE PROBLEM 8.1

L 375 mm

A 160-kN force is applied as shown at the end of a W200 3 52 rolled-steel

beam. Neglecting the effect of fillets and of stress concentrations, determine

whether the normal stresses in the beam satisfy a design specification that

A they be equal to or less than 150 MPa at section A-A9.

160 kN SOLUTION

0.375 m

Shear and Bending Moment. At section A-A9, we have

MA

MA 5 1160 kN2 10.375 m2 5 60 kN ? m

VA VA 5 160 kN

206 mm Properties of Rolled-Steel Shapes in Appendix C, we obtain the data shown

12.6 mm a

a

and then determine the stresses sa and sb.

b At point a:

c 103 mm yb 90.4 mm b

c

MA 60 kN ? m

206 mm sa 5 5 5 117.4 MPa

7.87 mm S 511 3 1026 m3

I 52.9 10–6m4 At point b:

S 511 10–6m3

yb 90.4 mm

sb 5 sa 5 1117.4 MPa2 5 103.0 MPa

c 103 mm

206 mm

12.6 mm We note that all normal stresses on the transverse plane are less than 150 MPa.

a

103 mm b

96.7 mm Shearing Stresses on Transverse Plane

c At point a:

Q50 ta 5 0

At point b:

b

Q 5 1206 3 12.62 196.72 5 251.0 3 103 mm3 5 251.0 3 1026 m3

b max VAQ 1160 kN2 1251.0 3 1026 m3 2

Y tb 5 5 5 96.5 MPa

It 152.9 3 1026 m4 2 10.00787 m2

min

the normal stress sb 5 103.0 MPa and the shearing stress tb 5 96.5 MPa.

max R b We draw Mohr’s circle and find

b 2

X 1 1 1

2 smax 5 sb 1 R 5 sb 1 a sb b 1 t2b

2 2 B 2

b 103.0 103.0 2

5 1 a b 1 196.52 2

2 B 2

P smax 5 160.9 MPa

L 881 mm The specification, smax # 150 MPa, is not satisfied ◀

a

W200 52 b Comment. For this beam and loading, the principal stress at point b

c

is 36% larger than the normal stress at point a. For L $ 881 mm, the maxi-

mum normal stress would occur at point a.

520

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9 ft

3.2 kips/ft

The overhanging beam AB supports a uniformly distributed load of 3.2 kips/

ft and a concentrated load of 20 kips at C. Knowing that for the grade of

A B steel to be used sall 5 24 ksi and tall 5 14.5 ksi, select the wide-flange

C D shape that should be used.

20 ft

5 ft

SOLUTION

20 kips

Reactions at A and D. We draw the free-body diagram of the beam.

3.2 kips/ft From the equilibrium equations SMD 5 0 and SMA 5 0 we find the values

of RA and RD shown in the diagram.

A B Shear and Bending-Moment Diagrams. Using the methods of Secs.

C D 5.2 and 5.3, we draw the diagrams and observe that

41 kips 59 kips

9 ft 11 ft

ƒ M ƒ max 5 239.4 kip ? ft 5 2873 kip ? in. ƒ V ƒ max 5 43 kips

5 ft Section Modulus. For |M|max 5 2873 kip ? in. and sall 5 24 ksi, the

V

41 kips minimum acceptable section modulus of the rolled-steel shape is

16 kips

( 239.4) 12.2 kips ƒ M ƒ max 2873 kip ? in.

x Smin 5 5 5 119.7 in3

– 7.8 kips (– 279.4) sall 24 ksi

(40)

– 43 kips

Selection of Wide-Flange Shape. From the table of Properties of

Rolled-Steel Shapes in Appendix C, we compile a list of the lightest shapes

M

of a given depth that have a section modulus larger than Smin.

Shape S (in3)

x

239.4 kip · ft – 40 kip · ft

W24 3 68 154

W21 3 62 127

W18 3 76 146

tw 0.400 in. W16 3 77 134

W21 62 W14 3 82 123

d 21 in. S 127 in3 W12 3 96 131

Aweb twd 8.40 in2

We now select the lightest shape available, namely W21 3 62 ◀

Shearing Stress. Since we are designing the beam, we will conserva-

tf 0.615 in. a 22.6 ksi tively assume that the maximum shear is uniformly distributed over the web

a

b 21.3 ksi

area of a W21 3 62. We write

10.5 in. b

Vmax 43 kips

tm 5 5 5 5.12 ksi , 14.5 ksi (OK)

9.88 in. Aweb 8.40 in2

Principal Stress at Point b. We check that the maximum principal

stress at point b in the critical section where M is maximum does not exceed

b 1.45 ksi sall 5 24 ksi. We write

b 21.3 ksi Mmax 2873 kip ? in.

sa 5 5 5 22.6 ksi

S 127 in3

b 21.3 ksi yb 9.88 in.

sb 5 sa 5 122.6 ksi2 5 21.3 ksi

c 10.50 in.

X V 12.2 kips

b 1.45 ksi C O B Conservatively, tb 5 5 5 1.45 ksi

A Aweb 8.40 in2

Y We draw Mohr’s circle and find

21.3 ksi 21.3 ksi 2

smax 5 12 sb 1 R 5 1 a b 1 11.45 ksi2 2

2 B 2

max 21.4 ksi

smax 5 21.4 ksi # 24 ksi (OK) ◀

521

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H rE ⫽ 160

G The solid shaft AB rotates at 480 rpm and transmits 30 kW from the motor

C D E M to machine tools connected to gears G and H; 20 kW is taken off at gear

G and 10 kW at gear H. Knowing that tall 5 50 MPa, determine the smallest

B permissible diameter for shaft AB.

A rC ⫽ 60 rD ⫽ 80 M

Dimensions in mm

SOLUTION

FD ⫽ 2.49 kN

FC ⫽ 6.63 kN

rE ⫽ 0.160 m Torques Exerted on Gears. Observing that f 5 480 rpm 5 8 Hz, we

determine the torque exerted on gear E:

A C D E

P 30 kW

B TE 5 5 5 597 N ? m

2pf 2p18 Hz2

rC ⫽ 0.060 m

The corresponding tangential force acting on the gear is

rD ⫽ 0.080 m FE ⫽ 3.73 kN TE 597 N ? m

FE 5 5 5 3.73 kN

rE 0.16 m

y TD ⫽ 199 N · m A similar analysis of gears C and D yields

TC ⫽ 398 N · m FE ⫽ 3.73 kN

A

C D E TC 5

20 kW

2p18 Hz2

5 398 N ? m FC 5 6.63 kN

x

z

B

TD 5

10 kW

2p18 Hz2

5 199 N ? m FD 5 2.49 kN

FD ⫽ 2.49 kN

TE ⫽ 597 N · m

FC ⫽ 6.63 kN We now replace the forces on the gears by equivalent force-couple systems.

Bending-Moment and Torque Diagrams

FC ⫽ 6.63 kN

y FE ⫽ 3.73 kN y y TC ⫽ 398 N · m

6.22 kN 0.2 m 2.90 kN TD ⫽ 199 N · m

0.4 m

A E B

x A x x

C D B A C D E B

z 0.932 kN 2.80 kN z FD ⫽ 2.49 kN z TE ⫽ 597 N · m

0.6 m FC ⫽ 6.63 kN

0.2 m 597 N · m

373 N · m T 398 N · m

Mz 560 N · m

186 N · m

A C D E B

A C D E B C D A C D E B

My

580 N · m

1160 N · m

1244 N · m

y tially critical sections, we find that its maximum value occurs just to the right of D:

2M 2y 1 M 2z 1 T 2max 5 2111602 2 1 13732 2 1 15972 2 5 1357 N ? m

My

Diameter of Shaft. For tall 5 50 MPa, Eq. (7.32) yields

J 2M 2y 1 M 2z 1 T 2max 1357 N ? m

5 5 5 27.14 3 1026 m3

c tall 50 MPa

x For a solid circular shaft of radius c, we have

T J

c

p

5 c3 5 27.14 3 1026 c 5 0.02585 m 5 25.85 mm

2

Mz Diameter 5 2c 5 51.7 mm ◀

522

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PROBLEMS

that P 5 45 kips, a 5 10 in., and sall 5 18 ksi, determine (a) the

maximum value of the normal stress sm in the beam, (b) the maxi- A D

mum value of the principal stress smax at the junction of the flange

B C

and web, (c) whether the specified shape is acceptable as far as these

two stresses are concerned. 10 ft

a a

8.2 Solve Prob. 8.1, assuming that P 5 22.5 kips and a 5 20 in. Fig. P8.1

P as shown. Knowing that P 5 700 kN, a 5 2.5 m, and sall 5

100 MPa, determine (a) the maximum value of the normal stress

A C

sm in the beam, (b) the maximum value of the principal stress smax

at the junction of the flange and web, (c) whether the specified

shape is acceptable as far as these two stresses are concerned. B

a a

8.4 Solve Prob. 8.3, assuming that P 5 850 kN and a 5 2.0 m.

Fig. P8.3

8.5 and 8.6 (a) Knowing that sall 5 24 ksi and tall 5 14.5 ksi, select

the most economical wide-flange shape that should be used to

support the loading shown. (b) Determine the values to be expected

for sm, tm, and the principal stress smax at the junction of a flange

and the web of the selected beam.

15 kips 10 kips

2 kips/ft 12.5 kips

B C B C

A D A D

9 ft 6 ft 6 ft 12 ft

3 ft 3 ft

Fig. P8.5 Fig. P8.6

8.7 and 8.8 (a) Knowing that sall 5 160 MPa and tall 5 100 MPa,

select the most economical metric wide-flange shape that should

be used to support the loading shown. (b) Determine the values

to be expected for sm, tm, and the principal stress smax at the junc-

tion of a flange and the web of the selected beam.

275 kN

40 kN

2.2 kN/m

B C

A D

A C

B

275 kN

3.6 m

1.5 m 1.5 m 4.5 m 2.7 m

Fig. P8.7 Fig. P8.8

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524 Principal Stresses under a Given Loading 8.9 through 8.14 Each of the following problems refers to a

rolled-steel shape selected in a problem of Chap. 5 to support a

given loading at a minimal cost while satisfying the requirement

sm # sall. For the selected design, determine (a) the actual value

of sm in the beam, (b) the maximum value of the principal stress

smax at the junction of a flange and the web.

8.9 Loading of Prob. 5.73 and selected W530 3 66 shape.

8.10 Loading of Prob. 5.74 and selected W530 3 92 shape.

8.11 Loading of Prob. 5.77 and selected S15 3 42.9 shape.

8.12 Loading of Prob. 5.78 and selected S12 3 31.8 shape.

8.13 Loading of Prob. 5.75 and selected S460 3 81.4 shape.

8.14 Loading of Prob. 5.76 and selected S510 3 98.2 shape.

8.15 The vertical force P1 and the horizontal force P2 are applied as

shown to disks welded to the solid shaft AD. Knowing that the

diameter of the shaft is 1.75 in. and that tall 5 8 ksi, determine

the largest permissible magnitude of the force P2.

6 in. P2

A 8 in.

B

C

P1 D

3 in.

10 in.

10 in.

Fig. P8.15

8.16 The two 500-lb forces are vertical and the force P is parallel to the

z axis. Knowing that tall 5 8 ksi, determine the smallest permissible

diameter of the solid shaft AE.

y

7 in.

7 in.

y 7 in.

7 in.

4 in. P

A

A B 4 in.

60 mm C

z B

Q E

B 6 in.

D

90 mm 100 mm x

500 lb

C 500 lb

4 kN

80 mm Fig. P8.16

8.17 For the gear-and-shaft system and loading of Prob. 8.16, determine

the smallest permissible diameter of shaft AE, knowing that the shaft

D 140 mm is hollow and has an inner diameter that is 23 the outer diameter.

z 8.18 The 4-kN force is parallel to the x axis, and the force Q is parallel

to the z axis. The shaft AD is hollow. Knowing that the inner diam-

x eter is half the outer diameter and that tall 5 60 MPa, determine

Fig. P8.18 the smallest permissible outer diameter of the shaft.

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8.19 Neglecting the effect of fillets and of stress concentrations, deter- Problems

525

mine the smallest permissible diameters of the solid rods BC and

CD. Use tall 5 60 MPa.

200 mm

180 mm 160 mm

500 N 1250 N

A D

C

B

Fig. P8.19 and P8.20

8.20 Knowing that rods BC and CD are of diameter 24 mm and 36 mm, 90

respectively, determine the maximum shearing stress in each rod. M

Neglect the effect of fillets and of stress concentrations.

H

8.21 It was stated in Sec. 8.3 that the shearing stresses produced in a O

shaft by the transverse loads are usually much smaller than those

produced by the torques. In the preceding problems their effect T

was ignored and it was assumed that the maximum shearing stress

(a)

in a given section occurred at point H (Fig. P8.21a) and was equal

to the expression obtained in Eq. (8.5), namely,

V

c M

tH 5 2M2 1 T 2

J

Show that the maximum shearing stress at point K (Fig. P8.21b),

where the effect of the shear V is greatest, can be expressed as O

90

2 K

c 2 T

tK 5 1M cos b2 2 1 a cV 1 Tb

JB 3

(b)

where b is the angle between the vectors V and M. It is clear that Fig. P8.21

the effect of the shear V cannot be ignored when tK $ tH. (Hint:

Only the component of M along V contributes to the shearing

stress at K.)

8.22 Assuming that the magnitudes of the forces applied to disks A and

8 in.

C of Prob. 8.15 are, respectively, P1 5 1080 lb and P2 5 810 lb, 4 in.

and using the expressions given in Prob. 8.21, determine the values M

of tH and tK in a section (a) just to the left of B, (b) just to the 3.5 in. D

left of C. A

B E

8.23 The solid shafts ABC and DEF and the gears shown are used to F

transmit 20 hp from the motor M to a machine tool connected

to shaft DEF. Knowing that the motor rotates at 240 rpm and C

that tall 5 7.5 ksi, determine the smallest permissible diameter

of (a) shaft ABC, (b) shaft DEF.

6 in.

8.24 Solve Prob. 8.23, assuming that the motor rotates at 360 rpm. Fig. P8.23

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526 Principal Stresses under a Given Loading 8.25 The solid shaft AB rotates at 360 rpm and transmits 20 kW from

the motor M to machine tools connected to gears E and F. Knowing

that tall 5 45 MPa and assuming that 10 kW is taken off at each

gear, determine the smallest permissible diameter of shaft AB.

0.2 m

M 0.2 m

A 0.2 m

F

C

E

120 mm B

120 mm

Fig. P8.25

8.26 Solve Prob. 8.25, assuming that the entire 20 kW is taken off at

gear E.

8.27 The solid shaft ABC and the gears shown are used to transmit

10 kW from the motor M to a machine tool connected to gear D.

Knowing that the motor rotates at 240 rpm and that tall 5 60 MPa,

determine the smallest permissible diameter of shaft ABC.

100 mm

M

C

B

C

A

90 mm

E

Fig. P8.27

8.28 Assuming that shaft ABC of Prob. 8.27 is hollow and has an outer

diameter of 50 mm, determine the largest permissible inner diam-

eter of the shaft.

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8.29 The solid shaft AE rotates at 600 rpm and transmits 60 hp from 8.4 Stresses under Combined Loadings

527

the motor M to machine tools connected to gears G and H. Know-

ing that tall 5 8 ksi and that 40 hp is taken off at gear G and 20 hp

is taken off at gear H, determine the smallest permissible diameter

of shaft AE.

M 4 in.

6 in.

F

A 8 in.

BC

6 in.

H

C

3 in. D

G

4 in.

E

4 in.

Fig. P8.29

8.30 Solve Prob. 8.29, assuming that 30 hp is taken off at gear G and

30 hp is taken off at gear H.

In Chaps. 1 and 2 you learned to determine the stresses caused by

a centric axial load. In Chap. 3, you analyzed the distribution of

stresses in a cylindrical member subjected to a twisting couple. In F5

Chap. 4, you determined the stresses caused by bending couples and,

E

in Chaps. 5 and 6, the stresses produced by transverse loads. As you

will see presently, you can combine the knowledge you have acquired B

F1

to determine the stresses in slender structural members or machine H

F6

components under fairly general loading conditions.

Consider, for example, the bent member ABDE of circular

cross section that is subjected to several forces (Fig. 8.15). In order A

F3 K

to determine the stresses produced at points H or K by the given D

loads, we first pass a section through these points and determine the F4

force-couple system at the centroid C of the section that is required F2

to maintain the equilibrium of portion ABC.† This system represents Fig. 8.15 Member ABDE subjected to

the internal forces in the section and, in general, consists of three several forces.

†The force-couple system at C can also be defined as equivalent to the forces acting on

the portion of the member located to the right of the section (see Example 8.01).

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B

F1 Vy

Mz

y

C

Vz P

A F3 T

F2

My Vy

z

x

Fig. 8.16 Determination of internal forces

C C at the section for stress analysis.

P T

Mz Vz

force components and three couple vectors that will be assumed

(a) (b)

directed as shown (Fig. 8.16).

Fig. 8.17 Internal forces separated into The force P is a centric axial force that produces normal stresses

(a) those causing normal stresses (b) those in the section. The couple vectors My and Mz cause the member to

causing shearing stresses.

bend and also produce normal stresses in the section. They have

therefore been grouped with the force P in part a of Fig. 8.17 and

H H the sums sx of the normal stresses they produce at points H and K

x xz have been shown in part a of Fig. 8.18. These stresses can be deter-

mined as shown in Sec. 4.14.

K

K C

C K C

C On the other hand, the twisting couple T and the shearing

forces Vy and Vz produce shearing stresses in the section. The sums

x xy txy and txz of the components of the shearing stresses they produce

(a) (b) at points H and K have been shown in part b of Fig. 8.18 and can

Fig. 8.18 Normal stresses and be determined as indicated in Secs. 3.4 and 6.3.† The normal and

shearing stresses. shearing stresses shown in parts a and b of Fig. 8.18 can now be

combined and displayed at points H and K on the surface of the

member (Fig. 8.19).

H xz The principal stresses and the orientation of the principal

x planes at points H and K can be determined from the values of sx,

K txy, and txz at each of these points by one of the methods presented

in Chap. 7 (Fig. 8.20). The values of the maximum shearing stress

xy

at each of these points and the corresponding planes can be found

x in a similar way.

The results obtained in this section are valid only to the extent

Fig. 8.19 Combined

that the conditions of applicability of the superposition principle

stresses.

(Sec. 2.12) and of Saint-Venant’s principle (Sec. 2.17) are met. This

means that the stresses involved must not exceed the proportional

H

limit of the material, that the deformations due to one of the loadings

p must not affect the determination of the stresses due to the others,

K and that the section used in your analysis must not be too close to

the points of application of the given forces. It is clear from the first

of these requirements that the method presented here cannot be

applied to plastic deformations.

p

Fig. 8.20 Principal †Note that your present knowledge allows you to determine the effect of the twisting

stresses and orientation couple T only in the cases of circular shafts, of members with a rectangular cross section

of principal planes. (Sec. 3.12), or of thin-walled hollow members (Sec. 3.13).

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Two forces P1 and P2, of magnitude P1 5 15 kN and P2 5 18 kN, are applied EXAMPLE 8.01

as shown to the end A of bar AB, which is welded to a cylindrical member

BD of radius c 5 20 mm (Fig. 8.21). Knowing that the distance from A to

the axis of member BD is a 5 50 mm and assuming that all stresses remain b ⫽ 60 mm a ⫽ 50 mm

below the proportional limit of the material, determine (a) the normal and

shearing stresses at point K of the transverse section of member BD located

at a distance b 5 60 mm from end B, (b) the principal axes and principal D H

stresses at K, (c) the maximum shearing stress at K. A P ⫽ 15 kN

1

K

Internal Forces in Given Section. We first replace the forces P1 and

P2 by an equivalent system of forces and couples applied at the center C of B

the section containing point K (Fig. 8.22). This system, which represents the

internal forces in the section, consists of the following forces and couples: P2 ⫽ 18 kN

1. A centric axial force F equal to the force P1, of magnitude Fig. 8.21

F 5 P1 5 15 kN

2. A shearing force V equal to the force P2, of magnitude

V 5 P2 5 18 kN

3. A twisting couple T of torque T equal to the moment of P2 about My

the axis of member BD:

D

T 5 P2 a 5 118 kN2 150 mm2 5 900 N ? m H T

K C

4. A bending couple My, of moment My equal to the moment of P1

about a vertical axis through C: F

Mz V

My 5 P1a 5 115 kN2 150 mm2 5 750 N ? m

Fig. 8.22

5. A bending couple Mz, of moment Mz equal to the moment of P2

about a transverse, horizontal axis through C:

Mz 5 P2 b 5 118 kN2 160 mm2 5 1080 N ? m

The results obtained are shown in Fig. 8.23.

a. Normal and Shearing Stresses at Point K. Each of the y

forces and couples shown in Fig. 8.23 can produce a normal or shearing

stress at point K. Our purpose is to compute separately each of these My ⫽ 750 N · m

stresses, and then to add the normal stresses and add the shearing stresses. 4c

But we must first determine the geometric properties of the section. y⫽

3

T ⫽ 900 N · m

Geometric Properties of the Section We have

A 5 pc2 5 p10.020 m2 2 5 1.257 3 1023 m2 C

K

Iy 5 Iz 5 14pc4 5 14p10.020 m2 4 5 125.7 3 1029 m4 F ⫽ 15 kN

xy

JC 5 12pc4 5 12p10.020 m2 4 5 251.3 3 1029 m4 x x

We also determine the first moment Q and the width t of the area of the z Mz

cross section located above the z axis. Recalling that y 5 4cy3p for a

semicircle of radius c, we have V ⫽ 18 kN

Fig. 8.23

1 4c 2 2

Q 5 A¿y 5 a pc2 b a b 5 c3 5 10.020 m2 3

2 3p 3 3

5 5.33 3 1026 m3

and

t 5 2c 5 210.020 m2 5 0.040 m

Normal Stresses. We observe that normal stresses are produced at

K by the centric force F and the bending couple My, but that the couple Mz

529

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does not produce any stress at K, since K is located on the neutral axis cor-

responding to that couple. Determining each sign from Fig. 8.23, we write

D F My c 1750 N ? m2 10.020 m2

A sx 5 2 1 5 211.9 MPa 1

A Iy 125.7 3 1029 m4

5 211.9 MPa 1 119.3 MPa

15 kN sx 5 1107.4 MPa

x 107.4 MPa 18 kN Shearing Stresses. These consist of the shearing stress (txy)V due

xy

52.5 MPa

to the vertical shear V and of the shearing stress (txy)twist caused by the

torque T. Recalling the values obtained for Q, t, Iz, and JC, we write

Fig. 8.24

VQ 118 3 103 N2 1 5.33 3 1026 m3 2

1txy 2 V 5 1 51

Iz t 1125.7 3 1029 m4 2 10.040 m2

5 119.1 MPa

(MPa)

Tc 1900 N ? m2 10.020 m2

107.4 1txy 2 twist 5 2

52 5 271.6 MPa

53.7 53.7 JC 251.3 3 1029 m4

Adding these two expressions, we obtain txy at point K.

E X

2 s

txy 5 1txy 2 V 1 1txy 2 twist 5 119.1 MPa 2 71.6 MPa

52.5 txy 5 252.5 MPa

2p

B O C

(MPa) In Fig. 8.24, the normal stress sx and the shearing stresses and txy have

D A

been shown acting on a square element located at K on the surface of

the cylindrical member. Note that shearing stresses acting on the longi-

Y tudinal sides of the element have been included.

F

b. Principal Planes and Principal Stresses at Point K. We can

use either of the two methods of Chap. 7 to determine the principal

Fig. 8.25 planes and principal stresses at K. Selecting Mohr’s circle, we plot point

X of coordinates sx 5 1107.4 MPa and 2txy 5 152.5 MPa and point Y

of coordinates sy 5 0 and 1txy 5 252.5 MPa and draw the circle of

diameter XY (Fig. 8.25). Observing that

OC 5 CD 5 12 1107.42 5 53.7 MPa DX 5 52.5 MPa

D p 22.2

we determine the orientation of the principal planes:

A DX 52.5

tan 2up 5 5 5 0.97765 2up 5 44.4° i

CD 53.7

15 kN up 5 22.2° i

B

18 kN We now determine the radius of the circle,

max 128.8 MPa

R 5 2153.72 2 1 152.52 2 5 75.1 MPa

min

21.4 MPa

and the principal stresses,

Fig. 8.26

smax 5 OC 1 R 5 53.7 1 75.1 5 128.8 MPa

smin 5 OC 2 R 5 53.7 2 75.1 5 221.4 MPa

The results obtained are shown in Fig. 8.26.

max 75.1 MPa c. Maximum Shearing Stress at Point K. This stress corre-

D sponds to points E and F in Fig. 8.25. We have

s 22.8

A tmax 5 CE 5 R 5 75.1 MPa

Observing that 2us 5 908 2 2up 5 908 2 44.48 5 45.68, we conclude that

15 kN the planes of maximum shearing stress form an angle up 5 22.8° l with

B

the horizontal. The corresponding element is shown in Fig. 8.27. Note

53.7 MPa 18 kN that the normal stresses acting on this element are represented by OC in

Fig. 8.27 Fig. 8.25 and are thus equal to 153.7 MPa.

530

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4.5 in.

A 0.90 in. A horizontal 500-lb force acts at point D of crankshaft AB which is held in

2.5 in.

E T

static equilibrium by a twisting couple T and by reactions at A and B. Know-

H B ing that the bearings are self-aligning and exert no couples on the shaft,

J

K

determine the normal and shearing stresses at points H, J, K, and L located

D at the ends of the vertical and horizontal diameters of a transverse section

1.8 in. G located 2.5 in. to the left of bearing B.

500 lb

y

4.5 in.

4.5 in.

SOLUTION

A 2.5 in.

T Free Body. Entire Crankshaft. A 5 B 5 250 lb

B

A 250 lb 1l©Mx 5 0: 21500 lb2 11.8 in.2 1 T 5 0 T 5 900 lb ? in.

x

z D B 250 lb

500 lb Internal Forces in Transverse Section. We replace the reaction B and

1.8 in.

the twisting couple T by an equivalent force-couple system at the center C

My 625 lb · in. of the transverse section containing H, J, K, and L.

H

E V 250 lb

V 5 B 5 250 lb T 5 900 lb ? in.

L My 5 1250 lb2 12.5 in.2 5 625 lb ? in.

J C T 900 lb · in.

The geometric properties of the 0.9-in.-diameter section are

K 0.9-in. diameter

G

A 5 p10.45 in.2 2 5 0.636 in2 I 5 14p10.45 in.2 4 5 32.2 3 1023 in4

J 5 12p10.45 in.2 4 5 64.4 3 1023 in4

6290 psi

H Stresses Produced by Twisting Couple T. Using Eq. (3.8), we determine

6290 psi

the shearing stresses at points H, J, K, and L and show them in Fig. (a).

L

J Tc 1900 lb ? in.2 10.45 in.2

(a) 6290 psi t5 5 5 6290 psi

J 64.4 3 1023 in4

6290 psi K

Stresses Produced by Shearing Force V. The shearing force V pro-

H 524 psi duces no shearing stresses at points J and L. At points H and K we first

compute Q for a semicircle about a vertical diameter and then determine

J L the shearing stress produced by the shear force V 5 250 lb. These stresses

(b) 524 psi are shown in Fig. (b).

0 K 1 4c 2 2

Q 5 a pc2 b a b 5 c3 5 10.45 in.2 3 5 60.7 3 1023 in3

0 2 3p 3 3

H

8730 psi

VQ 1250 lb2 160.7 3 1023 in3 2

t5 5 5 524 psi

J L It 132.2 3 1023 in4 2 10.9 in.2

(c) 8730 psi

0 Stresses Produced by the Bending Couple My. Since the bending

K

couple My acts in a horizontal plane, it produces no stresses at H and K.

5770 psi Using Eq. (4.15), we determine the normal stresses at points J and L and

show them in Fig. (c).

6290 psi

H 0 My 0 c 1625 lb ? in.2 10.45 in.2

8730 psi s5 5 5 8730 psi

J L I 32.2 3 1023 in4

6810 psi

K Summary. We add the stresses shown and obtain the total normal and

6290 psi 8730 psi

shearing stresses at points H, J, K, and L.

531

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130 mm

B

Three forces are applied as shown at points A, B, and D of a short steel post.

A Knowing that the horizontal cross section of the post is a 40 3 140-mm

75 kN

100 mm rectangle, determine the principal stresses, principal planes and maximum

D 30 kN shearing stress at point H.

25 mm

200 mm

E HG

F

z x

SOLUTION

70 mm

40 mm 20 mm 140 mm

Internal Forces in Section EFG. We replace the three applied forces

by an equivalent force-couple system at the center C of the rectangular

y P 50 kN section EFG. We have

Vx 30 kN Vz 75 kN

Vx 5 230 kN P 5 50 kN Vz 5 275 kN

Mx 8.5 kN · m G Mx 5 150 kN2 10.130 m2 2 175 kN2 10.200 m2 5 28.5 kN ? m

E C H My 5 0 Mz 5 130 kN2 10.100 m2 5 3 kN ? m

z F x We note that there is no twisting couple about the y axis. The geo-

Mz 3 kN · m

metric properties of the rectangular section are

A 5 10.040 m2 10.140 m2 5 5.6 3 1023 m2

a 0.020 m Ix 5 121 10.040 m2 10.140 m2 3 5 9.15 3 1026 m4

G

H Iz 5 121 10.140 m2 10.040 m2 3 5 0.747 3 1026 m4

Mz 8.5 kN · m b 0.025 m

C

0.140 m Normal Stress at H. We note that normal stresses sy are produced

Mz 3 kN · m by the centric force P and by the bending couples Mx and Mz. We deter-

E F mine the sign of each stress by carefully examining the sketch of the force-

z

couple system at C.

0.040 m

P 0 Mz 0 a 0 Mx 0 b

sy 5 1 1 2

A Iz Ix

t 0.040 m

50 kN 13 kN ? m2 10.020 m2 18.5 kN ? m2 10.025 m2

5 1 2

0.045 m A1 5.6 3 10 m23 2

0.747 3 10 m26 4

9.15 3 1026 m4

0.025 m H yz y1 0.0475 m

C sy 5 8.93 MPa 1 80.3 MPa 2 23.2 MPa sy 5 66.0 MPa ◀

Vz Shearing Stress at H. Considering first the shearing force Vx, we note

z that Q 5 0 with respect to the z axis, since H is on the edge of the cross

section. Thus Vx produces no shearing stress at H. The shearing force Vz

y does produce a shearing stress at H and we write

(MPa) yz

y 66.0 MPa Q 5 A1y1 5 3 10.040 m2 10.045 m2 4 10.0475 m2 5 85.5 3 1026 m3

VzQ 175 kN2 185.5 3 1026 m3 2

33.0 33.0 tyz 5 5 tyz 5 17.52 MPa ◀

Ixt 19.15 3 1026 m4 2 10.040 m2

Y

max R Principal Stresses, Principal Planes, and Maximum Shearing Stress

yz 17.52 MPa at H. We draw Mohr’s circle for the stresses at point H

O C

B 2p D A (MPa) 17.52

tan 2up 5 2up 5 27.96° up 5 13.98° ◀

Z max 33.0

13.98

min max R 5 2133.02 2 1 117.522 2 5 37.4 MPa tmax 5 37.4 MPa ◀

min smax 5 OA 5 OC 1 R 5 33.0 1 37.4 smax 5 70.4 MPa ◀

smin 5 OB 5 OC 2 R 5 33.0 2 37.4 smin 5 27.4 MPa ◀

532

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PROBLEMS

Knowing that the uniform thickness of the element is 0.8 in., deter-

mine the normal and shearing stresses at (a) point a, (b) point b,

(c) point c.

35⬚

A

8 in.

B a d

1.5 in.

b e

1.5 in.

c f

18 mm

20 mm

b

8.32 A 6-kip force is applied to the machine element AB as shown. a

Knowing that the uniform thickness of the element is 0.8 in., deter-

mine the normal and shearing stresses at (a) point d, (b) point e, 60

(c) point f. 100 mm

4 kN

8.33 For the bracket and loading shown, determine the normal and

shearing stresses at (a) point a, (b) point b. Fig. P8.33

section of 10 3 24 mm. For the loading shown, determine the

normal and shearing stresses at (a) point H, (b) point K.

60 mm 60 mm 60 mm

9 kN A 9 kN A

9 kN

G 60 mm 30 G 60 mm 30 G 60 mm

30 H K H K H K

12 mm 12 mm 12 mm

12 mm 12 mm 12 mm

B B B

40 mm 40 mm 40 mm

533

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534 Principal Stresses under a Given Loading 8.37 Several forces are applied to the pipe assembly shown. Knowing

that the pipe has inner and outer diameters equal to 1.61 and

1.90 in., respectively, determine the normal and shearing stresses

at (a) point H, (b) point K.

200 lb

y

D 150 lb

50 mm H

20 mm K

t 8 mm z 10 in.

4 in.

A

D 4 in. 150 lb

6 in. 50 lb

x

225 mm

Fig. P8.37

8.38 The steel pile AB has a 100-mm outer diameter and an 8-mm wall

H thickness. Knowing that the tension in the cable is 40 kN, deter-

60 E

mine the normal and shearing stresses at point H.

x

B 8.39 The billboard shown weighs 8000 lb and is supported by a struc-

tural tube that has a 15-in. outer diameter and a 0.5-in. wall thick-

ness. At a time when the resultant of the wind pressure is 3 kips,

z located at the center C of the billboard, determine the normal and

Fig. P8.38

shearing stresses at point H.

y

6 ft

3 ft

9 ft

8 kips

C

l 3 kips

3 ft

H

3 ft

H

K

H z 8 ft

c

2 ft x

z x

Fig. P8.39

F

as shown. Knowing that l 5 100 mm and F 5 5 kN, determine the

Fig. P8.40 normal and shearing stresses at (a) point H, (b) point K.

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535

A. Knowing that the shaft BDE has a diameter of 0.75 in., determine

y

the principal stresses and the maximum shearing stress at point H

1 in. P

located at the top of the shaft, 2 in. to the right of support D.

2 in. 60°

post ABD. At point H, determine (a) the principal stresses and

principal planes, (b) the maximum shearing stress. D

E H 8 in.

y z

B

5 in. x

B

D Fig. P8.41

13 kN 300 mm

H

1.4 kN · m

100 mm

A E C

10 kN

z 125 mm

150 mm

x

H K 240 mm

Fig. P8.42

8.43 A 10-kN force and a 1.4-kN ? m couple are applied at the top of

the 65-mm diameter brass post shown. Determine the principal

stresses and maximum shearing stress at (a) point H, (b) point K. Fig. P8.43

8.44 Forces are applied at points A and B of the solid cast-iron bracket

shown. Knowing that the bracket has a diameter of 0.8 in., deter-

mine the principal stresses and the maximum shearing stress at

(a) point H, (b) point K.

y 50 kips

1 in. 0.9 in. 2 kips 2.4 in.

0.9 in. C

2 in.

H

K

x

2500 lb 6 kips

z B h 10.5 in.

3.5 in. 1.2 in.

A

2.5 in.

1.2 in.

600 lb

Fig. P8.44 a

b c

8.45 Three forces are applied to the bar shown. Determine the normal 4.8 in.

and shearing stresses at (a) point a, (b) point b, (c) point c. 1.8 in.

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536 Principal Stresses under a Given Loading 8.47 Three forces are applied to the bar shown. Determine the normal

and shearing stresses at (a) point a, (b) point b, (c) point c.

60 mm

24 mm

c

b

a 15 mm

180 mm

40 mm

750 N

32 mm

16 mm

30 mm

y

120 kN 500 N

50 mm 75 mm C

50 mm 75 mm 10 kN

50 kN

C Fig. P8.47

30

8.48 Solve Prob. 8.47, assuming that the 750-N force is directed verti-

375 mm cally upward.

8.49 For the post and loading shown, determine the principal stresses,

principal planes, and maximum shearing stress at point H.

H K

8.50 For the post and loading shown, determine the principal stresses,

principal planes, and maximum shearing stress at point K.

8.51 Two forces are applied to the small post BD as shown. Knowing

z x that the vertical portion of the post has a cross section of 1.5 3

2.4 in., determine the principal stresses, principal planes, and maxi-

Fig. P8.49 and P8.50 mum shearing stress at point H.

6000 lb

500 lb

1.5 in.

2.4 in.

4 in.

H 6 in.

D

1 in.

z 3.25 in.

x

1.75 in.

Fig. P8.51

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8.52 Solve Prob. 8.51, assuming that the magnitude of the 6000-lb force Problems

537

is reduced to 1500 lb.

8.53 Three steel plates, each 13 mm thick, are welded together to form

a cantilever beam. For the loading shown, determine the normal

and shearing stresses at points a and b.

y

e

d

b

a

60 mm 400 mm

30 mm 75 mm

60 mm C x

9 kN 150 mm

t 13 mm

C

13 kN

Fig. P8.53 and P8.54

8.54 Three steel plates, each 13 mm thick, are welded together to form

a cantilever beam. For the loading shown, determine the normal

and shearing stresses at points d and e.

Determine the principal stresses and maximum shearing stress at

point a.

90 kips

W8 28

y

4 in.

a

b x

20 kips

24 in.

b a

Determine the principal stresses and maximum shearing stress at

point b.

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538 Principal Stresses under a Given Loading 8.57 Two forces P1 and P2 are applied as shown in directions perpen-

dicular to the longitudinal axis of a W310 3 60 beam. Knowing

that P1 5 25 kN and P2 5 24 kN, determine the principal stresses

and the maximum shearing stress at point a.

y

75 mm

a

a

b b

P2

1.2 m W310 60

0.6 m

P1

dicular to the longitudinal axis of a W310 3 60 beam. Knowing

that P1 5 25 kN and P2 5 24 kN, determine the principal stresses

and the maximum shearing stress at point b.

8.59 A vertical force P is applied at the center of the free end of cantilever

beam AB. (a) If the beam is installed with the web vertical (b 5 0)

and with its longitudinal axis AB horizontal, determine the magnitude

of the force P for which the normal stress at point a is 1120 MPa.

(b) Solve part a, assuming that the beam is installed with b 5 38.

l 1.25 m a

B

W250 44.8

B P

a

b

A Fig. P8.59

C h

l

8.60 A force P is applied to a cantilever beam by means of a cable

attached to a bolt located at the center of the free end of the beam.

Knowing that P acts in a direction perpendicular to the longitudi-

nal axis of the beam, determine (a) the normal stress at point a in

P

terms of P, b, h, l, and b, (b) the values of b for which the normal

Fig. P8.60 stress at a is zero.

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*8.61 A 5-kN force P is applied to a wire that is wrapped around bar AB Problems

539

as shown. Knowing that the cross section of the bar is a square of

side d 5 40 mm, determine the principal stresses and the maxi-

mum shearing stress at point a.

d

a

d

2

A

P

Fig. P8.61

*8.62 Knowing that the structural tube shown has a uniform wall thick-

ness of 0.3 in., determine the principal stresses, principal planes, 3 in.

and maximum shearing stress at (a) point H, (b) point K. H

*8.63 The structural tube shown has a uniform wall thickness of 0.3 in. 6 in.

Knowing that the 15-kip load is applied 0.15 in. above the base of K

the tube, determine the shearing stress at (a) point a, (b) point b. 4 in.

2 in.

10 in.

0.15 in.

3 in. 9 kips

Fig. P8.62

1.5 in. b

4 in.

2 in.

10 in.

A 15 kips

Fig. P8.63

*8.64 For the tube and loading of Prob. 8.63, determine the principal

stresses and the maximum shearing stress at point b.

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stresses in beams, transmission shafts, and bodies of arbitrary shape

subjected to combined loadings.

We first recalled in Sec. 8.2 the two fundamental relations

derived in Chaps. 5 and 6 for the normal stress sx and the shearing

stress txy at any given point of a cross section of a prismatic beam,

My VQ

sx 5 2 txy 5 2 (8.1, 8.2)

I It

where V 5shear in the section

M 5bending moment in the section

y 5distance of the point from the neutral surface

I 5centroidal moment of inertia of the cross section

Q 5first moment about the neutral axis of the portion

of the cross section located above the given point

t 5 width of the cross section at the given point

Principal planes and principal Using one of the methods presented in Chap. 7 for the transforma-

stresses in a beam tion of stresses, we were able to obtain the principal planes and

principal stresses at the given point (Fig. 8.28).

y We investigated the distribution of the principal stresses in a

c narrow rectangular cantilever beam subjected to a concentrated load

m m

P at its free end and found that in any given transverse section—

min max except close to the point of application of the load—the maximum

max y principal stress smax did not exceed the maximum normal stress sm

O occurring at the surface of the beam.

x

min While this conclusion remains valid for many beams of non-

rectangular cross section, it may not hold for W-beams or S-beams,

where smax at the junctions b and d of the web with the flanges of

m m the beam (Fig. 8.29) may exceed the value of sm occurring at points

c

a and e. Therefore, the design of a rolled-steel beam should include

the computation of the maximum principal stress at these points.

Fig. 8.28 (See Sample Probs. 8.1 and 8.2.)

a

b

e

Fig. 8.29

540

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In Sec. 8.3, we considered the design of transmission shafts sub- Review and Summary

541

jected to transverse loads as well as to torques. Taking into account

the effect of both the normal stresses due to the bending moment M Design of transmission shafts

and the shearing stresses due to the torque T in any given trans- under transverse loads

verse section of a cylindrical shaft (either solid or hollow), we found

that the minimum allowable value of the ratio Jyc for the cross

section was

J A2M 2 1 T 2 Bmax

5 (8.6)

c tall

In preceding chapters, you learned to determine the stresses in

prismatic members caused by axial loadings (Chaps. 1 and 2), tor- Stresses under general

sion (Chap. 3), bending (Chap. 4), and transverse loadings (Chaps. 5 loading conditions

and 6). In the second part of this chapter (Sec. 8.4), we combined

this knowledge to determine stresses under more general loading

conditions.

My

F5

B

F1 Vy

E

Mz

B y

F1 C

H Vz P

F6 A F3 T

A F2

F3 K

D

z

F4

F2 x

Fig. 8.30 Fig. 8.31

bent member shown in Fig. 8.30, we passed a section through these

points and replaced the applied loads by an equivalent force-couple

system at the centroid C of the section (Fig. 8.31). The normal and

shearing stresses produced at H or K by each of the forces and cou-

ples applied at C were determined and then combined to obtain the

resulting normal stress sx and the resulting shearing stresses txy and

txz at H or K. Finally, the principal stresses, the orientation of the

principal planes, and the maximum shearing stress at point H or K

were determined by one of the methods presented in Chap. 7 from

the values obtained for sx, txy, and txz.

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REVIEW PROBLEMS

8.65 (a) Knowing that sall 5 24 ksi and tall 5 14.5 ksi, select the most

economical wide-flange shape that should be used to support the

loading shown. (b) Determine the values to be expected for sm,

tm, and the principal stress smax at the junction of a flange and the

web of the selected beam.

1.5 kips/ft

A C

B

12 ft 6 ft

Fig. P8.65

ABCD, knowing that tall 5 60 MPa and that the radius of disk B

is r 5 80 mm.

A

r 8.67 Using the notation of Sec. 8.3 and neglecting the effect of shear-

ing stresses caused by transverse loads, show that the maximum

B

P 150 mm normal stress in a circular shaft can be expressed as follows:

c 1 1

C

smax 5 3 1M2y 1 M2z 2 2 1 1M2y 1 M2z 1 T 2 2 2 4 max

J

150 mm

D

8.68 The solid shaft AB rotates at 450 rpm and transmits 20 kW from

T 600 N · m the motor M to machine tools connected to gears F and G. Know-

ing that tall 5 55 MPa and assuming that 8 kW is taken off at

Fig. P8.66

gear F and 12 kW is taken off at gear G, determine the smallest

permissible diameter of shaft AB.

150 mm

F 225 mm

A

225 mm

60 mm 150 mm

M D 100 mm

60 mm

G B

Fig. P8.68

542

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8.69 Two 1.2-kip forces are applied to an L-shaped machine element Review Problems

543

AB as shown. Determine the normal and shearing stresses at

y

(a) point a, (b) point b, (c) point c.

12 in.

45 mm

A

45 mm

A

1.8 in. b 1.2 kips

a c 1500 N

6 in.

1.2 kips

1200 N

0.5 in.

1.0 in.

B

a b

1.0 in.

75 mm

Fig. P8.69 B

8.70 Two forces are applied to the pipe AB as shown. Knowing that the

pipe has inner and outer diameters equal to 35 and 42 mm, respec- z

20 mm

tively, determine the normal and shearing stresses at (a) point a,

(b) point b. x

Fig. P8.70

8.71 A close-coiled spring is made of a circular wire of radius r that is

formed into a helix of radius R. Determine the maximum shearing

stress produced by the two equal and opposite forces P and P9. P P

(Hint: First determine the shear V and the torque T in a transverse

cross section.) R R

the solid 1.8-in. diameter shaft AB. At point H, determine (a) the prin-

cipal stresses and principal planes, (b) the maximum shearing stress.

T

y

r

6 kips V

2 in.

2 in.

6 kips

A

Fig. P8.71

8 in.

z x

Fig. P8.72

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544 Principal Stresses under a Given Loading 8.73 Knowing that the bracket AB has a uniform thickness of in., deter-5

8

mine (a) the principal planes and principal stresses at point K, (b) the

3 kips maximum shearing stress at point K.

30 K 8.74 Three forces are applied to the machine component ABD as

2.5 in. shown. Knowing that the cross section containing point H is a

A 20 3 40-mm rectangle, determine the principal stresses and the

2 in.

B maximum shearing stress at point H.

5 in.

Fig. P8.73

y 50 mm

150 mm

A

40 mm 0.5 kN

H

z

B

20 mm

3 kN

D 160 mm x

2.5 kN

Fig. P8.74

8.75 Knowing that the structural tube shown has a uniform wall thick-

ness of 0.25 in., determine the normal and shearing stresses at the

three points indicated.

3 in. 6 in.

600 lb

600 lb 1500 lb

5 in.

1500 lb

2.75 in.

3 in. 20 in.

0.25 in.

a

b c

B

a

300 mm b

Fig. P8.75

40 mm

A

C 8.76 The cantilever beam AB will be installed so that the 60-mm side

forms an angle b between 0 and 908 with the vertical. Knowing

60 mm that the 600-N vertical force is applied at the center of the free

end of the beam, determine the normal stress at point a when

(a) b 5 0, (b) b 5 908. (c) Also, determine the value of b for which

600 N

the normal stress at point a is a maximum and the corresponding

Fig. P8.76 value of that stress.

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COMPUTER PROBLEMS

The following problems are designed to be solved with a computer.

8.C1 Let us assume that the shear V and the bending moment M have

been determined in a given section of a rolled-steel beam. Write a computer

program to calculate in that section, from the data available in Appendix C,

(a) the maximum normal stress sm, (b) the principal stress smax at the junc-

tion of a flange and the web. Use this program to solve parts a and b of the

following problems:

(1) Prob. 8.1 (Use V 5 45 kips and M 5 450 kip ? in.)

(2) Prob. 8.2 (Use V 5 22.5 kips and M 5 450 kip ? in.)

(3) Prob. 8.3 (Use V 5 700 kN and M 5 1750 kN ? m)

(4) Prob. 8.4 (Use V 5 850 kN and M 5 1700 kN ? m) P

B

8.C2 A cantilever beam AB with a rectangular cross section of width b A

K c

and depth 2c supports a single concentrated load P at its end A. Write a

p

computer program to calculate, for any values of xyc and yyc, (a) the ratios y max

smaxysm and sminysm, where smax and smin are the principal stresses at point min c

K(x, y) and sm the maximum normal stress in the same transverse section,

(b) the angle up that the principal planes at K form with a transverse and a

horizontal plane through K. Use this program to check the values shown in x

Fig. 8.8 and to verify that smax exceeds sm if x # 0.544c, as indicated in the b

second footnote on page 517. Fig. P8.C2

8.C3 Disks D1, D2, . . . , Dn are attached as shown in Fig. 8.C3 to the

solid shaft AB of length L, uniform diameter d, and allowable shearing stress

tall. Forces P1, P2, . . . , Pn of known magnitude (except for one of them)

are applied to the disks, either at the top or bottom of its vertical diameter,

or at the left or right end of its horizontal diameter. Denoting by ri the

radius of disk Di and by ci its distance from the support at A, write a com-

puter program to calculate (a) the magnitude of the unknown force Pi,

(b) the smallest permissible value of the diameter d of shaft AB. Use this

program to solve Prob. 8.18.

ci L

P1

A

Pn

ri

z

D1

B

D2 Di

P2 x

Pi Dn

Fig. P8.C3

545

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546 Principal Stresses under a Given Loading 8.C4 The solid shaft AB of length L, uniform diameter d, and allowable

shearing stress tall rotates at a given speed expressed in rpm (Fig. 8.C4).

Gears G1, G2, . . . , Gn are attached to the shaft and each of these gears

meshes with another gear (not shown), either at the top or bottom of its

vertical diameter, or at the left or right end of its horizontal diameter. One

of these gears is connected to a motor and the rest of them to various

machine tools. Denoting by ri the radius of disk Gi, by ci its distance from

the support at A, and by Pi the power transmitted to that gear (1 sign) or

taken off that gear (2 sign), write a computer program to calculate the

smallest permissible value of the diameter d of shaft AB. Use this program

to solve Probs. 8.27 and 8.68.

L

ci

ri

z

G1

B

G2

Gi

x

Gn

Fig. P8.C4

8.C5 Write a computer program that can be used to calculate the normal

and shearing stresses at points with given coordinates y and z located on

the surface of a machine part having a rectangular cross section. The inter-

nal forces are known to be equivalent to the force-couple system shown.

Write the program so that the loads and dimensions can be expressed in

either SI or U.S. customary units. Use this program to solve (a) Prob. 8.45b,

(b) Prob. 8.47a.

b My

Vy

h

C

P

Vz

x

Mz

z

Fig. P8.C5

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8.C6 Member AB has a rectangular cross section of 10 3 24 mm. For Computer Problems

547

the loading shown, write a computer program that can be used to determine

the normal and shearing stresses at points H and K for values of d from 0 to

120 mm, using 15-mm increments. Use this program to solve Prob. 8.35.

A

d

9 kN

120 mm

30

H K

12 mm

12 mm

B

40 mm

Fig. P8.C6

*8.C7 The structural tube shown has a uniform wall thickness of 0.3 in.

A 9-kip force is applied at a bar (not shown) that is welded to the end of

the tube. Write a computer program that can be used to determine, for any

given value of c, the principal stresses, principal planes, and maximum

shearing stress at point H for values of d from 23 in. to 3 in., using one-

inch increments. Use this program to solve Prob. 8.62a.

H 10 in.

d 3 in.

3 in.

4 in.

9 kips c

Fig. P8.C7

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