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PHUdNG TRiNH - BAT PHUdNG TRiNH H~ PHUdNG TRiNH MU vA LOGARIT

§1. PHUONG TRINH MU vA LOGARIT

I. KIEN TIH1c co BAN

1. Dang co han

a. Phuong trill" mii

Phuong trlnh mil co ban co dang: a' = b (a> 0, a "* 1). * Cdch gidi:

+ Khi b > ° => a' = b <=> x = log" b . + Khi b ~ 0 => a' = b vo nghicrn.

b. Phuong trinh liigarit

Phuong trinh logarit eo ban co dang: log" x = b (a> 0, a "* 1) * Cdch gidi:

log" x = b <=> x = ab , nrc la phuong trlnh log" x = b (a> 0, a "* 1) luon co nghiern duy nha't x = ab •

2. Cac phuong phap giai

a. Phuong phap dira v6 cling co s6.

b. Phuong phap di_it ~n phu,

c. Phuong phap logarit hoa,

d. Phuong phap sU' dung tinh d6ng bien hay nghich bien cua ham s6.

II. PIHJONG PHAP GIAI CAC DANG TOAN THUONG G~P

a. D~NG 1: Gini phuang trinh mii va liigarit bang phuang pluip

dua vi cung co sfj'

Dung cac phep bien d6i v6 lily thira va logarit dua phirong trinh v6 mot trang de dang sau:

• a II') = aM ¢> r {~i:): ~ (x) (NGu C<! so' a kh6ng d5i)

64

Phat bi6u nao sau day dung? A. Chi (I) dung

C. Chi (II) dung

H. ChI (III) dung

D. Chi (II) va (III) dung

Cau 26: T~p xac dinh cua ham s6: y = (X2 - 4x + 3 rIa:

A. (I ; 3) C.[1;3]

B. IFt\{1;3}

D. (-00 ;1)u(3; +00)

, ( e' -I J

Cit u 27: Mien xac dinh cua ham s6: y = In l e\ _ 2 Iii:

A. (-00 ;0) C. [ln2 ;+00)

B. [0; 2]

D. (-00 ;O)u(ln2; +00)

, I,

Cau 28: Ncu log 3 = a thl bang:

log.; 100

H.2a

C.5_ 8

D.16a

Ch 29 Ch h' h' I x-I M'" ' .... h ? h' KI'

au : 0 am so y = ogo3 --. len xac urn cua am so a:

, x+5

A. x s 1

C. x < -5 hoac x > 1.

B. x > 1.

D. Kct qua khac,

Cau 30: Cho 4" + 4-" = 23. Tinh 2" + r" .

A.7 H.4 C.5

D.6

Ddp all cdc call trdc nghiem

call 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 g 9 10
Ddp all C A C B A B D C A A
call 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ddp all D D D C A D B B H A
call 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Ddp all D C C A D H D B C C 63

{a> 0

• aJ(x)=ag(\)~ ( )[ () ()] (Ncu co sd a thay doi)

a-I f x -g x =0

10 < a:;t: 1

• log_[f(xJ] ~ log" [g(x)] ¢> I(x) ~ g(x)

f(x»O (hay g(x»O)

a.l. Cdc vi du minh hoa

Vi du 1. Giai c.ic phuong trlnh sau:

\+5

V+ 17

\-3 \+1

h. (JiO + 3 ?-I = (JiO "- 3 )\+3

a. 32,-7 =0,25.128,-3

Ciai

a. Di0u kicn: x:;t: 3, x :;t: 7 .

5(_\+_5 ) ~L~:':.'21 5_(H 5) 71r:_I_7l_ 1

(1)~2·\-7 =r2.2 \-3 ~2\-7 =2,-3 -

~ 5(x+5) = 7(x+17) -2~x=10

x-7 x":'3

So vdi oi0u kicn ta eo nghicrn ella phirong trlnh: x = 10. h. Dieu kicn: x:;t: -3,x:;t: 1.

Nhfin xct: (JiO - 3)( JiO + 3) = 1 ~ (JiO - 3) = (JiO + 3 r

\-3 \+1

Do 06: (I) ~ CliO + 3 )\-1 = ( JiO + 3 f'+3

x-3 x+l) t;

~--=--- ~x- =5 ~x=±'Y5

x-I x+3

So voi (lieu kicn La eo nghicrn ella phirong trinh: x = ±J5 .

Vi du 2. Gid i cac phuong trlnh sau:

a, 4,'-302 + 4,'+(J\+) = 42\'+3.1+7 + 1.

( ) )147

h. .:c - 2x + 2 = I .

cu:

l

I

65

VI du 3. Giai cac phirong trlnh sau:

a. log I (x -1) + log I (x + 1) -log I (7 - x) = 1 (1) .

Ii

3 1 3 3

b. -Iog, (x+2t-3=log, (4-x) +Iog, (x+6) (2).

2 4 :; ,;

¢::;> 4,2_3,+2 ( 1- 4X2+6X+5) _ ( 1- 4x2+6x+5) = 0 ¢::;> ( 1- 4,2 +6.\+5 ) ( 4,2 -3x+2 -1) = 0

¢::;> [4X~+6X+5 = I ¢::;> [X2 + 6x + 5 = 0 ¢::;> [x = -1 hay x =-5

4\"-3,+2 = I x2 - 3x + 2 = 0 . x = I hay x = 2

V~y nghiern ella phuong trinh: x = -5 hay x = -1 hay x = 1 hay x = 2 .

( 1 )~

h. x: - 2x + 2 = 1

( 1 )~ (J )0

¢::;> x- - 2x + 2 = x- - 2x + 2

{X2-2X+2>0,VX

¢::;> ( 2 ) tr=: ¢::;> ( x2 - 2x + 1) 'J" 4 - x2 = 0

X - 2x + 2 -1 'V 4 - x- = 0

{4 - x2 ~ 0 {- 2 ::; x ::; 2

¢::;> [X2 - 2x + 1 = 0 ¢::;> [x ~ I ~ [ : : ~

4-x2 = 0 X = ±2

V~y nghicrn ella phirong trinh: x = -2 hay ~ = 1 hay x = 2.

Cia;

{x-I> 0

3. Di6u kicn: x + 1> 0 ¢::;> 1 < x < 7 7-x>0

(I)~log: (X-l)+log; (x+l)~IOgi (7-x)' +log; (~)

¢::;> log I (X2 -1) = log I [.!. (7 - x)2] ¢::;> x2 -1 = .!. (7 - X)2

- - 2 2

2 2

[x=3

¢::;> x2 + 14x - 51 = 0 ¢::;>

x=-17

So voi di6u kicn La e6 nghicm cua phuong trlnh: x = 3 .

66

{X+2:;t: 0

• -6<x<4

b. Dicu kicn: 4-x > 0 <=> {

x:;t:-2 x+6>O

(2) <=> 310g I Ix + 21- 3 = 310g I (4 - x) + 310g I (x + 6)

4 4 4

<=> log I IX + 21-log _I (_!_) = log _I (4 - x) + log _I (x + 6)

44444

<=> log~ (4IX+21) = log! [( 4-x)(x+6)]

4 4

<=> 41X + 21 = ( 4 - X) (X + 6)

[4(X+ 2) = (4-x){x+ 6) <=> 4(x+2)=-(4-x)(x+6)

<=> [< + 6x -16 = 0 <=> [X = 2 ha~ ... x = -8

x- - 2x - 32 = 0 x = 1 ± m

So vdi oi~u kicn ta co nghicm cua phuong trlnh: x = 2 hay x = 1- J33 .

Vi du 4. Giai de phtrong trinh sau:

( 3 J I I x) 1 I I . . A'

a. log) x . og2 X - og) J3 = 2' + og2" X (1) (Dai hoc Kinh tc lYI) 1)

b. log, 2.log2\ 2 = log'6, 2 (2).

cuu

a. Di0u kicn: x > O.

(1) <=> (1 - log) x) .log, X - ( 31og3 X - k) = k + k log, X <=> log, x - 210gz x.log, x - 6log) X = 0

<=> log] 3.log) X - 210gz x.log, x - 61og} X = 0 <=> log} x.(log2 3 - 21og2 X - 6) = 0

<=> log} x.( log, x2 -Iogz :4) = 0

67

c. logj2 E+l-Iog 1 (3 - x) -logX(x -1)' = 0,

(DG du hi B1 - 20(6)

llOg3 X = 0 lX = 1 [X = 1

<=> logo x2 = log, 2_ <=> x2 = 2_ <=> X = ± J3

- - 64 64 8

S " ,t''> ki ~ 'h' ~ "h ' I 1 I .../3

o VOl uicu .icn ta CO ng 1<;111 cua p uongtrtn 1: X = lay X = -.-,

8

h. Die\.! kicn: {.~ > O. 1 . 1

.X *- 1, X*--,.X *- -

2 16

1

(2)<=>--, =--

log: x log] 2x log: 16x

1

<=> _-, = ----

log: x 1 + log] x 4 + log: .\'

<=> 4 + log: x = (1 + log: x) .log , x

o I

<=> logo - x = 4 <=> logo X = ±2 <=> x = 4 hay x = -

- - 4

1

V ~ y, nghicm ella phuong trinh li't: X = 4 hay X = '4 .

(1.2. M{)t s{;' bai tijp ap dung co Uti gidi a.2.1. D~ bai

Hili 1. Gidi ciic phirong trinh sau:

H. 6\ + 6\+1 + 6\+2 = 5\ + 503 - 5'+1,

h. 2\,3\+1.5'+2 = 37500,

mti 2. (*) Gi.ii cac phuong trlnh sau:

.1

H. log] (x -It + logJ:j (2x - 1) = 2.

(Dc du hi B1 - 20(7)

I I r=':

h.log4(x-I)+ =-+log2,-,x+2.

log2x+1 4 2

(Dc du hi A: - 20(7)

6X

u.2.2. Uti ghii

Hai 1. Giai c.ic phuong trlnh sau:

a. 6' + 6'+1 + 61+2 = 5' + 51+3 _ 51+1

<=> 6' (I + 6 + 6~ ) = 5' (I + 53 - 5)

( 6 )., 121 121

<=>"5 = 43 <=> x = IOg6~ 43 .

b. 2'.3'+1.5'+1 = 37500

<=> 2'.3.3'.5~5' = 37500

<=> 75(2.3.5)' = 37500

<=> 30' = 500 <=> .A = log.; 500.

c. (%J'Jlli : l~

Dieu kicn: x EN, x ~ 2

(3)'-2-~ (3J~ 5 1 [X=-I

<=> - = - <=> X - 2 - - = 2 <=> x- - 4x - 5 = 0 <=>

4 4 X x=5

So vdi dieu kicn, phirong trlnh eo mot nghiern: X = 5 .

Hui 2. Giai cac plurong trinh sau:

a.log,(x-I)2+logj3(2x-I)=2 (1)

{X > .!.

Dieu kicn: 2

x;to I

(l) ~ 2log] [x -II + 210g3 (2x - 1) = 2 ~ log3/x -II + log , (2x - I) = I ~ log3[lx-11(2x-I)]=1 ~ Ix-II(2x-l)=3 (2)

• X6t..!_ < x < I: (2) ~ (1 - x) (2x - 1) = 3 ~ 2X2 - 3x + 4 = 0: vo nghicm.

2 '

• X6tX>1:(2)~(X-I)(2X-1)=3~2X2-3X-2=O~[X=21 ')

x = --(Ioal 2 '

Y~y nghiern ella phirong trlnh la x = 2,

1 I r=:z:

b.l()g~(x-I)+ =-+log2v'x+2

log2x+14 2

Dieu kien: x > 1

(2)

69

1 1 1 1

(2) <=> -log2 (x -1) + -log2 (2x + 1) = - + -log2 (x + 2)

2 2 2 2

<=> Iogix - 1) + Iogi2x + 1) = 1 + Iog2(x + 2) <=> log2[(x - 1)(2x + 1)] = Iog2[2(x + 2)]

<=> (x - 1)(2x + I) = 2(x + 2)

IX =-1 <=> 2X2 - 3x - 5 = 0 <=> l x = %

So vdi oiGu kicn, ta eo nghicrn cua phuong trlnh Ia x = 2. . 2

c. log.,J2 ~ -log! (3 - x) -logx(x -1)' = O. DiGu kien: 1 < 'x < 3.

2

Taco: log.,J2~-log!(3-x)-logx(x-l)J =0

2

~ log, (x + I) + log, (3 - x) -log2 (x -I) = 0 ~ log, [( X + 1) (3 - x) ] = log, (x -1)

~ (x + 1)(3 - x) = x-I

2 1±J0

~x -x-4=0<=>x=---

2

S " .t·" ki A 'I . A ., h ' h 1 + J0

o V(11 ulCU 1I.;n, ta eo ng ucrn cua p uong tnn : X = .

2

a.3. Mf)1 .'Ii;' luu y khi gidi dang todn nay

• Day Ia phuong phap co ban oG giiii phucng trinh dang nay, nhung chi giai duoc mot s6 khong nhicu de phircng trlnh, 06i voi phirong trlnh logarit, hoac phircng trinh mii co eo s6 chua 5n thi nen o,)t c1i6u kien 00 phuong trinh eo nghia r6i hay di bien d6i.

• C~n chu y ta rfit hay nham khi ap dung nhorn cong thirc nay:

N C' u 0 < a :1= 1 , b, b, > 0 thl

i. log a (blb2) = log, Ibll + log, Ib21·

i i. log, ~~ = log" Ibll- Jog a Ib21· iii.logab2k = 2k.logalbl, k E Z+, b:l= O.

70

b. D~NC 2: Phuong phdp dq.t iill phu

b.l. Cdc vi du minh hoa

Vi du 1. Giai cac phirong trtnh san: a. 22, _3.2x+2 +32 = 0 (1)

b. 6.4' -13.6' +6.9' = 0 (2)

Gidi

a. D~t t = 2' , t > 0 . Ta diroc phirong trinh:

[t = 8 [2' = 8 = 23 [x = 3

t2 -I2t + 32 = 0 <=> (thoa di0u kien) ~ 1 <=>

t = 4 2' = 4 = 2- x = 2

v~y nghicrn ciia phirong trlnh: x = 2 hay x = 3.

(3)X (3 )2\

b.(2)<=>6-I3. '2 +6. '2 =0

(3 )X

D~t t = '2 ' t > 0 . Ta diroc phirong trlnh:

[ 3 (3)' 3

o t = '2 '2 = 2 [x = 1

6t- -I3t + 6 = 0 <=> ~ <=>

t=% (%) =%=(%J' x=-I

Vfiy nghicm cua phirong trinh: x = -1 hay x = 1.

Vi du 2. Giai cac phirong trlnh sau:

a. 22"+'_9.2"+\ + 22X+2 =0 (1)

b. (2-J3)' +(2+J3)' =14 (2)

au:

2 .

Dr,lt t = 2' -, , t > O. Ta diroc phuong trlnh:

It = 4

2t .: 9 + i = 0 <=> 2t2 - 9t + 4 == 0 <=> 1

t t =-

2

71

f2·,1_., = 4 = 22 •

. x- - x - 2 = 0 [X = -I

~l' 1 ~ ~ . .

2'--' ="2 = z' X2 - X + 1 = 0 (VO nghicrn) X = 2

Vdy nghicm ella phirong trinh: X = -I hay X = 2 .

b. Nhan xct: (2-.J3)(2+.J3)=1

D~t t = (2 +.J3)' , t > 0 ~ (2 +.J3)' =!

t

1

Suy ra Clj co dang: -+t=14 ~t2-14t+I=O t

[t = 7 + 4.J3 r( 2 +.J3)' = ( 2 + .J3f

~ t = 7 - 4.J3 ~ (2 + .J3 r = ( 2 - .J3 r = ( 2 + J3 (

~[X=2 x=-2

V~y nghicrn ella phirong trinh: x = -2 hay x = 2 .

Vi du 3. Gidi de haL phtrong trlnh sau: a. log , 2 + log, 4x = 3 .

. \

2 3 I

h.log,x -14.log'6,x +40.1og4,-vx=O.

2

cuu

{X>O

Dicu kicn:

. x:;t2

1 1

(1)~--(-)+2+IOg2X=3~ _+log2x-l=O

I 2 l-log2x

cg ,

- X

D~ t t = log, X, t :;t I . Ta eo phirong trinh:

1 [t = 0 [lOgo x = 0 [x = I

-+t-l=O~t(t-2)=O~ ~ - ¢::;;>

1 - t t = 2 log: x = 2 x = 4

So vdi dicu kicn La eo nghicrn ella phuong trlnh: x = 1 hay x = 4 .

72

73

Di0u kien: {X> O. 1 . 1

x7:-2,x7:--,x7:--

16 4

(2) ¢:::> 210gr X - 42.log'IH X + 20.log4r X = 0

¢:::> log2 X _ 21. log2 X + 10. log} X = 0

I (X) log) 16x log,4x

og2 2 - -

¢:::> log, X _ 21. log) X + 10. log2 X = 0

log, X -I 4 + log, X 2 + log, X

D,}t t = log, X vcii t 7:- l,t 7:- -4,t 7:- -2. Ta co phuong trlnh:

ft = 0

_l __ 21._t_+10._t_ = 0 ¢:::> t(2t2 -3t-2) = 0 ¢:::> It =_J_ t-l 4+t 2+t 2

l=2

log, X = 0 x = 1

1 .J2

~ log) X = -- ¢:::> x = -

- 2 2

log, X = 2 X = 4

So vdi ui0u kicn ta co nghicmcua phirong trlnh:

.J2

x = 1 hay x = 4 hay x = -

2

Vi du 4. Gi.ii de phtrcng trlnh sau:

41"g,2t log,(' 231"g,4.,'

a. . -x . =. . .

h. log, (x - ,/x2 - 1 ) .log. (x + '/x2 - 1 ) = log.; (x - '/x2 - 1 ) .

Giai

41og•2, 1,,",(, 23Iog,4r' (I)

a. . - X", =. .

Di0u kicn: x> 0 .

(3)1 (3 )21

~ 4-"2 = 18. "2

(2)

D~t (= log, X => X = t . Ta co phirong trlnh:

41+1 _( 21 tg,6 = 2.32(1+1) ~ 4.41 - (iOg,6 Y = 18.91 ~ 4.41 - 61 = 18.91

So voi di0u kicn ta co nghiern ciia phirong trlnh:

1

X=-.

4

h. log, ( X - ~ X2 -1 ) .log, ( x + ~ X2 -1 ) = log, ( X -~) (1)

{X2 -1 ~ 0

Di0uki(:n: r=": ~x~l

x - \j X- -1 > 0

Nhan xet: (X + /\"2 -I ) ( X - ~ X2 -I ) = 1

Dod6: D~t t=x+~, ((>0) thl x-~x2-1 =~. (

(1) ~ log, ( 7) .log, ( = log., (7 ) ~ log, r.log, t = log., t

~ log, r.log, t = log20 -l.log, t ~ IOg4 t.( logs t -log2u 4) = 0

[log t = 0 [t = 1

~ log: t = log., 4 ~ t = SlOg204

+ Vdi ( = 1, ta co: X + ~ X2 -1 = 1 ~ X = 1 + Vdi t = Slog204, ta co:

74

So vdi di0u kicn ta eo nghicrn ella phuong trlnh: x = 1 hay x = ~(SIOg204 + S-log",4).

b.2. M(jt sl{ bai tijp tip dung co liti gidi b.2.l. D~ bai

Hai 1. (*) Giai de phirong trinh sau: a. 23x+I_7.22\ +7.2x -2=0

h. 9,2+\-1 -10.3" H-2 + 1 = 0

23., 2.\ 1 12

c. -6. --'(--) +-. = 1

2-' .\-1 2\

d. 9sil1', + 9""" = 1 0

Bai 2. (*) Gi.ii de phuong trlnh sau: 4

a. (2 -log) x) log, 3 - = I

- x I-log x

3

h. log, (J' -I) log, (3<+1 - 3) = 6

c. log, 2 + 2log2, 4 = log)b 8

1

d. 2(log2 X + I) log, X + log, - = 0 4

C. log,(3-.Jx2 -2x+l )=~

f. (2+J2)lug" +x.(2_J2)IOg" =1+X2

(D0 du' bi kh6i O2 2007). (DG du bi khoi B2 2006).

(D'.li hoc Y H?t N0i, 2(00)

(Dai hoc An ninh, 1999).

(DG du bi Kh6i B2 2(07).

(D0 du bi Kh6i 01 2(06). (D6 dir bi Kh6i A2 2006).

(DG du bi Kh6i O2 20(6).

(D,~i hoc Y H?t N0i, 2000).

(DHQG H?t N(Ji,2000)

g. log2x_I(2x2 +x-I)+log,+,(2x-l)2 =4 (Kh6iA- 20(8)

b.2.2. Uti ghii

Bai 1. Giai de phirong trtnh sau:

a. 23x+I_7.22x +7.2x -2=0 Dat t=2', t c- O

Ta co: 2t1 - 7t2 + 7t - 2 = 0 <=> (t -1 )(2t2 - 5t + 2) = 0

[t = I 2 x = 1 rx = 0

<=> t = 2 ~ 2x = 2 <=> x: 1

t=!.. 2x=!.. x--l

2 2

VGy nghicrn cua phirong trinh l?t: x = -1; x = 0; x = l.

75

¢::> It = \ => l3':+>-: = \ ¢=> [x: + x - 2 = 0

1 = - 3\ +.\-- = - x: + x - 2 = -2

9 9

¢=>[X2+X-2=0 ¢=>[X=I hayx=-2

x2 +x=O x=O hay x=-I

h. 9,'+\-1 -10.3\'+\-2 + 1 = 0 ¢=> 9.9,'+>-2 -10.3\'+>-2 + 1 = 0 B~t 1=3\'+1·2, r s o

Y~y nghicrn ella phirong trinh lit: x = -2; x = 0; x = ±I.

C. 20\ - 6.2' - _I - + g = 1 ¢=> (23x - ~J - 6 (2' - 2J = 1

iC\-I) 2' 23, 2'

2 . 2

Bat t = 2 \ - - => 23\ - -,- = to + 61 . Ta eo phuong trinh:

. 2\ 2"

tJ + 6t - 6t = 1 ¢=> t' = 1 ¢=> 1 = 1

=> 2\ _2 = 1 ¢=> 22\ -2' -2 = 0 ¢=> 2\ = -I (Ioai) hay 2' = 2 ¢=> x = 1

2' .

Y~y nghicm ella phuong trinh: x = 1 .

. ,

d. 9"11' , + gens-, = 1 0 (1)

. ,

f-),}t 1 = 9""-' . Ta eo: 0 ~ sin ' x ~ 1 => 1 ~ 1 ~ 9

, , 9

Suy fa: 9CllS-' = 91-S111-' = -;t:

9 [t = 1

Khi u6: (1) ¢=> 1 + - = 10 ¢=> t2 -lOt + 9 = 0 ¢=> . (thoa ui0u kicn)

1 t = 9

[9Sil1' \ 1 [. 2 0 [. 0

. = SII1 X = S1I1 X =

=> 9""'\ =9 ¢=> sin ' x=1 ¢=> cos x= O

¢=> sin 2x = 0 ¢=> x = k 7r (k E Z) 2

Yay nuhicrn ella phuong trlnh: x = k 7r (k E Z).

. ~ . ~ 2

Bui 2. Giai de phuong trlnh sau: 4

a. (2 -log, x )log'J 3 - == I (1)

. x I-log_] x

76

77

jx > °

Di~u kicn: 9x;t:1

log , x ;t: I

) 2 -log, x 4 2 -log, x 4

(I <=> - - =1 <=> - - =1

log, (9x) I-log] x 2 + log] x I -log3 X

D~il t = log, x (t;t: -2, t ;t: I)

I I

2-t 4 rt=-I rloglX=-1 Ix=-

Tae(): ----=1 <=>t2-3L-4=O<=> ~l - . q .3

2 + L I - ILL = 4 log, x = 4 I x ~, X I

L

, I -

So vdi dicu kicn La e6 nghicrn ella phuong trinh l:t x = - hay x = Xl.

. . ~ 3

h. log, (3' -I) log, (3'+1 - 3) = 6

Di6u kicn: 3' - I > () <=> x > 0

Ta co: leg, (3' -I) log} (3x+1 - 3) = 6 <=> log, ()\ -I) log] [3(3' -I)] = ()

<=> log] ( 3' -I) [ I + log} ( 3' -I)] = 6

D~t t = log] ()\ -I), ta co:

[I = 2 l(t + 1) = 6 <=> 12 + t - 6 = () <=>

1 =-3

[IOgj (3\ -I) = 2 [3.\. -1 = 9

=> <=> I

lou (3\-1)=-3 3'-1=-

b.l - - 27

[3. '. = 1.0 lX = logjlO

<=> ')x <=> 2H

3\ =~ x=lou-

27 b.l 27

So vdi Ji6u kicn, La co nghicm cua plurong trlnh l:t:

28 x=log11O hay x=log1-. 27

c. log, 2 + 21og2, 4 = 10gb 8

, I

Dicu kicn: x > a,x =I; I,x =1;-

. 2

1 2

<:::::>--- =0

log, X 1 + log, x

<:::::> log, x = 1 <:::::> x = 2

Ta co: log, 2 + 2log2x 4 = log)h 8 <:::::> log, 2 + 4log2x 2 = 61og2r 2 <:::::> log, 2 - 21og2, 2 = 0

I 2

<:::::>--- =0

log, X log, 2x

..

So voi di0u kicn, ta co nghicm cua phirong trlnh: x = 2 .

1

d. 2(log2 X + 1) log, X + log, - = 0 4

Di0u kicn: x > 0

Ta co: 2(log2 x + 1) log, X + log, _!_ = 0 <:::::> (log, x + 1) log, x - 2 = 0 4

D~t 1 = log) X , ta co:

[X =2

2 t = 1 log, X = 1

t +1-2=0<:::::> ~ <:::::> 1

['=-2 [tOg,X=-2 x=4

1

So vdi dicu kicn, ta co nghicrn cua phuong trlnh: x = - hay x = 2 . 4

c.log.(3-.Jx2 -2X+l)=_!_ (1)

, 2

{o < x :;t 1 {o < x :;t 1 {o < x < 4

Di0u kicn: <:::::> <:::::>

. 3-.Jx2-2x+l >0 -2<x<4 x:;tl

(1) <:::::> log, (3 -.J x2 - 2x + 1 ) = log, Fx <:::::>3-.Jx2-2x+I=Fx <:::::>Fx=3-!x-l! (2) +Nc'u O<x<l: (2)<:::::>Fx=x+2<:::::>x=(x+2)2

<:::::> x2 - 3x + 4 = ° (YO nghiem)

78

+ Ncu

1 < x < 4: (2) ¢:::;> Fx = 4 - x ¢:::;> x = ( 4 - X)2 ¢:::;> X2 - 9x + 16 = 0 X= 9+;U ~(1;4)

1-10

¢:::;> ¢:::;> x =

X= 9-;U E(I;4)

2

VA hi A la nh ' hi' 1- 10

ay, ng icrn cua p irong trin a: x = 2 .

( t; )IOg, .r ( r: )IOg2 .r )

f. 2 + -v 2 + x. 2 - -v 2 = 1 + x-

Di0u kicn: x> 0 .

( r: )IOg2 X ( r: )IOg, .r I _

Nhan xet: 2 +-v2 . 2 --v2 = 2 ag,' = X

79

Dodo:D~t t=(2+J2)'Og,X,t>O thi (2_J2)IOg2X =7'

) t 2 ) (2 )) [t = 1

(1 ¢:::;> t +.:_ = 1 + x ¢:::;> t: - x + 1 t + x: = 0 ¢:::;> 2

t t = x

+Vdi l=l,taco: (2+J2tg2X =1 ¢:::;>log2x=O¢:::;>x=1.

+ Voi t = x2 , ta co: (2 + J2)IOg" = x2 ¢:::;> log, x.log, (2 + J2) = 21og2 X ¢:::;> log, x.[ log} (2 + J2) - 2] = 0 ¢:::;> log, x = 0 ¢:::;> x = 1 ..

So voi di0u kicn ta co nghicm ciia phuong trinh: x = 1 .

g. log2x_' (2x z + x-I) + logH' (2x _1)2 = 4

D·.> k' All lCU 'lcn: - < x *

. 2

¢:::;> log2x_' (2x -1)( x + 1) + logH' (2x - Il = 4 ¢:::;> 1 + logzx_' (x + 1) + 21ogH, (2x -I) = 4

¢:::;> log\x_, (x + I) - 3Iogzx_' (x + 1) + 2 = 0

x=2

[IOg2x_1 (x+ I) = 1 [x+ 1 = 2x -I 5

¢:::;> ¢:::;> 2¢:::;> X=-

logzx_,(x+l)=2 x+l=(2x-l) 4

x=O (lo~i)

5 V~y phircng trlnh co hai nghiern: x = 2 va x ="4'

b.3. M{)t s(/ "/11 y khi gidi dang todtt nay

a. Day Iii phirong phtip rflt hay dung dG gi~ii phirong trlnh mil va logarit, ta khco 160 d~t fin phu thich hop d0 dira phirong trlnh v6 dang da i scl vdi fin mdi, giiii phuong trlnh nay tim nghiern the vao ta sc diroc phirong trinh co ban hoac phuong trinh don gian hen,

h. Khi u~t fin phu ta din u~t ui6u kicn thich hop eho £In mdi, u6 rut ngan hot <'i cac biroc gi<li tiep theo vii nhtt Iii trong de hili phai bien luau s6 nghicm cua phuong truth.

c. D~NG 3: Phuong pluip liigarit IUJa (dauli clio phuang trittlt tnii)

c.l. Cdc vi du miuh hoa

'Vi du 1. Gi.li de phuong trlnh, hfll phirong trinh sau:

1 -I

a. 5'.8 1 = 500

h. 8'+] = 36.3] 1

ouu

,-I

a. 5'.8' = 500 Di6u kicu: x -:I:- 0 .

J(.I-I) 3(1::1)_0 ':.::"} 1-3

<=? 5'.2 .1 = 53.22 <=? 2 .r - = 53-1 <=? 2 1 = 53-1 <=? log, 2 1 = log, 53-I

[X = 3 rx = 3

<=? I + X logo 5 = 0 <=? x = - -'- = -logs 2

- log] 5

V~y nghicm ella plurong trinh: x = 3 hay x = -logs 2.

h. 81+2 = 36.3"1 Di6u k icn: x -:I:- -2 .

~-4 ( I )

<=? .; - = ( 4 - x) log] 3 <=? (x - 4) .-- + log] 3 = 0

x+2 ,x+2

xu

I

i

_j

Vi du 2. Giai de phirong trlnh, btt phirong trinh sau:

a. 2'.5' = 0,2.( 10,-1 t b. 34' = 43'

[X = 4 [X = 4

Q x= __ I_-2=-log)2-2Q x=-log 18

log13 )

Vay nghicm ella phircng trinh: X = 4 hay x = -log} 18.

Gidi

a. 2'.5' = 0,2. (10'-1/

10' 1105('-1) I (lOX) I 2 +1 105(,-1)

Q . = -. Q og = og - og

5 10

. 3 1

Q X = log 2 -1 + 5x - 5 Q 4x = 6 -log 2 Q x = - - -log 2 . 2 4

(4)'

Q 4' = 3' log} 4 Q '3 = log} 4 Q X = log , (log) 4).

c.2. M(U .w;'bizi tijp tip dung co lai giai c.2.1. D~ bai

Bai 1. Giai de phuong trinh sau:

\

a. 3'.8\+1 = 36

C. x6 .5-log, 5 = 5-5 .

Uai 2. Giai de phuong trinh sau:

a. 4.xlog,\ = Xl

4'OgO.5(sin2 x+5sin.\.l,;osx+2) _ _!_

c. - .

9

c.2.2. Lui giai

mli 1. Girii cac phirong trinh sau:

,

a. J'.8x+1 = 36

Di0u kicn x:;:.-1

~1

4· log. x 2

a .. x = X

(1)

( )X J 3

<=> log) 3'.2 ~ = log) 36 <=> X + -X-log) 2 = 2 + 2 log) 2

x +I

x-2 (1)

<=> X - 2 + --log) 2 = 0 <=> (x - 2) 1 + --log) 2

x+l .r +I

[X - 2 = 0

x=2

<=> II<=>

-=--- [X=-I-IOg 2

X + 1 log) 2 ]

<=> [X = 2 (thoa di6u kien)

X = -log) 6

V~y phirong trlnh c6 nghiern X = 2 hay X = -log} 6 .

h. 3,2_4 = 5'-2 <=> x2 -4 = (x-2).log) 5 <=> x2 -4 = (x- 2).log) 5

<=>(X-2)(X+2_10g35)=O<=>[X=2 5

X = -2 + log) 5 = log) - 9

5 V~y phuong trlnh co hai nghiern: X = 2 hay X = log) 9".

C. x6 .5-log, S = 5-s (1)

Di0u kien 0 < X *- 1

(1) <=> logs (x6.5-log,S) = logs (5-S)

<=> 6.logs X -log, 5 = -5 <=> 6log/ X + Slog. x-I = 0

[logs x = -1 fx = 5-1 =.!.

<=> 1 <=> 5 (thea di6u kicn)

logs x = - ~

6 x = 56 = ifS

V~y phtrong trlnh c6 hai nghiern: x = ± hay x = ifS.

Ba! 2. Giai cac phirong trlnh sau:

Di6u kicn: x > 0

(1) <=> log, ( 4.Xlog4X) = log, x2 <=> 1 + log, x.log, X = Zlog , X

<=> log," X - Zlog, X + 1 = 0 <=> log, X = 1 <=> x = 4

So vdi di0u kien, suy ra phirong trinh c6 nghiern: x = 4 .

82

.r

a. 2' = 1 + 32

b. 2,-1 - 2"-" = (x _1)2.

b. x4.63 = 61og,6 (1) Dicu kicn: 0 < X ;t:. 1

(1) ~ log, (X4 .63) = log, (6Iugx6) ~ -l.log, X + 3 = log .r 6

~ 410gb 2 X + 31og6 x-I = 0

[lognX=-l rX=6-1 =.!.

~ 1 ~ 6 (thoa di6u kien)

log X=- 1

b 4 x=64 =16

V~y phuong trlnh c6 hai nghiern: X = i hay X = 16.

4Iog(J.dsiI12 x+5sin.\'.cosx+1) 1

C. =- (1)

9

Dicu kicn: sin" X + 5sin x.cos x + 2> 0

(1) ~ log , [ 4IUg,u(SII1'x+5Sill,COSX+2) ] = log, ~

~ logo.5 [sin ' x + 5 sin x.cos x + 2) = logo.5 3 ~ sin ' x + 5 sin x.cos x + 2 = 3 (thoa dicu kien)

~ 5 sin x. cos x - cos" X = 0 ~ cos x (5 sin x - cos x) = 0

[ Jr

cos X = 0 x = - + kr:

cosx = 0 2

~ ~ 1 ~ , kEZ).

[5 sin x - cos x = 0 rtan x = - t ( 1) k (

5 x = arc an - + Jr

5

c.3. M(u .'It;' luu y khi gidi dangtodu lIay

Khi g~p cac phirong trlnh co hai vfi d6u duong va la tich cua nhieu lfiy thira co co so va so mil khac nhau (khong th6 dira vc Cling co so, hoac Cling so nul duoc), ncu ia'y logarit vdi co so thich hop ta co thG dira phirong trlnh d<l cho thanh phirong trinh don gi<ln hon d<l bi6t each giai.

d. D~NG 4: Phuong pluip .'Ill dung tinh dan diru ella ham sif

d.l. Cdc vi du minh lura

Vi du 1. Giai cac phirong trlnh sau:

83

Iv! du 2. Giiii cac phuong trinh sau:

I a. 3.25\-~ +(3x-lO).5,-2 +3-x=0.

I h.(2J6) +_I_=_5\_. _j

cut

\" \'

\ .\ .\ ( 3 ) 2 (I) 2

a. 2\ = 1+32 ~ 42 = 1+ 32 ~"4 +"4 = I

Nhan xct: x = 2 la melt nghiern ella phuong trlnh. M~t khac:

\ .r

+ .f (x) = ( % r + ( ~ r El ham so luon nghich bien;

+ g(x) = I la ham hang.

Do dll, d0 thi ella hai ham s6 f (x) va g (x) dt nhau tai mot diC;m duy nh£lt ell hoanh dO x = 2.

V~y: x = 2 la nghiem duy nhflt ella phudng trlnh.

h. 2\-1 _ 2"-, = (x-I)2 ~ 2,-1 - 2"-' = (X2 - x)-(x -I)

~2\-I+x-I=2'2-\+x2-x (I)

D(lt 1I = x -I, v = x2 - x

Ta e() (I) lr(~ thanh: 2" + II = 2' + v Xct ham sc>: f(t) = 21 +t

f' (t) = 21 In 2 + I > 0, \i t E ~

Suy ra: Ham sc> f (t) luon IU()J1 d(~ng hien vdi moi t E ~ .

Do do: f (u) = I ( v) ~ u = v ~ x -I = x2 - X ~ x2 - 2x + I = 0 ~ x = I V~y nghicrn ella phuong trinh: x = 1 .

Giai

a. 3.25,-2 +(3x-IO).5,-2 +3-x=0 (I) D~t t = 5\-2, t> O. Liic do (1) co dang:

3/2 + (3x -IO)t + 3 - x = 0 ~ [, = ~ t=3-x

84

cuu

+ Vdi t = _!_ <=> 5,-2 = _!_ <=> X - 2 = log. (_!_) <=> X = 2 -logy _ 3

3 3 -' 3 )

+ Vdi l=3-x<=>5'-2 =3-x (*)

Nhnn xct: x = 2 Ia mot nghicrn ella phirong rrlnh. M~t kh.ic:

+ f (x) = 5'-2 Iii ham sCl" luon luon u(')ng bi0'n;

+ g (x) = 3 - x Iii ham sC) nghich bien.

Vay: x = 2 El nghicrn duy nhfit ella phucng trrnh (*).

K0't lufin: Nghi(:111 ella phtrong trinh urr cho Iii: x = 2 hay x = 2 -logs 3.

[ 216 J'\ (1 )'t

h. (2J6)' + 1 = 5' <=> -5- + 5 = 1

Nhan xct: x = 2 Iii mOt nghiern ella phirong truih. M;lt kh.ic:

+ r ( Y) - __ (\, 2 J} 1,)'\ + (51 ) \ , ,

-, I _1 I Iii ham so luon nghich bien:

+ g (x) = I Iii ham hJng.

Do do, u6 thi ella hai ham stl f (x) vii g (x) dt nhau tai mOt ui0m duy nhfl[ co hoanh u(> x = 2.

Vfiy: x = 2 Iii nghicm duy nhflt ella phuong trlnh.

~

IVi " 3. y ~i~ii de~hu(inJg "" ~u: _ i

a. log, :\+(x 1)log2x-6 2x. I

LI __ h_._._t2_+ __ 3_IOg_,_\_=_x_IO_g_,s_. ___j

a.log/x+(x-l)log2x=6-2x

Di6u kicn: x> O.

D,1l t = log: x , plnrong trlnh urr cho tn'i thanh:

'll =-2 t 2 + (x - I) t + 2x - 6 = 0 <=>

1=3-x

Vi du 4. Giai cac phirong trlnh sau:

x2 +x+3 ,

a. log), = x- + 3x + 2 .

2x- +4x+5

b. log) (Xl + X + I) -log) X = 2x - x2 .

+ Voi t = -2, ta co: log, x = -2 <=> x = _.!._

- 4

+ Vdi log2x=3-x(*).

Nhan xet: x = 2 la nghiern cua phuong trlnh. M,~t khac:

+ f (x) = log, x Ia ham sf) d6ng bien;

+ g(x) = 3-x la ham sf) nghich bien.

Vay, x = 2 Ia nghicm duy nh5t cua phuong trlnh (*).

Ket luan: Nghiem ciia phirong trlnh dfl eho Ia x = ~ hay x = 2 .

b. x2 +3log,x = X1og,5 (1)

Di6u kicn: x > O.

Dat t = log, X => X = 2' .

(1)"<=> (2' r + 3' = (2' tgZ5 <=> 21' + 3' = (iOg,5),

<=> 4' + 3' = 5' <=> ( ~)' + ( %)' = 1

NMn xct: t = 2 Iil nghicrn ciia phuong trlnh M~t khac:

+ f(t)=(~)' +(%)' la ham so nghich bidn + g(t) = I Ia ham hang

V~y, t = 2 la nghiern duy nh5t cua phirong trlnh, suy ra: x = 4 la nghiern cua phirong trlnh dfl eho.

cut

Xl + X + 3 ,

a.logJ, =x-+3x+2(1)

2x- + 4x + 5

86

87

{x" + x + 3> 0, vx E IR. J (? ) J

Ta co: J va 2x- +4x+5- x- +x +S =X- +3x+2.

2x- +4x+5 > 0, '\Ix E IR.

Dodo:

(1) ~ 10g3 (X2 +x +S )-10g3 (2X2 +4x+5) = (2X2 +4x+5) _(X2 +x+3)

~ 10g3 (X2 +x+3)+( x2 +x+3) = 10g3 (2X2 +4x+5) +( 2X2 +4x+5)

{u = x2 +x+3

Dat 2 (u>2,v>2)

v = 2x +4x+5

Ta co phuong trinh: 10g3 u + u = 10g3 V + v Xet ham so: f(t)=10g3t+t, t>2

1

f' (t) = - + 1 > 0, '\I t > 2 tin 3

=> f (t) la ham s6luan luon d6ng bien '\It> 2 .

Do do: j (u) = f (v) ~ u = v

~ x" +x+3 = 2X2 +4x+5

~ x2 + 3x + 2 = 0 ~ x = -1 hay x = -2

V~y, nghicrn ella phirong trinh la: x = -1 hay x = -2.

b. 10g3 ( x2 + X + 1) -10g3 X = 2x - x2 (2)

Di6u kicn: x > O.

[ X2 + X + 1] 2 _.__ x2 + X + 1 = 32x-x2

(2)~ 10g3 x = 2x-x..._,... x

, x2 +x + 1

+ Xet harn so: f(x)= .x c- O

x

Taco: f(x)=x+..!..+1~2. Q +1=3=>f(x)~3,'\Ix>0.

x ~x.~

X, h' '" () 32<-<2 0

+ ct am so: g x = ", x >

Ta co: 2x-x2 =1-(x-l)2 ~1=>g(x)=32x-x2 ~31 =3, '\Ix>O Do do: f (x) = g (x) = 3 ~ x = 1

Vay, nghicrn ella phirong trinh la: x = 1.

(Du bi B2 - 20(3)

d.2. M{)t srI hili tfjp tip dung co It'Ji gidi d.2.1. D~ bai

Bai 1. Giiii de phtrong trinh sau:

a. 3' +x- 4 = 0

b. (43 ),\

= _x1 + x-I

Bai 2. Giai de phirong trinh sau:

a. logs x = II - 2x

b ~ _logJ4 _ 2 2Iog).\ _ log)2

..x -x . x

3

Bai 3. Giai de phuong trlnh sau:

a. (~7 + 4F3 r + (~7 - 4F3 r = fW

.v (I ).\ .r (1 ).\ (5).\

h. 3 -"3 + 5 - 4 - 12 = - 3x + 10

Bai 4. (*) Giili plnrong trlnh: 2.1og6 ( if; + V;) = log, Fx (1).

(D'.li hoc Y khoa Ha NQi, 1(98) Bai 5. (*) Gi,li phuong trlnh sau: 3.1 + 2' = 3x + 2.

H , . 6 (I G" . h ' h 1 2 x_I 2 x

)al . ") rat P uong tnn : og2 -I-xl- = 1 + x - .

(Du bi O2 - 2(07) Bai7. (*)GiiiiphUl1ngtrlnh: 4'-2HI+2(2.\-I)sin(2\+y-I)+2=O.

(Du bi DI - 20(6)

d.2.2. Uii gil'ii

Bai 1. Giai c.ic phuong trlnh sau: a, 3' + x - 4 = ° ~ 3' = 4 - x

Ta thfly: f (x) = J' d5ng bien trcn IR : g (x) = 4 - x nghich bien trcn Ll.? .

Mjit khac: f (I) = g (I) = 3 , suy ra phirong trlnh co nghicm duy nhflt x = 1 .

(3 )X

h. - = - x1 + x-I

4

(3)X 3 ( 1)2

TathflY: j(x)= 4 >O,VXEIR ;g(x)=-4- X2_2 <O,VXEIR

Ncn phuung trlnh vo nghicm,

IH,i 2. Giai de phirong trlnh sau:

a. logs x = 1 1 - 2x

Tathfty: f(x)=logsx d0ng bien trcn (0; +00); g (x) = 11- 2x nghich bien trcn lR.

Mat khac: I (5) = g (5) = 1 , suy ra phirong trinh co nghicm duy nh:ll x = 5 .

h ~ log,4 - "2Iog,X _ log," (I)

. x - x . x

3

DiCu kicn: x> 0

(l)<=:>*.(iOg\\f =x2.iog,x -iog\\,(vl alog/oc =clog/o(/)

<=:> ~ .iog,\ = x2 - 1

3

D~t log) x = t => x = 3' , tljn den phuong trinh:

8 8 ( 1 )' ( 1 )'

3.3' =9' -I <=:>33 +"9 =1

8 (I ).\ (I)·'

+ f (I) = 3' 3 + 9" la ham s(') Ilion nghich bien.

+ g (t) = I I~l ham hang.

Do t1(), di) thi cua hai ham s(') f (t) va g (t) d t nha II U.l i m()! diem J u y nhft! co hoa nh d() t = 1 => log, x = 1 <=:> x = 3.

Vfi y: x = 3 ta nghicrn duy nhftt cua phuong trrnh.

Bui 3. Giai de phuong trlnh sau:

a. (b+4J3)' +(b-4J3)' ~JW ~[~7+1:J3J +[ t-l:J3J ~ I

/. [{7;4J3].\ [0-4f3JX

Ta thfiy .I (x) = ~~ + ~~ ia ham sclluon nghich bien

7 - 413 7 + 413

( VI 0 < ; < 1 ), S II Y ra:

14 14

+ Khi x > 2 => f ( x ) < f ( 2) = 1 + Khi x < 2 => f ( x ) > f ( 2) = 1 + Khi x = 2 => f ( x ) = f ( 2) = 1

V~y: x = 2 ia nghicm duy nhKt ella phirong trlnh.

. ( 1 )' ( 1 )' (5)'

h. 3' -"3 +5x -"4 - 12 =-3x+l0

( 1 )X ( 1 )X (5)X

X6t f (x) = 3x -"3 + s: -"4 - 12

• , .r ( 1 )" 1 x ( 1 )X 1 (5)x. 5

=> j (x) = 3 .111 3 - - 111 - + 5 111 5 - - 111 - - - .In-

3 3 4 4 12 12

( 1 )' ( 1 )X ( 5 )X 12

=3'.1113+"3 1113+5'1115+"4 111+ 12 .1115>O,VxE~

Ncn f (x) dOng bic'n tren lR : g (x) = - 3x + 10 nghich bien trcn lR

Va l(i)=3-~+5-~-2.=7;g(I)=-3.1+10=7, suy ra phucng trlnh

. 3 4 12

co nghiern duy nhat x = i .

Bai 4. DiGu kicn: x > 0

I I

¢=>4~ +2; =6~ ¢=>(%l +(~J =1

Nhan xct: t = 2 la nghiern cua phirong trinh. Mat khac:

I I

f () (2)2 ( 1)2 I' h' "" hi h bi ""

+ t = '3 +"3 a am so ng ic len.

+ g(t) = 1 ia ha111 h~ng.

Do do, t = 2 ia nghiern duy nha't ella phirong trlnh. Suy ra: .[; = 42 ¢=> X = 256 (thoa diGu kien). Vay, nghiern ella phuong trlnh drr cho la x = 256.

90

91

Bai 5. Ta c6: 3' + 2' = 3x + 2 ¢::::> 3' + 2' - 3x - 2 = 0 (1) NMn xct: x = 0; x = 1 la nghiem ella (1)

Xet ham s6: 1 (x) = 3' + 2' - 3x - 2, x E IR

1 '( x ) = 3' In 3 + 2' In 2 - 3

I" (x) = 3' In 2 3 + 2' In 2 2 > 0, '\Ix => I' ( x) Iii ham s6 d6ng bien '\I x E R.

{I '(0) = In 6 - 3 < 0

Mat khac: => 1'(0).1'(1) < 0

. 1'(I)=lnl08-3>0

=> f'(x) = 0 c6 mot nghiern duy nha't Xo E (0; 1) Bdng bien thien:

x

o

+

-00

Xo

+00

rex)

+00

+00

~CT~

f(x)

Suy ra, phuong trlnh f (x) = 0 c6 hai nghiern: x = 0; x = 1. 2x -1

. Bai 6. log2-I-xl- = 1 + x - 2' (1)

£)i6u kicn: x > 0

(1) <=> log2 (2' - 1) -IOg2X = 1 + x - 2'

<=> IOg2 (2' - 1) + (2' - 1) = logjx + x £)~t u = 2' - 1, U > 0

Ta c6: IOg2U + u = IOg2X + X <=> f(u) = I(x)

Xct ham d~t tnrng: f'(t) = log-t + t, vdi t> 0 1

['(t)=-+ 1>0, Vt>O

tin t _I

o

x

=> ret) Iii ham s6 d6ng bien vt > 0

Dod6: feu) = rex) <=> u = x <=> 2' - 1 = x <=> 2' = x + 1 Nhan xct: x = 0; x = 1 Iii hai nghiern ella phirong trinh

Mat khac: £)6 thi (C) ella ham s6 y = 2' 16m tren khoang (0; +(0).

Do do, duang thang (d): y = x + 1 chi dt u6 thi (C) t6i da tai hai di<Sm. Mil x > 0 ncn phucng trinh urr cho c6 nghiem duy nhfit Iii x = I.

<=>{2'-.I+Sil1(2'+.1'-l) =0

cos(2' +.1'-1) =0

(2) <=> sin(2' + y -1) = ±I

+ Voi sin(2' + y -I) = I: (I) <=> 2' = 0: vo nghicrn

(1)

B;ji 7. Ta co:

4' _2,+1 +2(2' -1)sin(2' +.1'-1)+2=0

<=> (22, - 2.2' + 1) + 2(2' -1)sin(2' + y -I) + 1 = 0

<=>[( 2' _1)2 +2(2' -1).sin(2' + y-I)+sil/(2' + y-l)]+ l-sin2(2' + y-I) =0

<=> [2' -I + sin(2' + .1' -I) J + cos (2' + y -1) = 0

(2)

+Vdi sin(2'+y-I)=-I: 2' =2<=>x=1 The x = 1 vao (I), ta co:

sin(Y+I)=-I<=>Y+I=-;+k21t<=>Y=-I-;+k21t (kE£)

;r

V~y nghicm cua plurong trlnh la: x = I, Y = -1- 2 + k'Ir: (k E Z).

d.3. Al(Jt .'It,' luu y khi gidi dang todu nay

a. ~)[ly la dang loan kho, thuong khi slt dung ba phuong phap trcn vITn khong giiii du\,fe La phai nghi den each nay. Khco leo dira plurong trinh thanh dang co hai ve li't hai ham sc) co tinh don dicu kh.ic nhau, chi ra nghicm va keL lufin d6 la nghicm duy nhfi].

h. Neu phuling trtnh nao co nhicu hon m(lt nghicui La ciln dua vao hiing bien thicn dG suy ra keL Iuan.

e. ])1;1NG 5: Phuong trinlt mii va ltigarit cluia tltam s[{

e.l . Cdc vi d~l mittlt hoa

Vi du l. Cho phuong trlnh: Ill. 16' + 2.81' = 5.36' (m la tharn s6) (1) l

1. Gi.ii plnrcng trlnh khi m = 3. i

2. TIm tilt cit de gia tri cua m dG phirong Lrlnh co nghicm duy nhilL I

(D',li hoc Cftn ThlJ, 19(7) I

92

Vi du 2. Cho phirong trlnh: 4\ -111.2<+1 + 2m = 0 (1)

1. Giai phirong trlnh khi m = 2.

2. Tim m 00 phuong trinh OZt cho co hai nghicm phan bi~t XI' X2 sao cho XI + Xl = 3 " (D<.ti hoc can Th(j, 1998)

Cia;

(9)2.' (9).1 (9,2\ (9)'

(1)~1Il+2. 4 =5. 4 ~2. ,4) -5. 4· +1Il=O

( 9 J' 0

D~t t = ~ 4 ' t > 0" Ta duoc phirong trlnh: Zt' - 5t + l/l = 0 (2)

1. Khi m = 3: (2) ~ 2t2 - 51 + 3 = 0

v(ty: Khi m = 3 plnrong trlnh co nghicm: X = 0 hay X = ~.

2. (2)~-212+5t=1/l

Xct ham sc): f (t) = -2t" + 5t, t > ()

I I (t) = -4t + 5 f'(t)=O~t=%

Bang bien thicn:

o

5 4

+w

f '{t}

f{tl

T' b"' h"~' I' ~ I~' ~ -> ba i < 0 1 25

(( ang icn trncn ta tlay ycu cau ar toan ~ III _ ray IJl = -.

8

93

·2 2

Vi du 3. Cho phirong trlnh: 81 SIll .r + 81 cos, = m (1)

1. Giai phirong trlnh khi m = 30.

2. Xac dinh m d6 phuong trinh co nghiern.

Gidi

Dat t = 2' ,t > 0, suy ra (1) co dang t2 - 2mt + 2m = 0 (2)

1. Khi m = 2: (2) ~ t' - 4t + 4 = 0 ~ t = 2 ~ 2' = 2 ~ x = 1 .

2. Phuong trlnh (1) co hai nghicm phan bict XI' x2: XI + x2 = 3

~ Phuong trlnh (2) co hai nghiern dirong phan biet tl = 2" ,t2 = 2" thoa:

{L'l'>0 {m(m-2»0

tl.t2 =2".2'2 =Y'+'2 =23 =8 ~ S>O ~ 2m>0 ~11l=4.

P=8 2m=8

V~y, gia tri m cftn tim la: m = 4.

Gidi

£)~t t = 8Is;n", ta co:

o :s; sin 2 X :s; 1 ~ 1 s t :s; 81 ~ 8 }"OS2, = 811-sln2\ = ~ = ~

81 sill-' t

Khi do (1) trd thanh: t + ~ = III (2) t

[t = 27

1. Khi m = 30: (2) ~ t' - 30t + 81 = 0 ~ (thea di6u kien)

t=3

[81S;112, =27 [34s;n2, =33 [4sin2 x=3 [2(I-COS2X)=3

~ 81s;n"=3 ~ 34s;112'<=3 ~ 4sin2x=1 ~ 2(I-cos2x)=1

~ [COS2X ~ -~ ~ cos 2; ¢; [x ~ ±; +k.tt (k,l E '1.)

1 Jr Jr

cos 2x = - = cos - X = ± - + I Jr

2 3 6

81

2. X6t ham so': /(t) = t +-, t E [1; 81] t

/'(t) = 1-~ = t2 ~81

[2 t:

/'(t) = 0 ~ t = 9 hay t = -9 (loai)

94

Bang bien thicn:

t

81

f'ltl

o

+

82

fltl

Til bdng bien thicn ta thily yeu du bai roan ~ 18 ~ III ~ 82 .

Vi du 4. Tim m dG phirong trlnh: log(X2 +mx)-log(x-3) =0 (1) co nghiern.

Gidi

(I)~ log(X2 +mx)=log(x-3)

{X-3 > ° {x> 3

~ 2 ~?

X + IllX = X - 3 -x- + x - 3 = mx

{X >3

~ -x+I-~=m

X6t ham s6: f (x) = -x + 1- ~, x> 3 x

3

Ta co: f'(x) = -1 +-? < 0, '<Ix> 3 => f(x) la ham s6 nghich bien v x » 3. x-

Ycu cau hili toan ~ m <f(3) ~ m < -3.

Vi du 5. Tim m d0 phirong trlnh: IOg22 X + log ~ x2 - 3 = 111 [log, x2 - 3) (1) 2

co nghicm thuoc mi'a khoang [32; +00 ).

(HQc vien Ky thuat Quan su, 2001)

Giai

l)i~u kicn: x> o.

(I) ~ ~Iog/ x- 21og2 x-3 = m(log2 x-3) Dat t = log, X , x:2: 32 => log, x:2: 5 => t e: 5.

95

(Du bi AI - 20(4).

Ta co phuong trtnh: -J t' - 2t - 3 = 111 (t - 3) ¢::>~(t+l)(t-3) =m(t-3) ¢::>Jt+1 =m (do t?:5) t-3

, , A' r() J§+ 1

Xct ham so:. t = --, t > 5 .

t-3

Taco: f'(t)= -2 <0,\7't?:5 7gf+1

(t - 3)----

t-3

Bang bien thicn: t

5

+00

--._' .. _

Tir biing bien thicn ta thfiy ycu du bai toan ¢::> I < III .::; 13 .

e.Z, M(Jt st/ hili tijp dp dung co 1M gidi

c.2.1. D~ bai

Hai 1. Xac dinh m 06 phirong trlnh sau co nghiern:

( ) 2+1 ( ). '+1

111 - 2 .4 r - In + I .2 r + 2m - 6 = 0

(1)

Hili 2. (*) Cho phirong trlnh: (2 + 13r + (2 - 13r = m

1. Gi3i (I) khi m = 4.

2. Tim m d6 phuong trinh co hai nghicm phan biet.

(Da i hoc Quoc gia TP.HCM, 1996)

(1)

Hai 3. Tim muG phuong trlnh sau day co nghicm:

9' - 111.3' + 2m + 1 = 0 (1)

(Dai hoc Giao thong V~n tiii, 1999) Hili 4. Chung minh rhng phirong trlnh X,..-I = (x + I)' co melt nghicm dtrong duy nhftt.

96

97

Hili S. (*) Cho phirong trinh:

21og4 ( 2X2 - X + 2m - 4m2) + log ~ (X2 + mx - 2m2) = 0 (1) 2

Xac dinh tham 86 m M phirong trlnh (1) c6 2 nghiern x,, x2 tho a X,2 + X22 > I.

(D':li hoc Y Duoc Tp.HCM, 2001) Hili 6. (*) Cho phirong trlnh: log; x + ~'-Io-g-; -x-+-1 - 2m -1 = 0 (2)

Tim m d0 plnrong trlnh (2) c6 it nha't mot nghiern thuoc doan [1; 3 Jj ].

(Kh6i A - 2002)

Hili 7. (*) Tim m d6 phuong trlnh: 4(logFxf -Iog~ x+m=O c6 nghiern thuoc

2

kho.ing (0; 1).

(Du bi B, - 2(03)

Hili 8. (*) Cho phuong trlnh:

(X2 -1).lg2 (X2 + 1 )-m~2(x2 -1 ).lg(x2 + 1)+ m + 4 = 0 (1)

1. Giai phirong trinh vdi m = -4.

2. Tim m de phuong trinh (1) c6 dung hai nghiem x thoa man: 1 ~ Ixl ~ 3 .

(D':li hoc Can Tho, 2(00)

Hili 9. (*) Tim tfit (;,'1 cac gia tri ciia m d6 phuong trinh:

log? (m - x + 4) + log ~ (mx - X2) = 0 (1) ?

co dung hai nghicrn phan biet.

(Dai hoc Dan l~p Dong Do, 2(00)

e.2.2. Lui giai

Hili 1. D~t t = 2\' ". ta c6: x2 + 12 1 ~ t 2 2. (1)<=:>{m-2)t2 -(m+l)t+2m-6=O

2t2 +t+6 &

<=:> (t2 - t + 2) m = 2t2 + t + 6 <=:>? = m

t: -t+2

X6t ham s6:

Bang bien thien: t

2

+00

f'ltl

4

...... ~ 2

Tir bang bien thien ta thay yeu du bai toan <=> 2 < m ~ 4 .

Bili 2. Nh~n xct: (2 + J3)( 2 - J3) = 1

Do dor Dat t=(2+J3)"t>O thl (2+J3)' =~ Khi d6: (1) <=> t + ~ = m (2)

t

2 [; = 2+J3

1) Khi m = 4: (2) ~ t - 4t + 1 = 0 <=>

t = 2-J3

=> (1) <=> f( 2 + J3}' = 2 + J3 <=> [x = 1

(2-J3)' =2-J3 x=-l

2) Xctham s6: f(t)=t+~,t>O; f'(t)=1_J,=t2:1

t r r

f'(t) = 0 <=> t = 1 hay t = -1 (loa i)

Bang bien thien:

o

+""

fttl

o

+

f'ttl

+ ...

<,

-... ..... , ..

"":.11.. 2

Tir bang bien thien ta thay ycu du bai toan <=> m > 2.

Bai3. f)~t t = 3\t > O.

(1) <=> t2 -mt+2m+1 = 0 <=> t2 +1 =(t-2)m t' + 1

<=> -- = m (do t = 2 khong thoa phirong trlnh vdi moi m)

t-2

98

99

X, h' ~'J () t2 + 1 ,. 0

ct am so: t = -- , VOl t > .

t-2

J'(t)=t2-4t~1 (t-2f

J '(t) = ° ~ t = 2 + 15 hay t = 2 - 15 (loai)

Bang bien thicn:

t

o

2

2+/5

+00

tttl

o

+

t'ttl

Tir bang bien thicn ta thay phuong trinh co nghiern ~m<-_!_ hay m~4+215.

2

Hui 4. Di0u kien: x > 0

Taco: X'+I =(x+IY ~(x+I)lnx=xln(x+l)

~ (x + I) In x - x In ( x + I) = ° X6t ham so': f (x) = (x + I) In x - x In (x + I), x > °

, x+I x (X+IJ x+I x

J(x)=lnx+--In(x+I)--=-ln - +---

x x +I x x x+I

x+ 1

D~t t=--.Oo x>O=>t>l

x

1

Taco: g(t)=-lnt+t--, t>l

t

1 1 t2 - t + 1

g'(t)=--+1+2= 2 >0, \it>1

t t t

=>g(t»g(I)=O, \it>1 => J'(x) >0, \ix>O

=> J (x) ia bam so' d6ng bien \ix > ° (1)

If(2) = In~ < 0

Mal khac: 9

. /'(3) = In ~ > 0

. 64

~ f(2).j(3) < 0, f(x) lien tuc trcn [2;3]

~ f(x) = 0 co it nha't mOt nghicrn x E (2;3) (2)

Til (I) va (2), suy ra phirong trlnh drr cho co mot nghiern duy nhal x E (2;3).

Bai 5. (I) ¢::> log, (2X2 - X + 2m - 4m2) = log, (X2 + mx - 2m2 )

¢::> {Xl + tnx - 2m2> 0

2X2 - X + 2m - 4m2 = X2 + mx - 2m2

{X2 + //IX - 2m2> 0

¢::> x2 -(IIl+I)x+217l-1Il2 =0(2)

{Xl + IILl - 2m2> 0

¢::> x = 2m hay x = I - 111

Ycu du bai toan <=:> phirong trlnh (2) co 2 nghiern XI = Zin; X2 = 1 - 171 thoa:

{X12 + IIlXI - 2m2> 0 {4m2> 0

X22 + mX2 - 2m2> 0 ¢::> 2m2 + 111 -I < 0

Xl2 + x/ > 1 m (511l - 2) > 0

r-I < 111 < 0

¢::> 2 1

-<m<- 5 2

1 ¢::> -I<m<- 2

2 m<Ov11l>- 5

, 2 I

V~y, gia tri din tim u. -I < 111 < 0 hay 5' < I1l <2'

Bai 6. Ta co: 1 S x s 311 ¢::> 0 < log, X s J3 Nc'u d~l t = Jlog~ x + 1 thl

¢::> 1 s log~ x s 3 ¢::> I s Jlog~ x + 1 s 2 ¢::> 1 s t s 2

100

101

Khi do: (*)<=>t2+t-2=2m, tE[I;2] Xct ham so': / (t) = t' + t - 2, t E [1; 2] /'(t) = 2t + 1> 0, \it E [1;2]

Bring bien thicn:

t

1

2

+

Tir bang biGn thicn, ta thfiy ycu cftu ella bai loan <=> 0 ~ 2m ~ 4 <=> 0 ~ 111 ~ 2.

Bui 7. Ta eo: 4 (log2 Fxr -log _I_ x + 111 = 0 <=> log~ x + log, X + III = 0

2

8~t 1 = log, x . VI 0 < x <1 ~ -00 < log, x < 0 ~ t < 0

- -

Ta duoc: t2 + t + III = 0, t < 0 <=> _t2 - t = III Xet ham so': /(/) = _t2 -t, t < 0 f'(t)=-2t-l

f'(t) = 0 <=> t =-_!_

2

Bang bien thicn:

1 Tir bdng bien thicn, La thay yeu cau bai toan <=> 111 ~ - .

4

Bui 8.

1. Vdi m = -4: (1) <=> (X2 -1 ).lg2 (X2 + 1 )+4J2( x2 -1 ).lg( x2 + 1) = 0 (*) 8i~u kicn: x2 -12:: 0 <=> x ~ -1 hay x 2:: 1

(*) <=> ~ x2 -1.1g2 (X2 + 1)[ ~ x2 -1.1g2 (X2 + 1) + 4.J2] = 0

x

_/

.. ~.,.

<=:> [X2(_! = 0) (do ~.lg2 (X2 + I) + 4J2 > O.\ix: Ixl ~ 1 )

Ig x + 1 = 0

<=:> [X = ±I

x=O

So vdi oi0u kien La co nghiern cua phirong trinh: x = ± 1.

2, f)~L t = ~2 (X2 -I ).lg2 (X2 + I) .

Ta co: 1 ~ Ixl ~ 3 <=:> -3 ~ x ~ -1 hay 1 ~ x ~ 3

X6L ham s6: g(x) = t = ~2(X2 -I ).lg(x2 + I), voi x E [-3;-:1]u[1;3]

, [lg(X2 +1) 2~] . .

g (x)=xfi ~ + ( ) , xE[-3,-I)u(l, 3]

x2 -I x2 + 1 In 10

g'(x) = 0 <=:> x = 0 ~ [-3;-I]U[I;3] Bang bien thien:

. :)

g'{x}

g{x)

Tu bang bien thien La thay: \ix E [-3; -1] u[I;3] => t E [0;4]

M~L khac: Ung voi mOL nghiern t E [0;4] co hai nghiem phfin bict:

X E [-3; -1]u[I;3].

t2

(1) <=:> - - mt + m + 4 = 0 <=:> t2 + 8 = (t -1) 2111

2

t' + 8 2 kh ~ h _, h ' h \-I

<=:> -- = m (do L = long L oa p ucng tnn v III )

t -I

t2 + 8

X6t ham s6: J(t) = --, t E [0;4] t-I

t2 -2t-8

Ta co: J'(t) = 2 = 0 <=:> t = 4 hay t = -2 (Ioai)

(t -I)

102

Bang bien thicn:

t

f'(t)

.,~

-00

-8

t(t)

+ IX>

[2m::; -8 [m ::; -4

Tir bang bien thicn ta tha'y yeu du bai toan ¢:::> ¢:::> ,

2m~8 m ~4 .

Bai 9_ (1) ¢:::> log, (m - x + 4) -iog7 (mx _X2) = 0

¢:::> log, (m - x + 4) = log, (mx _X2)

{m-x+4>0 {m-x+4>0

¢:::> ? ¢:::> 2

m-x+4=mx-x- x -x+4=(x-l)m

x2 -x+4 4 0

-----x+ >

x-I

x2 -x+4

=m

(do x = 1 khong thoa phuong trinh)

x-I

x -->0 x-I

{X 7< Ov X > 1 ¢:::> x· - x + 4

---=m

x-I

¢:::>

x2 -x+4

=m

x-I

, A' j' () x2 - X + 4 0 h

Xct ham so: x = vdi x < ay x > I,

x-I

Ta co: f'(x) = x2 -2x~3 ; f'(t) = 0 ¢:::> [x =-1

(x-I) x=3

Bang biGn thicn:

g(x)

x -00 -1

o '1

:3 + IX>
0 +
+ IX>
." .... ,. .;y
<, »< •.
'.~ , ....
5
..
'\ g'(x) + 0

Tir bang bien thicn ta thty yeu du bai toan ¢:::> -4 < m < -3 v m > 5,

103

, 5

h. 2'- -6x-:2 = 16.Ji

e.3. ftJ.'f)( srf luu j khi gidi dang todn /lay

Day 13. dang toan kho, thirong la cau kho nha't trong cac M thi, ta phai v(tn dung linh hoat cac tinh chat don dieu ella ham s6. d€ suy ra cac dicu kien trong tung bai.

III.BAI TJ.P TTj LUytN TJ.P

Bai 1. Giai cac phuong trlnh sau:

c. 314x-41 = 81'-1

Bai 2. Giai cac phirong trlnh sau: a. 2x2_2x.J' = i

2

c. 5x + 5.<+1 + 5H2 = 3' + 3.<+3 _ 3x+1

Bai 3. Giai cac phirong trlnh sau:

a. 4x -10.2'-1 - 24 = 0

, 2

c. 2'--' - 22+x-x = 3

4"OS 2, 4cos2 .v _ 3 [3 . 5]

c. + - XE -- -

, 4' 2

g. (5 - 51)' + 7 (5 + 51)' = 2<+3

Bai 4. Giai de phirong trlnh sau:

a. 3' -4=52

d. 2' + 2,-1 + 2,-2 = 3' - y-I + 3,-2

d. 5'.'1P/ = 100

x

h. 4.3x - 9.2' = 5.62

2' ,

d. 252x-, +1 + 92x-x-+1 = 34.152,-,-

f. (4 + Jl5)' +( 4-J15r = 62 h. (8+3J7f" +(8-3J7fnx =16

h. 52, = 32x + 2.5' + 2.3'

d. 9' +2(x-2)3X +2x-5=0

Bai 5. Cho phirong trlnh: 4x - 4m (2x -1) = 0 (1)

a. Giai phuong trlnh vdi m = 1.

h. V oi gia tri nao ella m thl phuong trlnh (1) eo nghiern

Dap s{/ a. VO nghicrn; h. m < 0 hay m > 1.

Ba i 6. TIm m dE phirong trinh: 4' - 2x+1 + m = 0 eo nghiern.

Ddp s//· In ~ 1 .

104

105

Bai 7. (*) Cho phuong trlnh: 251+2x-x' + »is":' = (3m + 7 ).1521-" (l) a. Giai phuong trlnh (1) U'ng voi m = 9.

h. Xac dinh m 00 phirong trlnh (1) c6 nghiern x E [0; 2] .

Diip s/'/- a. x = 0 hay x = 2 hay x = 1 ± J3 ;

130 h. 9~m~-.

9

Bai 8. (*) Cho phirong trlnh: (15 + 1 r + a (15 -1 r = 2' 1

1. Gi,li phirong trlnh khi a = - .

4

2. Tim a 00 phuong trinh c6 nghiern duy nhar.

1 2. a ~ 0 hay a = - .

4

Ddp s{/- 1. x = -log r: 2;

'/5+1

Bai 9. (*) Cho plurong trlnh: (3 + 2J2fH + (3 - 2J2rnx = m (1)

1. Giai phirong trinh khi 111 = 6.

2. X,lc dinh m ot; phircng trlnh (1) co dung hai nghicm trong khoang ( - ~ ; ~ ) .

rr

Ddp st/- 1. x = ±-+krr,k E Z; 4

2. m >2.

, . , ( 7 + 315 JX ( 7 - 315 J'

Hal 10. Cho phuong tnnh: 2 + a 2 = 8

1. Giai phircng trinh khi a = 7 .

2. Bien luan thco a sf{ nghiern cua phirong trlnh, Ddp st/- 1. x = 0 v x = log7+3Fs 7 .

-~--

2

2. a > 16: vo nghiern; 0< a < 16: 2 nghicm;

a = 0 va = 16: 1 nghiem.

Bai 11. Tim m 00 cac phuong trlnh sau co nghiern:

1. 9x'-2x - 3(\-1)' = 111

9 Ddp ,w;:. 1. 111 2 - -;

4

2

2. 2x .32x+m = 1 .

2. m ~ log, 3.

1

Hili 12. Voi gia tri nao cua m thl phtrong trinh 21t-11 = 3m - 2 co nghiem duy

nhflt.

Dtip st( III = 1.

Jlili 13. Wi gia tri nao cua m [hi phuong trlnh G )1.'-"1 ~ m' + In + 1 co bdn nghicm phfin bict.

Dap .1'/( -1 < m < 0 .

Hili 14. (*) Cho phuong trlnh: 2.4~ -5.2~ +m = 0 (1)

1. Giai phirong trinh (1) ling vci m = 2.

2. Xac dinh tilt d cac gia tri cua tham s6 m d6 phirong trinh (1) e6 nghiern. 25

Ddp .wr 1. x = 2 ; 2. m ~ - .

8

Bili 15. (*) TIm a oG phirong trlnh sau co nghiem

91+~ -(a+2).31+~ +2a+l=O. 64

Dcip st/- 4 ~ a ~-.

7

Hili 16. (*) Cho phircng trlnh:

(k + 1).4\ + (3k - 2) .2<+1 - 3k + 1 = 0

1. Giti i phirong trlnh khi k = 3.

2. Xac dinh tat d cac gia tri cua k 06 phirong trlnh trcn e6 hai nghiem trai dau.

1 1

Dap st/· 1. x = -1 ; 2. - < k < - .

3 2

Hili 17. (*) Cho phirong trlnh: (m + 3).16' +(2m -1).4' + m + 1 = 0

TIm m oG phirong trinh e6 hai nghicm trai dau.

3

Dap st/- -1 < III <--

4

B" 18 (*) G"" a bif 1 A htro tri h 5x'+2I1n+2 52x'+411"+111+2 2 +2 +

ar re, rar va rcn U~lI1 p uong ill : - = x mx III

Ddp st/- + 0 < III < 1 : Phuong trlnh vo nghicrn

+ III < 0 V Ill> 1 : Phuong trinh e6 2 nghicrn phan biet x = -/11 ±.[,;t - m , + 111 = 0: Phuong trinh e6 nghiern x = O.

+ III = 1 : Phuong .trlnh e6 nghiern x = -1.

106

Bui 19. Giii i cac phuong trlnh sau: a. log, (x - 3) - log 1 (x -I) = 3

C. log\+3 (3 - J x2 - 2x + I ) = ~ Bai 20. Giai cac phuong trlnh sau:

a. log, ( 5' -I) .log, (5<+1 - 5) = I

c. log, 16 + logo 64 = 3

.r _.\

Bai 21. Giai cac phucng trinh sau: a. log, x = log, (x + 2)

b.lg4(x_I)2+lg2(x_l)3 =25 d. log/ x + log., (~) = 1

Bai 22. Xac dinh m od phirong trinh: Ig2 (lOx) + Ig x = m

2. co nghicm thoa man I < x < 10.

1. co nghicm

. ~ 1 5

Dap so: . III 2 --;

4

2. 1< /Jl < 5.

mli 23. (*) 11m cac giri tri ella tham s6 m 06 phuong trinh:

log I (X2 + IIlX + 111 + I) + log I X = 0 co 1 nghicrn duy nhfit.

v5+2 v5~2 .

Ddp st/- 111:::: -I v 1/1 = 3 - 213 .

19 (mx)

Bai 24. (*) Xac dinh gia tri ella tham s6 m od phucng trlnh: = 2 co

Ig(x + I)

nghicm duy nha't.

Dap .1'(;:. III < Ov III = 4.

Bai 25. (*) 11m tham s6 a dd phuong trinh: log, (X2 +4ax)+log~ (2x-2a-I) = 0 3

co nghicrn duy nhat.

Dap s/): -_!_::::a::::--I va=O.

2 10

Rai 26. (*) V di gia tri nao ella m thl phirong trinh:

log2+J3 [X2 -2(m+l)x J+log2~Jd2x+I11-2) = 0 co nghicrn duy nhfu.

2 Jl7-5

Dap s('/- --:::: III :::: 2 v m = .

5 2

107

5 Dap .I't/- 1. x = 6 v x = - ; 2

1

2. -- <a::;: O.

4

Bui 27. (*) Xac dinh cac gia tri ella k sao cho phircng trlnh: 19 ( x2 + 2kx ) -lg (8x - 6k - 3) = 0 co nghiern duy nha].

, I k 3 k

Dap .I'/}: --::;: ::;: -v = 1.

2 22

Bai 28. (*) Tim tat d cac gia tri ella moE phuong trinh:

(m-l) log I 2 (x - 2) - (m - 5) log I (x - 2) + Ill-I = 0

- -

2 2

co 2 nghiern thoa man di6u kicn 2 < XI ::;: Xl < 4. Diip .'1(/. -3::;: III < 1 .

Bui 29. (*) Cho phirong trlnh: (X_2)IOg,4(X-2) = r (X_2)3

1. Giai phirong trlnh vdi a = 2.

2. Xac dinh a 06 phirong trinh co hai nghicm phan bict x" x2 thoa man:

Hili 30. (*) Dinh a M phuong trlnh 2log/ X -llog3 xl + a = 0 co bon nghicrn phan bict.

mli 31. (*) Cho phirong trlnh: 21og2+J3 ( ~ Xl + 1 + x) + log2_-J.i ( ~ Xl + I - x) = a

1. Giai phuong trinh trcn khi a = 3.

2. Djnh a 00 phuong trlnh co nghiem x E [ 0; J3] .

Dcip .w'/- 1. x = J3 ; 2. 0::;: a ::;: 3 .

Bui 32. (*) Cho phirong trlnh: log, ( IIlX3 - 5//Ly2 +.J 6 - x ) = logl+1II ( 3 - ~)

1. Giai phirong trlnh tren voi m = O.

2. Tim cac gi,i tri ella x nghiern dung phuong trinh oa cho vdi moi tn 2: 0 .

Dcip .I't/- 1. x = 2 v x = 5 ; 2. x = 5.

lOX