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IJ is mt ilID!ll:ptmdlrn~ magcazine,. an C1p>~n aIJfd OQcllJ!ab1li~atl.ll~ fQ:I®a.t ~el lilt ~IEI rnsl!Jll!Slj de~t lJmIiks antil!JoI1l~e])ts: en the- array. W lGWtils thOjlJt *Irt €I~m[o!J!t1): tm.edill't <ll1id <J!estlJetll):!;.

1!i,s dt is 1>~if"plilzillsMQ, 1t u;aC'~. pack to l1l'ad<i, flliiXUS. Bi9tPoet~; amf Rl1sslan SmJiljzdat willeh usedlito b!!IDgIGlut irrdeffiteni~ent. [IlZ1n· Glcmnmo:mJ.iai~, and iHegular"s:rnallrn[lmilJ'lfi~ti~ tald:Il!g OiillvmwQT!3 of 1the eheapE:s~ and moof aJl1lGlllsS:lible teolmd!m9Y fill!!' rep,[Qm~~,

When the: i¥tdlucoprer !l)8(:arne <ivallalble in fiftg sev:enl:i!~. SF ,1IlJm ,ptlillk q.\1Ittlre stml.ed lliie pm,dtifrnan oJ 'fanzin.e£ ,lli:Ikii1g an mtE:' resl<!d GmmriwIlJI:'j\' @f sflareti C're."3!tion, '!l,hE: :fam;iltIIlS' E:UtiCs ofrnI7t OO"H"'!OUI!w,l!f; make yoUii' tiiM:lmutm:e! msp:i[edJ J!I to esta'Msbi am GW1:l ;{Omliat f~~ t;)OIllPl!litlilil' CUIWN of ]oJjav:

:T[ i!J10ii!m.s U:s~Jf (p01itil1lal, ITClit m fuat ~t li!'ltlTdllies pOlil!t1Cail tnpiGS, but Wi tiliaili tli ~es aifter rnEfdi,aJ te~es that :shOhw' a11ematlves to me tau1'Q]Qj:l):a! ·'Ut@ expfiilitarfive praltliees Of ouilf ltiE'ls m:Iilt;ure, 11 1l'!IaIltS to tW.Utviale its omtl ~afit Illy "ii::itmJ.d(mmg ncMBe, f0 S1g1'1i3:l": by dlslal1\'lng tY1~ diimla]l(hyp.e and tilQlia,!!!si[lgthe'recmmlo\ili,o(1)a1 seduc,. lJj0[1,. by slJ!bllettmglhe c:mnpillteF. an\!l e;(iPlrn:fll"lg the aerilltetiG'5 of !:)tlIlse aDO the l!le<lU\,Y: !!If "iE:0HaI"s~ al:Id [)(ash - pet:ihllp,5 thearasb tif'l:ne b~l,lJty:

Jtl:nk Jet. is bllJfrt mt rnll!Ine pUibl1ca1flan ~l!nclutlIDg mO'v:i:es. images, :;soift1.!'lafe, aII!3l pdf:si~. expllilfilt1rilg aU (possl1'lmtler> (;JJ~ mulitlmeid1<1, and all! ~lfflavi;l~t ~OI~f;j paper: PliUJb1iO:3!Ii'l!(!l (!!rI0!1udmg spemru gmsl em ,il< nan-aGliilllll.e'fciaj, scaj.e, chalienmnQl rth~ Qnl!me v€'fsiiml.

'['0 ttfLalre ¥011F own, .tJul~ure in electronic medla. amld!@n!y meaa ~(]

uS.e ~t In a dIIJ~t way lrt'lm Intended by: iI:h.e !l!ndtfstlf,,' (:see~!JlS m deSl:gnltero1lfiS ml't"led~ts beat 10 be compact <lillId spar~ tlmneU[lg Bias.. 'I1he Br:eadil30aI'd Bm1dl Btfr.!Iik :Ar,l~, o:H. Mar,tm'Wi;to(l!m,~) ~~I fanl!lY glWFlntm de:iliITIl_

o~ usa .iiUtlk :rrnalIihll!ne.'l. adopt mE:ffi by tas~ (~~ia :~at tetl:!t!ll["

pret them (Gem d.€: Bruljll:, ~II SI1l[itJ~Jlt MGfl!a~all!). Oil' till!) Dot

U!Sle t!lernal aWl\ B!,l!t dl'aw thl;lm (~Ii!!'i!stinl:! 13(1~(I)_ lcr ~gt IDha_[)~ ¥,O1;l 've~y; mu.cli! ~I!I a:ll(1)lZIoIl1I:i!iliUtO(.SI who par.lilrnrpa:led dn the fi~st~dlijjon, ~li)' 11"18 rgma, GElId! de 13ruyn anlfi Andrea Riliek, ~0 ~lIsmolJE, to ~e mtre, aIrrd Klle®nMe.augt'lT.ac.

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'IlhereJore, r~!iW;ant [fieldS! are all sorts QJ re"l"lse\ of V"Tl(Il'iIQ"i- ucl :n,QJ'HJS~ and O'f tlir1lwooQl (bI'iwl~~,ba,is;lelrO of ifo.ms and ~'etmd ol:lj~s, of tflheQIi1~s ·<lnd (small) ~itiv-es. or taSl\l»JlS am stlll!es. midJ of (OlouI':re of computers and oI:hlilF E:lectronic de;vice.sL JJ wants: te expiore d:O-f~~lj);'}mseUworks of OOIfnf)tlrer C1illfute, aef:;Jdie[ltal outco:l'l1le!!, devialiLt eJ:'IllI l1i0!t'mal aesll"retlt klfoJttS fOO~ re::lllH ftmIil mlSl.l_s~d ,~, lS)JbV13!1'OOid custo.ma~ tpo~s.,:<IfLdI ~arnmed. c:omrnoo. I?raetfi.qe-~t,

Po,. tJ:lis maS'lil!'l ~t 'ti<as'oo~~.ecWd WW1~ frOmllieoMst!>. a1'tiSlS, ,awhi'Wd~, and musicians whOl1'Oillltl1d In v0l!li10UlS fm:irns om.mtl!Wl.l)~ of €:].ectrotIk: do:vicE::;!, or 'who proclJuaeGi Q.ounoo:r: )O'I,[Qr:ks (W'!,ij -G:o,wi(;er ommter works)!Ilf ~ounteF ~thlilli'r;::S. tJ.lIrIn.e<5gm.<OOSU'eam (albli1ve en dlrCJtltetl!3'., des'igln~P,i!' • and Olitlsts' stream) p<arcl10eBl Pmcesses t'lf dierlM'l'l'la:t1t:lfi,lmd ~'I:io:Ilawrnere ~~tant I:l':!lmllnearc1'ilaID:jl iliffm;m~fum omt!lnx<lith®n. 'Whis 1I1c1'udes r.lIO~ks end ronm~pts on DIJ~e (H@Jtri~( I.undl}, on clila.1lce, ~ up. bt'lotleg and sampLing ~[an !le1I!I1ek Rank :8matral, MowibllI1l:dJ, .and C)li'! litYbrjd techru~.'l! (Nlit?JoleSUdfmOO. al~ ot'U\em nmllIng e.]eatrron:lC: de1Ji:e.es. mtd ~~r ID:milS of cmIilpoutafion Into nmcllin.es {)~ Indel~ac:y, 0pen.~· pe~.ilrnents 'm wbici1 smn~n;1! or so.m~tl:llil,9 mtW fail ar.e €If glreat Irnpo:~: 1itcrough fue lens ef faiJUi'\\!' JJ wa,tt;)hes a'!Jltho .. n~ wte:r,mefu()do]ogJ:es x;lillllili'J)e" tE:::n:;; ggfiIDg tested - 00111 they, crash. Failm:e 1:9 regarded ~ means WI' Conffil,liltli!\g the ~lfiq1¥ futed! titeW!1::mes Mljplsm0IIWC! in teolmot©(lles, bll!~ ~oveall in JProaedllre~,

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~~ fA:i~ ~r:.t2~~N & M~ltuA1!H~F~1N el !4'~~e~u: Si[!l~~@FF s~ti!lemfijiii. it m~ trni1l"Ql'~L!!l • e:l:!udr,1!"

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T~ wo!:t Is IIGe~ellll,mdeil'Ut~ l@'maij],te ll:ommQ~$ ~IlI:O!l!

Ncmcomm.oe,f,t!aID a.0'!li!!l~~'lieef:l5ai I m~~lfRue~~ ~g:ln TO .~ew;I a~Pr o~,UIIs U~r:L:Se, liIli5il hIlP11JCre'a:d,v:eOO!t11!lA~<.em'JUce~~::U)1d'e/1'3 l'M~I~ ~1:aJd

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TeMmPlli ~s C'ontrol of namreand 1ntlIls it Is emanqpa· In otherseords; t@r;:1'mi1Cll1 :SQcla~zarfion Is Mt redtlf:edkl om: ,SIngle tLGQ,ror those wne berleftt from ~t. who b'lQW to use Itt event. one model or product, as Lt is wfth the newly born gooses adequately willie hopeMlY 'k:eejllng controL What was the meao.r Kclmad Il.orenz U!.at wouk! roeoo!Jl'l:1ize a st,on.e BB theiiF mother H it mng of you~g s:rud,entswho emancipated wllh !he hel~ of el.e~jc was tb.e' first Ittl!1t9i they Saw n( hirth. Il'edhnics soclallze5 us by typeWl!i!t€!Fs? i1,1he fitsi: allSWl3f ~s not simpl.e, the mom as lit has to

Most readers :will. agree wltth me thatt motbe[\n IiWIl!m- l;IQltlgs aotlaptkl a worLd. whrott is aonsl:aln!l1y transfounedJ by l'ap~d leclml.cal progress. and whle:h. strorLgiy i!tIflu€!n€es our W,O!iys oftNnldng, feelkig. and! aCitl!ng, Whefu€!r thls trafisfomlatlon r.esults, III a baste change at am mmd and @OWUtiOR is fl(i)t y;et: decld.ed. W1hUe gome lileo.retiCdans argus by anthfoPology: ill a~9 few but fom:latived:'laraCl:efimcs ~ J:ruman beings, 'Wru'elhare _day; it at <lilI, affected! by the process a~ olvlllzailidn, o1:hms tend to tltei OPlruWl fuat <ill htmil.<l!l'I. extel1:1.ailfuzati.oIlls (EI:litiitillertmg:E:[I) are md~r;t by hlStoz;y;

In the :[ollowlng, [ WOIrld !The to d.e:!cmt:Je theres:ponse o! my generation to {lie;: cwnpme:l" wlthout stliJ.:ctly actrng ror one aHhe two positions desomhed -abo'!lQ, Actually, it Is net about my g,eneratilln as a who.!e, but at.bout a speclifl.c mWeu 1 belopged to. whieh, in CQI1Itrast to the d!IDtalllotieme of today, should tie ,4Uilled m~ analowe boMm~> M1i\ question ts:: What W'aB the relevall:i.Ce of the developrne;:[It of tlle" Ptlnona!l;:oInpJilter to a mllleu soo!alize,d W1~h the (eimEic) typevlflterr? BU'!: wait - whaitt is d.esm:ilied by- somal1md'? HJsocl*<!JtitmihadilDeen an, l!fll'lle, IBM of thaemy; eighlieshadl o:rlily fraJlil,oo. tlte a,eIOikl:Qp,m Cl:ill' wm:k,. we shotilil :halle as we:n been w.s:c:liilated lLly; lli.e' Eillilel'Q',e:noee O'f tile per;sdrull (;lomput'er; as, W'ij'i!Je m.e su~ot generatL'en&

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We 'were not lJecatise it was ifh~ WPewlilwr we '1D1.ked 10 a!l'l ex· perJence o~ emanrnpation. In @y, case, I ihlllilke this. and ~ suppose tha~ iii Is this happensttmce, which. eveR today, makes me: Feoogrule the finest Ma~ as rill!' old mM~ 'Fhat Is like diivilng the im fighter 00 the surlaoo. EVeI¥ pll.ot would. compitaID the hard,s:bjp. m.at do t1:'IiI!rtk my as5Ji3tams, th~oompute~ axpel'ts. watching me blmlk· faced 1n frm'Lt of the Mac? !It will n.e;ller1a~e oft w:Ith me, alli'!ough I am. depend1rtg on II; as ~ah as do fils cOOl!eagl.!.e-.5. who illlUeMy' are CC!ittPUl"er l:Lteratle, Wl:'Iat l1s: til:rIE reasen fOl'ti'lis?

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!Eo e;q>la!I!n 'tltls expenenEe. lecMk: phlilo:sophy maikes the case that. wmnn (lin' motle:m oiVilizaitlOI1l, tec.hn1oai1 mnovatlons imp.ress strong[y and peFm!'lngnUy only if they Mdtca'Dy, reoo~ul1on:lze our exlStence. 'Illie InIlElm1Q!:l of ithe car a'clll!ated .a ratlili(')ai! ,Iilnanoo, which was not outshone mr tile subsequent breakthrough WiI:lUn car body and motor deSign.

But the COIl.~IlIPGIaliles of HenI1" Ford and Fertllriatldi PDrsrme were not deret;m]fi.!Ed to toe ~hetypes of automotllVe JOO!HilIotiOIII. we tow 1:l1te. more tJhe:mQre'U!'~ ~. ·antiquated, ~; f'Oillldlng g~. e'fatlien a!1:ready WeB Cllr.taU15 abOUlt all aul;o:litlGtli1le dev'e'lQ:pmenm; to coone.

l!irtking us IIfith iiGtlleJJ and stlbs>equent develrrpment:s. n defines the here.and·now·funimOns of a machine m fOrn;[ of a. motmihlke.; a~ the same tlme 11: l1'alBes expectaillans; and deSire ~ar mvetltions te eome,

In compal'lsoIlJ to arcblteetme, ilie' topic Is brotl9'h. to tile' poirltas fOllows:

T'o refum to Oil£! g{!{~lmpltlC WDi:e:n 'liTe make I.]s!~ of our fl:r.'$t ~a[, clIesp'~te it was a. DN:W willI a t'lNlll-sffl.lre englne, we ][ijI!ll;e use ,of all CEfi'S dev,glop-ed sinae then, inoludlrtg the prrlrned rnaoCNnes of lilru:d1 (il:lli'l.tIl'O that dil.ll net aUaw us am' teolmica:! alil!justment anymo~ and that do not resemble U'le old! ElKW in any POlIt. Howeve:r, !bait OUI( 'fa_scmation fur the car W~E1S '(:Jut, is tlJue to mainlY two reasons:

1, The growti1g ecologJ.~1 cO[lsdousness recognizes the COM as a ~olo9iloal dlrIosaur.

2:. A lot of people oo'JJ.e;m old motor veNcles in oroel' tofWtdly reo store tfiem In OOU!il.t1~S.S l'I,01i:u:s, [lhey nott only sentimentally assme th,emwvs-s Of 1heJi (pilIst, bu,t aills:o of the p~slVe galnfi, w11J.G'h were lmked 10 tlIeli: eafly years MId wh:lcih he.ve been 10Sl QVel! tmlie [1] ,

But, there is enotl'ie~ loss W:itllln the deve[9Prn€rn; Of the car: €onltol o,fteohno:loQy, which is [[UE!5t1one(i by ongoJi@i d~veJ.op· mant, happens on ti,Y0 ~eve.ls: fiiFstly. en the level !!Ii exp~r.t1se, which enable5~eams o,f ~erts to design Increasingly; cemp1M_mad:llnes, which th.emselv~ m.ount lncreaslnf)'ly eompls)(madl'lines" Which get out of om: control dlerwite of Inoreasmg usabilltv. !ll;:I$ a i.ong mne since ;we cWI!ln~uled these ma,cfiJIles iJ:l mems oj riepailiilflij Ithem o,p even. unders@J:Idffig how U1.~ WO~~. 1)Js,ually WEI use them ;;:rei'''' li~ WfuJereas'a~"ana.·l;i]afuHdeC!li()9Illl\S thOUlgh~fhajt human areativlly was hmi1J:IUa~d ];Iy tIDie mac'l:Uf\.es at the 19m. omfu~, rnachmes of today co!!ild ittfuFnco!l'1Pl:iW'l ali' Being Qffended IDy (i);U~ ignoran;f!;e. n is fut tJtis. $li:andaA that they t~wmble fijjVij:Me m SCisinGS Fictlan~,

'The noo"engineer UGually 11'0 overstralned !by theposffiiblliUl~ at a limiifeCl slip differemla], as rejects the mn-w11d~rness III fionl of 0lJ:l.r oili4t.s: the allbwheel tifive. iIDl1.Ose wno get under an old BOTgWaIQ, lin order, to do ~, jllUSttry to restorel:he, conoordl o~ the ~ l,tH/els of contI'oJ: 'T'bey warn te grasp !In d.e'tall.frI.e' mac'hlne they 1ll1l!l ~, !N£lfl IW il'hey have to i!ll~0 back the 'clock oJ techrt10C l1Ils tnt y;

etlng ~ kttllte \Wier"'s Qf ~ ~a, ml1li thus S'lJpp(lf,tfj" c.mtB.clowl adOpMofi and ~:i!atllilIil tltrml!g'h mdlvid'uailly o.bselWed and InWndedl~-

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weare emotionally; bound to mode'.n machInes. to .sjngile events" and! not to fhEt Whole tmlinical devellilPment we an· t;]~te'd WlJth m th.fil coU!i:'Se '!J~ Dill' We'. [caUtliils iJ1.e bearalble pmgrn:ess and I.e ave it to <mtl:1(i:'opo'Joglc:: gJIl5ses, whe{he!r every genera/l1an .Is cml.y aIbl.e to stand one I.eap ot ~chIdlJal. development.

[ suppose that ooly;those Who WU!!'l clem: of 5tJ.Gh .bOWldis we aftJ'~e te keep pace mtil tecI1l1l:h;$, But wmIe [ ,am. 5E1Yin9th1~ I reeoQ'Il12e it as consllJI£,ted and! umatull'& (iffice. a :very' ~SI programmef told m.e· Ularo he fWl~llc:lten mare yea!lll In. hIs lob will th.e next generation would replaee hIm. Ellen tie was commilled to a p,artl.wlar state of t,edi!ruca Perhapl> th.e omy Il!I"LOOlIDdperson, in perPetUItY adill0ted to pro!JreSE> !s the MaD Wltl'tout Qlla1ltles.ROb~rt MiJJlsl[ 105'1: :s.i~ of, w.hent1tsIllL'lcl'l decided to educaw a "ij)lIDSe of poss1li1l1ty<' and toO lbeoomea better hum.an being. I.

[1] !I_~~ mlihin f11lhicm or ",~.lc dww iJlUI ~lIIbs~q~e;fu g_~toom tl1~1 ~l'lold no! cx'pclicn~~progtl:Ui.ve '='''~J!i!$d;J!." •• 1v1!9.slill.1Jkt, liJ'~lIcntlillim Ihem. 'The rc'll~!jv-o!I!i.91! ol':1tn lLlIIll{lllity Is ~ try J1;I Wm'I;'!:!1IAQ: tho Ig •• cf,,!!;;;;, Will!~t .DmjiIJIIln. diRgmO&cd in m!Jd~jl)l. 1M di;slllint C'1f~ 'b~tw~w 1i'14~.n """'g omd dbjm, wlikh IIYlIli m;:Slf9f'l'm !If mOOGfJr Jl:r.oilucii1~n t'CeiIm~~gy; ;~ ~ned"".L>th;m olIloi.f:\Il:. As illte o!tl·,.hm.cr ]9 ~tlng I1!fF~d up to illc 1!Cilc;sw in Qrn.c.r tJ;I, ~ • ..., ~f'i'!ti:;il oIl'f:!i'i!Ol!. iJ]Uj~UMBtcd rerum 'of pad u)'h Imducnlcmp:ol'il!! d!5!""fI~.' ill crd •• I .. Bi;to; .iic.i. fIV ••• eo r3sillo~. whim L~ .be P;lfllililllJll ofdc;sirul ((~m!_"

rZ]iScc Z~ttel'~ dRl1lm ~!t~if,,~;:;' 0'" clI. p.>'i.ti!i".~ "fArno 8oabml'llr- d1lcoc arc 'boob g~ ~~mi~ ~rtw~dii. \llic,y ~c tfuc _"IP~ .!~ '.~I:i 11tf~ i'i:l~~ o:rlhl~~wh~ IlJr thCi.:hy I}'pCll~]p,t. liar did~ ~~re gf~~1iJ.o<e w e s hcLiM 'nr ... dAWi ahc lorm. typewmCf pocrics, A: ~Illrnrnl history e:o~ld ~!iJl'l!I" mud •• " .I!iL'tt~tum 9];~d by' lite t)'~~wi'I.ter, it eQiJld b~n w.hh. Nl'llluchc's ~ia'lIndl it ~~ '='Dil w.illh mibiie1l fl!ElirtIJP ~ .

[a] ] p:redlcr d1lnt ,he.I'C",ru] be r!;' ""RIl~' ,,,,,,,~.,,,'lm.Cmi~liv es ic 11~H~af aeesa dnr we will

I. h>1'fC to ~;m~l\1rt~ .mml<.; noO~. , ... ,dill .. t&." .,,<l(;]j'm~ p.oo~es~1:i for I'CiiUln1; !)'f~lag)' Mio;nt= ~[]Jl)]l"rer f.Jtlt .. ,,~'wm hWci In ~15toli~ilOVCfill.gli, :!!n~ I!J~ ~~~I;IIIit •. "'b!"r...able mcdlllllicuyill b~ olm111' !!ig;>~T!.IJ" "il!'" mullfdt, ..••

B

~lR '3~1.~!£ 'Cl_..a..",. ,0'; "0 wa.'J:" ~!!!":' - ~'e.:,1 'ly:tiiiil the'!.r f'!~1!!~i.!IJ":;, '~f:_ __ ';:1~ IL ~

1. !:!I etar 1l.1!:'V'eJ;r c:'IefU!l'!!.9

(d~irm '1jIf ~~hlck:t!! :U.e1:!. 4!::!"n~u.t zu ein~1t; !totab!l:ne. 8.11.)1 n

C-Tr;lli, :' }lOB: lfiI.l" -ne-r~t Iv S!!:miJ: 't.1:"'!lc'lUlei.-t~ _ Q4,e:r g~ Ihm aa~&=d1. zu beatre~~ ?~./(Da, ~~~tesnu ~~T eT9~

~al. mit'te:l'len ~ ·Was !ru. un't~'t' l:eWlQ~i.t '"'l'i!l:'Bte.uSD'. 1l weiSt lie azuu=h~i.n"nd,; 1md leh! _ ~lcb wei.. S men".) I~

ae1b::lt ~i~b""l'r erochl"alt = ? ~/f. ~Z=BC'nlle:l'l. 1lia.1.

hin. ,_ • t = ..... 1/ ... (81.. at"::lt1t.ft erleic.h te~e:r.) I( T!~end

Dich nif:.b. int'Z'l!se8!lt::O$c:bl.imI., I' t Ells. TIt. \:li~'tJa rum l 1.1')

'D1ch ,~'Il)l"llegndn i"a..l11-; '1 -"./t'tlfJ,.ll.l'Be wenn.S 1)1 hidlt) = ~ sen lQh. M:r ge.~ ~. dJii.! 'ST troE) d1.8 1a'tz ~e If"!i.nes Ll!!bms ke1lle hau mehr 'in der "t)elit::(DU 'Ieie.

hat, und auch "IJTber eeb.r-selLr el tIl - (Violl.clchtJ 11,---, ~e~ Mtl in -5einem SIimZll ABeln) '"" ~ \le~w~gn 'Ich Tim nlc.hte. werU.jer '-'ke'USch' I!line:tuf'n tll.tlc:h"te: l'liT 'k.~ommm~~"", BUt).- Dar [ lah l!l'at _oen I!!twas %our • Poll' elll1l1e ' 111

llB.ti.U;o~icb. nioh; Rot"" I3der '001

(:D -I ••• etnem ~eBliQbn Mann 1 WetBv oder 2'~KIC~ER 5~;o· ,murm1te Pr nachdenkl1ch)

~_ tlisabili~ lis ~ Icomdittomcf irlllimcli'~jMllj~tI~~;(I1 "toO 1M sigli1iili~a m~I~' lmpaili:e,d IW!a~~ lSI ~tt1,e [.I!.1~'U 11119 ~e~1fI is ~Hn ose~ tG I~~r tQ fimdM'd~alll rnIIllE~ic:J:~ii:\gl~ lil'\~~tI~il1i1lll'lil~siea~' limrmif!¥lE!!ilIlt, StlnSDi1' imlpain9:i~~glTlm)ji\e im~;ail"llUl]nt. inrteJlle,Qlijal ~m:ga~mment. '1I1ey ~!'e wilfilijlr1g ror !flZlmlrdarnati~fiIs1

I

F

Tod~ Utat lIelalU,o:nshlp!ls gone. And wr a GiiJod mii5on. TJrte ;S}laoe

lhat we'\l'e mS'alfChed ow a. new me~1!lim tlmU:L:e ~mrt len ~ ~8S 11m fM' fmm !ln1aglmilW thls ])fli\lC'e\SS as ~ and ,&emalle, l'W'lif.ed woo the mos] massm~. of 1fIi'I.>eiil a:IL NtltlrlingmQTe UImi. aDlQg.1iI ttI.em are· QXaJJUlP.' 1ihat C'ail!.lBe l\'Ii'IiIlI::eare~i!l ~ Uke, ifllr

The m:allolWi4p beli!.'!.!'een ,Gl1d,lipary, ussl1SandUtB Web II,d lihe 90\911; a very tRtem~g sllb'Jed ~o snrcw.llecause l!t:s a mlE.iIIOD$~J) hUed with fMW, ~ate:, all kinds of dJr,ama -1f1100heFwords.,R1g a~mJ·lI)!own ~e!alkl~p be\w~n aneW mEH!ltmn ;m.d!iJsrlliim'l.lmers. a mlatlonsN, 1h!It's ,exaJlB(I, ~l:U~ ~EIlimes .s:IIly- WlI:ate.y,er It' IS, all, 11iIa1 mal!!em lis (hat it e:dmed.

In m~ b~ ~ m1Icle was an ~d~ltiwr S<ilTlid In '!he "glikr" ro'idier, tlhfm tt: gilt Hte ~' IIIUe ~e wott. siuse.f'S irI. t!m~ o:r (p:emcr templatES", 'l'1i'I'e.1iI It hecim1e "ifli[tilri;. Uiller :&m~" rl.enC'()i for' tI:le Poor" MId was prsserliis!l at Ute New Nenvor1> Il1MQry comemnce. Ailer the pfesemattoJt, UCSE professm"T lA!Mn Lw sug· g;emea to rename tl to 'HomesLC'lC But for tile m.om.e-nt ru leaYe It as

'l1wo, ye'anl age [ wEme ,an arlJ.:t::.le titile'lil '"AVetnaru1ru: w'€lb-,1n WhlChI f tned '.0 celled. el~ aJi!;dll iflesmhe file .miASlIlmportan~ el:em.enls .of the leady Web .~ !tl!waJ. as wen as 800UStl.c -ilJ;ld DIe habits of lUst web l!ISer5, ltIelr ideas of liIammny an.t!lI o[d~J;.

Fm 'alking ,about liW'iI'~g that .becam.e a, S!)I_bjm of mookeq,< b'Y 'ile end ef ttlie ~. 'ceEl'llil:ry:,wh91Pwf'!!'S~t:cm.aru d.esl~, atrwetl. e:,veryiUnlmg' ~at !Cell ollJl (lluse' ~d tm:I:1E, ~ eve11l" new aid agam as UI.e elemmw o! "liemt 1,00'];" m sUe design Ol' ~ tIrIe W'Orkl!i; of aml5~ explotlng the theme ,of 'dl9f~W:1!kIQll3~ Ehe ·URdw CQfI$tnICI.lonH s!,gna, ol:lter s;gace bacl<iQroll!l1d~, MJDl,·fUes, cQlI~CI1:QI:IEI ·01 anumued web g.aphl~ ~d SO on,

If you are ml.a:s!ng' Hie '11m,! pages, loo.ked before, yOU shlil,uld irI3t811. The 'lllmema:chdine PlrerQ)!! Add-on by Tobias LeinQliublfll1 [tm.Qi,1].

Andteday: In IJhe ,~nd o~ 1rll.Re 2007. when wetilear of aroate'W' culliutrl€l more o:ffim tl1l,an ev,er. berom" Ilhe Clllh.lii'ru. lmllJl!!I'It::!! o:f "Wel~.e '00 M.Y: Home Pli.ife" wefip~e5looks ~e't'l.alliInOl· f~ll, People' wJto created! I!hem.. and IihelIJ; Itfeas of wMli till Web bii, how it 'eM. W used. and tJow thg pages; shouJilli look; OIese' peop1e;s IlkB ancli mlMakes goave tim todaV'S web .IIS CURen'! s~

YO liI1,'e, what deHne-s !:be hlstol1l" ef Web Is wt lust DIu llartm,cl\ datfi w new blio.wseli's or H~ lillilt. ~oot Ute dot-OOJIl lbubbles: ap]J!eaAng' fill' tiws~, lout also tift! appealanoe OJ a ibllliIlkI1ng yellow butlco ltal sal'di We~r or 01.~ snm:l!en. mass ,~1101iL oJ stamJ' Wil!l!lpapms, lfel:1iklnsllVrote; III 'his 2002 m1!Icle Bli09I Tli\Isl:

"We ~J1arned mIRe, 'N,st<lrl{ boolu; atu;rut samuel Morne's imlJmlltlion of the telegraph. but not about rtlI.e tho1l.Sands Of operators who shaped.ilie C!ll'culaJtI.on of messa.ge," [1~1

To Iiephmse Nm, I'd say; we've studltl:!'d the :t'Wlrol\Y of hytlenext. 1,,1.11 nat Ute hlSl'O~Y' of MetaJID:a1wl. web rmgS [2.) or w.e.b rtngF! In g;e.:r,al.

m~ metlhm. pennea'bg ow daitllives to Uitelpolnl: filr lbeSE:l~ ~Ie.lts rrmn.em1!lS users·OW! IinlsV iIIWIkln~ ~a.vlmlg a !l'QQd(l1m~ ~ e;q:IllISsiJ:lg t1itelil1S~Jnire.s. aJilid ,flllW" rbaille aillIno.stpeA"llct iOOal§ aiITLd 511rW:es m: ~ ~1!,1o.saL C'OI1II.€c1!Iu ms,ver MeaD, dlslllinc1iJ~N between a serve.i' and a hard msk" between ¥OUf de~kl:dp mld Y11l:t Of another persQII. !Iws a!lm.ast varushed, and tllere~ nothing U'lat' could oontz:lbllrte. to the C1evel.opment of user,.medlOiirelaUonshtp. notl:Mlgi to. Iloovoke us.

Web 2.~ p,ropa.gandlsts CaJ'I't stop ~g abollt tl:le liml1itl!til,dS, aI'ld pawsr of tCllday"s web amatem;a. ille new \!I5eM, who ra",e to dan"" compose SOA9"S, wr:lte encyclbpedl.t!: :a!tlilcles" t:ake photos and '1iIitm v1c1:elllS, wrlilte ~ and j;llllblliiillU all. on Ihe Web. AlI.d 'y.B't, Ihey: ,;rm mlhe!r, Lru:lW'el'enf! tollhe WJl1i111'tsl!i:ffi

~ iler.e''g llI:e cmes1ilwc'b~w dll'.es 1Jhe web ~ now. when It''S, no Innger seen a.s ItI.e iledmw,Qgiy of 1he fufilre, whEm U's Imlertwbted ,\!4U'I Olli!' dallY lives and iHIled!by P30Dle who ar;e. nor &xdted b,~lhe mmn lott ef!f1S exlst.eme?'

Ail: it firm gt~. fi'Ils q1l'Vs1i:l.OOll l€lolis ]Jke, a pmelY' aes:1Irieli1f1: oow. Qne mlglnil tlWIk U's w'Ost I!lIl!bllpm::lMt. B'1!lit iU1. lact. n.otJiUrrl.g demonSirares Ute state of the web din g~lil:era1 anti mne stale of ~IS S~~. m partlswar the ones thatfm110w fue web 2.0 tdeolo9'Y, as cle;m'lV as the mycle and .Iook 01 ()r~ lil!Sets' hQm& pages.

Cii!lt'dtn Gru:mms

I giUess 11 topk it a 1;,tt too fali when I called them "hom.e pa:g;es", Horne pages no longer. ~t 1i1:slead, fl'ter;e are ~th&r gemes: aoooWl.ts,pro:f1l.e;s. joumaffi, pe~sal!la~ s:par:::i;s, charm,e.tlJ.blo9'5 and homes, Hi '~~a W pay ,~eClal atmIlliron tJO Ib la'fterr O'lUIlS,

fmfesston:Q 'WtIb de1i'e~e!m; am:l d.eSJpef5; soomedi hame pages tmmlely. perSQl!LaI home pages) .sL'in1lrlg from 1he mId-gll& In! an 19981ntel'llilew 10 W:U 'l'Im BBmersJw~erfonmilated Ns; a1l'lIude to p:E\Na'te h,o,me ~

'1l'hev .IIOO¥ aID !.t ,!l :OOm.e pagE!; hut ~rs maN Uu tlW pome In Il!i:irn.i!lti~'S: iirCInt:ym,dltliiilllll:be hilIml itSelf:-

P:i'E!liIser of RI!lS~aII web d!estglill'liF. Artemi tebedsM; mllliuded liIome' pas-es ud 0iLe1r CM,a:t~rs in ItIds,!hate liSt I~, neXt: to ooll.ed cmloru; and the Caps (L,adk lkey.

Ii'wo years ·ago. the Butch iOO;:racttofl designer Ha:y;o wagenaar, with whom [ shared a panel at the i@ec:adie of Webd~,lgn come" renee (4j, fllJITl9i a. mma.rk:

"'IIl:Ie questlon ~ wh~t do we think of amatel;llifi S'ilittlng Involved ItI '\1Mb ~eslgn? ij :lee]s m:e. !)efiffim ~cJs: ol!llil~ highway ,I)EINl'ld (lJcamwm."

uruo by Utile. hGme pages bet:a:me Ul:e IClwe$it pl)aslbtll me fonn 'Gn tile Web - Lt beeame tlermlruilly UJilooot and ,in OI.e ,end. useless to have one. NoW,; I! you w.antitoillOOPDse Y.QD.I'J$.il'lf'~o the wodd s'hpl¥md e~fecBorelJ.wu!re SiIlpJl<ilse,d ~ go lie a slID ~llia1. Iy ~ed fet Wls (pU1"]J'QH. file ilJi'!VlI' sanm~1Jon ~ Web .~ ~te aceeunlS. projII.es. !oumals, $Pi'I~s. chamte\1S. or llIQgs;.II'li're oM glmeml10n N1ill11OmGMe, as weD-

instance. wilen the heroes of tll.e 90ISSlWh as Pe~er Pan [5. img;.2] convert Iheirpaig'es lID mwlher fOrmall'. to the language of MYSPace [6; 1mg, :3J.

lit's worth notinm anti! can be of special interest {\ilr des.lgne~s., that horne pagElS in ths other sense - me,anIng f:!rrst pages of sites 01' p:rojec:t:5 - !ost their s~re as weLt NO.body really needs them anyIDo'ra ''l'hSY :have heen replaced bV a mocliesHooklrllg GOilflle s·tall page, wl'Ilch ~!psitself around e,j1e.r~ we'.hsue like il dlliSt jadl:el.

I'ntOO'estmgty; even U'i.Pwfl hmn.epages no langerexuil;. everry other setviCl1 invites its users to re- create the feel o·t a hom.e page. offers ways to personaliZe their space qtilcldlj' and easDy.

III MarCih this yeru- iGM9'lle ['1], formerly known as G,oQgle Petsonatlie:d Ho:mIWa.QI1l, announced SiX 1new 'themes for then: users:

S'easoMI Soope. !!:ea House, Bus Stop and. others [1mg. 4.B). On this occasion. 19~~-a Ewmy. Goog1e Prodluct .Man.agier, w.rote In the omci~. aoog'~e IllJ0g'

"' ... ¥dlil can. enocse lletween the classic theme and lihem new themes we've des1§Ued. We hope thls tea/lure .~ the GOGgle homepage fuel a lilfle more.~ we·ll. horne,' [8]

Why do~ Google wmirfius to feel mce home on.lhell: pa~s? No~ to b:l:na us to tihemse1rv8§,lhars for sure - they don't need that: they've already got us hooked .. When they ole. me ttl "teel atllome·, 'they :mean sameth:ii:tg dillfterenlL They mean home as opposed: 10 work, What they're saymgis ':Relax, have fun, IPmyaroUIld whlWwe work, We arep:i:pfessiOi'iLa.l.s; you are am.atems,"

In rusprereoe to ·0 c.omments-" Oee:l!l LO'll1rl1l:. no~edl-lt was related to a dilierem subj~. milluilly the C'C license. blli~ r sHhl Wffitt to quotel:lmt-;

"TIle exdlu5[ve forus en yOQngi and lImoeent amateurs thaI ju.st w;mt to have 11m, aiI'Id 'lhe l'esenJlment agains] professkmals lis not accidental Amate1l1'S are less Inrely to stand up and claim a part of the fast incre.as;lng surplus. value (both .symbolll:al and In. real money t8an) thai the IRtem,et ,is oi:eatmg,·

]t might sound ~cal, but by enCOill'sg:lrig tile user tn~feel at nDcI'Vle· se:r:'l1€:es meate more dlSlOOC'e between the uwrs and themselves. S1mplistl.e, sUiy graphics, senieleSIS gadgets, custemlzsd pages, wfth Vll'tmd puppies and kittens of file' day niMPedi together wn:h. CNN news and bites. o·t wis:domJiom Glprah - all of that ,subtly serves to show the user .hils properplaoe Ui'j.

H would be IUl:lJe lItO compete wUh 1Go091e In. absunlltv, but [ tI:W1k that a ~ung a:tI!lSt Helene .1i>mlilS managed to put It velfY well in her w01'.k tGinome5 [1-(;),]. Te.n year-s la~er, Tim Eemel'lO··L'eet OEIlflsittc re.ma:rk '13ur it'!:! more I!ke, the gnome iIn somelrod.y'sll'<om yard 1:h<m the home Lt~ a,c~rr:ed ill new ,sense: n ~s also clem now v-mD' owtlstl'i.e'hQme wfl'h the g,arden.and who are the gno:Iiles gdmaoing Orl. a man:lc:uredlawn in the oompaIl¥ of plastef duclIs and real flowers,

12

Tta!'1!8lucency

U yOl!,l [ook at the most viewed Ia.youts WI My$pace. vail:U notice that most ol them. .M1Ie a big picture as a badkg;round. which repeailS itself hor.lzOl1Itally and vertically. 'I'hls bac1H'O- Ul96 design flaw Is now forever 'l!inktId to Web and amatew: uoors, and n(i)boav caresaboul eliminating ft~nell1te.r ser:vioes nor users UleID:~ljIJVEiS [1mg,6].

WheI'l. bJowsii1gfri:rou;g:h M'lS~a:ce Ilger profHes, Y01!l!Tabe ~se:r cha!ru:lels and user aeccuats m the BngUsh-speakmg cluster of, UvelOlm'ltl!l, ttstmpossible not to f'iI(;)tice how allkethey lQr.;Ik and ]\ow they re1Se·rnbJ,e tll§ir Web 1.0 preciecess:ars, Desmte tIle diver' sity of mufiIDledia elements, neW graphtcs. design styles, and! new tnols, Ilon·pm!essioilal user pages dUfer from the pro!essional 'OIU!S just as clearly as a decade and a half ago,

'lfbe main differe-nce is .thatp'rofesslonal pages mimt(l) the lomk of ,other med1a., and amateuf ones are tied ItO HlfMm.-·based aesthetics, 'WNah rs ba"Sed OIl mooular <tpprr::iaeWL

If m thl! 00".'3' pt0fe.s5i:l!lillEil web desIgn im1talted em>{ing paper or screen designs. web :;to tries to mbrilc 1Pom:: and oilielf gadigets bomln the begjooing ~,f the th1!rd mlUermium, ESsmtlal web look now" IUist as it was baok then, c'On!':i1S1S of a baokgrourl(il wttb lillocks. ot grapl:Uclii. vlQeos and text SlJpernnposed u.P<ln it wl:th no clear structure to bl'iI:lg 1t @Jl t·mglrther (1 u

50,usw p~6f:iles- have kept their legacy and followed! a certadn tradition. whether mtlIDtiDnaUy or not,

BUt there"s a new iilUtmmivereature I'd.!l'Iiie to lnveslig'!ate, Stl:Eis are beoorolIlg tran~uceI1l SIDcerecently, tile Myspace pl'Otikl &0itm <l!lIlows to set r<lpacitiy: for blodiS on the page' from Hl to 100%; You· 'L'uil:le offers tbell' U~ a 50 to 100'% ltansparency aptian when desi.grun.gthebi ehamels [img, '1]1,

Irs Flard to pass on such a great offer. An effect. that lakes minutes to achieve w1I:h Adobe prodll!clS c-an be a-dl'deved riin frle Web !lin ,milUs1!conds.. At tbe expense o~ usabtutji;, pages aQtl)Ufre a l'lau[lted, ImmaterlallooK,

Se.e-throwflh .~u~ stt. in their way follow the trendm aantall1l[loraJiV lrlterta'ce sty!e WIll wen, wh!.c.h 15 all .mOUlt taldri,g user irTttelifaoefartihl!lf away from. the old "des:kl-OP'" metapl:!(;)l'. 11IW!kmg tt loo·k IIliglit alrnnst ethereail [lmg.:8],

As ws· know; In me area of HCI sluely the term "traIilSNlIllflCy" has the meantng O!ll;losUe 10 (hat in optiC'S end common speech. that borrowed it ftoJIn. optics - which, too. often I.e ads to arnbigmty all.d can create misunderstandmgs, BllIt Ih.e most se:rlous problem is that Scyst'ems th.u are g,lmUinely l,i9ht. IlltillUve- and tranSOOnlnt from a de'!lll~' 0P interface designers' point of vte\'f ani not oountlng on users' competence and abllity to see and undsrstand how t:htingis work,

In 20M S'heny-1'i1J::k:le noted in Ihe·lntraduct!oll to the sPlllclal! edJ_. tion of ''J.1he S~(]l1di Sml'":

Maointosh rneamng m the word trarlspareuey had become a neW linguamrnca By !he mid. I MOs when peopk! saldiUlat a system WBSIr.an:sparent they meant that I:hery oould ,immediately make tt work.. nor that they Mew ROW 11 works.

Eaeh one ~t' '1il0ll9 IhcUibIl~ Iira.nSrnG13llt sites lila! ~ H ~m - wheti:ter ¥QU need to say hello or ~ 10 dwIk SHElIIIWl '10 de.s.tp. wJdIe a user bas; no Mea Of how it. ~ly!lll)'li' someone. w1s1ill'l gflGd ~ er j1.JlSlt to 1q!W'~1'l:I anti let VGW' amlliIr lis aerrea~ muSluUon ",1 lite lIanspa!lmlC¥ CIlInc.ept. In Ht::I iii ga· OJICllWlerpl,c si,ar~ wilh 1lWlI!.

ne:ml.

And the alfQfe,1Mf!tlon~d ~!ls;s1o:na1 ,look of I'lite' wtltll 2.0 - the ·g1Ql!l1il1 rou_nd, o~;t:d i3tvle" that h1ils become the milk of the t&vm anti I;lrovo:kod. m~ p~d1u - js based on tran51u~cy as wall" Iiu~ 0Ur1ie it fobWB ji) t~ I:i1! CWilitIPP~ eloomlMc gea,e'! aJeS(p 4lil~ ~WJW!5 ~pa~ (tOQl aJiI~ upe1iLSIve, (imill¥.ool,OO;ad) plHt'lct Ini 9J

I eaJl, ImagbU)1 Old kl me' ntafCiSit fWure 1mnsl.iJC'!elil~may be· come 8i tom Just !.W conltaillc«lJ}' as 'lml:l5pamney? E flow; due' 10 the different Ilflernul"lona 1ha~ Inspire web maielFs lGaay: ephe· nw:ml, deSkilQps @d IJI~ ~

GIl:llfe:r

If ya~ J8W( tnlled RHllit the.web 'w:l1h (m!J! - er ~ MOi me at aiD ~ iQUi prooo_~ l!l;n~w mal my ra:v~:nrlre I:1iIl::ng" In 8'IewoHd am' Mlmatetl Gil' lUas:;wd ~~ s'kY ~ms. ~reraIf@I.wm:a~lId as wJill. I: ~Wlt lllw'tJioo WiW ,Uw.y lilOll.<Uld II rnre O'Iem as <Ii iiiii mder ()f fbn times wM,n tlnifl usefa, made a.. U'aves'!y od ~ tIi!:~ wer,l(!iwid.c ddgt(alE1stwat1<,.

The onlli'ie lIl'e O'J 9. ~daY''s USiW hi 11111 of diverse attradkim, atla y.et.lt follows lI"lI(:Y stzrlrn 5'bM~. II! 15 dilsctp]mect aifld fonnaJ.· tv.elii. "lfhere is a PQu.~ ser:'ll\lce QHered fo,r every fQrRJll~;t a useI' may, want to 9.llam w,lll1'll1!he wa.li:il, iil CClIll'lJlllWiUi(ymr ev.e~ mt~~eBli. :a 1l8lWO'r.k ro~ ,81!1.er,y; ~m.\l1 gt:O!!iPJ ~ .mash UJ$Wf, ~tt. ,Md SJ!. ~O:l! $dI and :~ AM,d '!hem is sllmelNnglwr. aNmllfudi GD!' ~r~ ~",- lhe.re a!OO' gUttm; ~Noo, g,enem~ aJlI(! Ci)lIBO'1!1U\1U1. Cjl m_lInBiilc, ~N~: [img,lOJ

GvmuatcliIIll12) al!IOw ygu to eM~F as iTIl!1CR 1l'l!!!t as you want and! malW It g1iucry. YOu oct to dioose fT,crn. 1!ife, li!nbe1!reWMe ~ ,G! ~ tNl\ts.Sl!.¢h 001l.ee1ilol1S ,0000Fgililllel'}l' grapfdcs, fOr ave:1Y

[ iihllilk them aN tWQ I!m:P!Elrtailt aspoots to Ithe glittWl' tn'iflillMt rr;ilrL,e· l:IIomQI:lGfI.

Firstl.,yj gilU.1\ier bec~e a tiademaiik oJroaaws amEl'tel.W Elsi!!ll:hO'tlcEl, end lfm ce:rt:aln.tll<l!t l!I1I truil/uJ1;wJie sparklM gwap.li1cB will be'ill!lllirle III !l!plllbol 0:1', HI ~ IMw '1"J'JitdeIi COOiISlinlmlcmr slano f'Or' Iiliio 9~.l5J GUttef IS eoI'S'IJWkeJie' ~b1)tJi\EI WllUerse ,effuseli'"9':em:r>&tg,(!l f;!QtJl5l1'lli has booem,G; a!mel:a,ca~ n has abs~! aUI"mlllf 'Wi~Qpr;JDS Q1IiO'a~y: made ~l\la:; - peoplft <lIIIfiii1a:1S; liUltons. SUI .Rl,Ncs. EmIssed tM mlilomgJil wliliQllgfiltell' 'gJ!'aJfi:lcs: Wle ~m run:! dIktn"~ notICe' II IIIiRW h\"O, ~. aim when E SWffibled l!.!pon glttfvfhOO 'o:ensl8l>Ofl:llleIJ. Slnce uien. n@w deS have ~d:

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• It !lIf)·~S Uk.!! 13rllm'¥ war« wUh ·OOttef' In ~t 61 It m ItI.OW a, slteM!!llQ,

SO!ilondiy, 1 c.an't ~klp mm:v:ellng at flow :a1mli}all t·o ea~li i!)tl\er and di.llll tf.ley, aile, i,lIml nrured! ga1s from tbe ·1lUl'{itie~lB~liI<l· iUlitegor,y.. 11hm't ~GIIO - tiil~,!wrt 5~]e. even m!{ fa:~ort~e lltem P&lm, liho flI91JOf-stQPplM ~fut. iafmzen In m1e1i;afi; [I!m!l I 1~~

'JlNs Is Ute ~W(ti:J1' trend Jm; mwttme:Swh~bl t mp~IClI, ad fJ,WilOmoo:r19 rule me we.b. ~:s mIl !l, IJmIiJHi' ~l1c~1 !ol"liJie poM. h.l the .reas:on fwi jts JilQpu.l!alrJi(¥LS nGl: p..s1 ~~ irs, 1mI¥ to gelllemt(!.

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I(U] I:it. ~~l.Wl:l~ 'I~(: mI!,J,])iMiI,B'ollu'~.~lic~ jill ·'Wt.fJjM;S~iIi!!E DmpuHiI' ~rln1HiI ~1ft HlI:n~IJ'~1:wrrillllgf":

"if~~,., _ ,p!p~k d~I,J1iC6...m'D rornpbfn ~m)J~,fflt m_ liltUtl";'«, 1iKflI, mWfHI'lhdl'~ctmTMI'~'_·I~idm.,hlIikml~f",diJN;lmi(dum~-S_ ~['II"'~ liIIllm.m;puI_'wiili·fI.~1I!.mldlTf!!iIDj:~lI:o 'im-_I!,Il:UflCIl<I!,; ~ [~lillitf~~_m1m~gtl1Jb""RJII",gcn_['j)rI

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truJ' Ii;JlI~~ 3lml !l)iIJ~af\ :IImj'i1, rc;vI~1 A\1n~tieu daB:! dMs-lMI ~~ F-M!1l4>1'~'11 mJ!1\'I)IS~"

:r.rw~,oIal nttW<!rikl1l [eSea!l'Cllcer Darta!h I]l~ IJmm ~r,ke'_ UnI. ~$il¥ I1LQ:~ "ftIai1lhy IMIt; Qf MVtSpaee ifeseil'l!lbles .the. 'I..as ~ iiJfmJal~ tJil;at a'l'Immlta IlI'dIIEOM eve11! yea;;: '[iI:3i]

IJ!W d~" wtilo iJlS,OIWOSI 'fO'W'lteS[I, ~ 1ihat. glIl'1:teJ11 ~hlcs is tihe Rme INmg <liS 91i~ ~cl!!9n; (omy dJgft~ Am.oilg :PiW~ gilin!!1'¥' s:t!£(l:~'" ~ fIlT,e .00000'l![Wi.labte ohJWt!I. 'YoJilI(!M get gElWl1i3Jl ilOn.glilW:r,y fi'iIflj5:'1'Qli'Qne~at!3lUfters.

~ a1m:05'fromer SU!laieiil:t: D~ Kin&pt;. atllg -expe:l!l.1n UiLe onlliite b~ ,.d mRQ~t m'!ng SWWWilt. sessa ~JooCli llm;; ~E\tweelil IgiI:L~~ ~mphin adllMmmlP jtl)p CJjmw" wNelTil,ilerom my~~afi '~bew m.:ainly foom Wl),Ii\'OJ!mws.;

] aalW Wlil'v botll oj thllliil'l, andthere~ sometmnQl Uil I.i~ til M191n the end. ll' we take ell.tW.f aIid ~ :tl~groU[li;w ou"i of context, they wm look W:moflitthlil ~am~ -lhe I'lW1tialEis of'rnll)brmg llgillf etrl,. a d.wkarr balllkgmrunllli, Dl'IitU'ne,re'S a ~USle 'gap bel~enit:he5e l'll'll'O. SlE!ITy backgmlll'Nls represenl:ed tlrLe fU!ture, a t.ol!lth!ltt.g reiatiOO'll· ~, 'I'Iilh lti'be matlllilm Of tem&fiQ1l'l'; G.er desGr,ale:s ~el web sl lod'!iYi i9lilibe;mdii!~·'fut·glan]eIl!..'

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] wen.ire, 1>1\' iiltl!i'!il iIo~ d~"" ~1Ilm;~~6 ar _i~, 1M, 'lirllI:rfu!i'f~Jo I"'"t J"&'.~[I, ~£t.cn Iliilli't! ~,mn. ru~lfffl~1lI1e and i1l~ ~loI!lI ~~p,q~ 10 tli~ ·1jliI!'!;l;!i'[kl:i[ojf!;I(I~LAm.))cIli'ii ~[/~ M~ i1lfir ~WlI ~Sil d.t:JI,gIl~n IIDil cn~. LIP ffillimg up iill~r ~ ·wj.ih lihD5C ~ilm 8,illilflC! I!mlll~.~ tIlC,;Y >!I~rillluww my b~tto:~. ';W~_~ ~ "fI:b~~t<: llllilh lrum'!'}, b:l&klng IlirJc~ ~~ "illlwl~r dcwIliiIDt' ..... ~_ fg~t tJnttild .r;., to ~ 'lid of !Il1~c j~ok.

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11J5r ~b~.I!~n I~ ~ihgf, I~~a uib !l'J) [~ ll'I~diMk, Ii<lidIJdd~ go to M,I'!p_, mil t~ .. f «My.!l~ ilul l"!GdlUIi. ~= n~,w rcp:IiC6cm""ii~n~ off iI\,e daR5, dl'l'J.dA:J In .~~i'I YIJulh."

Bc~ Wf,LID ~oour Ihe gc~lllctk:~ "':p~.m'l!~ ~fbot-m E'Ccm~~G:

7lJjf~ t'Mit ~ mlll!.llW1;r ~r ArrlioWiJ jp""'I<"l'}'~'ifM:t5r~ ~WJ M!(Ii 'J]lm ~ ~ ~MffPUI~n~ru'll, 7«.r,gllgr~J', ~"""'-!", .. ,~nil"".,,;diJkJ#wi),·'~~lrJU {b~ 'i:I'al!I' M 4' .Jli"hd. M.!i"~ ~lltlU "'.'" 1Of .. ~ .. ...:l,I,6o;;t MfiF~ ;, "r<11ii,"~ ••

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J~~ .tnrM~-IIIJ (llll~ 11m .iiIfillitiIJftm#J;u "tfl't;./~ '/ifhrJ .~~ i'i'y. (w ~t f!ilJl! .g;~/Mi!"#JJ.WJ(Ii!J'ftJi,n1}~n.UfJ_wrnr..'fu''''llhWIJig·M_~~¥hfp.ll~'P~ fiiH,U\Il~H~ J}II~,~wUdirp~ .m:1~~~1jil w4fi1. W1i~, ~rrIl.f«J ~Ippil'lti m~1tjf1n"li(illffrW!lfi, 1~ «1,!!'j!!'l!iI{;!IilitJh~1 f/'4H, wH~ at~61!Jt ~~/_. ~Iir'_" ~m"l;"__~~-dm~o/dI.liI~ .f!I~~~~ir~~.",,~·F~,,~'w,g~Ji!diu. ~""iJrl\"*,~'WI!ll'~'R6' ~ __ !iU~'.~'~"""'~~N_hf, .. ¢i~ __ ,~J~

t&.'iftk~-I1fq._~~~JJI~~~~WMr!"~.i'''tH~· ~t.y:I!'.t't~.lloit~~i.:o I!lWir.SfllCl~ft~ii!!a! _"l'ft~($'f.O'Jfil'~IJ!,.i!llI~,~.l~ (IM'h~iri"',~~,rQ~/&""~,,,,~~opf'.~.,"~ .... fI1r~ f~~ ~"~~f ilfUlV'3l/AirI411of,tJifti "'fftW, ... .,.",,~" 1r.<IUpe<t<t!,..r.I!FeilJ.kt.J,t."," ~f~t'/flli{r, tWW!IIfM tJBi1'i&[~'q"·&r"$ ~rW~~#f'~!f' MlI'~tTl' ~~fI·p,.~fr-

BIJ,I)i!~ lilli~""!i~~ ~~ ~, n!!i~f. Th., "\;:J._ ...... ~g!" .. rFlLfg~"".&!;~ f,." ~l~, prtlf~. ItmillJjml'!to!:~(!!}\,b.liI<""<\fuoo ~mcl. """01 •• " {1 .... ,,~~~ ~ill.h~bo~k !:ll::il~ wllllllu~ ~L>l:qu~ti!.tiolL ~~, Th"u~ 6J ]L~! ocl1». !lila ~",;;JL fa-nit. ~I'f~ Ildd.ll th~ ~!rU~I!I~nl ~UI'I~~1~!:I~'}

['I~_'fr.r, ~ ~~~n Ilo~) ~l'8]JmMrllOill ~~bt~.

IOn It~~ ~~th ~f AI.~~31 ~,_ ~ ~~mg~ for gaJt~~!ii!\i~ prof~~ ~!\Ilhj~~. <IIl11e~J1 ~i1JI!8'~I~lh.,~,*,,<!:f!lI'l~-i""'l_, ... nmun~'

!~'i,j!fi'~(,IIi!i~!foj" i~tB~ifafl: !i'rnil'iJD1n' 11l;i<JUif 1" ~~rD~~ipfijit~, "1fI1~pJJ.r:!~ ~~~'m""t~pi,;~{Bii!!!.EU"#mtAi":ftR,rf!i:J"JW~W,Pr(fih;

~~~il'lih"lilm',!I'II'r[rC'I!M~ &P_JH~~,.~!'t.I~I!,!j~J;a'!!!_fJ,P,~'.JJmtfr!f~' 1'j'yvno;t;r#il.m/ff';fWil orJ'~wr.

~®""'jliincG! tt;-c~iltoglrn" i'C!.= 'N(!:t-..mill~J1.~ br,~tn,g'll'~ ~.,fI)"hll. i'!(lil.,i'yu, BIIn~,l!~t~!'I ~lJI1ign w mi.ii~a B~~gceB~inymITpWru'e.

J ~cn llli~fC~ .~~ a~I)D:dllnm'e ~""",,,,tdlr Fa~~~:n;mR~ ~S]l'liIiil~lttlgfi. 'JiIo~~ W'i1!I!OOJ\ im:· -J!ll~l!il:; fun~t: ~l!"~I1I, :like R~p!CP;" m~~m! ~~Jnd mtl !&i m,1I ~~ ,II" 'fWf!II,C!lI'g,~ 1'ilJ!~r!~i~

i Citflll:!e:Wi'iIIIl\ll- Ma}'I&rl,glu,a~ ~~i~m.o)dl'ftlllr'e:cJn1dQU9 !lepJli'dill'l ~1~~~~~N~i~I!i.& FlI~~!k gdliij~~ wilh itngQ',dem~[[d~ ~I) llIlmo~ thls, lniI~prognn~ iIJlpll~~1L9l1l'rom du:lr'l:\i:lc~~~~, !J;!U'I~,:on, r d~!lhm_bgw!ll.n:,lMygW!l$;~O ~IJ~~~ ~h!)I"tli1'lQ Q~ ,li'l~ Rl'I1kc. '\I! ~,emJ1m~n'i~oon p1A!Il6ilrmll7~~~bo.llb~, 1llC,gII'~liiifg. SJjj~l'"liflpmJ~kI W

Bef KYbe:l'netllk>er iNoliber,J: ~l:lener, del' wahtsmt des ~W"elteIl Welltknegs an de:l!wrdisrsten H1gh-Tecft"¥mnt gij'Stande:n WlfJl. si'tllhll<'l(;::n KlxIeg,s.e:ndB ~nI:Jlcll. van aIls!:! milttfuiisch~lQtd!erlen IFtm~lJlIgsf),ro~eli(teI'll d~stall~ert haM, 'twfls:t~tll3l'~ 1950 eJnegmnO!!eg>W1@~m~g if:! del' L:omk des EmniiD~_ ]rrnner MEid,er W:mimt\ e;:r In semem ~u~h Me!:l"h unrl! Me<fi~c1'mJaSC'11lme ctararuf su spWmwn. d.<ltB ~~ ~dlson~ gr@nl9:rBtfm~, namich de:m »m.diul$l.e11e(rlJ I\Hi00h1.il1lg;sWbofcate~i!lm, V!,[~lclws E(,fm· dooge:rt gewe~bSllliiBl9 ber..vor!b.mgtf~. das ~rt1n.dlen ilIcih1i: Imf!ll:t dassellbe :set Irnsbescmderedbe UllilFor&cttoogEpol1tlk wMirend des Zwe:llt.en W~1tki:1eg5 hwe das Ge.s.(')illcik des ~,",l'l Handwe:rhersi duwn dIe· syStematlst:::ha Sucll.e gom~T :AIDtei!urnQ'Sfl wn 1h9llni.EJ1UINl ersetd W·~fld deFBrnnd!2~ aJreilli Il';yps ~ ftirr emen e:~ellfien ~et1iUnr!lsn lilabe. eI<ffiro;i»I1l diegro:Bsl:l JrnclusU:1e-toos gle:Lcft ganm Massen von I:~>lJJlgen, dle me1St erst m.al nrn: em. >lFalwme1tn iffu e:ihe:fi [patel'l~lReC'hlSstl'eit« selen. VIlMtrend iElrtlndil,l!'l9ie:lllfr.ffi1I.M aum e:iI'I.e:r UIlIWlIIromroomm ®lmlIils des Cieg'ffi"lStands. 9\rlliitd.eten, gl'tinde dEW mduSWLelle El1fuden aut eI!i'Ie'lf Kombirli,uo:vlk vollilMndlg be,kamte~ Elem.eli1te lind GeselZe tmd dfu"Je dairLll'liteig'ffi'IJtllch n1~ht mebir »et'iftndlem~ hernen.!E~ .s:eI tlle.s elne rom. cllIe >l<llil WkU,ti'l9'iSVOlISl.en be~ Cler Eflt!Mcklung bemts am. Tagre l1egencle~ Idee.l'I [fi..m!tl~:n1e:t!t] mid am scl\lechl'eSte:l1J. JUfi.t:l! 'U!I1'Wirtsllila:fl1ieliiSlelii b.el neuen ldlee:n.{~

Melri~ sehllel1m 'lihe.se 1St, daB me ~:vflhe G.~liIte des €ompu~sple1ls vo:m alte:n Hru"liiwe:t')M{l"ii"yp des_Ettll:ide:rs ~r.:tl~t 1st IIl!l'ld !1::[is:! '"gFg;]e:iQ~i~!1::spat - \!ililir·scli.e:i1iliclii. Ifltit O!.!1::F Stanrr;ljardi·· .siernng l!litl.d li/gmreinmg 1lOTh "E1Gs Itt die :2XVeile Phase iilire:rg:eliJl rm Fal~:rn:d.e-I1L s!!I1l es deher, rum die m.eilntl'ache Kl'fu'Idlurng lrnfi P<!iN!3 (od:e~ 'l'ernnissplelent) gehen - rtlcht ooetZ'l d.eshalb; weU. dl:e ~esJm:lsc1it-handVtle!l'k1lcM ~nsn:u"'tlollletnes S!*el.s. ~lmd s~~ ~ s,iI)d m~[e ~~tifrsp:r.tm@el! Z\l! :beGbacJ:n.teTt~ aMel1l. iIl~C'l'i mch!t V'lEI~ ijbe~ o_asC'QffiI'!:U!:e;rsme!eo a~ I(pi!1W~k Q(1l:ep ube:r:

QQlIi!JP!l1~riID~J,le: ;iI:;; I),(eciium awss<rnit ~[ MrlIImm~ dm: 1\ItafMtde van 0t!lmput-f!Jr.$p'~JAm ImarrMIllr.!; ~er ZlUyJ.eioo aI](;(h dlln HOtu~punk:t der F~onaiI!·€mliliFlufuiig-Bo:we~ng. Aillli die:rern ~rurud wttd! anSChfillB.E:ufi! Zl,] ]l'agE!:n: ~1ili1" WamL undwarnm man g~atibte. daGW!ifi nllirniSil\he Gcmi!iPUl:eF Maucneil und was dlese :lfril.il: 5pielen zu 1tI:m n~en_

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I!lle from (3e1:;tili:tl:(;::l:Its hUWeI:lid!e~ »Ba]le~1 list oot erlOrscht Ziil it'f gefiON die B(;)wdng 13al!Hlerno au! dam Wh~fo]wjru:H,'tachMf:, del' ma.pld~he lntetakl10tl ttl E¢ht~it efo~te, wefl S!l' ell£! !ID9'~" bell .d'Ss: U~ Ube~ atnen mterm,mt'm L:aw~il aihl[age-n1ood ijlU CleF gr,aphlscl:ten l!)a!I.'sI'eifutt.QI am emem Radar,hlId~. \reF· Imilpfen ki:lnnlle, lltl 1m ~l1Ifu':~ w,liIlliI.am: Hlgmbofhan'l!! »T~. fo'I:' TIWi;I« ~eh~lIs.eltI. DeliIllEI). da!i!~: f'lu,gba1men auf. em.em0siU!IOSD~ em. af'LMoges B:I1dwltl.finltltemlls macJ:JtQ.!llD(!I aI Ih~ geho:r,i: auclliene Lic'lltettl!.stte arli Q;ID.eDl WM 700e, dJe ems Ail'iI ei[l~sionales !J'eoo~ssp1eJ! mn Kon~p$lwll il!i!JIl~~mren1J.eIils. M1~ @!i!ese.m le:Izt:€!!'I. Bej~iel befulden :M!!> W'i!S!Il1ID in dJE:fi Ha.cket.k:u]Jtut de:r il500:1:: Jahre. In det die Gesmuehte begtl!rolten St'lll:.

UllI1fi<I:fI. Dialn by' om eJectIQ[i!I~ Cli~ !1lGl'rllP'W,tel'.{{

In d.en 60er aarrWI'll 'S(01ho[J I~ mOll1mas et·was ande.rll' N~ben dem ~tl)mat1sleiVungs-MamSJiT~am entstand die ailt€{[\na.W.e V_ors~lllJng elne~ parrtne:rs@<illllcl1QnZ!l~gnfl[ib!1::il VOFJ. Mens.sh und Mruleohirle, iII d:e~ de', Mensch I'IiWrt efs~i<tl, sondem wm det, .Mascl'ime itltItelistftltzt vtlrd. bl der mnterakfl!on IWlnne - so dte Syrnbiose- illiI.d ~..Emellitlemmgs-.mieolli'leli'l ;v~n Joseph IElcokl!l.der odel' liMlUgfJ.aS ~gefuwt - der Meru;eh RrwtillQr de!:1!koo und sioo computevllfIilerstm:zt zu unQ"e.liti'm1en HOhenftitlgen 8ms~l'ilwirlge11l. a~e Pert0~ [)ostrn.odemne~ GeseJ~sdhafiten (mn mit L1flThtard eu :mreefl!:m)e~t S'fm :In der koilkreten ~i"'man[!:e 0!.W1. sdl.!m Me[lsen lIDItl Mascrun.e-, Ii)Ml'Ill:t. 1lI'.erhunrden t6t ma:h1i: IMf die GIlls:ta1:tJ.itjg lillI1lli:re,ter mJl.e[:faces. an denenrnese Patfilerwflait IstJ'lltttm-l1let lIDO. die me· medl.e['j~che !M:El.gl1cnkeltSbedimQW'l,Q" 0:E:~~la!i"dschel'l Sp'm~p1ele dars1ei~e[l, smae:m ,UI1Ci)f:! di~ EValootlan >tiel\~e.derulte:r .1.I:uI:_eru, om denen :&J.e'sich s~e1il so.lt Bs .ist die PrJ.8.!le· der (,we-rm .man 00 will) »2lMlJsiemng« Qfi Becme",~,gjher,neuen.SilmgebYJ'l!l,1nder~ef"<!I[\beJI)u[lgeI11!FtrngbUCfll,l!oo~~*me. ~·ElIT9'aJil'Ime o.der elek.tt:onlsGhe iMuSik Thre GmnZl;in und Magilk:'JiiJ:!.eitetJ. (eV!3ilitl1~l'I.

~ dlissa~ ~t e:nschie[l - 'Und! darru.t ~1'I1Iit1!e 1Gh am Spa~ zurt'iclti - der Ha.C'M~ Eli!' ep~l!!.h1en mt den Gr~ dess.en, was Ql1JO'iiubt limtlJ uneIi!alIDt. .s'Jtmi.rbU llti!l'1 Sh'Ilo:s. stM,tb,,~ tm.d unsicJ;rt:tJ01I!IT SElin sGlI~te; urn ge:rnau dlese tire:nzen. IliU e>:;pkl~!.erren Ufld imme~ ams Neue zu prob1:e:matlSiere:n uncll zlIlv:el'sc1:ilteben. Ilh!'l' Ha.elrei': war wedie. eIrI genftgsame. lil3e~f-« {em'!3 ~tego:rne. die ja g~m.de erst eilifil:mdien Wtrrde).iIloc-hW<I1i enmbedliilJ em,gle· st:::hwts~ 'TecnrWke1i Qd!eil'~~etE:r. Iller Har('jke.~ w.arvte1meh~ f~peoo!lpsgElganUbQI: ti:enwillkililic:ben vors:c.ru.llte:n von IPrn- 9i[ammm, Sy,mm'VEI\!'1l.'J\at~ lIItiet NlatMmgslmrntexlerl. lllle· ~tornmt rue sem.!1:: B1iIllreJ.e"1en legmnnle"!1le lmd beQlte'11Izte, W"ar [I1.U @ ki!lI'Iikrete ~ sellist, .ed.:e Mate~.lalliflt VOR GertiJten lJllgli lliI~en hejj;:~@:mreru;e:rLl

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;l3a~ ... ~ ~I aMI.,e j~gefe .I3Jl1stme1] g~haMe 'IMl'ltier udier IKtleg;s. g:e:t!:~n1!tl@ an, 11'I;()ch kmlJI er <lI1!LS <ti!S!iUl. TJrie~1tl! ~er Fe:t:lTIm,lll:d~ ltecl\rult Wi'e'lJrnIem war i!!f ktl~ er3tE SWdleli!.tel11igefUilF,a,1i!on gB' ~arefl, die Z~<W9' ~lli GMi:Mtem aati.l:!, ldIe lOle 1fil.'CtJ:t ~ ~I:lli!l.t Wlns~f,! hat1OO:t,w!illt:l!~m aI3 WUser« bn MUJ"timm. Sirm@ b~!1U~ tllu~en, 5'~ (halts 1BuWl:l~U WI deE iffi'IiversJitll Of Uhm ijj~ lll'ama e.. EVBll!S una [vanSli1t'hef~:d :sfudl.eft. den Grtl:fidem:L de~!8"ans &:

SutllElr:landi €o:mplll~'I' OOrpoorarl:lon !in.5iailt Il.ake City, lIM tllmen d:e~ e:me eiflPiGalIal' 1m E~'r.oorl:h 'i,iilZirl ~mptiterg,r:a!!1li:: ll:lLti !'[!,ime!iharlrntJI, dell aIlIdew 1m l3e-wlC'h. ds~ ~iPfIitsclileIli rm.te:liface'S Wall.

Fll:.!S'l~n.ijll D!ie _ ~tuCl~Htl>PaeewaJ!iges~eItUln.ij tlOlcb clem S,~WiI'I bago~ IiI1I semrJ!i .P:reeU ,e'.iiIiJ.9 ~a['Zlel~e:n NOl!sh:· lI!Iaul~er~eltoo. del' ~Qfl mli!B1~mi(llg g:ekit1eI1l~ WOUi dl:!~ Iml1lUlflti geLemli h~ Wl.l$ es hedleli.lJ~e~, Splelelhe~llb:n, dl~ mc:n~ mefi.'li liIlI Bfi~n'~ ~o.:mlle[:I:'I.InFiliugildllm.; ~. odii:1i ~leEalo:JlI.S _ s,P-Ielen dld. Ji!I.Ml, Billl1m.eM 51Gb. ,(lam! 1m Mall!9J2 00l1!~~ ~r1!ml~I!!;i;~e.:,e1I'. ~,Gm.te.b1!lOlii. ,emer ~.en. td~l\ a~r Gdys~ ~. ll.eit"m ~dmll::n[l :v.erse.1IIldelilJel fidel'l :wsamlt'ml,.dem:l k.awn einu MOliI.I3.iI: ~I.I:!{I! ~e .:A!1;mI rgepndet. m:e~ ClOui dW S<Jdtr~, M. dan., Hl:ll5belll~ r-emuS@1lel ~:OCh ~;d £I~, dl~a'I aner: am dle:r iaa:S!s ;veo GQmpuLW· tl"ll'l~1tS.eiill ~ena~ I!Q.NG i$l;ikeme~amliilIMlWIg wn oma!,O· 9e'!:l T~$'lbUilg~:rlIamt~oren. oon.aiem em digitailleT ReeJmer - Gel: ~ a,u~ gut.e.m Grun.iill. Nllll' *d!lIDtal~ MmChlnen.5!liL!Cti k~J:I e:r il"I1.U'IlM~$'ltm'de z!i1:1il!e.n, die' "l'I!'1edeEmlrn sinId! (trrnl1g', dffi'lllt ~a!;l p~ I'!l&N ~w19 da\J.ert. iSonder:n del" Ill~* Spl!l::l·Kmtd.e ~.etrI.e MU.~ ~ir!iW~ 1'Il'UIl' Was ili!effiall:SkWruitt, 1St al$Q em Emli!!pIJJ~:e~. doer, !:Its nUtmd ~OJ ,a1!,l:SSI,eht, als. set er. etrv VkiRQ~l.eJ!1 .Il:iem ~~'01'iIJ!~. ~o1JI~ffi\M BUclol mag Gllru; eQ"oo sam, deIll ~roOtla:~'hei:i ~~!;I, lDe~ mtmooemaene !OOlg,rnjl Gem FlrHr~(1i MS ~pte!~ k(lns_gl~ ~ WOg2llmme[: ,eoobe.rle, .bedem:eleilit~mgWall$i~!iU;'!i!,g, ldile ~,C'bfi.SQlt'OO b.emerkit wlilMelm.dYa~ lii.icliI!tm[d~!f!lti.ogfel Deg ,deil' t'O:m~lJu:e;r 151' _eg:05Senm'fe:rscrue:d~nfJ:imu;ges PJMI:1"h ood. ,.w eiJJI:e Ie.~ (@I!l.OIll hemmlliteR: das :Sj)lslcllllf,cm PmJGund .lW~ilIooh ~eF ,amuIl.e!l'e1:: Sjp-le:Ife. Un.tI: ,~i;p ~ slC'li/ m~1il,t als G'00Tl91.t1.'i3r' ~ iJikefil1le:m 5mI.dem ,erwh-emf all!: ~JJ ~1tt~~Yi{i;~!els. lille, FrrmtkJurJe(l'1 ~u.ilg ~ stieo1t~ ~ gMitili,OOlI ~It »JlWUU'l~agpr.]e<c'. d!1iI. d1.e:ve~;dk\!Jn..g dWJi ~~. lI:o:mmlllel, d~I~,

oom!t W'id wll!': smdi. :WIg¢l.er dlort alflgel_W. vm vm eDen <liI::Ige. ~wem sltld: beoo t'acIrffio:Ptlliliiscl1.en ~mg:l'aIiI'OO, tI~r H'~.

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;ZlJIlfi Ha~l'-Fw9'iF.InIm rg,@Qrtei cUe Ui~e[;i'l~g, :clilW del' IlJ's.er FV3lhe!t nUl' d.o:lll;~d_ WIDef mie1t. d,n. seU~tt. IOro~rwl1L· mter-t; stoaur:l1Gmcl:an Promamm.ern .zu [ol.ge:n:, ®a!ID~ gam-en dI~ r:If.!1Iw,!tI~mtu:lgeI!ll Wid Vel7W"endW'IQs[I der .Hac'lo:.e, m l3,eiSf)!fl<J. lOer €!fij~~ldendil ro;ok IJ.eQl! ledO€h. ru.e.Jn.t bei Bllie~"ht. ~d.efiiilen tlAt~W'· ~m:s fiir SlWitlomSllJn, oo~dern .1lliIl B'e~ Hes ~1Me-d11)1m~, ~!i!,a:e I:tew ~er .~ wh:d dle.~ Be.cDer. VOJiI Cier G.elil~ramrn deli Haake:!! :Ili1clM, .m:eliWafi; }}melMlf!lIJilW'nije~~,,¥l[)~g~(v od:e:v .r,leSlije'(l ~t'Oli :b~, ~m .ais·Me&u.m.: 'GaJlI1. e~e~e.'I~ellcli IS! dabe~ ~e l~kiti1Ire d:eIi :St:1:iU!W'e:IiL~ban ~~~~AU.e:tdihltSSlollie:manmt!.d1tllmte~sc.oomen".danM'cLQ~ ~o.~e,tiJes~ ~lbs:l: ~ ~ llo~Nahm ~er lWbem'lllk !.mid tm ~Q1i!'I_~ p:<lollWleL I~. ~M~~i.h ia![til!1~b.NMlOO1il:'~'Rl~~iltUme$Ii1i!J@'d~!ill!llldile1i~~ MCL~ ~e:n~emeHJ:ic~.e iM.ia:priSe IdJ.EiS Gi)rrmll~~~blt~-m wl!rd :von ~te \Q'BL~$elil, iJe Wsacliili.d:l mil COmputem. n tJim bail!aIHI:md elMe d.ai'lel: !Ili1.ffi'iren, daB s1e es daibe1. ~dJ nMt .~~ m

aii:leki;lrnm1lIlfkalldV'e WId zu,glelcli1, SO~L! ReivoLution, ,auslosEffi, IDOIIte.niitu;lmagu!rlg 9'ii!li~ als Glle'l'illlllla-:m'!>tI'1.W.enl ~~[1 Billtjl!tt:atle UIId z.e~mt.I.S, undes war Fe!lSem.1eill. Mi' die ~. mtd Software :rur das ernte jjlientllr:l1ie lInd fie:liel3I3S {S,ulil§,fifl e~oad" cast System) entW8!!'f. 'li.Iocb. die Sache sf)lUe nl:l~ W.wte'f gsD!!1'l. f!fnte:E: Mini! Scl'daQIWQIftj],E0l'Wwte:r POW'er, 11:'0 lliepeQpieiOC fordiel!te li!'f Deililnlra]jsieJ1llfm und! mthahhQulreit mm Ko:t'l:l.e".llIen, I!lldl:u:tg undl n,e:u.e KO'mmwlikaliio1l!i!mQgIH~fhjk~n. frei.E! ll:'Ilfo,matiOlilm'ld {lli\e"kte l!lemokraOO: ~lwe dldI](t EIa~ many tmiigs l101J ·ta!kekrr 91r<mtedi today; but we dld hav~ ? feE:Img ol exruemenl and a.d~en~ A, teeWri.g fillat _ were the !PlmneeIs 'in a nev!J er.a! tn whlclt small CQ:mpute:rs would freijJlWel'YQnef.mm much. of Ute dmdgery; at everyday we, ,A, fee-lffig lliat 'we WeIie :S~fl3Uy ta~ cQntro] o~ir1Jo[:m.ail:l()li't and l,lQwt::1" te<UQIiJ.iI1iL~ 1:;WOM'cil1lQ.. I1¥tM iFQmn~ !;)!OO ovm.ers [,' .]. A iool!lng 11I1It the wo[:]d l.!'i!'Oill.d I'Leverr be the sanse Ol1lce moliby ()omputer:s~ mal':~ CBUg:fntOIt{{ Die erntsd'u'Ij(j.E!n.de, ~se",maBet! Irata!l'ltiJ;;chlil W~nQiW1lg fuekQmmtWeoos PI'oJleltt. :ntm slIlMicltt umi eUr!fut;]h daW;n,'1IlID, daB· aVich FelSenlste:in 197.3 Clen F'emsE:blli~ eIllldeJl]k:t tElld wit mMm.e:t:n una daIB die:! gelll'lJ1l die~ Moment wm: Iiri clem sic'bv €'Idlj\llSr/lY U1ll.d f1l0NG ala SWl~le an den; Felinsehe:r oo~C'blruse£l hJ!iJtl~n N~.i< daB F'ejsensleln weder eittE£I 'milit~chen ntilcn em.en k.oIllmef,Zlelil.enHl!nte~:runt1 hat, iSQIla!elID elIl.en me.d1enpoThtlsclVmeailenpaliiaoomst;]l:1;a[l, »'H1e prtiIIllise of ~mvet:tI1i.g the media{, of eontmlllitg me C1ISplJary of onas' ~ ilV: set, :espe.C::ia1l~' I:limugh a "lac:md-()ow te€hnolog)( lII.lw dllJItaiI oom(l1JJter emromcs ntwaJ. hard to res:~st.(~ (lfoo W.iIrr bemeJIken. d;ill iNer sellir, gellJOlu ;::wi-~ DISW!lay: ill'I~EIl.giJta!.em c'o:mpul'er IIl!l1terscliieden wID'I.~ Bel'it'e:rnseher moote.: dank: seme~ m1ll1o:ne:l'ifacl'len Wt:h~g I1Uf Ill,Och cmpr,IV.atleReei:meI; ~m1grescWoosem werd~A, urn de~ WOlPle e1liter' lMn:mleltIIm, mwdlg,en 00(1 e.ompll'WrtiteI<\tm G:e1OelJse<haft :rum l1.Iurcili!brucFt eu verflel:fe.:n,o,am, rnOOren iElbe~ dle 'Ilg~~ten PTedtiktlonSJini.tte-,l«, Will! Hans-'Magrtlls EIuefiS'bero.u !ilS 19't~ M1mte (d,lh_ edySse'i:, ~ONG 1]5\i'Il,) dl!lIT:'n, nsehrnu.tilge« (d,h. >ec'bJ:e,t GlOmpulWi) e.uoetzl! wtmien. die W'ieaJe.rum. ru.chl l:ni e,me[:vofi. Cle" Ind.ll.!SMe~1~d!el'ren i~l3.aE!Ielei(o( emfj!1l[l dW:tl:en, frondern sicl:t aus der woonmtlmty( he:ral.ls ,enlwle!kel!rl! fuIliiJ;Ilerl.

me B.e.I!$P~le :[lirld .bU<WIt, wie etwa,d@:!:tm ff.awru: 1,97'5 1II',er~ffellt" lrimht!:i P{!I:aJi: Re.C'lmer, dessen Vb1'stejillmg In 'PCipuhu EleCl:ronl(')s mL~ d.en Wofte:l"l. bEgillrItIJt~"rhe era of tl1te compU!t~~ m e\!\ery home r,· e]1 'ms arr.1ve0!r{{ Bt war \\'if(')l1i~er~t nicitit <ffi den Ee:m$Sl1ilf aIlLscWlelThar. ~ als (Jet: 1m Feibm,l)a!i !9ll'CI l!1ol'gestel:lte SolRecMers, vot! Il.e€l F'e.~e:ru>:~ln Imd HObelil Mar5l1i. Ei'et !SO,] lIe!p Irgetildwo zwjsc"il:Je[l d.~l ffi:mte;DElIJ!IDutel' und Fe dee 198tJer. en lwmp~re:J ~fimse mlt. :1iel:n!j¥Jmil!;ullimentamamr,'ri'Im glMl@M" Zoe ~flr E[i_itwung:5ik~. @;n, I3MTc:.h'lM~liP~r. eJn C.B!S~ettenrecmd~r ~mSpe:lii!lhem undi.der, MsEihillfllB M dien Fer.tI$eher, 13m elliLer :p~w:tmath'on (les SQl' It!i cle:t: ~!1ll:!5l\Ow 'hImorrow 'W1Ji:den lbWle:ichnendelWe!se ,liwe:l. MWel:ldlJ!mg,en g~g;t: elil Sple~ ~s !I;al'!J';e~ ood ~ine !Fe:octverwi)€liWl;lg nam.en::t~c iProleJill, 11Jim'l ~eitzl nat1li:1icfl de. APJile. Imrge.s;t-eUt!l!nit JriL!!I:! lQi76! Wla mr, ·.$i566.fi6 als: J3:<rusatz 13'I"hIiU:l1cl't V'lnedoa~. V01il :!;;WE::i HaiclreVI'I fret. g:esl)€lUt, dieoon.AllJjejl:g&lbel' j!!(,taJ)j IIDiLd ,Hraw~.e:tl' PaGka!l'd! ke1ne(lll. Simi. irlpmr~oon €_utem ~afien. WifamU ~ht abel' selloIii. dJ:e m~plglemis~lil.e Plltaaet{ d~ Rersmtail €.orn.p:uttfig Z,U Erilde Man m1ll3 Qewis" sw;maBel'l, Was lJl<I1fl ~a. Zl1 HalllSe Flat :und hat es 10'1. zu.gle1dh '8!']:oh SC'b()li't amclielfn .Pir-be:llSpletz, m~ iiiealeglek[;J,ibischen HoHtruJtme.n de~ PC~.l3eweQ1.l_n{l, Wle z,B. »tl:i;at te~1trt!]J.o9¥ VlOmd! Eillow [,.. ,] flU1llamloy to !1lScape history. ~o tlse alJove its OOr,"iWtiQfiS Of pove:r.l'!J. toomarure. scarcjl¥. and! llnj~()e{< odlil~ d:aB fie:!:' Fe

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A disabjll~ty ~s Ollr condition or Jimmion jiudgedl to be :s!igniifioan~ly imp~.i'fed relatirve to the uS!lJal~ The term is often used to refer to ~ndivkhJ!al funotion~ngl, ~ncll:ldll'llg physicai impaTm1€!nt, senso:ry ~01pairment,.oognirtive limp:airmelil~. intellectualll impairment Thayawe waiUng for your donations'r

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!JJ..fiyd1sCUsSion of so.f:twam a£ m re~ oonslil.matliool of the wilOls creative process ImIGlved ~ dE!~QI MId !I'lr~duC1rig 'ii;, wtl:lJ>IIi J.ea(i.s to i!Ii new appKtaciWia al'1er.l.itirllIlI,m tltQ d~~aJcl!Omam, ~ <IJ~tI.on li:.er.e .l.StoOtlSM en SOlID'Je oMe§ [~~ md ltil! f90.i. llilit:mg wofild! oJ alIgetira,ar.dl a!Jgonttirn&. ~at wo~l~ ow Ib.e seen m m.anll~:ressiCins 00' torm which er.e d~e.sen be relbm1ul.ated anJli \pro~:b.u;e 'rne'~g"

Som~e Qodil!ls, er rn1l"MF aJg~$ il'Ill~ at~IJ[a,.are the- w,Q]~ Of~, 4l,gltalsra:@amffiilm 8i.emode:r:n age w1r'tlt o·"er: <I. thous.a!Ild ~5 Of martMmaltiR'l thecmss beh:tnd ilimJill[21 WIlly!w: IJille mo[e than· a qu~ of a @en~ have th~ a~~ ss software! Sa.ft:ware ~, a m~ ~. iI\1ruWg .aft. <md commuirt!lilaoog; It lis OJ. metallterafuw whidil. derme.s ft(')w m~1 C'art be 0ar:.iedl and we)p!l'oocwed by mult1pl~ the [I,<JsslblliIIi1es 01' oomm:m:'i!icatl..on. ~l:ISrM eOf~ 110 a meW1lS 01, metacomm\llIl:lcatiitim. ~ it Rp;rese-I1t~ a. \paLQ]e·, (to qlXt:lW 8alJ!l:§ur:e}. d~mrmQl ·~ts eXe'liliJlIon ft:wn a "Iaruwet. te, the !ilrmlm.a'ttiaa1 and run.~ illil1vefEl~ of the (:ltl.de.

'~ ref9rence to 'the m~lcal, is wthe parnt itI13'N: :a1tli:e,ugfi n'LE!.lW se.e the rmume ~ode Slsmemly an obscure Cll'YflJ~, it has ani lELillrm iSffe.ct Qf!'~ ~y we ""onmtUnlt'ait~ arui~1li IDGII!l Qll[ tfu:! e:HiJ.Glen.~ Wjlhwhic'l'i we dO so.:

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It trng:l:it seem that m.i~ no.tim CD~~ ~s 10 ~al pee:tif¥ can <mill{ be oowrechate:ti by rtilos.e, wllth specific IteChh:l.t"<il kn.owledge b'Iilt·ffc!3 liS ]l[Qt true ail a!U_1Fh!ls Was, in ml!ll:, pffiil!js€lllJ ·one of me a~rn(rt:s made by tim [ LGVE Y(i)J!r~~I1. te; itO 'explore tliLe fQo.o:ttencneg~ecteaJ sides o~'a "d!lglThj boheme". 'llNs IhM, s'I1m.eed· ed m 'making the ne-t we ~!ud toflay'more o~lc!by devising new WiiliYS fM mr~m;t to (llI't.u1a.rteL!ifi it !IDd an aes~ ~ the N:UI:! Seinl!ili!! o~ tfie 'feml. wfdi$! i!1.a!S denpe'IW.eateti so-ciiillel:i net;mt.

e.t'lBOS

"Tohe l!a$1: p.~$.i:bl.l;! r(fued ~5 Itl'l:m wFdrdh, aefi:n:es pe:t~eiPti(Wl. IDlelf, an ,1m.lElMe gokien r'Oo<td 1i:h.at(;)OI!~UI~ iLlS: liIle,gca!l dmlCIDg In ittte QGI<tlttlmll!~ ~omcl!om. (f'l were to R:1iss l{Ql!l h~ tH.Q:i'd! mill U an a!\it IiIf wr.rQ~!sm··so iliet'S take our ptstc:ls 10 ~eaJ &l wake up the. rillty; at! mld!illOh~ Hke tiI'!Unwm bancl!il~ ¢el.e.bm&!!1 wIth a ifuslMade, me mfi$ageoi ~e-tas~ of (:!haeg,.

Hak,lmBey:

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fust as m ~sm dWllimls· ttself ~t the dlseaaeswhlel'ii Inred!; it. Si!I t!h.e lile:tt haTs reas:tedi M prodwW1M anflbriJlil:ets att~ lI:b.e l'JlWJ; fmm S~a1lypH' pf d,~d:lve so:ft.~ elM panlOOaJi qweill1' -vinf::: spreamiln$l irOOenUy Js WOJiffl.S" wNGh has dQ1le se.l'1aI· t1.t:lmM.Iy:Itllrou~l't e,iliLalI1,pmgmmmes'<l!IlQ r;1!ata s.enr~rs_ ~e ~a~e m~I!ittf[E:il'S are.5l:lli blllsy: rtl<VIrl91 to :lmprove t:he salety, of; ithe:1I7 products w1lk:.1:L. ll1i our Gaa~ m~ the ,privacy of OUV ooommmicati:ons.

P[I];lWally $'li!.e~g, we eee that Ute reasi:l.on [fom rn~ WliO:s w(:l.ter5, :who ean 'be· 'i.denOO.ecli it:I11I the net as ~vinga. pmf\il1IDQ lmowl13d{W Gf th~ elem~nts thal m.liIke up' llig: net limelil'. has ib@Jl ~gbt abollit- pfeclse~y !ba~se (ill the CliIrpor,at,e, marropa'M:stl.(j awtoaGh af 'f:l~ ~. on the maI!I!.e't wh.o are dre~ ~ tumitr~ tlre net InW a Vl'i'iWal.shoP!Pl:t(g mD fgr, their own f0~m91 dl l:ulme'Ss,W1]l'i (LoG) rem~Cit for the hO.m<ln'talnamre of th.e C;I~ wllio IIv.e o!Il1t ~ f:ar~ we haYs: hatt eMie$ a'ttenruP,t5 ilOhempe:r ffiJe sv!:!elli at' Which mror.rtlatl~n~alit clre~a,tie, rangJifig from (;),e:nso~· ~ 'k! (')oPllf.:lgfn reStrnctlOJl.!S: ~51

"Slri.'Oe the eat:llliesr ,dali5 01\ illite pe.-rmnal compute.t:, ~hf~@~Iil~ was lSeea as a vel1Je:le to res.tote dtsappeElIDlng· PM.~ spaces.l!.ee Feleenate.in,OO'I.e Of ,the tOUlfld.eu, ,Of the PI\I~slilnal d~:mptl!ter,. ,ad.~1I::tJ'!d 'USing fl't!Is new tna.l to remere an mfo~rnat1Go COJmlloms (We:lsenstWi.). Fe~Jmteln ami! IIIIan¥of Ns feliQw persona]. oomputmg plo'Illeers env'OOen.eta that t:l1e Tnter,n.er GO]j!ld pmvlde alla:S~ l'Iufll1a spaoe lliat Mmultl .reti1ern d1ive~se dntem.m iiIi1ldJ enoou~ag,e free·spErec<h and ereafiv:lty;

iFo~ mapy: yean; popillar dJ.s:OtlIUBQ f:r~ ~ rn.t'e1'l.'1let! .M <II dli;iie(sl!I fale speel(ll't Zlme where 'myme can beacfea.tQ:~·, But m the early ~s Of me Wo[i]d!Wdrde WelD, pUbll:lll ~I!as 'Of the In'tte':r· om became ~asmgly _ed·on. fin. 19,Q41tN5 a1lrtlit'(')~ warned ru the "cali:lrljltlng effect" that xlC}:m:m.er'Clal mte:re.m lW1:1IUW [lave on the iilullllc ~t)e th.at ili~ IfIJwrne"l: itlten mpreaent>ed (BesElel' 1!~!J4~, A.:lriL'd Ih <1996 he dl£qusse£i bow ~onm:N. hy,; i~ itldtl,$W:I.~ Mlillmd superoedis the '~IJ~lic benefit W di~r:slt?t ii3J~m5 that itliI:e.,lFi:tE'll'lfI~t had. pm~ed.lt1moot! a de.cade lat131'. we !:tee m!telillet !ijJ\a~ IIi)u;:;[El~ly: :fenced e,ff, 1'!!lJI.d peoples' ac:tl:o:niEl ilficreasmgl'lIiaCMdI an:dl \reililo:raea!.~

Howard !Besser:

Vj~USS:ii a!!1il a polLi!:1£al ~jtom at a oommmJJIl; w:h:llill\ oommuRs rl'G be ~mely ~~ and! ~mn9' tMm, is not tit'€! sO.l!,l.lIiiQn Ita the PJQlill!3m~ def,lvrng Ul.e-refrOm_ iNle Simle liio]dEl ttu.l1!'ifo!l' ancflYJ1[l.ifY; ~d ui\llml:"1,li.

~hy}

AvUius wflter Is lmer~stecll in ~~g the pennallUlity Qi the IfIn A r1h1zorn~ of such and! so man}! d1mensL~ as the mtmnet cmmo,t be r;ep.<e~~d b¥ am l)llap - lit1<ID.Y ih<aV'El tIled but no one hM so IJaIl' comp:letw ttilis:la$ko. [IS el<JtenslOO'L may be'~,d M fol.I:oWiUQi a rpaith. SOUlldling where tt wanders oHmdlltradng I,ts; dlte:cl1W1$ anrll connecl1ons, ]njediog a canlr,ast medium mto the or'Qanism to fol· ,low shape anal "sIru~ wru produrce an angilOQII:O!m ~ fuEl l'lPteaJ a,n<mgsment: 6f iie1rn.S.

r:.et 'US iflowma:ke an effort and ool'll5:1de:!J file Qrtgi!(l~ of the [no e;tlnct of bJ;i1.~tlpI1l as we can I!e;pl'lrsent It In ,our ovrnh!l!stont. tJhe htsl()'fj1' o,~ ttb.e organic world as we know ft, •

~lJ Sull_ eede m~8 a fomml~tlon (lf~l:nidI .. n""'~9u;d 1D.1I!lan,gIJRgcllflQC('" 5rllli.Ohb:1c 10 a COOII,put~r ~fl41inhd i .. ,I[OOIi<tlzico; wliMD~~:D !!;n!l, ~~ndltl~~1 F'~-~ ~~:Iliich. onee m~~~~re:lc,d IfI'd ~ rn .:u'lll!cl, g'l",,~ ri!lt ro a, rcmt, This ~~'",rla~. ,!~" ,f!>." IHIIM roaihtl!oos Go~&ldcrcd! bY' ~ ,~ rodli! lU)" and ihrough wflM.,. we j!1!1le",,~~ ,,,,,tI; ;!S uemtiolfl.

E""-ry·n~!!," I4dcflmd'm]"a gmmlMfwh'CbI. itt hlrtL, l. ~ctcil by~,oompiJcr wlro """t.!b~lli e .!," iH &Dmmttc ~n1lCllit ~1ft~iI ~cd .;; llrollu_ ~ '·~c~dc!" w,mi~h dI. cDmpld.l'O!r ~Ili ellCClltc.

(2] lite II!mI "lI:igo.riduii",d~vufum th~ I!"'m'~ DIiMiilwrnmd, Bl!ll\.~u!il d-Khw.mz-. ",;, a JIUIIh:mt.~I'dm Jill!img<im lia.chlBo.i! bcliw~~81!). ~ .. d ~\J~ .'l.D.

[Jj ]i'i.1:clil~:ctuiii f.'rcJ~ ihc A,mR~kof! ~ Sp.a!i:n Cybll~h~/~~js. w:1'",cluf~Ifo,;"r:Ullij,~~llSo/pw·Il'II'bli~~~Cll.h!m1 by !HIl\ftM BelOlt.t;, Aillodstc Pro&.so. "'II ,lil!lt U01!.A 8ch~di of ,Edu~Bliolli &. [~h:onnlllic", "i!scli~tlI [Ilow v:l!I'IOU8 Inoolm!!ll ~~ ",,;~g !ll>e"'ir..'II'I!T~w.ltTi, cOl'y,ri,cht to rn~kef~l'oi~f,~mOlltton~ (jofi I1ijll'lfI[~r.~ct I~~ lMl:bli~.

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'S1l8~ ,ali(j :smaiD ~~ iSY,~ams: powefed ~y ,som !melgy' 1l:taI1: tilemveasmil~ !!:VmS! W;Sil~L:1o ~ :aspecl'S:. T.ilre ~I:e cem])';i$SlO:IiI ~r '~e~' lifukn:mSi 1!; ,om, aITlamt!l1 'D· '~noI:lCjj even 'lkougl1 thml ati:WlJiesme 'wny. Ilmlled. ,alii ollie hmdt UtI) 'iOU's' ,atil dtlOlm'l:lImtelil ~ifi ~helf na'lfimllia'blita~; ,~!iI tile mtln,g 'co:mmst 'of ,eleatmnl~ am!lll.;Ell1I.!lI1e !gW;es the $C.€Uiiatlo 01 :mrp,rJmng 'cl?PlRllon ImprosslLon, an '11:Ie other band,lhe Impl"lwnm.eru of tbStl1l&ili forms In Weck·PreseMng.a:tasseswmind13 ons' o!cl:illdJlJKid adVeliM'fi, exploooglw:td ,i'iSOO'II,ermg th.e W(ifkt ~1IUilti WI!. TM UOfiHcMlllvu 'eU~ des,peliiueJr we tIii.elr~i:i t ~a aind ndy m.oIlWMn.W ~o call the iftentiMlof~me QUI.SUilc wo<r10. S~, tltl1llP 1~:U'lre Is n@ ,goeneral ~eD~ (:or the Jd.efmltlon of .iUe',lhere !s a C1."tertO,f :Pl'Q,pa'l'llesco.nrlillcled to rue:' fl'iOwtll. mPl'O. dlu)cUon. aClaptlol:l" m,5Jo:nsl)lH'I~Si mllil'~oUsm, ~'Wlle .. t, Some. limes au.to:n.o.m:y. deMEllopmelll~, mltI, e.Wllllill.'e:ntJlim ~ll1mIln'\ll1~ In P~ilml. iii'.! 18 :regarded as a (l(IliI1IIlilex lD~ffiIl ma.c.Nme: !fhesu 'l)l(hmacNus~ ~:ave bi!en,a:v.aI1lili!e WI ~ ~as C31iho:n ba5c4 ute ;ro:tmS~ ~r many \fe;US' nON wi at 'Iho :same Ulne mseamllel"s and ~ aI:w.a1!S: ]lad! at mooo ~~ m. SImu.· l:aJIIn!l1blo!~~ D1i!i~omeJU!! tfiOOl!lQilil tiile'useoi' bloo~ medlWldC'S" mhOlics 01' OOJn.PlItef models.

R; illmlied W1lth SImple ClilJi)i~1!Iim!'ii olot liYinQl Q~!U lin. statues, .. ~s aIII1.d 1:l<Un~s lmVffig! mmfBJble ltiilQc:W ~ts lhare neeClied h1imlarl pCM!r, to be <lcl1\M.ite~,Afl:e:r firrilQf p:i:iQImsse.s illi;e the le;B~ tl'glQoo. ware:r: d:OOks" CI~'SY'dfa, .~ onl~:ell.'e,clmol'b· ~,~ Q~ 'WBlE\Il '~n afJf~ ttiel PtletmJ.aJ1ics m;lt.!ld~ by lkm'~ .... '.,... • -rAiI~ikla. 111m ;ftrst mMe loom[llleilJteiil :1'o;1'JW5 00' swwatLOOlL have 'ellA devel~pedl lin '~ aga of :ffiie:r;;._1iLemea;] ekrcks. Com;piIDI l!Il.,~erJilJ'l calenatlons ma(ie-, ·Ihe amrlllQUOlL IiIf 11.fe-1illke m'Ri:lon po.sslll'l@. ~ous !riv,ellllro:n!l Ukell:le Ilru.ok of Vallcat'W__@. and Ute !Lady· , I!ISl'Cllm:l of P!rem F.tqtlet·Dro!' (1 '7~,) ftilhQlIlfEld aIIld slaiuedl <Ii mew' dWl9Jon of artWslalllHe..lil:te C!!lJples:(Jif nalme JJe~ m.0e and !mOm rmmplklX ~eadlngl to oo1)rempol'a!;y hjgh-~ mbo,ts wNclil s:l:m1l1'.ai~' human S~~ MIt] m,(l'.ljWlileJll:S ~osI: ~~ If;! cer* 8S]JedS. A~ we can s:e~, one Iim]!lOll.Omt pwh for tm!lildt1!lg arlWdali We \W~~~: de's~ 'l()r,clilltl!iohliMl!i:tl1iat,oo,md~Jlp o:r~l'a:li'IJzlnQl 1 O1:erue'fi'!II' _ memo.'fe'C~Ii!Ie. ~ljI"·Oteis:e _pcnll,riucthn1!i' m robots ru"!e. 'veqr co:~ and. <)Nvba~1bY ~eaniW d1e:tpelillS and oom.puW-robased 5vm~ N:e\\e~ !he JQllctnaHliin of 'c:Ioeal:llng life Is .SIW present not to realize ~c 'uncltt!llll!S IIKn as U\o o,p;porblnllyi .0 comrn\al!liCafeil1e 91 orB and lis plilllosophJ Ln am af'L1Sl1~ ero:n:lexot. 0Iir m.gH.valllo1!l lis '~he ,enthulwml Q~ ,cnealll,,!l' II.vtlRg tlfikl9$. obsO'we lh.e-liii Independelllt ilul!ia:vJ,OtD m 1m ad rl8,t\llie and) peopl@' wacHOB when 'liheyge1 in 'C01ll.talo{ with sImple llIfe formEi. fu this: oru>~, ar-t ts tooMoto£lY. we do not reliuUd Ol1I!arW.'ccrwlures with lIrIe I~Dllm900 lbei~g! .romeo. to we· ],J:!l1iY tec}j~Q]Q91Y' We ~IoRd l'e.(l.lim.QJOmt ~dIla!III,y ,S'i'MiI~ ,ele~ (:Q:mOO:nfl~l:$_d ltEI funG'llO'M,. Wh1'Ch madie 'lI.iI t'lWII:!: Of Iihe 'eijl PM'l~ U I~ ~- 11~; ~l) l!ii':l'iiI V!eE¥ WH~;[\g:aruC mate!!'lalpUt it ~olJeUrerln <I ~ that Lt Is still te;c~~ebut M.d!Ing som'e sl!l'i.We pure function. tllat etllCi3 '11\12 lhI,lfig expr,e!tSlon. The whole ~dit~ of ~ pmJgct !Is UiS ~ralkllito.l teclmolDEW uti pThWDQi :It In a nw CiOmrlml e.nv'lil:;c~u'pq~pe-dive w1ll:ch quesl1milS ~ remlil.'QlllSNIi!' b~l"lOOliI, ~1m~; mI.h!ilie'.rutId h~l.

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G!ih &; GOge:Rgabe

»D1e, Menillttit 1st WlIhaltbar: ::;I~ I$t de" Tod, d~lID siS! sohl!)itert dm'an, l!!u'en ~enen 'Fqd Sleh 1iUZU~el'l_ Da.s: i~ cl!l\ii' F.ii1l bel 1100 Qesc:l'llo!l'5enen oder ilbeIstabIHs1erten. den 'funktlonalen odsI' lI.Vb!\it't'lt'tlso'tum $1!,atem:en, elle VOll Verfi6.b.mu.ng becIWht sind, Vl:IrI pt~UUQher, ~,Hill1ItI~l:l.e.R liiab, w1lz!,eliender SW:iVetsio:n. ..... ES 151: drlle AmlltvaJ:eM., dI,e dd.>e Wllll\i:l;lmmgnstm:l Sysl;@1iUl!1il ~edI,{i~, dle\, den,en, as g;el~ bt llhrfWlkljjj)IiISP(Iil[WP' Z1!Ji, ~.re .. g,OttU,d'len.,. Dfe ~ltoJ:1!"dfe'.~el:1!,'~s:iclilJ"diasre\wI:ebdm Fti~_liIlS;, IiIl,I;iS ailS He:Fer ,AbneJUtmg starnmt. ausenbllckllcn l!!I1ibJW3Ii.('( [,IIJ

$ l1~liI:lie.lbt leaD, Ba:u~, 10 s_e:jm,em Ha~PMeik ~Nr ~C:he'Ta1:lsch UIltUI der~ (ten ]etil:enV,e~ der MID: ,antflti;i'IUfillien ,Sysl:e.moo. iWelemJ8PJ ~cb @:r!Plw;;IU odufdes ~a!bso'rblemlll,lndemsl:eWM:AUBenptllSilialtai1A.sschllessG'n Wl\,t!! Jede O~pos!,'IiI(m W1scl:ll:l~~e;m Sparer Wild In' dl'e~ MQ,QJlCh· ,kelt ,amg;ebelll mrLd SlM mU del: ~Iiletlloo der ~'In ~~fataJe Sh~;!eJ:'lI~ [2] er~>W1I, i3a1.ldflllaI1ils froihe Bo,t~aftla.ul:&t hJ,er fiOgb: Eku,li,r' Sabe l!:am ,mlt eIDer Gegengabe g;eantwode'l: wer'd:e:n, dl,i;j 5l~h elnel' mrnet1ellen Macht theoflEillsch entgegenslellt. Wenn em Systoon s~1iie Hifi'ooMft ,auf dem MonCllpol cler ,Gabe gnlndet - tJai:'lYl gibt es 'fOr liIillJtlrmard dlese e1nZ1ge MtlgUchke:!t lli'm ow ~i'li:l; Man nruSI;; tJas iPrmZlp der sy.st:ernelgensn Macht 9'~el'l as se]ba,t m:lweIlLdeI~.

me F!:eversll::Jll1tIU \fOIl. Gabe und G~J1gah~ ffihrt l!<~,'1;I(ldlla~d 1!:! ~~cMn Sclirliten kQnsequ,ent ·amb1lta!l:ent <l1!IsUirl.d be21ebt me aJd' tdki i:lieflllfl(Q:;en SUltiliekt.·Oib1IE!klr-Dl<l!le.kIIIken was swill desttalb ~litl aw ttaIli$~m:lem'te B.Bemmg~ilw:RGte1l!aI1Q:n'IDI lime~eli'l !1~.~salilchaw;mmraJileMe,wd1e!~~~,~~~chrUl elr!~ ~eil, O\!l:era:mg:e\bfrls Wlid des KfiI:l;stle:rs: O'IIIl\9au::hrts ,elnes sdI~ru!i£o!J1IItmi. ~els an,Maddru:cklm.

Ba1Iddllard .I:Iescmelbt damH die i'h,eO,rle eine::r Ilmiv;e~ 'lJeg~n UmviUSII.'I:es anwemlbanm ,SU,b!lU'rsitl'!.l. dem:

._,

._,

l~Das M des ,Sc:MllckSa! emes~e:dIaiii SlVWmw', da Sh;:iJJl ,~Wicll ,sebilEl eig;Blii.eLQ~k, 'Z1,lf ~o,t,,18n Pe:r1.t!Haiil UJilti am ~ ~ ~t· rung \i\er1.l!r1ellt, ZUT (lbSQlulen U'meblb~Jr:kelt UlJlld also zurWilW1:darruf'liGhen 011nmElcl:i1' alIa gebWldenen Ener'men zle1en a~ Ihren e~enen 'Foe!!.. DIm.!m Istd1e 'e~gmijgijohe ~t'BQle Rata_SlIg· :pNaoo. n1cht dIa1ekli!leih. Men muss: rue Dinge his !ZlIlIIl AiItS5ef~~1:'I ire.l'bSi:'l, bois ZIIl joowm. ~t! an. dem sle stidh von ~,i'eThBt 1M Ga-

gerueJill 'II',erkelu'Wi. Wid m :ilWh~~tmzerI Man ~s d:en

T!Dd ge,gen den 'red ,~pjjeleIl - dk! radikale TautQLQgl.e. Ali.W d:er Riganlogik des. !!j,yBftems dl.8 absolukt wmw maChl3~M( ~'

I! 3!§

li!ebe, IIIInCi vtijfQhnIQg

)}Uebe lilt ,~~ Meml!ili:er - ~(;l(l'jlJ;atm1I naclt !fatm.~ udi BIOOlJ.'d.w;L.l1 WfII muoIe;mel!l~ Pl'ImJp, \VOn A!IiW.e~ edi Glelclii. Piwrol\t,« [4~1

BaUdI.t:Wafd dlltetenzlert ~c:]um ((em Medi1l!m der Ili.!ebe, WIdI dj"lt'ir<ie:r v.e:tf~ SE!:m BegJUI de:r Webu 1St M"tap)'l,e:r. f:iJ." 'emen Sil.b!JlSte~l in Ibrm Irn1I\ Bedormt~~ lPAii!I 'W~ ,erl'fIlI.wtg, :Bf I!9l: De:~l wm :ldm _ al!.tfil;~,e.n. 'WlIiI BqUIiI 'Q,dmIim~g]!elt -odel! 'l:lebendQ; der~n(, :slillli s~1liI e~gefu'ere ~a das IZIibfem dies Be{jllhml'l!\l seltlst ~. ~ch isl, Se:Mfter mes ICloollWil Si;ibSAb~ .. Ihlebe .m die-sem Sume dlf.!ill[ der lere1cne:nmg des liilebenden und ist eln Akt de'r Me19· nung, I).l:e Ve-nfillll:ung beniht dagl.!~,Mn auf wechselnder C1eED!l'l' soo~~:1'~ am .rui'llerl a.es Lt'ebeniJe.n1!irldJ Q:es GaUeb1erll.laudl'Ultid tl:~ItfI1.~t $:Ie alS aktiVe AUis;eifTand~rs~g. ~ WraU5Jabllifll1 m duabl1\a.fter GagenCllleIstWlung, SI~ ISlam Duell .llwc'hen 2:Yre1 stOll mndielfiden Kffiften, em stand1ger AntamfllSlit\ps !fl. lel\ll,agL!i'I;. I1~n Uin't!'lrsChl.ed zwischen Kmtt UlrId GeQle'tlkfafit w'im 1ft den bel~~l:'llr~alism1en BeechliiWlg9n *po1lii;,rQol~ und »:pulssaru::'El« 1lima~llc~. die' i:leJils: mit dam df;ll!l.~~en Wort. )}Ml3.~tr.~ ~nI!3t.lt WEItman: »pou~b!« I1ezel'clrn.et HerrnGliImt wuI, lM'~tz d:t~ G:e'S(l~enl 'tl1I.g,enWlEIr "~Safice(t alS. F.ltiitgb1t ,OlW lliIte~reU'll1iQliI. dleoos G~e~ aw SpleUIJiDQI 11$1. iPPUw'lJi lti~mIi ,t1M marretlefi W.~n ZUI GalK!] mJd lis$: al1 pSC~1W lte~d.UIt lfIUT> d'rui ewene, G~:Izi '!J;e.loon. r.tJllv{llr ~t auf dill eW:IPWle'deil'i~ dersalbem. ~lmen Ii~l tlllu:lll!llete~kjlium Mum fOOi den. AlId.ereruDle' JideiJ1e ¥did zum gatlililClTiien. 'Gesetz '!llMQbeli\, ml' ,ethJj!:RenNo.twen,~U un!!! .w1n!I abSCl!ll1I~ Imd ,efh:abene Fmall.tat 1[6]" die a1s1 'W;~~digelln(J souv,erana lui. lt1~t dl)are.Ul: ,zlaU,liIiI!1i S.jekit ~elilil G~l~l~ desrrueberu'Jen q !!InWi!;~en.l)hIVenilli!run;g- dagege:rn aRze~ ZWat" a1~ 1.b~ dlsliiSiiil Geset:rea. S[ell]t etl abe~ dwelL virtuo.8l\l ~~~e~ol\1.lnGI una /!mwendW\91 pe~.manenl m Fraga

·ro.d S[~n 'miU odeI' OhneHWlem:ndtl!i!l !i~t. SO~Jn :msm:dIe D.!.allllllkhlllnter sl,thlllllLd ve:dltut smbt!n Sple~ d.es mm.en 5'a~.])or Wltl_msp:fII.I~b 'Y..IIU:d 2m be[<3iheMelll 'Vllrausg,airatl ~.m, J!i.r:1iUI~\mE'~pg.

II:n Allgem.e!nsn VltIsmht manUllt13£ Verf~g die gewaltINri!! Obetw!rIl:J1.!iI\i 'von Wlders~ 2illin. Erret{!l:!e,n ·von I:Ilelst sexilell,&t :ee~r,ledJ~ des VedUl:!!Iets [9], Ovid bescbreU:lt me In seil'LOOfi :Bl:Icl'I A:r!:i atmatotla aU;: 'ademhme Tealmtl\, d~ PlllraLilo>:e'f~ we'lu ,Clarll'l beSl:el1L diem Willian d.es Amlel:ie:1il m folgelil:' ,

II •• ,. :Dsili!am G.e~t wdj Blick lege GJ3setze Sle abf ...

Dd mi.t 'olg:tmw:' &nd ~ dud,en ,~eg,elI ibr tlruro~.

... , Wbl sto wetllllw'c;ner aucb als dile :SlI.ere :Med'Wia.

ISsg,en d!mL1u'I:lIu:u~e:1iI 'Mfd me ~undl, ~!Je:mg..,. {~ £101

V~I !!d' dife' stm'Iq1el des: ~.me,rui, wuI des 'N'a:Cl:'iI~k'1114I, d:~ G't~ W'ld ,des, N;fhm.elilS.,

Der :Spl.e~ ,{I!irlJf_gtaJIkGmmen:de ~e '91~ldiermde!\, w1e, ~ :!rle' wnterikt WId aaril~det me GeollMel~1tle1t ,d~ AnlwDrblM lin odor ~ ,des ~iqEbu dla'U daller. plcht ,n.tr del ~r; :PItIlltiCl:i.t! 'V:e~ '&!r bmmerem.e :Fcml der Mal;hla'USOblmIll !!midi, Hmoolitafi cl1w:i$na~~r fIUlIel'. d!te ~Jil,~e' ~~hmen vemtaindeJ'l!" ,dl'eiiiJi:lEln8U~ Jwlml:en dlw:fli\\ ~e:nte W'ld Ah(itQIlik [H]. Anste.l!le elM\!" j'giiil~SI1a1fJ~1Q 4~r KdID< ~~'tJt DewdirtDard dl.e ka!astrephtsche Slmt~Si]8; urn em S,y",tem d:W'ah SllihWl:5ion In :Fp«:m dl3'r sC:h-einbaffll'l selhl1fe zurn Zu;sammel:!it!rueh ~ de5tab:ffis1e:ren IIU].

oem WWlLSC'h ':N.f WUef:ld\INI,e.mer Bl'INdiIGD ut'e~ndl '!lOml~ ~e:JiI!.matil1: Jeden 'Wlder~d logiSo:h unmQg1idf - do S~Slmn m~ dilS:,Mgl!Slmbt:e',!'!e\&l.d,em. slicb g,ege:l'l;slmtsijh :r:ldlM.e!'l I!1IlId, WOnfe' ,dann am e'lgetl.en, Se~rspru.m SCJ\~tem.

VIle· em alter 1:3i1nese" odef ,!ml Badn'and. s!m. besCliUelib! Benwnlwd hc.R-cr WJe :QNSdJt,,1llas Sp.i~ der sW'h '8IiiI'!!I W'8:I\d:em~ dIen 'WasSf[~ alB wtlVN:se.li~· B&n'e1n:tm.~lel,,~~ ,z:we'ler ~!.,. ~1td't:m ~eJel" "Webre. dl:e in .standtge.r:Verindlen;Dll,g auf .. ~derreag~lm- IIr z1fiert das 'Gleidmis de$oo(}~enipNlQ' sopbelJi D~tlumur·~ mm ,c~Men Me~~r. »D!fl!~l" bllCl« d~ :w ~~Ie~~ B1md ~~ ,an, Gcndsm $'llehl VQn diet: :S\lM~ dU KC~e!is • Wfl'm iilir dasJdesoor Iimi le~n z.~()!ltem~ der 0l:]\m'L'O ~Z'I'l [14]. AlI,lc:ll dm Japamm:he smwerl~ __ e:r-!3Uclit da.S l!!lQ'~ ~>il.' sU'ate:gische Zenl:n.un, des G:egM~S ru trofffJf! 1.IDdWi'bill fIWro_rus denGegner ZIl! fIxIeren ode\!" d~n BliliBk auf dua WllkI ZU ricl'ltOt'l [1611, Die VedUhrung priOd~rt d·~n schelfl, urn dif_m :Bcgelmln du AnClaren ,Eltlsmnve:ld'Le:!1I.. GleIW!te1t1g i31uoh.· :~:Sle SGlIlie ~w,eclWe:slllwmmgr UQ .(;illu1 e1!i ~ 'e'lgel1l,(!n :ln1etw'n.At, 'wvtll Lo@k ,eiMi~clll!lfi.~ mIi'I!II m.et

nas:mw :1I1nw0i.uis;o.fi)':I18hre Iille lhlc'h »!lle~t de81Cd~(ga U6] 'DCI:' ~lIs$'ie' SIrateglendei5Kri~fiS WUifdu. IlobaJ 'etNl~~ 'fiIr MaJlagemwnsIJa~ IW beroh.1 3W. din' Varb!ndl!IDg 'VOOI! 'tao'i5.'llscher ~;pme rna: bmpfkil:w1.ef1. Hem H1kiIDf ~nmg d:e,r~hge'm 1s'I: dig HleiIi.l'I!JM~p, des d.mpfVM ~Pf ,d!a_s: ~. a ste,h,a.l§;.~hr ,emu, HmtWnQutik '~.m PQ11111k Wt!.li p:syd'lOlogle' des -~, !i.Dl das SlGl~~WidtakDoolte~1:I dm '11!iSID"been kh!il;l\'chen W'ltl :lMfte dies 'Gegners lmI:'J:r m!l'mI~:~e ,l!~f ~q:eJlerJdielttflll ~S lIJ.m~el(II\B. Es 151:. em Agi~~, d~ :reagten limd W'lsliilivllim'':~I, h~c.be.lit~emfocl:!lJw,t»Wil!i-Wel:«eNlh:Jh'l·

lwlde:1n. dleOeldble :~ daiS 'lIilrten auf ,deLl. 'g:-;o:Ignemn :Mo:!tUmt

A_ppa:ssUltl.gsI~M und unergfftlfidllcl1ke1t Bind VWl:Qi~Q' Sirateiglen, Me Foon!~igkel.t ufid PlhlBen Pr,mlip.lel'l des lIDennj1dl1ohen VOn:Qclsens und Ullerw:ll:lcie:na wflHln~SIl_l,!Wro &lmte:g~chei:l Zlel d.aI:sWllen. Eija1 ab vor ImQlllIitlxoon Md:8~. QL'ie:r IIiIm.ltl:en aller AWerlisemkelt - ilIar s'cl!ta~b'lpfer q1ert stdlsch; ~DJef'<m««,Wie der SChafiimkampfg:ocl\aMt w~ ~,$l.l$t In \delon OSIu1aUsc1:ie.m Kan'q)lsp;ariarten ,del' Dewe,IJW'i_9i!~lIblauf. dcr sowOltll ali 6w[ll:llage 'Me ,autih al:s Mr ·8Mfeflllu1 ~__r:d I:~ .rwht Cite ~menKainlp~1lIi ;lmelnaruter, WfI. stili PI au,tJ)· ~_n.:m. peti!eWlIlm.emJJll mfI.odI er'w:lfd ZUf' :~mru

~)Wb" vers~,wh:lden SIOM,ng; *1' O'Me' Kww'I WI '08, '!lUau em reb\es, UillI'll1dkiIcbes S'oN~b;;!l,{( ~llg.]lsasI: Daud.rtUanl.1n dl:eHniI S'Jlmi) 'w,lmn ~.~ Mia 1lKuJruS;!! flllmt!ll)1l.ende:ter Be~~W: und (,~tI'.}hero:lSQhe :KUt:.

['0 g~!!dJI_&Jd.Ji!il!H: D~ !}mI~QIiK!!!:!F"jj~. lind d~rifOd. M~m1hn :im, 5.~2 tiliJ lh.l!.dlUjilA',d.l~an~i!l1ll i'atlkrn s~~.iI,.M\~~~lI;:n, 19~5

[3] IIwd~ tiHil, S:.J2",U

1~]JI~~.J .... t 111;0' Mlldrtd~~ffl"'i\!i'!-fI; A\!d~D KIIlill \lQO~. Kapii. Iii] JI~ud.rUIm.JI!ILlU li.!;11 Mllmt,dg V(,r£lJ;tlJllgi lGap.;I.

[6:J :gW~.J!'Ii<fi~ li.tf,t '!LIm iructJtv.~fi;, .1!mJ:n 19.ftS" S. 9 ~fI CD" ~p-,5

l8i):B.iI~,I'~tU

IfJM,41llJ'~:d1c~;'I;;s rI.~cd~~\'Ldd~

11:IIOoJ Od;!l: /m'MIliWdl:1 ~.11liiiirlP i,m Y(-1;Il W.2tf.310

lin. oller -rt!llm ~~, ~ ~ S~,d~ oa,-, ~o ~ ,~SMI"g,S ,- -ClO(ft___~I • .a&Rlc.fi1

!CWr"';"''''~OJ'~toikrTh~~'(l;tL_~' ~:1!211IB~,lm:s~

Hill. N~ 1S~.A_kolFfIiMlhZttt~~ ~ zm;s 8..1.61 .~"'B'j~', 1.~Du,~,~~E~SJiS U\5.IFo~!i!\!liioIlWilritl!ud 19.5i!J:,.S-U-M

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~:~tllh,![!Lri~~. CD K~'i

[~e.] Jlp.KiliiIJ (KiIIlltE, IUimdo, AiDlg 11",) J ~tllll"h Hyl:~DJi (T.eli Won Do) I tlilin. ti!il!! nll_l Chi Clmm)~, Form; S!il. H!iI!ll~

(19)1 D~I!IibII~tII. CD,Kiipo 9

t.!ie.JII'nm

A~ .. .l'Iilll!~.B,!ld~7.IiI1·'Se&dlikbJtc ,~C!Ii '~d~ • .Mi~!!£h;f1 ].9" IbinWllml!.lum [iI,(!i' 9'Di~idI~'W:~.III~ gll!a,·~~;iI'od. Njl;m~m '~99% ~~,J~LilY~I11Mt'~.B~I!,I:~U Bil-III~J-.:D.il!&uilm S_w,rn.~,llI:i;;doM l!MSl ~~MDu~!idI>It.\:\'fi~.l9Bl BiP!~J'<AD~h'~T&:Wdi. ~tIn 2Oili!I Il<~J(lpj~~.MI"I:ilwdlcr~~f~A.!!>i!jo"C'D KI.1ft 2lli116

'Q'~_ R~tlli)"!~Iand,dielM~M ... ~~~~.SnHlp'IlJiN'O' 'O~M--Iil!iiJj~lDi~Jt"~ N~.r-~Mm~Z-Ih_.,",bi~ k!!1'II!:W~liliV,,,,"R'ido:rltiml1lir.DIc JWMt..!iriullh:~Sft!ji. F~JhlI 1m

lll!llfdil. W~It,pIl~ H.m.;u'il'cn. ,:Vie !Wllli!l<!nfHi' ~ KUlumltiillild' fIl;;.J!I!filI~~' w M~,lOO&.

~'

1HIlJUIER !WND

Kaumem ~~in, Ku..Mtj)rodukt und i!lenkmO<del!i) hat die Kunst des2et ~l'nmd~rt:s dem1 bestmuint WJ.e We Collage. DeI Text: verlolgt di~ BntwlCW!l.mgl d!er Collage. 'iiICI}: <illem anhMd der HolzStlohooU~en :von Mall.' EQ1ISt Zum ersten Mal. .In. der Geacblchte der KI:In$t 'iii1l!rden mit dielsen €ollagefl wetke: prodUzl:ert. weICM' ausscNleJ}lioh at:I!j: VQIQefundefleltl Ma~emJ ~ehen lInd dl.e SeIekl10n S:ow1:edlfe .Kdmhlnation von vorgefmtdenem Mater'lal zur iiSthe~n Pram erheben. lOamt! gewmnl dlei €ollage Ihre astMtJlS:clw B1OOal1ig. (tie schll.e.Bltch In der C01!14ge a1s mel'f~em 1i1er.h:rec1nen" (~r SPies} mtlli.det

.E:In kwri!:e!t AiilS:l:Ifu:-k ~.'lif' aktuBl.le dlO1laJl.e R.CirLste Isoli mde.m ze1gel'l, wI.e Mule beli S'mnp.!IDg, MD:mg, R!!![mrDiJM' wd Mas!HJp aut Max Ernsts Oo~epril:jzlip :a1l!.l.f·ge;oaUl ¥lira,

BereitSl d!ie frUhen -CoDagenbucheli (1.922) [It] und mehrno,ah Se.in'e dre:I €olliigenrQOOm.e (1929c 1934) (2] betrelben des :vemdhwinde:n des Ongm~11tl del' !K1.mst. Boch [itch!: nur das, was glei:~ versol1wmdelj list· del' hlll'rkOOilmliche !dmst1erJsclie Pmzess zur .HersteUumg ~, [Hjgiii;@!s;. ~! 0rlgtfia1tmd dilfe mfi: hl'Im verbtJrt.. .derlSO. kililstlertsclmn we-rte werden mit den Ho~Elgelil lion MM: Ettlst glekl.bsam Hmebellllfl (tel' D.liiemnz von.ge1tlebrer Colllage:i:Im~'I:t:e, also dS'ir Druckvorlage mid del' g,edrudk.ten CoIIage 1m BU.oo. Bimfi durd:! dJerotom~che Reprodllik.· tiOn der DIl.i.ckvotlage fili den iBuChdrut:k. ven'mdert .stl;Jh Da.1Iii gekllebte eolbage.gl'1.![Idilegend:cl!le Wlrter,scl"l1ep!1[ci1te'Fmblglkait der oollagtertu Pap1ere, !me. SclmMste1fen, die scl'iiail'rtung Q,!:Q' Fapiei!'El - Mon a[ID dem 1st bel Cler geciruckren Gollage nlthtB rnern:: ~ sebe.l'I, Die T'atsadhe d$CoUJaQ'lQrtsetns, s:eD:isit wtrd damlt W'ISlGlU· bar, so diEl5swer..oer Spies zu Becllit van d.er oanage als ~pertek.tem Verhn!onerl" ~H.cht

..

BevOit d1e Polo:en diese:1i E·ntwtdk1ung In del!il Bl1ck. g;~n werden.,soil ilID~cbst&;m, was e1ne €'Ohge. ke.~Ii!t, smvte Max i8~ l!J1i1l9'~rgml:t dell' Ga~ COllll31ge niilier, h~stnmm:t werden,

me E:I1illlitmg dfe1er I!:lgeIlsehafte.n lefltsche:ld!er liber die ZI,l." gehorlg"kelt 'swes b!laJ1ch'Un oder lherar:1Sdhen KlmStwerk$ zur G!@m.Q"CoUage:': {a) Bas MaterLal e.il1:e.f Collooe mtiSs bereifs llw; der EtSteUtmg de(~ vol'll:anden seJn, also vorgefundm sew. (b)dllie C()~e Wlrd fllm::h ZUSammenIDgen des Matlilaalls 11er· Ql'lstellt und euwgt (c} _ EIi:1:diIillck. \I'OO'l Di.S~fheil: [31

ZUJ ·SPetlflz1ienlirll sb:i.:d dte dUll ElgenschMt.en folgettd~en:

(a} Da.s €ol!la~ater.J.m (m~ :vorge-iu.nden sem - yoIIrul: od.er teD, weIse, aw jed!e:n FilII ab~ uj)enrQg.end ~4J.1rI del' R'egell1Landellit as sloh be:! diem r.romefwtdElnsn Materlalmm ooJche.s lunrersol:\fed· Hehet He:rkwlit

(b) Ole QollBge WID:IJ duroo zu.samme~en des MatmaIS htlfQie.Sl'EiUt - materlell und/od'e:r sem<mtlsch, Bifidiemtttel de:r OOd·

lI.cllen 6oll.age 1st v()~sweIse die 1m Wort entfialtene 'oolJ.e'. der Klebstoff. Mlt dleser handwetkllChen Eleflnl'l1on lIeF €ollooe als Kl.ebdlld lSI: noeb elils' weUere E1gens:c:l1aft ver.bu:nd,en. ruLmJlch das Hetvorlmil'lt&lIJd~s ZusamrnengemgtHlns. ®l.gsft tllQIlit m dlllD melSten Fiillefi ifiIitIltre,lbar emdhWcli. besondets )lillrmessich um untersahl:edU.a~, Ma.t~§)n ilumde:__lt A!ber auQh hel~@tllchl3rn MlrteEW bl.eJ!bt Q.~ ij:!liWi~ emaht&::b, ~I de~ K1sll.:mdf dle E'UQel'l kal,ml ~i!&i,dlgl ~aschj~rt una. !Jomfi dlie EI,g,eIlSWriafi des Zusaa:mUruJef:Uwel~ mcliilt Vl3'rblrQt. Durch iJ:e;stlimm.te Wrnwen (giil'Wa Beprm:liUlttl.o:r!) ~ .1~o'CI'l aUCh der Fall e~n. tlas.l5ldle Etgensdh.afit des Zus~~gitSfel!nSV1l['deokt Wll'di, Me ,etWa, bel. den QediudMen 'COlffia:~n der 0o~enmroaru'! YQJ'! M;u:; Emst, . e:mnitteJ:lJm efsicrh1l1oh bleibl diann nut die II'ats~dhe, ~ass hie!' semMtl!ich unteroohledll.che Elemmltezusmnmoogeffi,gt sm~, .Zu. sprechen ware In dlesem Pall !JOn semantlS:cl'ten €o)lageJl,

(c) me COllage ~ugil' dWL Emdruck von Dlspatathelt - rrnneIl1el] undJ/oCier semantlseh, 1ilie]e l!:oJJ.a.gen erzeugsl:I den Elrldlm.ck. \VOn rnatW1~Uer !!I1spa;tatlJ.'911'.;vt.Eij] ll'r M.a.terl.al tatSidhll'Cl'i.'awo w'l'ssJ11e,. de.nen Bemdhen ~.tam:mt ~. M;~mw!i! seien ~ Malt~lc(i;lll. Igen SchWittem env1ihnt Bel fiUten ~n llfinranglg las:tfietLsd'le Wer.telWle Form· tm.dJ:par,bWer.t!1l, pLagoh:e \Wi;lrte undl~l\W, die mit den l.mimcrNed!Hqhen Matenal1e.n wr-lUmpft: mnd! !:is gftit afier ~utih Collagen, w;I~ jerte de-. GoNagenromme von Ma.lIEmSt, die zur ,GMze' aus dem ijlleJcl:ienMateftal ~lzst1ehe) !bestehen:, aillsQ maten.e:ll elfiheIlll.Cll sma. aber dennocl:! den .El'i:i.dfu.ck MOll Ji)~thei.t eIDUglffi • und mar s:emant1sc'her DJspar.athEit me solcl'i.eliitt ib13so1\affjne Gol!a,ge ware darui. als SeJt1antls~ Eo1iage zu l::u~·2'SJ.QNJeIl (;vgl. Ill.

DJ!3' :!I~aJi'ltlsclW Ctillag8\ eotwiiCe]t Ma.;.; Ernst ltllt :!Lelnel' Poem, del' CoU.ag.e, dlIe auf tiei su~C'hel:l Poetlk de:~ lWilnOO'iiatioo von 1lI1sPm:at-~ aufuaut €ollage, so :Max Ernst, sel WI .accwp~,eHl.Imit de deux teall.il,e'Sen app.areru:e iD'I.a;ecoupabl'es .SUI' un p~an 'qul en app<gem:e ne l.eul! conv.l.e.nt ~'" [5] Bararilll re1>1iltle~t dei[:

Ef:fekt des semanJ!lsch D1spar~ren und -schelnber :[I'll - [rr,aliollalel1l: £lui cDt c~. dlt l"lftatlone]," [7]

Wie die COUliQ€m :von Ma;lI;BUl::It sich z:ur illtadH1cm der k.ubistischen COllage, die p.jcasso tmd Braque entW1rckeJl:en. veJha1ten, w1.e ale A:sp.ekte del' Gatrung vers~kel'l,\l'erschtebel'l od>E!1i auflCisen. slilll 1m !Fo:lgendeIll darg,elltclLt warden.,

AlJe w:Wh'l1gen ll:moval1onen, dte mlit den CoHa.gen der EllW'di· BCiichet e:_irlSetzel'!,. ~d gekoppeU an die Vl;:rll'nclerungenkn Mat~tlalbeNleh (Wahl von HoW3tl.dl.en ~s Material) und bW deE' :Hewte.lIi!1.'1!1.g d,er CtilLtMen (:Ehns:dMe'JilIen ~ we1rteren Iie:17>' st.elllungiillsehn1i1ies;dl.efcnomecna_lll!jsone H!eprod~M.on, der 'g:e1d:ttble.fi OoIJagen.Mif den BuChdnl,ok).

h~chisid!elildl M dabe1 niQiM: ,a1];e'biI d!Je fiWweodaQ'ZiIJ. ,em.eill l:'!lst~en MatetJal. ,Us In 8m. 'ilOOhJ!dk Wld ,~enk l!!!den '19iOe:r Jahren .bi!MIl~ aMlquiert W'irMeund, woduroh ,~m die 'WI, lqen d.l!ll m!!lD.t·lltl~lidlmda:mellllalllrlm, jlm'lm derKub'Jste:n mu!1. Dadlalsl:en WloorSCftelden. dl~' ze~~~, M3i~, ll'e1:Wlm,. d,ep. btscheldend ~.vWlm.ehr me amlSclhJieCUtJ!_e! VelVlen~g ilI'lm H.c'~!ifdh'!m .. D'adlilRh enl:si'!eh~ eine, m.~erlElI[emmelitl!i:rh· kelt, w1'e Bfe :ruW.I' beI,COIJa.mm nte:mal's der Fall g;~en lSt, 1m Geg.anteU: mate:rteUe D~parath.elt ge'hOrte Z1l den Hauprm:JgenSQhaft.en der w~lge.n C'oUagen. und:: z:um eniten Mal m de,l' Gesc:Ndl1te der Kuruitwerden a.wdilese We1!se Warke :produzkJrt, die a~scMlell'llch ausvoi!'~denem Matenal bHternn Wld (Ile 1(Q._mblnatlon von vorg,ehmdenem Malenal mr~sthetlsch~i'! froo::ls, erne-ben [8J. Dieses konsitn!ktlve frinzlp bem1'tst jeIlH,11bIWh&1I' 'I!ffl~~. ~oslm.odem; be.wlcMews vo:t;, das beIsp1e'lsweJ::uili' sell Elrld.e' d.e'r SOer Jahre mlt. derSampllng·DtJlture u.d dem Dllngi m del'MU_m_'k an Boden .gewtlnnen hat

M!I: del Wl\ijj] wm .Hc.1lzstldhen alsausso.lilleJMi-C1iLem ICOi_gemftl!.a.tefIaiJI entwiake1t Max iemstmcht nIH lein.e materiJ.elle"stmdem ~lJc'b e'lnestWsHsc.he ,EmhatlillLchlI:ei;t I~ _ SO mlt .. ~,eM'Wn~m.dilf~ dm ~TU.chlOS.wt. ~I:~ stelptil: delil m~Wi! IIfekt zudem duroh B.ei!Jlll~kIilY1enmg: wAhrend die llm.~lllJI'dIChen CrJlIasl,en den~hm BruCh mIl~ d'e'l' Zen_erspeki1l:ve, !b~, sel2t Max' !nm1: dl!!!l:e WIeder. ~ Bogar oMel stQmpgen.ln.1ttre aJtefl, Ritld1le ~ N:g~hmaJl;!. ~ ~d. dle Bmcl!l.lilsl!~it dK !lealbmus 'dw'ch die ~rodl.OOiian (bH1GiJlliigeo .. Dalb!3:l vef·~wii:i:dl~l'Idll1

Sdmur wr MetapheJ" fjJir> clen ObeI~i5lwe'rll!l1d die daWber bemtdJ. Ilcl'I!e Spl~eit zm:' Met.apbsr WI: den iI<!ti:ipf samt Bad.

ZUgegehen: such die K!iW1$Wl verJ:eJhen bereib! gelegeMlleb P're-rndlalemsnmn Q!fie miUapno:rische Flmktion- So etwa Juan Gds m smrn'8r C~ ''!las S'(:l1a~~t~, m WElwnet tile e:iI:l~I~,bte, HQIzImii1erenclie, T.'apefe Er,~tlon hat. also l'apere da!reWlil'en ~Q,U. mP1'Oh al:ioo: aueh; JjedIDgt durclit das bUdl:1che umtelid 'WId den Ho~tatc'hatutex, a.ls Metaphe:r rur' emen 'l"J:i.oeh W'Lgesehen vrerden kilIDn,

DeWlodh skId,sowheliiletaphtilnscihen.nmlU!lolllelil b~rde:ill bblmelil !rfRmds!UtUch ,andei\s 'geiUWt .Denn die metaPMriSc;1r!e UM· ~e.~tI$'Ienmg detPtem,dummente Me awch ,dl.eR:!!~~5t iblelbelil l!i!'l m:eli$en iihergtelfuWm, un(]l. l(]IoCh engen, Sad1b~rejdli! - .14'n. falJe: ,(18$ DUdes ',",.on Grts 1$1; es der Sachbe:wWh .~e,.Bar',. :Dle ~'I1J~1t des Sa;dh.bI~'Ii8~ ~1.e9lt. s:omJl gs:wa'ht1. wolJiln. gegtllt mdli1liMll.en Coli!<tg:en Mal!; Bn:IStS S!eM ,oft ~e:. dem! 8acll1beoo1Che kimtlnlen weIden (fm FaIle der ,erwaJmlell. Ph~~ollaM' ~I:" 'Wldi ·Wolike~J'. ~ !j'emmlm~li eBmeltlll'Che J!l!il:d. dU dill(j'kl!,1!b~chen Collagen er~l1fpeEi. md~, aillI\e !me :E!eme:nte m ,eli'L:e.m V@rlltilMls del KbntlQiWtiil ~~:r s~. 'Wekht mit den CoUasen Max Erru!15, eme:r :swnanWcl'Len ~lrukl1on, dle auf :DJsp.arathelt del' E1am;ente 1m verh!ltnls melMndel' benlbt mer beglimt dtl£! EntWiCldung hb:\ zur semantlschenCcUag:e.

Nih1e! des ~mIlgms. dI;e. !iJn.t~chlEld.'e d'nl _MS, WId die Scht~_ df!'.S5f!Wlm 50 d~~$: da:e ~~1iI eii:tu elilzlgen. ~ Dillies ~.e1iI'L merm.l!em dIe, w;lc __ D\.¢Iil',Mlon, deruI. dle5S Col!lagen sind! l1:i'Cbt mehr aJs IiIQlcbe m ethrm.en" l:las, ma.terteUe ZUsammengeHigtse.tn und elIe VenwndUflg VQrgtlfundeneIil ~ WlM'disn .ZUI ~eeus;gebh:iI:'Id.et und skid mont meht mlc:htl:l;Qh. Die Entw:lcklUnQl von der M_at~fjalCQUage Zi!lr - !;Ichelnbar - rem sentan.tI:G'chen Collage ilrt aibEJftlchlolSen. DeI her'k.6.~e Be1l!rif! der Collage W'ird. $bei off~tlidb :inf· gelDst. daM der Bfiekt des Org~clien. wiaer niJII'I von Mate .. nal ad sw. ~ ww.., w1de:r~Jn'U:hl dar kiee dm k.u...bJrrtJsdhen IOOIlage, dle dies~ ruJe~t lIm JetieRA'ej:s ~ wrmeJ.d.&n tfiia.1iI!tm.

Elne weUem FQ;1Q'eliJerMaIeJilalwaW~iEmsts ba~e'liI'l:Uil (lm'Voo::. schl.ebUfl9i d8r semolsoben ItI~Gn du 'Oo.kge. lI~htem setn:e CQl1agen wt 1!l22 lIiI lWei!: ;s~lIsdlen ~lI.mil be~ eline Wmch!e'hlll'll gesen~ d.e;! ~~ SW!isen (YO'Iii.dec BmatdWdimoo Zllirm.etaphorisch~. ~l)1I1 der fti!m.CI,· ,el»metrl1l)1 150' ILegt rum ~ elne .VI3fsCh!:~bUM VQ'C dW'ch diJe' alli!liSchll.eiaU.c~e! Vi3twmd'lmg wn, H:o!uU~hen ~!IJ~ es kElllilie mate. nelb:!n fteJiitd.'WlID18Dte' ntebli; dIe ~t1$fert wmCi.em,ik'lkmten. llas helllU. dis' Cnmde1lemente deFCQUas:e metaph~f! ~t mehr 'C:te Fl'ie:mdel'en'Lente.. oomdsm samtlt(ihe ll~m'Sliits Wikem sablitdht nut noeh eDJtwed~r woodeIbar ooor Qle,1.Ihwllidig In Ihlw ~non, Ildier $Ie lbekommen d~ dJe~ell:le ,e.lne svnrtl;)olltohe Bedeutoog. Die ~tI5cl:le K!J;~!rUk11otl der C~'S wmtda;dlJICh entschled.en wenIger komp.lex l'lllMWhWch des Vel'" htutn!l!ses 'von. Grund· und Fmmdielementml. I:l~e:!!l Ve.rnW"tnis 1st emOOltkh autgelast. da es nlli" noch Pt~mdma.ter1al (geidebte CO]]a~,) oder sc'helnbares Grundinaierial (gedrudkte C'qlilage) _t U!~ ooer.WI3Oo der .rDmbiJil.a1iJ.on ~tlFllClJi! d1gpa. ntJr £le~el!lte e'belii:so 'e~chieden om .Komp1U1tW: :in.M[1~ des MnUJlJmWii .Matertal&. DaflRill.egt ,illIe V~hl:ID_g b\ det's&liIWIUsclle:n. :Ko:IiiWl,(k1!frm ,deI' 'QcMI.aue.

DIe con~n d,. llhlard.:mtiChv!1e:rs6Ne.hen , edoch l'dcbi'l mr Bl9ieMd~.ailttliil der GaHWil;g) ·CO:II.agei'. sm wmWken ,!ulldh. ASps'mel d.:e~ GaHllimg. Zi1!Im, BeispiiEil.l)enefl, dm A'WIemUid,e;r;~Imm.g' zomscJl,en ooUag;e U!I1I.d MalePJI.

~~. Anfan:9 am, seH de.nku:wtll:i~ ~bgem, a1~. lmlilliIDt. ron ·d1.1m1 wrg;e:fi.mdenen Mater.laJ1 etwas d:er MaJereJ Mmdes'm me Q'ie:mmren :Blllier lllileifl. Dwnll w~ 1m GrW1dWelil:9tl din .~ w1e (ouehoe, pemtm'e und Ortmnaista:l1.W, gertttlll1U .. oonage e'15Ch1en VOtIAllIangan, hlerlnlagll!reS'tNagkraft, $iNega.'IlOn der 'tmdltlonellen Mal~rei, I!nabesonde;re l~ etCh:l'm 19, lahrhwl\d.ert ausprJigenden tmpres:s:iomsi:tseh.en MaI~, die tCIlC'ne Wl.d, pemture OOt.nnt Immel" meJrr verdrangt !'limn dell :!/erslirkfie Ein· sat~ vorgeJ:undenen MaoteJialsd!l'e fradllJ.lcnellen lWMUe:r1iBclten ie~ srent sl.e In·fr;aJe. bls das lIil'litem an dem Srundwerten del': tmrl1:ltkmeDsliI M&e.rel sdl'dle611ch .~ BIns~ Qtemel.ben f~. SChmii be.! Dadaistu. wl.e St'1iI:W1tters ve:rll.m dJieH'ancllrHibe1l: des: ~a.lli Bede~, veril.eMlIIi?Jil!;Ht, Fa.Jba 1UIc!! Le'hiIIwand bel den COlJ)age.n .~ v,cmang, ,den 8!.ebel'i:l:enWb1s1em nccll,beSitzen.

I!

I

M~n~d~n und tedIn1sch wtrd. fiST EndpW'lkt ,der 'Qp,~lki.n zur Mll'eil.l'mft den. eoUaSW'! d.er mriam~e~ tUBroJU, (liji h:m amlsCNieBllclil. mit wrgefumlenem. Ma!tllfliJ S:iatbelte~~ wkd Wld die. (I\JlI~ RII.II£ ausR~pmdr'W(tlbmgi8])hl!k (H~~dt\'elll) :beMelilien" Ja SOQaI seThst. dllm::h F.te:mOO.I1~lil {glllikmclte CO]·

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~JJl iEI(j ..... m.uJ!il!iI1!.(I!:""lf,.M~ ll!~mWldILc9 millic~~dcplmmomb, Plli'J!. 1.9.22'

[ilJ I~m. Nti!!G:ha MIfftll'l!i!H}[I ditrJa,. Prill> 192cg', R.ffi iI~nc pmtc IilIl: qDi);roW~t~R" tm' 'i!l! ~~ ~ ~9$O .. cii m ... ~ d~ !l!lmU 00 111!!! ~[.sMm.cll!itl! ~B~It&m. ~l934

(tlllVliI •. S",Iiel. Wti~g •. IiIjj, FOl'mHlwi:.dM Fdg~: k11lntleili'C1ICIM:ootII~" iilli: ~n':MU'!a A~wcn~:dul!®lni I!)Hm~ WlI~" 1~1 S.1--n4'~ .s~,1~,

[4] V;gI .. KkrIZ, ~,.zgutlJi~dIM.oota~.rn llCuw:rLi~1i!#n.~d l{~~e:. inl'S~

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Jeder MeIsch braLlcht sis', ",.A_,"dlie Maschline ZiUIr BedimmiUlnlg diu eigenBIII Olescbleli:h,Uimh keit

~Imm,er vded~er mliiiSselil Sie ES wiss'enl IIlflild Inglebem 1lIllid ntldersc:hre,iblJo, lind wied.lemolen I!Il1d sieh, selbst SCI v,emalten tilmll'niiclJt aufhii:nen idamlh. Sie miiSS1emles sein. Abe r we~ches G!sdlfelClrt?

Sind Sie sich sider.' dass dieses., welches Si:e ebell1 8ngeg:eben habelil, aUl1.ih das ricMige WlJJ~7

Wi.Ji kOnmoo Ihnen, '~i~i;i! Mmhlne anbialen. SiJ! jst so gwt Wte g]!r3usdllos. lef:cM: ~um ~amtlt~bM PJld zum J'rn1l5pilrlii!rl~n. lIoil hin:t&:rIllss'llke:ine'Geibm~lihsspunm md~r S~fiiiil.e~ Jt.~wede~ Art\. ~"". i$1l!i~ MlI$rIi{A,YEfii~lIns.all.e.

Sre k'ii~lIen per Kno;~fdru':l!. .m jadler Ileliebigiirn 1ames~ ode~ Mnhl~~ ;alttue~e Werte thref ~~eiligenl Illisitilin illll 61!sc61ethlsfilum abrrufen. Dlls; GemUeill: limen binnen n1a«[11'1'~12 Minulell,mtt lUI wieviel PmOleliten Sielli1!alin1ieh Odlf weibDdl agi'erenlulldl in weith!!, ~d1.tu~g ~nrel irnomioneile Konsllllatio.1I gJrnde tlmdielt

Sft :wis.sen ,es dltlll einJff(:JI ~~ru gem_1III IJJIdl'kilni'ii!n lWiifigieren" in- 1SM!l~iel!en Ilzw. dmnai:h b_and~!n: SlGhr :uiaIklicht schn'eU !lJmi~~en oller 'I'i\~S au.:~ Immel': ~lles win! ej~flldI.er - WI~19ie ES'ljIjii5lSleim.

Eim r~p(eM el~l S,"'hw~iII und einige Vemalte:liSWide um'd i_cft~lIha,~ b:en ·SiullEs. umleine Spolilanana~yu ,wlmadhell.

Dis diilo y;,al'ieil' s.re sich ,mijgUcherweise si¢ber. ern fades, well se:h~ konSial1tes Gasch:laiCM ZIII besibE'fi .. Ab nun bring,t Illes(! iMaschine mile i!llln I!.eben .. Sie kiiflnen nun 'genal! Sii agierell', wie Sie WIllle!'!, obne Vel'SleUllng. lamne Rene 00:1'1' GewissMsbi~se. ~efteil!fl Si'esfdl von Iflrem a1t!n IGe!i~rnledlt-'gehen Sie mil d'er lEi1!IDie Mmmime 'yM Ihnen Si;cberlhen~ IreJII.Z68m,oderlalldem-s~hGn Sie def Rtj~lil ins;'\uge.

BESlFLlfNSIE,N(}'CH flfl1rE 'HIE ~"l SIE WMn.~ ES NIDUf BERElJfNl

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• ~i~,ffllJ! TJl!ndgullles dfe fartiti~~eft ~!l$eres Pl1iImuldE!s 1deal,I'luf dtJ l!IIliWltI!T Kumle:n ab-

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!Jlhie' l!tSaQl~ of an pho,tQcapier is common sirme decades. As wen as copy-an. clieap Uye.rs. cop:le-d objects and ohscene tilter.,uli· tlans.. In nu::e-.arch teriWl new mnctI.Cl'lilS :besJd~s scale land can· tr,EI.st were not tta,d;abl:e, ([lo copy tl1t:I'ee d~nm[ls;iQJ1<l'lI matl-et ]3 ttle oml.tllll> gap to 'WEiIlQJ,Jl\ri3Jlut phmo"Slraphy;.

tm k~hTl"~.m Z";Wtli!~ ~m, l1lk[,·.DM., 1976,. s,:z:tl

r~] 'Enl5C-~ ~mP. 51Sii, .f·t~

[6'1 1M &.r .... b.,l :i!J.t:!.«tlen fUI).UB~~Dcdil!lifio~ 'I~ M'iI'< [!im.ot .. ~., ~:LeI Wi!i!1 alli cllt- 't . dn!.~JlnlHrfOrir~h m ici~JI~c Arnf!OA-'~'-.I! iIt'~ ..... W1Itlml' !EI;'Par.1toiTll, d~il" ~Jma1 ho!:l~! 'ilS .,etI1IpJ)II1'C;1I~C·

I'll) IEl.flBr, 1'1'i'O, S.2M!. Jhd!.!rd!. o;I"n M\aoo E .... , iIIle Colila8)!' lIIlH1ldilln61Jliil aJs seman!;!d;., i'jrino:m,,~, bci dem fi~IliI!!nJiI~ !!I;1I1"!["~.' kuro,hi.-.IEH w,Jrd,. de.Grum.:. kam e o,im. <!o!t Foi,g;! :;m,dl1(;r ;::*mm V«~l!I!:'1mg .~~. Q"Ul\S:,e-&egr:;m (S'l!lfti:lk~.c amI~l'C;~ C~i:w1>I'~'r'; Ei~iolS~~lIIr[c"Il ctUrnlJco} 'um'l ,~gaci!;~ zu Ej"". ~.,jj .Ik-"""i[~~~orl!: ,il .... lh;c (jeile~ nUl ;~ 5m1a.fldEll\b~ Eliwl!11l!,11:!~t '~~fw.i, .... de ID1!ij .. kl Wil'd&Cnu C .. llig;; ~1!I1II1J11.[,1

[!lI.'gI. M.a .. Et.Dli~, Co:milfl"~.IIIr".entllr :lIod Wjgo::<JP"",dI, "".f" dm' A.u .. " ·.(I,1~ EmHt, '~'e W;,lit i1L!t' €o~, Kumtbnlk Thbiiro$~. i,'i.M,19S8-.27.H,1')'all' Killl1, ~1988. S.21.

['J!) V~. !Er.r.lB~·, 1~70. S.2l~·i6iI, !n ,d>:J!1ll gIOiiOhmilmil~"n A:1ll~IZ ~l;jl't Max 1lE1\M~ auf ,.li:l~ i:liL!Oi'l!llslCll~ FUl1.dJc;J.'1.mg deu 'J~~!Ji!l~1«:" ~ijn.det;'.Jj ... AtbL!i'L!fi5!, die mil:! jcrum ,oleo' r .. tillioooilli:!11. Mai~.fill brecih.'Ilfi

[10]1 Emrt. M!I'<. ~\~ .. i.1 S'iim"all.i"mg·i'" (1'l114), 1m: Mcit~" 'G'ijntcr {Hl;Jg.}! AI. die SmRIil",~~'n .. "'h ~bt I,.n~ii, HuIlldm. 2HSl,. &.l21

[11111 AI'oi~ .. m,lLc~;., ~~.i~~ sur l'm m~dc.I11IC.l?'iuil" ]y~;~" Sfg~-

[12] v~n. ;I:fl~~ III'C[i)~, .;M:1illtm.t.e 4Y S,.m!""iom.!' ft~M), lin, ,~ .... , O!mrm rom.jllhO;J, IId.l, P.ui'l; rn~~ii, S.3t3ff~ vg!1 f~~: .51';';$;. JJ'J!IUI,!lJ~~ lIm'a dlclli., HlmJIl.Cf d~A!f."\.i"'bitl.'i '\i!n1ichtl.Il" [(U~.rv.IicW·roD H~n'i: NCKbcr~JQ~lo!o, ... itW~mer Sl'l.," ,ijJ~ I(un.tfu",m; IM.uS, S.pr.lO'kl. 199~[. S.39~; ~gl.l!uc" S.~96f>

[~srV;gL B...,~c.., 12;11$, S.31]!it

[l1l]'M~ ivr>!'I.",Au-d".1iI <I", '" f"nm~·U~il7l, l~,:dm~ itmhll§, Pnri~. W;1a. S.;~_~~" ::?)\U hrin.p_ ~r., witlw:n~ii!ilhi!lil;(OlmH ZkJ. "l!!l. ~u~1l D<rcrooJ1 •• :\ruil'Co, "€~~."",d~ ~"""U!;D" m..a.m.~!-19.2J,), i~: &1'11., 1958, S.:z,99

HS11I~.to". 1.988, :5..338

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U71 EbdJ. s'319, \l'g!, ,,",.:}; &:.ll., LI~ll,,.l1ip!iilll"nm: IlUd~Uro(l), immr ... ~"'\w sur lifin m"O~~ •• li!nio:i", ]~c~;l. S.2~.

[18;] ZiO!i!' i!1l1, lll:\l}belgo mel.,,, (Hr.s;.l. l'.lomm:l!g¢ an MIIX im~. \l!.cs hWbyriJJ!lm'='!· IJ~ SD(U pa~ &it~ pourlCl'dJ~Il!~', IJii!d •• 'ulJd. HIli!!.., 1920 his 19(1'l, K"3L dc~Auli1t. G.alcl'lc IlIllBberg i.licrll~, 2:U>S.·06.]O.1'!:t9'O., R(O~!~ ... 199m" SA6

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~;2.(I] A~(,:v.:.."lg-"fer 'im :F,lmib • ...;;'<:l1,.,.. le BOor FlI~l!mfltlil: Rose HIDOBrt ~\W3~,) des 'Am~hlli~~m Su",""lii;bl!~.l~'f;;]i,Cjjtntoill, d.~~III'IIbrJ~~n '!"m M~ ~1:mtCQURgp!-Ji[.,.n m6piiricrt· ~l!'n!o:o i~t. wml hi •• ni:cib~ n"ibo>t eiii~Jt-li1~:fI,. ria (;I. ill.lllc&cm Beitrag um P"jiW:i:rn! 1l9ill<l!li!d1.1l P'uikd~m gcht.

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1 A.us: J!'wLJ]IEI~DJfdlMIIiIIi'Er~u. hcs mRlb"",,,,, d •.• i:m.m~[I,;.l. ~l'J!22)

2 A~B: Mthl Efll~t;, U~c~lI1lil1nc de OO!lI~ Q.,_IJ1 • ." •• pl i!l •• ml!Ol!' Ciipll';1UX. ~,~9n) 3 Mnx .1::[('I&t, Au-dCl'l-!Js, ~C$ I\Ullge5m"..dl. .. 'b mllili.I .... 1 'J2I!l-, KIhIiL1icli.t, Pd."'11[ 4-ti t'lt'u: Ernst • La FcmmclOO Tctcs (192~)

An addiitlonallnt.erta.ce {or. lYm·dtmensional mput dev:ic:es: It enables to iI"e,ad the en:vimJ1Jll.eIlt frn ,front of 'the lm:1.~and produces" mOlmttldon <'I c(i)py·maah~, aiii'l immedia.te !Pl'mted !J)ictur,e Cbi,W' anti C'Ow~');Whl!l.6,retlo:r-dltl,g the sntFSO.D.pntc;n~oore hsst.eil:le can" sld.eWd. Illluij' sW;)M1 protolwe voruy w;o-rh ln oombmatiOOil wiifl:l. f1gihl: s-ensltl.ve maChilleili. It a:oo:ommod.ates the name of a photooopiet orr 8 very bulky polawtd.

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A disability is a oonditian or tundioo judged to be 'ign:ificantly im,paired relativ,e kI the uSlJal! lih:e term liS Ofl:ell used to Jf8fer to individual fUlletionillg, including physical impqjlmnent~ sensory impairment,GPOr:litive imp'aJirmEm~, intelh;!&ruall impairment. lih.ey: are waiting fo~ yourd'ona.thllliS!

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PIB_ 'willI, DUT 'WB!miIs at trttp:n-.sos·OOfI!pu!enfoo.mOltopo.do FiJr q_liDrm plBBBB cooteCil MDliIZWlII Pam 000978000456,

,~, YQudkl:tirr:t wde<:slaIll.GIa. wetdt I:M Q~ tl~~ qll~iiIlolli m:al lit'IuslQ. iii j;looPlilriy,oseq,t greally; CDJilfi'Wu.i.es ~.o lfueQliffi fO·i use 1m ItI Q,owel'es!O 1\!Ia,¥ .~ ynm btltas ar p1l.lWicatlo ~~~U$ed i1S me4lcme.

0e.liIJln Plelcllifes me d~ed as IE!medl:e~ ,!!S~ Ifi IPassl~RS of 1IiIr~ !RIUl. as ,also ~ ide~pderrey; and g_~ of the Melhi. ~ ]\ el;ltpkli ol:her melodies a~ati)S!I $ver ood Itq,e. and:all .crnw demlitUllS m fue sMll M!l~b:eJi IkltJd of m~a!Jla~JII1SlIill· wmledag~st desires". r l!Ib:~e! use dl<m~V, i!llJFi!:til'I m atcmn. (pmt:ed by w~ [~;, \Ilm.Stea<el of 'lUiie Plipe,wlil!l~1i'l ~~ Em i!:Ii\!leill'~e ~l'{~Le:in!lo])e:nif:ie. ~9 ~a~l, alIld ltiy ~ m"e~!i il~~lir,ail.

l!Ud :Y:O!.lI p:1 rllle polll"l11

HVf.,." because ma'lh,emati¢!> IlSmusic for the mmd ·!md mlJSiC' Is

ma:i'lematJc!I fOr the soul oomebody;s:add qmre, Since Pl{tJi grasped Hvi1: S1Q'W dovm.l!.yjJg:l!. ]j hmrel'l~ Mtsn,e(J,.,

tbe'm~el'\!al wtU!1.n'i'\llmmcaJ V'ah.ill:!$lt1tere,hais been a stmngnl'ld m wesism, ml$1cl wlM.cl!! ooli.'ld 00 e~Ut~1! caned rMurlfIon of m· ICl\ltlaan~ loral.l9l'llel!ttation ,(!If QQIililP[exi!Y,!E\'ilr exaD!!rPter 'li1i.elWei!iliB w.11Iie<s~e ,cD SGh&i.l),grg, .BUt Instead IGft'l'lelve ~es, we omlll1tallle ,elgH~eell.,.,

s,: ,.. iOlgiliL~een, trtl~15 w1l.iB:d Wghly ml!iil'~ me P.Q'5:S~~ ooffiti'l .. mlfb.M. :RIit. ~' IiI'l.01n£i~t wfl,tJ,n o:empi'exity [si'!lllillgm~us. Wllm.· pllitfiS: Cllme lIrI'I:o ~y,

H.,F: ¥el)i, YQs, w~ iiillltnmv ,about that. We w,iJI not :navil to near, the IQZlIg V:'l:lf!il.Q'n ot Ule !l~t:y-: M't me exp,laIn, I!.ul§l, PYtl:t ftldused tile cllaotlc plentIrt:UCle (if Infinite posslbie tones wU:hIiil·the aat;avg to ,iii ,sy,stJm 0.1 ~WOOil 'tQ:ilQ.~ 'bY: 'p8t'liiilg iii slt1n.g llUo t'!NO,; ~lilme ana fhr,e :sectlima. [it '~ .ilia. ~rn[h.lced 'the ost\l~ 'Uilequ.OO" ,aIiIa tiile fhkd, IA'II ~Hls IS ~tei Inllne willh~rildreolQgy, 'Cin'iiLlJie9"eIiSl~e~l'o:I'J,W&WiLe oft~ :and tile' 'lJrIhadi iJ®mes~91 Ule n~ pdi1!.eip1i~ lsiii~; :It, ~,?

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NUr iii der:RockmWlik dllskull.el'lt man el.eli'tl:'ornfOohe (Audio-) vers~rke!ll heumnoch 5l'l emphatiSc!l wie zu Zeilen der. iKy:beEi1etik.

Auf we.nigstens drel ve:rschiedene Welsen -liest\ man all~ del' Re~oIlAo;IR.oo(k We~~lrt:e [Ill- hat der Vel'starket die RotkAsthetlk C1l'ielihalwt ers~ m1ilglfch gemacht: Brst Itil~ 111m kan!lten grosse I(o:n~erthl.-illen wen. wn [ijllativ klelnell, au! ()ie[ Hlilme tmprovlS,lerelll1iel1. Gtuppenaik.ust~sii:1:'lgemUt we·rdan. I!l!ichit lmerl'l:r im.:tr durGlh em e.1iti1.ges:pl~~te!!i Sympho.l:l!leQlrohester. zudem wurde ;«Iitgtfliich milt der elel<tron!snh:en 1iIer!>HllikunQ a.utcl'l der Elektroniso:he 'BaJ13 el'IlI!l'lden, del' ein sondes ]3,ty Btl'at-F1mdamen.t mil" den SOIJll.[[ e.kner kleman 'Oruppe !be1"e~slellen kollllte. Mit Hille von elekttmllschen Verstarl!.eiF.Il karu:ne niehl luletzl dle I<lang~i¢h.e :8igIMlll1' e;mzeln.e'lT Ihsl:t.ulnel'llle, VOIr al!e:m der ,Gilrtane. iJel:ad:ezu gesprengt we'IiQen. Seiitdem glbt ef>' priJIk.ti~.h de mogtlc::heof1 l.lndUI\ffiiii9~h:rherl SQW'ldarten, die .in Ki:lmblnatioIl ode!! J(emmntatlol1i van ilhs<l:i1umeflitt und Ve'fsti;irket e:ntstehen.Folsrt man den thooret:lscl'l~!1 It\.ns:at:2e.1'I von Rea!l~nto-Rook.. stelll mer verstfuiker elilI wlJ.;j:;5arnes Me~!llm dar, daB technLS-Cl'le wie .kilnstle.!sche Vozrga!bel1 m.acht, iDaran Si:1lWte.mt <men. OW franziiisl5:dh.e WOJ'imaltiernstliieoretllrer Abrjlnam Me~es an (21. wenn IU den Verstfuik.em I1t[1lht rrur pr,aktlsc::nen, $onde!!i:'I auiSln. ilFl!teJl.ektileUen N'uJtiH~II, 1,mteISrellt. lD:'ioofe.n .s1~ neue Felder ki.instl~,FlseI1eil Sc::hart~Rs e.sClf1;l~eJ1}en Konnen.

Wichtlg in d!er .rol?Jkmlllsik.a11:GGih~n ¥erst,Eirke:t:th,eolile erscl:lelint die AbgreI1zung elektro.nlscher Glltam:e plus Vers~kev vonemem voll.kolil:ltmen eJ~ktrnrus€he.n Gernt. ww etnem Synthesizer: me:s~r btetet zwar un.el1ollch viel.e, Mog;llchkeiten der sliHmdlgenerl.eillUng, wanrendclleelektmnische jJIM'ITe, ooen w.ie V@Fal5 verlfu1g:el'uug d.esRocl!;:tllIusikers. tn Ihren MOgi~ohik.eire'n bescnrtin~t bleilit J'edq.c:h fLeg'! ge:rade In diesem berocllr2imkWn System sus E·Gi~ ood Ve:rs1~rkev ~. He!aUs:rOlidiemng f(;ir de:n Mtls1ke.; cler astheltiEne HochsUeL!!lliFigen dann er:brlngt. W\\l11!n eF die Gre:tue;n tli~ge;s MeflSohJMa::,wlliirle-Systerns dUi3teslel ullin {UilU zu setzerl versulilh:.t

'Kllngt fa!;lt. ais 0.0 Hoc..k:muErtk i!<fu~sWQhe-rntelllgenz-f.orsGlh'IJng nach Llcldilliet hetl'e.Ibt. dIe iflaVWI (ausgeln, daiB, I:f'INertl~Ilzvetstllr!kung n.tal1t vo:rmngi'g mit k:lassische[ synl1het~5c.her Artilicla! m~U1gerlce zu tu!ft hat. sood~rn Wlr ~je.ro mit Met1s:cl1i-Ma'S<1hlne 5iChnlnsteUen unci Nelz'.ve'rken. Wle k;mn mart VeItstdrk..e1:' also dieflffi,erEll1Iril

li)er AntthropoJ.o~ Wild Kymemetllrer Geroog;y BateSlO.n hat In emern BeiSpiel VQm !nfomlleJ!ien Hund dargelegrt Wa.S Iil1a!l1 W'1ite~em~m VeFstB!'kell kybern~tisCh vetstehen konnie: wenn eIi elnel'l Hund sf:hwaGh wltt, lI11rcl dteSler. dUtch den iVra:!l ZWatr f1l.c]:U b~wegt_ .mer darflber inrornllieFt. was Uateoon will. Eier Himel, WElrlne!' wl.ll. De:t'U1t:Zt ilarm se'Rile eige:ne El'I.eIt'91le, urm daS· zu too; vI-as ert als Enfo'Fmation 1J,erstarldenhat iBat'esol'ls Ene~g:le dient dabei mil' zur Steuel'un.,g de!li HW1Ideener.gle [:3']. ¥erstarker s:lnd. also N'[,ecl:\arus· m.en, In welch en eine Energle mitl:eIs einer Z'de~ten .Eneligile gesteueFt w.ild. Sle sina. (h~shalb .saruwo:lI, well man mil: de. Sldhvffi.chen Erwrgie d~17 beweg1:rurt G!LtaJ!l'e:nsailttID die strok:e Enerole des :Verst~ .. ker:s steuem k,EIim. oder mit WlijW!ig GitllreneneI'g;le groBe

Ver.stiWke:rener[lie nutzen MM. IDeF !A;LiIS':bucJ<. Ve[s.tfulke,. lieF!l[:i:'u1eiert dabed.lilaf:l mie Enefl[fle moot V>ersmrkt 5iiH'ltdent d.~.ijh erne smrkero &lergle er.setzl Villa.

In:feWgence Ampllfl,ef

Der blijltl~he Kybemelillwr l!\i'i R8SSAAhbY st>li:re!bl [956 in .l!ttroduction to ~beFnet1cl": )}E\R lJersrilirke. 1st im allgeme-lm.e'17I~me VOI:'!11I!ihtuVJ..g, aHe men. abg1b].ds man ih, zU!!fofijhfit: hat.« ~4] Wle jedoch der Kram-yhrrer durrell s(!i~r;te 1I:!l].De;lt! am St!li1!le:ilpult rrnQht di!reld sum Heben des Haup~gewi.chm beitr.1lgJt, so ar;lJeit ka1.>:1m eill Verstaii'ker dl'Jl~lt! mrekte '\feJf9lrC;ilBenlFlgi des Ehlffo1ll'llfFssi.gm.aJ.s. lD~e FI.aflmesse balm V@rstfuken Ue9it I:'l.a.n:dl.eh, sa Ashby. in del' V~r· .ragerul'Ig delli P:mze'Sses a.uf zwei Eben:ffi1l. iDj,e M!tnI.!m.q iIFI ~wei Eibenen. lmQ dIe KoJ!lpeL1lIi9 zweler SlIsleme ermibgl1I?Jhnelst\:lngs· VE:Fstat:kung, oN!e den Energle~l'ha1ti!mS'55a.tz a~er ·1:<1:S!fl Zl!I ,set· zen. fioeh. se fahFl: Al'lhb't f(!)~t, kun man dileses: system dar VerstaFk'tln9l1JOO UmeliS!1)nIedlit'Jllen Seiten netrachten: auf dereineJ'l Sei@ glJJt es ift~r denlWleo:retlke;r, den lfureta'uMeuf lilies KraJl'S. keil1~ ecihte Ve115t~l\k!.lln9'.weil e[: den froze.B geplilF11 hart lIDci weill. dalB ;jet K(an salbst von elPleJi .EJiJ~Fgteqilelle :ooUefert werden mull fur del'llPr<l!ktik~r. den thmUit:1i~[ dies ~s, aagegeFl. iS~ der I!.eist,ungsver.st:fu:k'er sensr reaIlJndli praRooeh. werm er dawn aus- 91ehen Kanno .d.a!J3 besthtlimte AtJ1Je'iten on:lIle jim gar ml.o1it rnegllilth sind.

Ashb'l mteress:[,e:f;t stell J.edoch v@rrangrlg fuit emen IFI~el~lgellZ.· Verstavl!:;er, dessen Fl'lFIlii.tio:mrn er .nrl(')~t nu.~ fne8reitlsc::h ~~e~l'i,d.ht, ,sondem sogar in FOHn ein.es Hom6oo~aw'lil z;eallsler't [5]. IDaJJ Ve:rsWi!Jktjrtg iiibel' ge'koppelll:e sy5'lell1.e aJl.Itolh ffrt iRegeluJi1gs· und. S:e.lektioIlsprm,zesse'iJ:ol'l groJleF Be'deutung ist. zelgt er am Beispiel veri ~wan~jg Miin[\'Letln, die zwettauser:td Mlla.me ~[1 T'empel'atuli undJ f:euohtlg!ke,tt k.onstan~ haHen sollen, 5eIbst, >WJ.11I1 .~eG1er Ra~m mit fil!tu5teUoog~i!lIefiit€:il al!J!jg,esta,twt ware. MtHliVl di~ zwanzlg Miili1.ner nicht die Kapa~jtat alle atmofOpl'li:'iii.s[:~en SchwarnKmgel'l durcn die Bedlenung a!;l!; Ge[a.te dlrekt allsZtlgtlelc:1le!1. WeFlFl. !lflUI:lI abeT MascNnen wmh.aJhden wtlr9(rl, au! 'Nelohs (i1)~e Mallner se!i;l!iiba!s Regu.latorE:n elllWll'klsn. M0Ilfl!1te ekne l(!llmaanla.ge EH1Sl:elJJt werdeti Ill/iii; deF aJUclL zlweUau~€:JlJdI F!i.a,ume reguiier:llle. w~rel'!_ Srn kO:tu:i!oe effie' fl.egu]atioll'l. !!lIe In einer SWie mlc:ln mag-lien ware, m zwe;t a1;lf· gle~t, machbar :;oel!il,

GrUl'ld5iitzl1c'h ist Reg"tihmg mil SelekUon vi3JrD1,(lIildeFl, ode~ mit Asbl.'W iji91O'agt H'Um f'lIl!ne:m iFtagile[ ZU e.fhalteFl. tst Ausw-al:Il wesent .. ililch.«' [6] ID<Ibei M~ Slich, me GiBe[l ge2:elglt. {jie- zwel- oder- mehir· .stl'l!!191e., iFlilj;rekt'e Methode dar 'Erg.aru-ung' a~s ulDeIilegen eJ1~·'lesen. Das g.~~t; laut Ashl:rl!{, atli!:h f(tr das Gehl.l!n, etas als Sp:lelci:1.e'.lI.:lFId RegulatQi!ll 'Ion Vielialt begren:rta Ma,pazlt8it autweist_ Velfstt\!;KI.mg er;reitihtffi;:s Geh"it'lrJ.:S duroh Er.gan~ung ~US d~l' Umwelt Gel"lst:mil.UlF und UlnweltltagifliIl. da:!.u bei, dJill das Gehl1'n 1m. LaU!fe des Er101J'aGihsel'l,wardefl;;; ein.es Grgan!smJ!l;s BFl Regelfal1iigkeclti g,ewll:mt lDl~ IFrage; ®Ib d~eJOe VerslHrk111'l9' liI@~)h weiret 9'est~tgeVil \i'iferden kOnne. iha.t! .Ash~¥ mU emem Kb!:1lzapt .zum rntemgel~c~ .\I\mplHteli ];j~antwl!ll'tet. lnte!ligeFlz ""tt'd daoe'i alLlJ Rwbleme berogen: IDle 16sun,g von Problemen ris,t jedoc::h weiltgehel'ldi einel .'3acll.e de. <l!iil:a~ten p,uswahl. und 50 .k(;TI.1'I!te ~tlltellekf!lle!.~e \Fah:~gkejJt als diie Fahig,keit: zl:l angeme.ssen~u; Se1elktlcm besclU'ieben werde-Fl_ VerSiliWk.W"J.g w.are daM die Versta[i1tung dell SeleMioFl.Sra:t:Ilgkeit iJ?J 8ltua,t!iJnen ilone!' KOmp1exlt~t

E:S gibt a!Sl[j [:1.robleroe. fUF ~ie man [jfuoun,~n s!.!I.cht. 1\W.m weill sehte!bt :A.5hby, ~ irgendielne Zw~nsibl,gie mit wm:iUilig WeIell var,iat100.srnogli~~ke!teil. werm s:le IIlI1r lange' f]enu.g is'l. aile

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-

-

ILIA

rifIm1I!e:~lwerdlln,inclem SEl]ek!oon5tauf Z'!NEllode.\m,e'h~ Ebene:n, von ~lIDppelte[lSlisteomlin. w~ge:pomnl~Vi8rde;mWICOOOgaJ:ilwl$!',idafi dte ~~~~en tl!e~ ~~leI:enISelek!tl'O[len vefl!Ot;hle"d~:n ,SJDd. Wah[l3~d,i;l)e1' KonsW!J~teurr ailS 1E!1ne;rn itle~st:lll[lm~'Em 1I\W)QiWdhkeilen-Set ~ru.swaf;!It:.

. wIl.ffi~d1eM'asea:me am. eln:em~:reI'lSet: iliusammen'bl1ttensleeln S'lSlem aus zwe~ Tellen, "em ~TIstruRtellll' un~ tilielill ('rnascfinl~ le~ ~ektlali5'ile:rs~Rel', das liu;lgesam:t 5clekJtlve:r, das heID!!. 1m sln!ne ~hbylO, il'lleUig~nte'l' ilst, ats 'Ihrr KOnstl'W!JteUl'. S!;leli em' System w~ i;IM.hal:lpt eliGJt ~ ij,er I!.age\ (l(robleme su ~ijsel:l, die Ub!lmi1l.,eI1i. 'H.offitzOl"lt elln€:'S E1itIZeltren ihlrIa!usg:€:llgn,

IiIm die SU0.hdalller- sOJ)c;I'tffi" Ye!l!fehretil. e1riZus.~h!r~n. em~ehlt e:;; si.cll ~al!l.t ~ i:n!rio:[ihaifu lJQn M@delkn. [ijehrt: ill! .met phy-$[SCfl~nEW~11it!t zu SU~fwlll, urn so Ol,uNh a:!l'91lSOlIit\.'[lU3Iles iW:iswl'll iI:l IFl:'lI1rnt 'VOll Be~klUl'lgen em'tiEo,Ziell:len Z1IJ.I'k.QJm~Il.

iA:Sht;ws H .. ,OOWYils:mt komn ~ diesem SIDI:l a~s ·mt!ier.ste ·elel!iti:Orlische MOOeilll b'eilJ'acnte1: wefdQ;n~ ~ ~se elne!; imteUig,enl'N:e:rsta1"lffillS ~lJelit G.aJlZ 1m Sii'1:ne ~r ~bem{!tlki cgeflt eS! .be:~ d!~esro; ~en!li(\[ftt rnn Mai~1J.aillIien UI'lid ~kiglen. sOli'Itlet:n urn \KotiistmkUons-mLd ru[lkJtlon~;emal<l, Qde!V: wte ~shh~ :se.gl:. !TIll 1!1er.Tha1tenswelsen

l!Iesigt'i Amplifier

Vein I'van Sutner!ancl!s: Sk.etchpad r9] jnspim;iBtI:, vers.ucht Nlchol.:ars Nieg,roponiB ab den spaten ~ 900j€f'~.r.n den €omPUJter, zu eme:r .a:rct1!ltecrnre mR!:lhlil'l.e' [l(i))zu ~aoherL Wenn man den comrnllJLe, ll')5OrUitmm ikol'n'Ue, l'Il.cht roJf em Proble.lliI. s(;:l:ulttwelsl3 ZU l.6sen, somjen~ au,oll Metho.den fUr :L;i}SU_ngllu Z1J flriIden. odel'! g~r MetnodJen fili' .M:ethoden ffir Mst.mgen, d<mn mMte mati lhm Al;lto:reru;cl:'llaft zu.gest'0h.e:n. nann, 50 extrapol~NegriJIPonte. w~re die' Kteativitat der: M.a.S·chlne in giei~hem MaJBe VON der r:rutiatlve des Ent\'lle.rIe.rs oUl'labnangig,wi.e· unsere ErnW1ine :von der te'liire unserer I\lmeu losg131ost smd. Da:bei gene e mcht Ullbedlngt urn Masctiinen, di.e Archlteld:u.[ maohen, Vlem'te'nr U'ln Masdtfnen. die tiber ArC.il1t:ektllr lemenund libe!!' des lem'en uber Arc:hlteli:tur [,ernen kfu'ln~ell'l.l!l~e alli~tteMe Pru:ttu3'.sdMfi zwisCh'im ArcJl1tek.t und :Maschlne wall (line zwischien Intel1lgenten 5ntemetl;die gemelrnsam e,j:n evolutionfu-es System lormieren konnten, Als A!l:;;~ste'l:"Ir smUte die l'lIrGlhilem-.ure maenme lerne-n, Zieil'(l Z!U ass~l!le.rell unCi wie ilIlaT:! dl.ese efre:ionen ~tli!IDte, s,le soUte menschllohe ]diOS·y:niluasleil velfsteben. slll: s:ollte lernen, slah zu v\,u'oesseFn und etl'ilsch zu hal'l'cte\ft, D)a![lll erst, :sO Ne~OPOllJle. ~ekamoen ume reelmel1lschen und iIlfor;ma:tlschen Fah1gk€ilten erne R.el.evartz jeTIsellS von ninii'.n Weoot!Ugen, die g~iges EntwerJen rrux mOd~s(;:l1lmd s'cmellef. Sle<lten aber bUMger maol'l~n,

M:asclUnen. a5sistiel'te Atchilekl:uF wiirde sbchan ;wei Probl.e" men. abru:belte.n: A:rchitelkten \kfumen ehnelseits ni.cht mit 91roaen Pttoblem.en umge1wIi1, vreil dlese eu li::omp~.e(l:; slind. )Il;.ndJererSei~ Ignor:leren~e k:lemePmblerne; weUd1ese zu s,pezieRI, ruilndividuell una zU ltt:lVial (tIT S:!e smd!, mel:<D,ilsequem: .SIE!1. daB il!n den USA ~ 19(8), weOlllge'li' als funf prozent det: Wofmgebal.l!c:l!e und W'ei:'lilge1! ats eln f.rnZ(!nt des StadtraulruO 'In die Hand!! protessioneller Bn~me[ gegebeJ:"l werde, Dhr lronie. so !Negropeme, lIegt m clef if'atsache, hUmane Le'bensril\:lme nw- .nm HlffiJe von MiaschmeIl zu el'reiene,l'I, dl.e msn biSher aJ!s: inhumane Ge!l1Me betracht,et nat. k,cilodti kQnn.en g,e:rade d1ere G efi~ am l'Il.elne, irld~'!ll.dlw.e!le, ",ich stfuldlg iID(lefnde Bhts von lllfOT!majlollen elngehen, dte nlcJ1t nUll die IndiVid'Uall.t~t led~ ,stadl:bewohn.ers, sonliler.n aueh die Ka'I'I.tI!nt~Ua'~ der i3W.dt Vo'i~piegeJJn,

E:5 stelle slch ~ !3dit;Jcnrne F:l<lge. ob e'lne M\u;chme aus dl.esem. MEiel!1I01l Dalen Antwol'tel1 aPleJten kOnnle, .tJegI1oponw kamt,e zu dl,esem Zieltputnkt ~iltie'li1 Zw@'lf~~; man sO'lI5ilch m1l' dlas Theorem VQfl MaGul!lIilGh und Phl.ts ills GleiliichlfiisMen, nacn dem elll mit bestimnllt,en, fOlimahm, regenerartiven :L!lOpS ko:nsfI'iule;nWr> Ro:bo:l\er. m der la.g;e wo";jjre. al!Xs einlllr e[ldlic~en Me1"I,g:evoll'l !P~a:liI1tss!lln jede legitime Folgen.lng: ab<luleiten. Auoh Ashby:!;: OIoon beslilIT!11ebene AJi:I;Ssage, d10ill ~n. eln'er aiusr~!Qhenm~a:ngel'l Zutallssequenz, JOOe An!twort zu tmd~n SEii. besrntigt NegropoI'lte in s~1I'Iem tliiel1lretlsdhen. Konzept Elitnlllf ArGill.tektlJi~ma:sahlne,

Fth'd MontagE!(OO'ile ~'lUrd.e die M<ischlI'l.e entbialt'en: .etnen heUJi:lstls:clie:nMec.nanismus.(hem1stld mecha1'llsm). e<!nenRoutiile App_am.t ~l'IiIte ,apparatusi)~ em l3ear"bejtungs!'JYstem '(ooncliiOO:ning diWice). ,ein A:US'lMahlio1ystem (:reward :sele[')'ro,r~ und eine fUrlktl-ol:l zum Vel!ge55en (forg:ening oonveniefice).,

Die HeurW!Th diem dell E!llscli!rimkung des 5uctlraurms, so d,EIlB die :Marscl'ilne zw.a~ lwlri.e :[t"Q3L1l!'Ig',efl geschwelg:e, c]enn deT! oPtm1l3.1en g'dil'al!ltlerell 1<0100, j ediooh ZeU! sparen hlHt. Eine Evolution dei[ Masdlme llige. yor aIIIem 1m. Ausfbau des hernigtl!5cl'ten MooholtJtsrnus m. Z,ug,mnmenalfbelt mit clem A:rcdNtakIan, der mel'ui IDld mei1r Problt!'me und SliWaUonen ,elngeben :w'ilrde, Nac:n. elner W~Ue\llurd'lm Wiede'rlilQlung,en vom Routinemecihanisml:1s abel1l1omme;n, ·um. roo.UlJ:'Ida!l'lI:e Awg<lll:len me Pa.l'kp~aJbl;l, Al;ltzlIge,

etc. Z!lI IDS.et'lJ, Wie der MenSdFt bet Wglicli.el'l Anroliclelitl!Ii'lgen !lurch Gewohllheltenunt-e[smtzt wlrd, oolite: der compute!:, annli€lt e<iFtern pa\1'low.5~ne-l"I Hi:lFld, Same elge'Ji'!en kml1ld!tl(!)l'I.le~WIl l%e:fi1el<,e enhvl~keln, urn Stanclm-dproblem.e' der Arcllltekl'1.ll" i!lsEln zu helieJ)'L, Das Eioorbe1tungssystern SprF!lrigt damn eln, Welil:R ]]ek,annte lruotiirlattlanen. verO'Lfibeile;t werd.en ilUus.-;;en. D8:5 ,!I!;.uf>\l'<raih!~sf:em solite im Sinlfle des Entwel'ifers" der daira~jj Ellliit'.vedel! 9l.Oic;:kn~n olfleF ellittauscl:'lt reagteren mrO.!)te. Zie~e undEtrQ"iI~bn:i:sse i1bel1v~Gi:len. l!!l.ele~ und wle:tWttlge funk,Uen !ii>es :Vel1g~Sen3 SilJr.g1 daffirr, (iaJij obsolete InfomlatiorJ.sn ube1i die Zett hlnw'eg v'erschviltldJen,

Dll~e nohitektmalJ1aflCnln!fj ware lnri BIDa aufge-stellt wfurdie 24 StuJ;'Joen am Tag ar:l:ieite'n unO! ware mIt e,jne'lll SeFver verieJullden. dar .Rectl.erueiStung. Spelclie<F]1llatz. und ~rntni!lll'Jlkatle!l m:lt ,;md.-eren ArahLtekten wwanFlelsten oomij', I!.:m.gWl-stlg :some dles:e MasdtiI'le ,AugeiA' un:ta .anren' haben. um selb~ FOl1me1'!l \va:ll,r·neruneil, I<1:Uer:lsl'I s~melll und eann eig,e:rtBt~dlg Form. generi.erom:r leisten au kGill.17Jen.

Illl'eSeenllil,!lSiastiScihe Vislen ntrmmt Negro:ponte, geIaute.r;~ durch dile e'l'SW gmBe Welle parrtltlpato:nl!sc'JlJ.e·l1l11n:e-o~jlil m mer ArO'h!te.J:<tu~,. lunE !la.hre s.pii;ter zurock, urn sue dmcn das i:'Ie~~ter.g1eialuem.e I<!;m~ept emee; Deffign-~rstar"kel's zu er,Siijt~Ein [II). DlI.esm;a1 some tile Masch~ne kejnerRep]JRatl~1l eJRes\pate~llI a iist:i::;chen l!l:rcl11tek.tewl sem, deli vorgibt was I1lchu,gW'lQ was f-a:lscli lsi. l3fiigeroete1l1· gwlQ" waf mas S@l'Ilag:worl der fr:liIhe:n s,1eIbzigeF Jahre Wil,(jj, Negropeae will eme:tl'l. Ei1twJa1il:;p;l',e:b"5l~rili:er emvv-imke'l!r.t, diew als Ersat:q.IDil Il1ttenlionel'l jede;s: el!i"J.Zemen Se~tzeFs a.lt5m'be,l,te;n Imd teelu:lisG:h b!;lgm,EI(;:~nel'l soHt~ llrif\;lm1llel1le MaSiC1'ililen wfllrdem alsechte \7€(rliIDge:rrung de<s Zl,ll:tuiiift~gewJ Be'~l'rIlEirS a,glere'll. IDabel sOlUte d!eselt das Bnt'l'litI,pfei'l so;rus.age11l 1m !l'IadagQglscli s.ifnnv;oilen S[pje] e;!11emern; ev btathJte das ralent u~Jlen:i,gerl, der am besteJ:1lWiill. "I.'1ie er \lJQbn.en mi:ic'f-ltell!md der C.orolill,lWF hffidhte die !Kampele~ Z\[F Reallsle:F1.mg,

NiMili'lh:th-lctrtd hi€iF deut'e'I s.lch an, W\i!FIl!It1. s:lah. Archlt:ekhm !lticht auf DBI~e.r mlit dies€irn .MSatz aritre'unIli8i1 kmm'I1Ie1'l - war'e es, Parl'ltiZipatlon !!lin 0qe1T her. e'W! SpaB. so iNe-gropellle, weltE] men elgene Nl,\],tzU!ngsatJ!rol[f~el'mQen In fGunalem 'IaFgon be.ri'illlMer AFl;lhitekte:n, vlelleicnt sogar Vil]uv-s odeF l(I:t[])l!ler·le·!r)fucs, umooUan kOnrnt,e.

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Happln.ellS MachineJV

Krum man bhs: h!€iFVBrI elner wlis:tatikteFI Im!temgenz und Kteatwit&t aW;;gelH3f1, ferJiJt ~ern Al~.esve·Fsb¥iiker tat:l:i\!l.chlttih rru:r MCll:1i der Z;ug;l1lrffal!lf mOc:kllcl'lkelt Demel1!l!Ipreailenai Imtel1ptrl'1t!le'rro: cle:r tlJrkh.c:Ile' Kybe~nel1lwli' All hum I961 .Asbbysl<onze'.lilt nfc;:li.t ol:lrri.e I~ tmd SlLIbve:rsICil'I'I, Eli stem [otgemdi!# Rra.9",e: W(!ffIPI mtellekwllllle teistttli:'l91 v:ersml'kt weeden kam, WilliIl!lJllilichtt mac;:kIrlsh.koe:lt? fDllC!l j'ed€:r. de. lir9Iendwann mal \let:lle:bt W.U!, woot€:; d~ sle velis;taJikt werdei1 kS!J)'JFJ,r,

D1temsKo:nzept basi€:iit am der Arrnal'lme. d!ill das MaB alil (llliisk· l~ll!hikeltt als .Mal) dler .M~alSSLm.g5f~h~glwd emeS kv.b'Ell1netlsctleFl S.ystem5 ZlJ. ernem'bestimmten zeltpurI'ktibegrtfl'en werden kilm1!teel'lffi.p-rec:helld dem Ma6.an r.elstungsfailtigkett einesmeE'ihOl!'lIS'ohe:n S¥stern5 [121,

film Di£k:1Mls~Qllel'l mit A:utoren von Mebe!lll'Omanen tIIl!l:S dem Weg WI gellen, defiitiel't e.r umge,llend: Qas MaB en GIU'ckhchlreit !lS! de:r

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I Glucklichkeil = Cewunschles

~liImt l!!WIIaliem q elnemlhEldmmtelll)~I~U!dIiiBJ'T,eh::lilteo'wm alIemWrGi£!!ii,em,~~Uliik~.iIijWilID~e:IiI~~l ~J~~JfIt'elW. ~g:e;am) ~ mtt.c~1J:C1Il~3!t daMnlab.llii.wle ~~f'~ ~WGlitem relli1:~m iI'!~rntmtelil 2ieilP~r.emm~ "I;fi'HP. lll~eB ~g:flt <lue'li! fII1lii den ~l iI7I dmnlman l':!Jll1i mlil)elWaS 1!!t1allI!ITrleJ! wOO ~fo es zu be.'llmm :t!ltn ,dit~ 6:Uie}llleli_M:i~ s.a wei~'~ mogUcll Z\:I ~~(f~, gUflt ~. SiO' lI't~~ ~l 'M:/J'gt!~f!keLt;~ enb¥edier ~ i1nW'li das &~~t~ $~kw~ w~e 'm~(IIlrsfl, eliler das EJ;~~ Be gmll 'de ml:l9lioirl ~&:l1£1:n.IW~!Sj;~~~I$ei. ~'I~~wmaltlJ;!'e:!ll':0I-, 1i'!l!ilSr~Wch ~l! :be1~»1l fI~ua'1zlll~lt ~llE!r'I il!u.r~JI 1Wl!(i! dle.1J w~~hlmi :WQi~.!Wl ~~ren SUlilre lDa:ch ilJBmmlil~k> ~l)~e:il]jeren. ~ ~Olll me. dYe O,!l~lJnmg! dmr13!£.l@llUllli£[ ,~~. Il!1iIi~m)et dij~ fif!lliWle11, dlmii!El~iW. m,&tIt!lWl(i mtal1i.r v:e~elm;!tit@.: ~rl l'm NiIFV~ ,~s Ziell d~I' frildl!>~lil.w PliijJttliO~~liiIe fan)ill IDe~ Wes;veTl l'q:at d~~e!il 'lileiHmel!i~, ctLe\ Glel~lI~ dur~ ,lll:me:limmd.e SW1{je~ ~ :il~ef>S W Gi$nlewIl.mGlem ecrall.e.s l!mtrohB.m! llIIJ {l::i'tclsoon :\!erl:luc:,hffi, Das blm1s: ·aef W{liIDlfhe:m ~ail .. g Z1M rn~eklIG!lk~rt litlat ~iealQ(:'Jl dam. jQllffiluit. ~, Ii tl~iIIt Ml)me.nh diIiI dlemaIleWW1g~e:t.lliiI!IfI:Wl3lI.~!.iO~lil '<l'lfte: amta.trclfJ:leo.l®~ ~~~ D' ~m. dl.elti~'I! cd!er ~eliMiliLm h_rnmclijie~~fil_e~:!l!,

J1l11il $~Wiieri!;JIke~li, G:l'1l¢l'1JJ(;,fi~~f mMnessOO,; il!egQ; l!a1!l_m(llile~il!lil~ ,~mam.nelil l[~~lICililkel'l; ~eWWlte[i W,jWMenQ;\I!lIel Walle' evm!,iml, welM't !D~l die: e!lssntle'lle'n VfnlaNen des: MeilOOlii:el'l1 Iml Soe ail's Momi')~Slafen A1iSIlby':s V;ar'.5i1('n~rn li!.@idle,: cliel;l;!lllfil Na.tiem (m~alemo.GkJkrhke:~~1gel'l, wemI,:sie S"~kreqht, at~h~. siott a!s:O m relnemstablieQil ~a fIes GlJ;iI~h~lf:ht!l ~~~, mer HomtieSlalt !i!.r~t 5mbl!l!lt~~ tlmc.n ~aaptllillil. iIlldemw m~talll,lOli\!eIiI ~r:I il\l!_ssel:l diMalit ~allon wn Ztifatls- 1!ml\l ~Irm)~oo;telil(im wre:ren ~]lt,te:r,t

GlfrC3ittlbs.em. Ii(§ngl: also, valli del' ImJle1lebiJell\:!Ji\ 4Wi11li!e.~~ :ab; en~~ .. Wege 1JIl! HndeJil"U1mtlire IgiilDnen iWJnns:c1~EIlR ,eimllJ;il1l od~~ dieWWil~.se ~ lidulewIll. tlaBsie ~w~eA.ll.am:\ Asl:i.by; is![ llit~mge~ ~e Fr..Ige (j~r aJ!Igem.eg.5em~ lMiI~ID\1, dIe dlJirch ,R®tilieIfYl!'l.{I er,mll::hbWi~st werin wfu tlll$TIIWi.)iW§lJje aift t~IJu!~~l!irelll" ~afi wlii' ate ·mtWe:M l!.~nrLerI. ocier, w~ wl~ e:1ri pSl'treli!t iJ:'ij~~*S ~Y$l~rda:r~UeJfl,~rlillal}. ~le(M!b~ etf9t :wetaem ~"~~,!l:l:I1dMlilr YQnQ~ 9~'igij!lcJ!,ilil~"" '!:1J1ll1(I!ItIS~em Gl'llc~liIJ:i;;9lt ~ 'lO!~IiI.[miiiss_9 'WimrJ~' ~il.Wfr<B.Il~en:mg ~e~m.weB nrilit~ mil Wi~~ ~t'l ~m:utitr~ JliepJJa'd.o~g:er.a.M!lill D1:~Sie sliflgillbellllrnmernll !lft: '~~1'I1I~1!il1i: FJau flSpta£;smtem'1..m1 dles!~ sllilil: v,~ij]~ebeliL

sOlir.es ~ IliA. filart's nv WODlmI'lI ~CIIiY' as· a ~~ mtgl!~ot: ~ Jim cw ~i!' c.a.~ ,IlS: .a. Mmmel Idl oom~(;,!II~, ~ il!lle ,0000.pmteaO.Q1lI ~11!e ,Oflfu~f}s~ by;, I!:l;!)1lIplm'Ql lfilQ:httllitg .~.s'e!:lm!J tl) ~Jt I:LIMteciL :P~Ei'MY; rG~ lIi~ ~aN"liI~':WI!l1ik, 1S~l1lm!li1~a~aI tJiiomgJit po.l~H[~ all!;i Il~ms m Rot a1IO'wed m m~ oowtf;:ie.1t NE!treF(hali!liiS, mac::tJ.rIN§ atlcli ~.u~ ~ejngs must' t:~.eroi~thil:J\ ii'! omar t~ rnc~e I~e'lt m'ttEilllg:fiWe anQ to ampJiff Itl:lelr (haJllpijreM"IlI[1~ll.

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[3j Gl'.I!go:tl)' Ilirt~~_~; G'c:ii!JfIIM NHllrI((j}iL~~ ~919~, F:l:DIIik:fil!'l am Mi);ln ~~5, s.~l(iif

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The Breo\1ido.oard Band !~ on.e tl'!at ~.sl a breOidboa!td to j;l,i1Jn'orrn rnIUS~!;;;A hil'~~C1bO(l:rd i~ a boari'iU1a.t is pe;rfQra~d with ·i:;io):lJl!eclo tD. l'IIo'te05 ,i.ntD a gl:ic:l"5n~pe" to wh!lC:h.elet:tlIi(['lj.oQom~on:en~s 8l'~ iI:1i~e:rled.1iIlL order to :bulle! a iP;ImtoOtype oJ aneleGtJ:'Q]i!Jp iC.loomt.. T.h'!! e~e~ruc com(pon~l:'Iits C~ be m$e!1:~d ilJW ,removed. w<lfu leasEl, ~W it slmp]e to t:h<mgeUri:e wiml.g 1l'lI'N:I. Jlmnper ,()abfes. UlIilII· Mg;tR rea~ueso:l'lliIe inead}).~. Tille Bma~dBandFm~ .. t.e's andio. ai:K) 'lIls.ua1 c'IlrcuilS ol'llihe ~. ,and. modif1es them duriJ:'lg perIM~

!iod\l~ 100 'years flUm,~e f,mblic perrtormomoe in. ~~:OO6,Qf th.e Te]· har:n:ton'iu.m. ttle fIl:':slt. ~Je~nlo ~ 'iIit!~nrent file; Brea(!,· bo.aii'd. Bandi ['3isGS ,ol:vJeCilll:(ms ~o1Wa}l(Jfbl<l.&:-bGi!ie~oolro:ru.G'.mU51c.al. iIit!~niLi!liI15 ando.GI1I1P1Jlroers. 'T,hls o.bjOOUG1il lSI ~ed! .ill ~e ftm!t1, Gtsh.QW,iIlL9 ~e laleCi'tfOl'lllo (lompo,.~s oJ: <mJilij£lil1mIeli't'L ,~t\'tiI:Y l'olia~g end fQr,mmg fl\e !;:~e-Ci1t1[J Clirc:lIit by fumd.and p:!UGiJuglIilgi iUJ&tlio;mc'l v1:!lual e!!:pve,55iWllihrough tl:tfl most rnil'iimBil. ftmdernsn· tal element'S, 'This ~ :b.e: ~rl:$~.d~ted the rutrclit,va:reversion of s.~t· Wam pJ:'ogt.ilmmm,'9\. '!'he cLrcuil O~g~ dU[IDga p~rlorrnanG:e .h. I'JaIl!!lCl. "OO·th~·nV Wltlna".

The penty.r:m;u'lc~C!f the: Cti'c~H~ on lli€: breadboordlis: less wan (l"l% of 'tl'Iat of e1ectmnl:c !1lJl.ldl~o arn.d viCleo el:ev.i.t:.es ofi'ETe.Q Gam" mero~aIJ¥. The electric: slg;nOli!S re,]eased Jrpm hJairtd-made el>ootrp· nicairmJits ~J:e~e e~~oo:l1~W ml!l®h and! B!IH::iuillS ~ll~'~ Ptlllil~l'$ ti'il8J~mll{J~t~~$IWY C! C"Qmrm~:r,'il;ial jMI)nUilY~]ilt Hp''&€;\i':eT. tli!;e pr~ sirfemns 0:1' ~ta$M n1)1~~ed trmnllie eiL'ecl!Iicl C.irol!Uts sm§e 'f~Qm tthe deprhso:l' II:\Odem 5O(l!ew mat is smrmmde(lIll'YSiopJilSllCaW1:d il:'lfmmatloll. leOlimQ~ .and stlm us WIIffit 'emoti.Ofi.

'Th~ B.I!eiI . .:Iboa:r,d Brurld's ~o:rmanQ'es, are b.a5ed".01ll impl:Oloi'lstI· ID:ill1il ~1e(f1PIlay; aruJ! we ]mil powediJI mu.slcinm !>~ ~g\h ,eaoll :lIlembe.rr'S, ~eradial1l:.. wNJ~ a/imJlir,erinig ~ ,sc:runcID5 by band. lilaJ',tow; ,eieme!iiJtS hte'l\d ~~g~~er. heoolJlling' o:n~ fm:rn ~ts made IihRlu,gi:l <maJl),g ",sc:Ulam~n G'lliml1ts" rU"ifs made ~.ugh ,~fam· mabl.e ,ooo.ps,. :mdis:e<!illlli1li'lia:e,t~~n:rug!lit .lMagn.el!l:clll!ea.d, :SGmI~clite5 .made th~1'I a hac.:~(';1 lPodi, ~d &e v.~deo.s of 'EliLmlgililg audl.osJ;gn;\l.i$, 11 may De qU~t~ l"11U!1flQ~Oll:S· to geelliie SeTIOIllS €OXPress~Olls of tl1~ peti(irt1l1e'~s as, ftte;V glr~.l:lpf@ Wl~115rrna11 elemITofl!!C QampD"'~nt$. but they .m.:iit:cli ;my b~ncl, ID Vig()f alt1!d potetH]Y" •

The Weadboa1d BBdis a p~ftDmdnQl\b<!nd ~at!ll.SeSlb:~ made oJ ~~ CGns'Imcted d!'lgItalJ~O!JIelemro:llI!l'Gcimt:lJls t~ play.Iil'l'lJSJ.c. We pi:'odQQe :awclb~ <l.lild!(~hl.'eJqJ~im:tlffilmu~lhe most. ~I. fumt!:aIWeMaI ,e.le~ UII i!he fOm! 'rn'slit~l,'lina me' e:te($'fOMa 'OO~1iIe'1i!1$ (It .~. Iro;:Ilnlme:mt;\;'ilMlJediirieCllJ:lfooueliMg and [Q["rnlti1goo¢ ,el~WOmo 'r;IOOUit .by ]fimnd_ 'i'lil;e ,elecR.!Ostgnai1l!l llEileasedfmmliLamC!;·made eie(:!tro!1i!l:o ctr;aui~.ooie8!s:e ~1Il1l~.Iv IDUgl\! and fleil'OOlCHl!'! '~'1~,~ PEit't~:UlS,. ThlSpe:riorma:rnme ~s OaSiIlu 'P!'I lm.prov~5aitloMlh'\~rpl~l', arid we ptlU PIJ~lleffil!l miWSic mID sh$P(;l fh:rn.u@h each rnember~ OP,eratiQl1i. mile, dlscoverlrn.9! new sGlunc:!s b~hootl.

sw-:n.KQenl(lt 'oW)rk Jt'latches'~ of T~cl'mol~ OO~.ry best lr~fC'!I'~rus what ¢belf'lllIJP{)lSOm: emsmmg "WeQ ¢pmp~$$!~~ tqjQW od.~~.llr besll'ONd~lJiSl!I~c8J!jJo:rnpre5S'M ~o !O()ks~lm~~ll::ruJ' :!)~~ ~. ~l) (l~I~lM~ one, b[I[ti~'Sttl1crure is \\l(!ry ,:n~rellerJ.t. JU5t rug. a t;)~t ~~!ilp~r Jintl:ll~j wd msreacioi a .tlrm tile cQ.1'I!:ltr1:J¢tiQort YQU wlH se~ as:h;ili;~ sITUeti!l'r"e tmt~mm€dja1t€:1y klJts il;1'l~rt.. Irl.tt ~Q~utli:u1Jy! run!JUc;ill~! Many had wlln-e'§sed thLS b~u.t'y whllf!1. tlowniooiCliln'£l brQl@n. ,snc,oded v.~cleos fmm tile Mt ancll;l~i1IYlnEi &i.Gln biil~, but Q:liI~~ $V,etil. ll<oe.rug go~an, :l:ru>!glilit ~o ~lS1l'C'.iljl !$ a;r.l:, ne cQ:Matil.~ of line ,Q:tijl[lil1lB'1 ·"ldeo beoolWles mt~Olit<lfltlu~"e,"YA ,onW .!lS ,aa:o~~ foxl~:'m·Ib~' o:nJe; ffiiillt ls:·ltv1w O'lle ~.I1U,taP!pH!op,m;LJ'lle! In b01'l~ J\(PPfO',priatlo:n and, .DaHl li:aAsfamla1Jj,gJ1! cale:go:tlJJ1i;

lihe OUlPltI ,of dle· S¥e:ris ~~@ ]~ ~ Ii hYlPllolic flow' or s:em'l.;r>oo~e :1Jnages: of ~o:e ool~m ~ with lIiUi P» olio ~m'Um~ s.;). we: ~liIt 'eseapere~'U!J1lt ~1:I 0fl1 GliU;;1t!Md ~IfI.OO:~Ucs~peli1lelil.Qes. '~tl a;~~!b IO~ me ,iW:p!RO~.~1 Is rul~I!IU~stIc.maMy G~ ate !lI:g!~ 'OO:m~~tllf' ~:I!Il.d:~.e~tsmt lis p:r'81W' SIr~JIl.D as :it cIJltshelo Wls ',~, giitdhy; ~~1 ~u:. lYo:f wv,eaied oom~IiI'a!lSmitlmts ~bb .i;li ~~. $~~~ ~ {l1~I,IJ '():I'W oflhe o:ri~m~os. w.l!lmb Mil' mruNv ~l)petl· Qf~ KOU¥WQod m~ and t"tTVvtd:ec.s ~ most c()n:mIon (lQ!:lOO~t ¢n P2iPn~lw.t.):t'ks,

POf ~i!'~.ti'le p.roj.eCit cWllhiibl!ltes ~i!l, fuetbem:e OIJ ~(!'~m~U:clum !Xl tl:li(l m~:dJa $p.l\f~ or Da!1:a POIIU!tloo: • li!'islua~ c:lMa be~OO'!i1~~Im. j?OlitWlt Mt: ~s Sutm. iC@cause of its aOllte~t, ~ut al!! {l !:'aW mt!w· ~Jwfo'fiu.fthar ~~>o(h,l;~QtL Int:rus .5ffil~e aPpRa~i~el ~(~lfW,l, p~~t~~ on me ComIDl1l!:dailproCIIll1ots wd would not bill l'JQ~llil(il wlmwt 'lihelml, ru!;;, OPI OIile iairnd. pUllS 1jI';ue pro.~le~t and lt~ ~~tlilol; 'In! !l, m~9-wa1 POSltlDIiI udoorn:l"mllt'tS wJl1'nlhelllili~~'tiI:~arm !iU!.;!;j~ilI pm{'Ju.etim w~ld1. but on ·t!heotherhana,p~et5 tl~~IIi1l~rorn. '1iDs oill.mluhty'O'~otlei:ll:. m~ re~mJl~Il(m PJiajjjOOllr!mptu;:. dllc. (lnlp:J~e.w'gJte;JNre:/rei'ldl+{!llP.um~l:ci+'110!)

]'1.1'1\.1' "Il'f:!1'L-1 .n:!!' -,v 'S-A'- iI'":"ll'j"" ftJl',~ JI~,-lR;\lI~A I ... J ~.1'!!

',OJiCft'to ~.es' Is ~ p ~etdRl@/I!liUi'!.g!5ci'lJIRa:_ffiil.ilelil;ill· ~. ~PlOUl~ ~wj"'11me .Iaml(1'hli:·lBltte~.$1I P:U!), :Mlitilllca (~W\g MVlnOO). Uta ~~ cmel!).F!Je$.~ M:aic ~ S'Q Alig(l~\ U2 (W'rr .o.w). Ml~l!a¢~n (Blmt This D~ 01<10. ~b"b'I:e, (ft'UMJfi(J' AWay'). Dea:ules. (Run lbr'ifl;lIlTWe)..I~rdl@ O'm SO 1'l.M{). 0' me .b\~). WIlisIJ!1 fi<lMIt (f'm !tlUl' Afiou.t· Th~I), Be .. asu"t Madel Fgl' t:he$e ~'$). 6wian 50 (ml~gI A:IiI'lll:1ie,s ~~~i 'l>j]u Sl!J, J!.i'lYllrn More); '~II'Ul'iY LOO,Ii!;t:i! (,A!;!gwy Ey~.'l), LeOO'l1ii!'.dlColril~n (Is 'I1Ii5WM~ YoU :W<mt~d.). la. !l1l!1' (~orn"'t A!ili M:e~, ChIc (Wl'lat Aboillt Me)., P'.:l.tI1 .sm~tl:I (Eh:~<Iik [t U~),' The· P.~@OOM~!,£l (I a.(l '1'0 ~l.eep). Yello."..] MagIc Orch~.!!Itril(lrl,aOCl'li!rlla.), ~lC'<lhn Mc;L;rilitl (FJ:r.rumg Into IJeIlrJmifi} Sly,~ llo,b~ (NQ N~; O!l! 'lJ1he S'UJ.et), 8,19 AiUJth~DytfL:3!OOte {l3ad)IThOlrt'lEliii DQlJ'Qy (t .~JiC ~~eJl~ 'GiOi!'Ig'wQ M'oro,deT I(SOCiilil!er lDrLal¢r)" ~~SmQpllgy:~ (Vto" le~~ - Roblll.e~l.illams ,(N,l) Re~), lQu~n (W:h.QN~~dl~~. ~~ GQ~ 'JlOKOO~l;Id (hn9). 'G~ fon.e'!i GB!'¢~trnm)J TJ1!:~ ])le~!ll ,A-c:m.emv(B¥m::Yboliy.!s GoHl'iJ team Som~~J. D~ fcffY' (ih1l'W ~~. ~s). [Oh!n l..enrlon (I1:s !it! i~ordl}. J:liwld ~ (~&$). ~~w'~el'(U»liIitRedl nw:.P~: Qlil,). 'ilihe' ~l.l110,rdl~ l~:elf£apm ICl:I;amge ~ , 'G!J!gj~ !'m J~t A" LlW.1C 1100 iSe:MltiL'iIe~ ffCifiOlib SjpIDll.'I.I(~~rolal1),

.I'!lMQ o:flilaeorlgooJ ~· .. ·~_WbIc mllp~:lffilo!f I.m MVi} a hyp;olJteucaJlv c~.de:r_ SmnplRng- d:OO!m:'t ~~~o on· p ·OOI,U'()(I. U tlJllIeas Ule edilin!llpm~s;. Jwl. Jehle. :rs ~mblilr or~· '.Gtl'$~·l~~~r:tzm·ii~!M.lmN. de~ ~mple!l'.

KIM ClSCON:E

'i'he' ~d of tile ~inClT'S mowr 1JIadi ,beoiTl1le ~CL 31~ I!IlwUh I oouJdl SWI, f~lilliMrrll ~ baMl'l'dlited 1Ju'Q,1;l1h the :Ilepa., ~h'lch! ~ed 'wem cal1i.5ieid as ile ,W:\k$ ~fthe dvdn 018~ ,amw mo' upwMd ~ e'liI'!J8i!3ed by the: :~ ,iU e1~er endi: ,md, QlQ1 5O'WiI'dil oj' ilJle, '11l1t1_; ~J)Q. we.e ~ a:miI,~ 1n'I_.Q, Ii ~e_ :101;1_' SOlllild!. as U e.a;ch.1.ml'ti"aQ' ~:otk Q~ a ~tan"~" hee~ we:!',o' '_ ,6M!:'P ,bli\ll5b~pDJnt ILou:cl'l2dlo a,~h·~ered w,a~r'OOJ)f;.~' palelY OlJtwMd."

• NICMlIon ~r -M~e

A, fI~ld, ,~,' btd:o~aml:lIiI,ii~II' D:iBus'I.o:m

ll'Aillc' O:fI[Our l Md n a:a.y cO ~:o lUiIax and _ ,oorne' e'ffiU'L •• 11101 1iiI, II~CJi, <if tood E v,'imtlcwdover 00, (he !eadSlwpplng' tmJUor 'tQ' k4wc lUflen. .Il.ner buym"g' a :sandWill;,_h E dlsCfN'er,ed ~_o rury 4tdWfi :spaoo' 'W~th, water :CcWltaln ,and decld.ed 'ro, U~ my Iweb Item tho sOMdel:!' 'Uw wat.er :rt~ Ill, dle!w1g:e merbem.nt sp;!lQO' cmtl'tcd G, 'mm,qWI otll :Iwpfl.Q,tI.cemrun:l1I1lIent,

,At 80mii' palm: ~ ,1tt:m'iiUOrt wu draWiil ~:o,a sma1ll Roo): of JlIJ7&I: mat lullil m1l1enow I'I'IJlMIOO to, get~el¥eS ~ped iftd!~rs, 111\0 blrdi WimI' NtJealliy :liVIA, ])a"k and 'tanh se'~EJ for ,B wt!.Y ouWd:c 'Ut_TOl.!g'h U~ glaa :(kyllg'liI.t o.f HIe alJilwn. Ali> Ut'C b'1rdI boo Cl!.mo m~~ ~IlMc:tle 'lito ~PlJfll agalns'l the ,glass; ,and b'IIid, MWi.s bopn ~o Clm1Y' arum:Ir!M, fRim ~m._~ Peopl'e ~ed IiJlId u.

~ Bl oonccrn.lw 'the' birds.

Afl\tfI shon dmO! ,3) ~mafl ~ed wJIh <I. Jrurge 'lnstwmC'lIU CUD on wb"~ WUb ,lion: blmruI. of Wl!iIiId :sne unpacked a ~'lh n ~ 'l!P ~ :~, ~d and a :sll'l!i!ill ch<!iIJ: After 1We':~ ~ Qlio raq,ed 110 fiQ'r U)JnUI she opened he:~ muslC booot and p~c'Cd:od ~o'p;by'dw ~

J: dloud my' ~JJ and lImv:m to' It!ls ~ rnl'It of water f~1nliIl1 rs!klllbh birds and mMg haIp melOdy pj.kmg 6'troll9h U!e'~es'Qf dfn mndO by IptrOlPl~ mOOns ,and wa.Ikb;t'l hom shop toO ii~PI

:8:'1 'l1W:dnl 'my !llt'ilIR'lm '[0 me ~l!Itd$!iliD1:d:s 'wIIhm.U!e, e1trWm,lS; ~.Q:td my' llm,ch~ ~H,uk was ~ed1 [m'to em lm,p:mT.l'lP1U ftald d.I'ltIWl)n.

tifatiD' In bE' MllU'la:r ,.,S 'O,petatiof:l

EYerydily t1UcIltOfYf:lolds am oom,p.leJll 8g;gregadGns. p0001l or sound. I~, l!ind 8.ml~0I.II!i :lmerl~g: ftetd!s: QI qeli'C p~t· UI~, l~tI '1n'I..e~ mes'~ <m't'fmbWn:g IlrI'to aOO:li!UnOlB oo.~~mo(mdl.1'Iho JQoCa] habllS ;mc( JiOl!:1liIi'I8S ,M peopl~ fuse, UnG til fftl!~ dID. tPPOm' wwen from IlIImIle aoIi'rities. .~ib ~haped, linto ,J ~_il¥ :mnt'lom Qm~ we hm ~I dOl:lit lis· ~gn W,ft.

EadIiI allllillor m:I1I;O' of ,nolO forms! om aJval e'llf a.'l.IdJlOlll' 'Held, ~~: W01 ~111ba' Wlm·' Pti:ei:i,t:iWl1\Q~.6 '\lie, w~, *11' 'to ~m ow: imdlJeOM,a:~.wu:(;:'l'M(p VI:e! WQwd, sn 'many~~r ftel4s I ,. rtf~ w11b Ol'!O' M'OtMr. ihe!re' atre.1I10 aooUSllc'walli;; (I:r boUlild. art§ In Wi! open ~e. we ftOf:C:lh~ $til:U:;N~ 8iS ~c: me· ml.lO'to,s ~t _l)I1lo'w In 'Illtne.

OW'. GIkl:ed P;8metl

O!iw l~lY and ~tme. ru:eled by w~~ :re'd8I:lWn. 'lii'D:InS Wi t'O !~O:IILWlWiJ1Y t~e, Ute, memau~d m ftbj, ~ 'Ot~

• m.admlnt'O'lXL'C~:'tM.t oolllW'm ~I1r.OW"' ~.1j.o_ dWii ISO lOP long ~qg:e.llhat Is, <I, rmw!c 'IA~ pa'Ckage. ~hli81S1m -d1iIurmlnDi p.4ektlt. 'em. The pa'Cka(le ads as ,(I. IlleIIS In ill wo'b of atll~ ,teE. cmnC'CS '!hat hel,ps us navlgOlite m~ We see' ,lmd h(lM UlJi01!Jgh _1'1 err fiiL'cdJa.tin9 ~mLo:mo, W:k~oo, C<m'OOl:lt ,pnd mailU"llrllJi are

~u~cd, :hom Q!!]1Ufe. 'iii:m:nl'gh U'IIs fu!.m:e me :m~ dll'HlS OV.Qt·, ;~li"IllOi1I wa ,- ~cnoo"llIr eJqlIerdy cfai'lcd ImQeIJIl!.Jld, S01IIiIU WOI teo iii spde aWlB~lii'Ient dwlng aSlI:·C(l1!\ Oil! 'I~l WIlton b."'suIt.o! -:marehed dem~hlt: ,omalplS. Pi~_ 'on 'II~ :IiIOWS ~i ~I~ed 'to 11l~ ~t shaw :rwa U:1CWdo.n tROJIlIlO'l. itIkI ,p,c!! Or db:edIed ,aU;~rntiiifR ~ ,i.Ii ~. tG IOOkQ 'tIl1miJ h\ W ~rm 'liD iWOlkIi to,·om ~ait!cms. '~'iihof;! HrnO~J In 'Ille II*\'IdGi of IOW\d arIdIlmages doesJilGtfll we bec<>me' W'I«Im.fc~'Oi and fII~ -'r I GU' As a ~t. ~ mf,ediDg me'IIhmg:~lhatdon't lIit WI '

nd ![IP' .lIang 'Ihe cllimrns!llOnatltr ,and ,coml;lIMUy o.J ,CVCf)'da:Y

Iltic.

'TIiImJ frmito, ~ ~. medJa. ce~:an1l1J l(t'~~ (lUI na~ to Q'Ol:'i'nm ooli1.lro' W'!d [n .t:iIm .b1l:rulSi us til' '!he '.~ ilIl 0uII worfd Dr.<.iW'd! WJi.

(lfllbij,.tW't. emd ~pft'fUle

Qt1~C1lf,'le es'~ Ute ~,~ ~ aMzltllOti ,lU.'Id. mrnovCi our ~ WO' 'fInd! ~~lires castt adrtft U\ 'drill' mes.llbIJ 0<11 ~, of 1fidJ!lh'if~te I~ forrrllllg Oil! n .. tleld, of ,cneruv. ,Ii U.pemy af B'lL'C:lWO'iI'C!.l, ~tlliles. 'CiCmiSpJdliulito lfmU'e .tI\ei sQ1:ll, Of 'paIIiI, QfQ, place. ,Gnu lis 'the le'fiJable, amil so-meUxnes Ilrte'lQlUiZb1ii qi>I_ wt Wfiuoos a ,place;, a '~nde.n'~ ,aunCflSP.1I.on~ ,mm 'fI1C8U· tMnnlJ:,ar~

Gm1rI Ifi.'i"~~ QUllWimilrmm. .iI ~,~ bttangU:!lOr QOm fIB, IrInOr mill5Im'Y '~1n1Jl an awa IN,'i ~ffi'I~ lift1ll1Utcs M.dJ~. mtuon-plaeelromanOlha Gli<MdOem'[ OQ~(;Ilel so mJi.teh ,!lSI 'lnd'uce s\!mp:aUtetK; Vibmtlons m the IaUmcr. eorn~C:lbIg an Incil~ ,cb'a.!l1 Um&mI'flWi'l'ich enrgy ~ tt~m:d Whcl\ wei ,Qllow mm tJlL.f!rgJ ito bw' ttuAlmg'h us: 'we iirnea~.e m,~ ,_ MO' ,ute ~o po~iOOm tiM!' '!P'ailt ,ofam:audlklry neW!.

u ~Dim:ttMw dfaIl.ts In Ut mean.sgeallbl9 lhem Iii me'Mom, '~. '!hen \It, ,·n we a~te IIb.ese' drwtlS wo dow dti) grain '[0 'QOme:~d.

:SI,Hllq lie :So'g(J,

I:l' W{i u.FC lu:eky,a!l: oom.e pobU: Ule' 'Imdfi. ~m WI, via ,0, (;CQfi, ,01 HM4UOM 'IJIat dee,pensus Of a:M.5 to tl'ie CMllIlY CIt' iIiIn' lNot. Ewn~ wo' want 1O IShare ~l '~ndenml fOiOtmO' \!ultl, 'O'lJiliiN.

,So, \,;\(ll[!I.uII. O'Iilt iii htlllb·qU.Wity ,'!ll'IIC'm:p.holittil Di1 ,OJ pmtab10 Fooom,er ~.,d,~,liIiI.e Ue11f ~, pe '(;meillll'oPlilIU ilhOJ m1C1lOJ),1ii.OIllC' ~ til _ 1I!11U diiMdJon ~,th~ beS'ln1leJ CCiI1fIIJii,l,ml'JGl:'I, wN1cl m,lAg' .tI!! ,1evc GJ' tile m_ from, OlIIerioodbl!ll'Iil!IWOm:~· IinP1ld.8 to 'I:I~' lUll ,IJ,QOUI'ate' dl!lOWltenlatll)1lI of lie' a.udltolrY HC'!iaI.

'OnQC' 'we harVEl II stored diII:!J1taIIY \\Ie bring ~. bacl< ~o 'OW' stuclf~ ,_ ~lIt '~1iI I~ 'on ~na]speate_ Wbl: ""lO! h.c'&r 1.3: ,01 tJWIl 8IiId 1b.1: ~!,fmIOJiJ~:I' thalt ~J1I;d~Ual ~JI!~Ptt we' ~med.lYtn, wilift teel:tnl:~' sop~ted 'e<IUllImCrlt. 'lItBln, VI:e' ~'wW~k ili.mem'~,o~"lha:tplaQ'(L

By 'r:e~l'dJJ\g ,a DelId we steaJ. Us soul!. we ~. '!he p1I\

I~

Re~ to SovIiLSOlpe8

The meta deslgrler crea~es context not ooll~ent' - Gene Youngblood

Tile praCl10e of ,diiftU.slI'Ig fie!cli rooordin9s In. the CQI'Ite~ of a penormance space' also leeches them ot their gr,all] ..

The Issu.e oj performing Held reoordlrt9s is not new. and it doesn't warrant ~ a new ,OOlutooi,[OT some ooiliLp~e:rs MJiIIe coltl!e dlooe: We ,ariI,v' .need look to cerl:alli:\ drL$dPle$ ,oi'H, MWIOijI' Schafer and .r.ohn Ca:ge '~ ful:cli SJ co1!lpW or l!iiLte:restlnQl IOolul1ofls to this 'problem .. By dI'lflffiillg :f.belcli recotdii193 In fi«l'ltradlltlonal! ,spaoes. sl10h as 'CIWes or fo:resrs. Ute}" inject $O~ drJirecUv Into 'the Held :llSeU, not hy trying to recrearttait VIthlaUy If:I a oonven· '!lana] pemrmance space,

• The e,xamples of Sl::bafer OT Cage are $o.mewhalt protllellilalll.c iI'I that n.e~t'her ot them trilililliet $Ol;lnd$· bat'hemsell1H, S'cllafer sihapedl trlaQljI of hI$ field recordJrlQ's In the studllo with l:'I'IJ..Wi.cai S1ruC1!lli:'e while Cage frm'ied his Indietei!'mIDaicy m. a perl'Ol'IllanOe' ('Jontem. Mille M1the.rOO'i'.ei!'ed perfect oolurlio:ru!\, hoUr! he.lPwlo cW.p, illWili.Y ,at 'll1:l,e' pm1:llem le:aWtgl U'lose 0:1 US worl:O:n9 lodayl{), plll;k; lliIjp '1l1w 1:hI9adi and oommue honklg theIr mlutkle',

In an aUillR)ry field. people aftIfl;ee toUsten to whatever they turn UllJi:ir attenliol'l k\ 'FheLr bnlng Is l'lon-dilredt!ed, their atten.tliGll Is n-eetol roam. aHowlng them. to take· an. actlrve parlllm.the: creali'Ol'I of meandin.g by resll!lTecdng the 9mir1 of the field ID this ~"I the listener en!:er;s at ]1;CiI'I·lrlnem'. MI'I·d:lIiected. mode ,of RC'eptlOIl.

By brlngtng sounds into an. rumrackel:ed 8!udilo'ry field we C<ID let sound,); be, them_sehres: and bel!t:er fo.teg['oLmdi theg-mlrI.

De A:wdiltoly Ffel'd b not :Mwlk:

LiIIi.e pno<iogIap'heir's, :l'Ieldi reoordll\5lt~ record ate world! around them and I:ransf.o~m tlI:e mundene !lUI) 'tine slilbljme by edi.tmgand pro,. cessing,

TIUs transfprmatlon O'CCUl's Via brack~tlrtg and roreground!.'rl.9, turning iii bland everyday auditory fI.eld Into $OiinemIDg worthy of cur atilientlOl'l. Obn 'limes during 'l'hiISti"rulSfoIi1ti:afliite stage the cwnpQ!!er atttempts:to' f,;rea!te ,gr;aID tl:u'Qugh edd.tlrig' and audio ef·· fects, Il1L an essay: whlt;;i'i tr!!Iue!'!'Oed John ca-ge, tlUed"PrlmJltve' Mental1ty;,·' Manda. K C'OO~-amy wrlli:ls. The effect of Emopean, inflUe:l'lOO .005 ]el1ll'!:he Bnlst mtQt tQQliI1t.aoo mture m heir man r nar 00' oper,at11on. bu~ simJp~ te ImJlail:e' n~ Ii:'i het: a'P;r;u~aranoes.f'~m Muslqlte Cmw:re'l 10 tI:le current pmctlce 0:1' Phoi"loorapw c:ompo.sers workIDg wUh :lIeld reoordllngs organkZe (hem IDtlil :m.u. sica! stn.wtures. Imparlingi a lurking narmltJlJ,e to 'them. The composer anempts to 'say 50:meHil1ngI' tD transmlt meill'ililg through a seq)lJerllOe 0(: ooleClE!d ~1Imds Uile;V'!ffl recorded Some OOmpGlsers reter' to' 'tills dIreCted ~tl:enll:!m as Oil ·cIDema for the ears.,·

On the other hand. cage WWlted 11:.1 let s:owtds bel:hemsehres, rn,ther than v-eN.cl'e'.s: fur man-made theories of ·e~r~IOO'ilS 0:1' hllllililnsentll'iiternts: • and used! ch.aru:e and Jrtdeterm.lnacy as .01, way of de .. slru~! hls GQiliil;l@:'!itlons.

'Thet Pmmmance' S,'S:ce

'ale perlormanoe ,spaoe ~ a $o¢.laJ con..slroct loom fmm Intent and ,expectation, n ~. ah;o be Ieg:m1ed asa W'J:ndow IiIi! tlme :iI'l wMch SQme:thIiltg occw-s,

fhl[! physical stage ml!mlcs the Large:r SlOcla1 :tmme rul ~t Is "frame itS!eB and tio,lds an imaginary 'glass: wall' .oopamtlng theaudle:-noe

from t!l'ie :pa_rforro:e'~, m Q!rd~r for this ~hange' to pwoeed smooth· ly It lis facUltated by rules. ,eoxwenfions and scripts,

The space is ltt In such away that the audience'S attention Is foou.sed cmtJ\e perferJ!t'lie[ behind the 1m_my glass waD. Slnoe the performer l!s: teatweal as th.e· oenter' of attenttOl1(. d1:e l<lnk.of nlho-dlY (aulilor} !§; then ,eonferred onlQ them. Om al1tentloIl Ls dWecmdiliiS'ldellW:; brac:lwted spaoe. ~r-e1jl'elI1il\1J dtstradio:nsand ru.terln9lwt no:ise Jro:IJ!!I. the l>1Ieet

Ow: ,~ertence' lis M:tait ·,cOO1IOEl:Ii tIme'" :pas!les In, a llmea:rma:rrnex:

OI.1.,lS acd.1Iattng a I.lneru- moos' o:f Ilstenmg .. Using OilI1ventlonru tlJne maJ:'kex,s, ,a,pleoo endlo, OIiP.pJau:se 'eJ'l:SUes, a new p'leoe starts. intermission foilllWS' and a, 'eJlOocre slgnaJS, y.ata lime IflOFe m.u.~le tlew1le the' elll'enlng comes to a ,elese.

By dWuslilllg fieJd reool'dlngs ,In a penar:ma.nce SpllCe;, the oomplex ,and multIi-dlmell5lonai nature of an. ~de!ermm.ate'fleJd. ,coltlpses into a. steJleo pllm-e or be,tter yet can be C'ompamel: to nro small pol1hoies; or peepholes tar e, voyeur: ThJs linear mode of' reception has evohred over tile years, and ~guentlll shaped! much or 'lti1te music' we ootlS'l!lmetoday: ,ElUit the auditory flel,d Is not a rtenormrmce :space. a, Ilnear lu,tt:kebiSi ef ~e and space. 1lt :lis [lon~ll!'Iwar,lndete~teand:by alliIJemptl'ngto:r:rame.lt IlSl'ng' oon· ~rr~nal ~s used 1I'l muslcal.per!fJrmw1~i:I lts diliI1Ww.;IQI· .nalIty is l"edu:oed ,anei file !J[aIn Is leeched fm:m it.

IIuur:r~CIiing Uio Pkttd

Mum of my tblnkIngabout: 'grain and auditory-fields was radlcany s~l!l.taited by a oook by'Fom McC'arthy; tltlled!., ·~de:r,· In whlctl fue protag,onlm gool5l to great lengtils and expense to rsereate aJ'I apartm.ent bulIding he Qon~W'E!'Gl from memory while starlrlg at a maJ:ik In a, p~ wall durm91 a rewr~e. fhe' lnilldlngl ad the' a..cti1il1M,es of lts.mLderrts were p-.a1n.staJUxl~ ,ad.lu.S.e:d. l.w,detaiIls: p~d. mW tlley Cliea.t.edl Uw deSl.l"ed e-.f[ect of Illdu,ctng a Slate ofreverre. W'lW '!:he trr~ ca.lM ,out.

In develbping ,M appmach'to dHfusing Held: recordings out5J:d!e ,of a :penormanoe spaoe ] ffitel':ed the Nstorl.cal work of sOWlliscape atlltJsm fiml1:.l9h the McCarI:h¥ boQk~ ThIls Led to the I.deai of creatil:lg, a new field ill an, exldng field by dttflJ5ing S'o1!lRds a!lready present 01" by add1.Il91 neW' 1iIfIeJq)EiCted smmds slllch asthe f1ClCk1ngl b1rfl's~ By using an. iill;3IVQf$Jie~$ .Il]aced Iii SlrnteQlc POSlUonsWlithin a Held! one ooulid d!l!ffuse :;Ioun:ds ad mQiii'e themlmiL spa~.

fl:1ie lde<a ,of dWu.~ one space I:lllside a1I"I.Olih.er ls a 19owertUl, 1efea. woril:ly of ~uH'ult ooHlte ~xob1!eJl1L sWl exists 'ofh:t:lW top.revent the brackel1ng ,of :11: as. a oultwal. e,vent being o:rchestra~edby sound: artists..

One Sldillillon w01litd! beta, iJOmwl from '!be praClioo ,of acol1S1lilaillC diffusl.on and dil'ildnish tile' mle ,of rhe .artlisit by phys~ l(lc~tIng tJhem somewhere' where' lIev' WQUldrl't be V'1i$lhle. Afloth~f way to, Pl'>eVent bracketlllilg lis to not 8!:'lno@ce it as an ewm with a loea .. rumancli starttmJe, T~, way the people who, '\!13it the ~ce'~ul.d be JrI 1bel.r' ruru!iil rn.o.i:lJ.'Hnear ~tenm'lll'tode ro.f that eIWil:'OI:'litlilPt and re;oei'lli! ,;my' s;o'muis heard as he.'IlILg'part of'the soundscape..

magiine the ,a_tr1'llm spa~e I d~1!bad eerilet' If th>e:re w~ a $peaik· el:' $YSWm. set WI and j!1~ till: sQlLI..nds Qflhe fiOokln' b:Iro.s and the ha(plst were dlffi.lsed. The S<lW1.O:s would be loud enougih to mlx VillI'! lhe 'Qtlnend ba'CkgroW1ld but smoe tilem were no visual. 'objects creating fu~~ sooo.ds they would recede .im.o the background for most people. fofolliers ~t mJght produce a feeUngiof

C5'~e!C}r d15soell(i:~

Boo ft!::rIJIY if lis Im.PiOJWllt '00 IiJ:y andklca1e Ure gmini o:f a 5,Pa'08 or I)IlI'Ik QI sem:e 'lj@,:/ 'tbau It elm lj~tllrou{lb'l: oeliby wiirl<mg will 'iii" I'I:a!t'll,U'"d acou8tW-l, liI'rI,n:odruorng furelgrn lSOUil'!.d~, amplifVl'r!.9 sr;llall SQ,Ul"idis al:_rea4v In the sPatie but l!naudl:Oleol warklAg witl'! }jI!gpr s~l.md$i lIat ha~ no \!,mual oO'[IIEI~atlj~liL

Itli.e £m)<wbI!IJ mpwmeilt of lieN reco]\dtng makes ID;, foam thO sUbl!l'md'l'll' O'flt'!i!e a!lI1diItlory ll,~bdll-men ~ ne_; tOip,fI;Igmss·O!il nQ falllIlg IrltQ fQ1:mulalc[ormats be~e they ,are sfundru'd and eMi)' 1:0 rn~er!ace' wKh, Iflileldl ~'0Cordill9'I];I~1J er;cape th~ gite'Wlio, 0'£ soma Scl'i,iV'en!r: or ,;u!lOtIr.> j:)'~zae '~en bmak the 1mb:iW VlliIich enCill up :rolif. IDa ontecMo.1os:w 'to ~ake' It :i1iilemsDng:

'AudlItQ1'J Hel* ;,ve 1:101 musiC @Ild, by' ~ to presoof '!hem M ~~I:'i we end)tp' d!fll~i tft~ ,ilI1 iH'ieli '9l'8! p!ill d'eaGi~SI~h!'1r soWJ.!~aving :IU(I(I ,o:r valUe ~.o sha~ with ·the 1W!\ClilJer.

AlJ5'1'r.u1llJ~ Ft.\Ilt~,md,Tolfll;r tI:-r.~&!Il'i:c~~~:,j\ ~~,,'.llo ~'9' Si.lu~&.M~iil~b~'II:;Cllill·~;:JCI~' U!!i'<;mlty·PQ:'!!,.200J.

Ih.fittc8" 1l:d~!;ldi li!'II.1,I!'l. MUJIc,'!.'exr. N- YOrk: N'g!iIi'dIY 'Pn;11. ,~~?7.

1l!~!ilCr. ~my !lind Si;[00a~, Un4l!.l\~~Ii. 8pace~ Sl'~~' ~ ¥i:i~ :1:.i~w!iU~~r'i ·&iij;rLa~. eil'\gi\'IWQi ilRlltlC¢!~fi!!' ~1i!!lhlil~! Mtli .PNt~~. 2007.,

C~,J'Ohr.l. S~ - Mld~I~--. CoiLjj;""tl~i:: WW~Li'I Uifl'llmliy"!'tE~, ~l~il. ~"~ },~t;il~~!o N~'OfII,;,:'COl.wr!lii~ Uo:i\~~ lIi='I, l'GG7.

,'~It~ OOi:l.~iill~Mi!I'!4~:APbm"'m..,DfuRors:cIllDd • .i!llhDu:~io,lJJiI~~)' '~.~'J!i''!'i.

,Le'IM).~ H~M.lUt11!imi.111lyt!.1. N~",Y~ Co:lllin.wrn :DQ(i~2004.. :Meow\Y/ro~. ~ndcl.N'C:'WYir&'V-m~ ,,,.,,1007.

~.(~.m.:M~ lJi~1lLoWi~'~rlJ.c W~d~~'IIi:Qit'.,'IlNi}'w;o'fSfIlliIoil-.pc: Diiii'iii\. PI>JW~:Ii: U~rmdl1 gflb!!s~ r-s.:I9S0.

Jonk4

Ge-o

~

HUlit, g,entscbl,ager

P,e,t:er :Mo!erte'nboeck

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