# PID Tuning Tutorial

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What Is PID—Tutorial Ov
Get Tuning Tips Newsletter PID stands for Proportional, Integral, Derivative. Controllers are designed to eliminate control in a car and a house thermostat are common examples of how controllers are u measurement (or process variable) at the set-point. The set-point is where you would difference between set-point and measurement. (error) = (set-point) - (measurement) The variable being adjusted is called the manipu the controller. The output of PID controllers will change in response to a change in m controllers use different names to identify the three modes. These equations show the P I D Proportional Band = 100/gain Integral = 1/reset Derivative = rate = pre-act

(units of time) (units of time)

Depending on the manufacturer, integral or reset action is set in either time/repeat or Note that manufacturers are not consistent and often use reset in units of time/repeat rate are the same. Choosing the proper values for P, I, and D is called "PID Tuning". Find out about PID T

Proportional Band
With proportional band, the controller output is proportional to the error or a change in (controller output) = (error)*100/(proporti With a proportional controller offset (deviation from set-point) is present. Increasing th Integral action was included in controllers to eliminate this offset.

Integral
With integral action, the controller output is proportional to the amount of time the err CONTROLLER OUTPUT = (1/INTEGRAL) (Integ

http://www.expertune.com/tutor.html

12/15/2009

Derivative action adds phase lead and is used to Derivative With derivative action. rate DERIVATIVE = RATE = PRE ACT Derivative action can compensate for a changing measurement. http://www. the controller output is proportional to the rate of change of the calculated by the rate of change of the measurement with time. dm CONTROLLER OUTPUT = DERIVATIVE ---dt Where m is the measurement at time t. the de "wrong" way when the measurement gets near the set-point. Thus derivative takes measurement than proportional action. Derivative is often used Derivative action can stabilize loops since it adds phase lead. When a load or set-point change occurs. if you use deri used.html 12/15/2009 . Some manufacturers use the term rate or pre-act instead of derivative. Derivative.com/tutor. Generally.expertune.PID Tuning Tutorial Page 2 of 4 Notice that the offset (deviation from set-point) in the time response plots is now gone response is somewhat oscillatory and can be stabilized some by adding derivative actio Integral action gives the controller a large gain at low frequencies that results in elimin The controller phase starts out at –90 degrees and increases to near 0 degrees at the you give up by adding integral action.

and derivative action causes the gain to start rising after the " action limits the derivative action. At very high frequencies (above 314 radians/time. th amplitude ratio increase and decrease quite a bit because of discrete sampling.com/tutor.PID Tuning Tutorial Page 3 of 4 With a PID controller the amplitude ratio now has a dip near the center of the frequen gain at low frequencies. So increasing P or I. put the controller in manual change the out P is in units of proportional band. You can use the picture to recognize the shape of an optimally tuned loop. I is in units of time/repeat. for the tightest loop control. decr http://www. If the c would steadily increase at high frequencies up to the Nyquist frequency (1/2 the samp due to the derivative lead action and filtering.expertune. Optimal is red.html 12/15/2009 . the dynamic controller gain should be as high Choosing a controller gain is accomplished easily with PID Tuning Software PID Optimization Articles Fine Tuning "Rules" This picture (from the Loop Simulator) shows the effects of a PI controller with too mu with a dead time of 4 and lag time of 10. (Graphic courtesy of ExperTune Loop Sim The time response is less oscillatory than with the PI controller. Derivative action has h Control Loop Tuning It is important to keep in mind that understanding the process is fundamental to gettin appropriate locations and valves must be sized correctly with appropriate trim. Also see th To get your process response to compare. In general.

Lake Country Research Center 1020 James Drive.02 to 10 0.05 0.1 to 50 1 to 100 0.02 to 0 0.2 to 50 10 to 120 Integral rep/min 20 to 200 20 to 200 0. (Fr Tuning and Control Loop Performance (McMillan) p 39) Get Tuning Tips Newsletter © 1999–2009 ExperTune Inc.008 to 0.com/tutor.1 Deriva min none none 0.02 to 5 0.html 12/15/2009 .01 to 0 0.1 to 20 0. ideal or series algorithm PID Loop Optimizer to find the proper PID settings for your process and controller.1 to 1 0.1 to 20 Loop Type Flow Liquid Pressure Gas Pressure Liquid Level Temperature Chromatograph These settings are rough.PID Tuning Tutorial Page 4 of 4 Starting PID Settings For Common Control Loops PB % 50 to 500 50 to 500 1 to 50 1 to 50 2 to 100 100 to 2000 Integral min/rep 0. assume proper control loop design. Suite A Hartla Telephone +1 (262) 369 7711 • Fax +1 (262) 369 7722 http://www.05 0.005 to 0.expertune.005 to 0.