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Name: Marielle P.

Balo Date performed: September 18, 2018


Section: 1 Date submitted: September 25, 2018
Group No. 4

1. Define disinfection. Compare/contrast it with sterilization, antisepsis and bacteriostasis.

Disinfection refers to the use of a physical process or a chemical agent (a disinfectant) to destroy
vegetative pathogens but not bacterial endospores. Sterilization is a process that destroys or removes all
viable microorganisms, including viruses; antiseptics are applied directly to exposed body surfaces (skin
and mucous membranes), wounds, and surgical incisions to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens, in
antisepsis; while bacteriostasis is the inhibition of the growth of bacteria (Talaro, K.P. & Talaro, A.,
2002).

2. Give the modes of action of the different antiseptics/disinfectants used in the activity.

Alcohol dehydrates the cell, alters cell membrane and denatures cell proteins; hydrogen peroxide oxidizes
the cell components; cetylpyridinium chloride (used in mouthwash) alters the cell membrane (Alexander,
2004). Lysol disrupts cell membranes and precipitates proteins; sodium hypochlorite denatures proteins by
disrupting disulfide bonds and iodophor interferes with protein interchain bonds, causing denaturation
(Talaro, K.P. & Talaro, A., 2002).

3. Which microbial forms are most resistant to disinfectants?

Bacterial spores. A general order of resistance, from the most to the least resistant, is: bacterial spores,
mycobacteria (because of their unusual cell wall composition), viruses that repel water, fungi, actively
growing bacteria, and viruses whose outer surface is mostly lipid (Lerner, K.L. & Lerner, B.W., 2003).

4. What is an iodophor? What is its value?


Iodophors, one of the primary iodine preparations, are complexes associating iodine with a solubilising or
carrier agent. Iodine rapidly penetrates the cells of microorganisms, where it apparently disturbs a variety
of metabolic functions by interfering with the hydrogen and disulfide bonding of proteins (similar to
chlorine) (Talaro, K.P. & Talaro, A., 2002).

References:

Alexander, S. (2004). Laboratory Exercises in Organismal and Molecular Microbiology. New York: The
McGraw-Hill Companies.

Lerner, K.L. & Lerner, B.W. (2003). World of Microbiology and Immunology. USA: The Gale Group,
Inc.

Talaro, K.P. & Talaro, A. (2002). Foundations in Microbiology. New York: The McGraw-Hill and
Companies.