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RATIFICATION PAGE

Complete report of General Biology practicum with title “anatomy of


vertebrata animals”, created by:
Name : YENNI PAGIU
Reg. Number : 1214441033
Group : IV(FOUR)
Class : Biology Education ICP A
After it’s checked and consulted by Assistant and Coordinator Assistant, it has
fulfilled requirement

Makassar, November 2012

Coordinator assistant, Assistant,

(M.NUR QADRI S.) (M.YUSRANN ARIEF)

Known by,
Lecturer of responsibility

(Drs. H. Hamka L.Ms)


ID: 1961 1231 1987 02 1 005
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

A.Background
The species studied included four frog species of the genus Rana, two species
of toads, and a salamander species. The bases of the tests were simple censuses
(surveys and counts) to determine whether populations of a given species were
present or absent at each of the hundreds of study sites across the state. The census
results for one of the eight species, the frog Rana aurora.
In our experiment we will observed the frog. But you know that the frog and
toad is differend.frog have long foot,smooth skin,small shape body and more have
full color and the toad have short foot and black color .
And in our experiment we must observed the frog and you have phobia with
the frog you must lost it because you nust touch the frog with direct and see the
anatomy of the frog.
In this observation we will observe the part of frog. We must observe the
respiration and another function of the frog.and from this observation we will know
that the toad and frog have many different things. The frog have long foot than the
toad have short foot.
You can see that the frog have smooth skin but the toad not. The toad have
skin not smooth because the toad have kelenjar tochsin. And the toad always live in
dirty place and you can see that that the frog have fullcolour than the toad so ugly if
you look it.
In this observation you can get many experience as you can touch the frog
although you so afraid if you look them and learn to kill the frog and observed the
part of them .
B.Purpose
Student can recognize shape colors and layout of the organ and its
relationship with other organs in an organ system
C.Benefit
Student can know about the recognize ,shape and color of the frog and can
know about relationship with other the organ in an organ system of the frog and if
you have phobia with the frog you must lost it because you must touch it with direct
CHAPTER II
PREVIEW OF LITERATURE

Animal body consist of various.the organs that work together to perform the
function of a higher from organ system. In this lab will be observed anatomicl
arrabgement paddy frog( Rana cancarivora). Frog anatomi can provide of the major
organs in vertebrata animals.
Anatomi of an animal observation needed surgery to facilitate observing the
shape position and relationship with other organs. That would be observed in this lab
is the digestive system circulatory respiratori excretory and reproductive(learned back
discussion before practice(team lecturer.2012)
Frogs are usually quiet, but the males of many species vocalize to
defend their breeding territory or to attract females. In some species, migrations to
specific breeding sites may involve vocal communication, celestial navigation, or
chemical signaling(campble,2008)
Such experiments were conducted on frogs by Robert Briggs and Thomas
King in the I950s and by John Gurdon in the 1970s. These researchers transplanted a
nucleus from an embryonic or tadpole cell into an enucleated (nucleus-lacking) egg
of the same species. In Gurdon's experiments, the transplanted nucleus was often able
to support normal development of the egg into a tadpole (Figure 20.17). However, he
found that the potential of a transplanted nucleus to direct normal development was
inversely related to the age of the donor: the older the donor nucleus, the lower the
percentage of normally developing tadpoles(campble.2008)
Monster frogs—what a great topic for an undergraduate research project!
That’s what Stanford University sophomore Pieter Johnson thought when he was
shown a jar of Pacific tree frogs with extra legs growing out of their bodies. The frogs
were collected from a pond on a farm close to the old Almaden mercury mines south
of San Jose, California. Scientists from all over the world were reporting alarming
declines in populations of many different kinds of frogs, so perhaps these “monster”
frogs would hold a clue to why frogs all over the world are in trouble. Possible causes
of the deformities could have been agricultural chemicals or heavy metals leaching
out of the old mines. Library research, however, suggested other possibilities to
Pieter(reader adobe,2005)
Pieter studied 35 ponds in the region where the deformed frogs had been
found. He counted frogs in the ponds and measured chemicals in the water. Thirteen
of the ponds had Pacific tree frogs, but deformed frogs were found in only four
ponds. To Pieter’s surprise, analysis of the water samples failed to reveal higher
amounts of pesticides, industrial chemicals, or heavy metals in the ponds with
deformed frogs. Also surprisingly, when he collected eggs from those ponds and
hatched them in the laboratory, he always got normal frogs. The only difference he
observed among the ponds he studied was that the ponds with the deformed frogs also
contained freshwater snails.
Freshwater snails are hosts for many parasites. Many parasites go through
complex life cycles with several stages, each of which requires a specific host animal.
Pieter focused on the possibility that some parasite that used freshwater snails as
intermediate hosts was infecting the frogs and causing their deformitie(reader
adobe.2005)
Pieter found a candidate with this type of life cycle: a small flatworm
called Ribeiroia, which was present in the ponds where the deformed frogs
were found. Pieter then did an experiment. He collected frog eggs from regions where
there were no records of deformed frogs or of Ribeiroia. He hatched the eggs in the
laboratory in containers with and without the parasite. When the parasite was present
in the containers, 85 percent of the frogs developed deformities. Further experiments
showed why not all the frogs were deformed: The infection had to occur before a
tadpole started to grow legs. When tadpoles with already developing legs were
infected, they did not become deformed(reader adobe,2005)
The frog include kinngdom of animalia,phhyllum chordata,classis of amphiia
genus of rana and ordo of anura.when the frog reproduction adult frog will carry
water invironment. There they take their egg.their egg chance become larva and
carring nutrition which they needed from their invironment so chance become adult
so they can life in land(william,2003)
CHAPTER III
PRACTICUM METHODE

A. Time and place


Day / date :Thuesday november 13th 2012
Time :07.30 am until 09.10 am
Place :Biology Laboratory at the third floor on east FMIPA, State
University of Makassar.
B. Tools and materials
1.Tool
a. Bootle kliller
b. Surgical tray
c. Surgical instruent
1) Scissor
2) Drinking trows
3) Tweezers
4) Needle
5) Scalpel
6) Bottle
2. Materials
a. Frog fields
b. Cotton
c. Choloform
C.Work procedure
1.Foreign Observations

a. Deadly frogTake a piece of cotton (for the segment master fingers), wet
with ether/chloroform, and entered into a killer bottle; soon also entered
the frog into the bootle, tightly closed. Let the frogs to died.
b. Removed the dead frog and placed it on a tray surgery. Leaved the
cotton in the bottle and covered tightly (noxious fumes).
c. Observed the outside of the frog
1) The eyes, eyelids, and mucous sleep
2) External nostrils
3) Tympanum (i), the lining of the listener
4) Crack mouth
5) Forelimb
a) Upper arm (Branchium)
b) Forearm (Ante branchium)
c) The soles (Manus)
d) Finger-teak (digiti) how?
6) Rear legs
a) Thigh (femur)
b) Calves (crus)
c) The soles are united (Pes)
d) Webbed fingers pool
7) Cloaca (specify the location)
8) Touched the surface of the skin and note the color.

d.Imaged from the back and name the parts of the above (Task Figur 1).

2.Surgery

a. Put the frog on his back at the foot surgery. Nail forth finger with a
needle on the wax, so it does not easy to shaked.
b. With tweezers, pinch the skin of the abdomen near the tigh lengthwise,
lift alightly, cut across the skin of abdomen.
c. Through the slit the skin, entered the blunt end scissors cut the skin
scissors toward the head until crushed. Flipping to the last gap, scissors
toward the base of the thight.
d. Leathered scissors to the left and right side of the abdomen so that the
skin can be revealed. Checked the attachment of the skin to the muscle
tissue. Only at a certain place in the muscle attached to the skin, forming
a kind of pouch (saccus).
e. Noted also the center of the muscle stomach. View longitudinal white
stripe along the abdominal musles (called the line alba).
f. Pinch tweezers abdominal muscles in beside linea alba, and cut
crosswise, forming a gap. Inserted the tip of a blunt scissors into the gap
and start cutting the abdominal muscles toward your head to the bottom
of the jaw. Continued the cutting to the groin.
g. Unleash the abdominal muscle tissue of the left and right so that the
abdominal cavity opened innards.

3.Observation of Digesive System

a. Opened the mouth with a scalpel and tweezars, so that the mouth
was opened. Observed the shape of the teeth, touched with finger
on the upper jaw and teeth vomer the ceiling.
b. With tweezers pull his tongue out, observed the form and its
attachments (noted).
c. Continue onbservation of the abdominal cavity containing viscera.
Observed the shape and color:
1) Hearts right, how many lobes; found the gall bladder, how to
color.
2) Hull on the left heart; lifdt a little was look the duodenum and
pancreas.
3) Trace continues until the rectal intestine. Noticed of meetings.
4) Rectum that turns into the cloaca.

4.Observations Circulatory System

a. Toward the head of the liver, the heart appears in the filmb. Flugs
membrane wrapping the heart with a needle or scalpel end up
break, observed shapes and sections:
1) Chambers (ventricals)
2) Porch (atrium) left and right
3) The main arteries (truncus arterious) emanating from the
ventricles and then branched into two aorta (left and right).
4) Images of the heart and name the above (task fig. 3).

5.Observations Respiratory System

a. Noticed the left and right liver and left gastric, lung protruding
parts.
b. By the end of drinking straw inserted in the hole larynx (open
mouth), inflatable base slowly, the lungs was swell. Observed the
shape and color of the lungs, blood vessels in the lungs.
c. Removed the heart with scissors so that it looks windpipe
(trachea).
d. Made a picture chart frog respiratory system (task Figure 4).

6.Observations System Excretion and Reproduction (Urogenitalia)

a. Removed the digestive organs from the stomach to the rectum, and
the mesentery (connective tissue) that held it.
b. It was look a pair of kidneys rounded oval attached to the back of
the abdominal cavity. Further observed:
1) Kidney and adrenal gland (white line)
2) Body fat (corpus adiposum) yellow fringed
3) Renal tract (ureter) leading from the kidney to the bladder
c. In the male, the ureter was also called ductus urospermaticus.
Testis located next to the kidneys, less rounded associated with
kidney through the vasa afferensia.
d. At frog females, there was a pair on the left and right ovaries.
Raise a little ovaries, will appear oviduct as white winding
channel, boils down to being the end in the form of a funnel cloaca
(ostium) was near the heart.
e. Created an animage of the frog urogenitalia system. Name the
parts (figure 5 job, male or female genitals).
CHAPTER IV
RESULT AND DISSCUSION

A. Result
Outside the body frogs (dorsal). 1.
)
Digestive system of frog

Heart chamber of frog

Respiratory system of frog 1. Badan lemak


2. Ostium
3. Ren (Ginjal)
4. Ureter
5. Uterus
6. Kloaka (Muara 3 Saluran)
Vas Deferens (Saluran
Sperma)
System urogenitalia male frog 7. Badan lemak
8. Ostium
9. Ren (Ginjal)
10. Ureter
11. Uterus
12. Kloaka (Muara 3 Saluran)
Vas Deferens (Saluran
Sperma)

System urogenitalia female 1. Badan lemak


frog
2. Ostium
3. Oviduk (Indung Telur)
4. Ren (Ginjal)
5. Ureter
6. Uterus
7. Kloaka (Muara 3 Saluran)
8. Vesikula (Kantung Kemih)
9. Ovarium

B.Discussion
Morfologi
Kepala dan badan lebar bersatu, ada dua pasang kaki atau anggota, tak
ada leher dan ekor. Bagian dalam ditutupi dengat kulit basah halus lunak.
Kepala mempunyai mulut tang lebar untuk mengambil makanan, dua lubang
hidung/ nares externa yang kecil dekat ujung hidung yang berfungsi dalam
pernapasan, dua mata yang besar spherik, dibelakangnya dua lubang pipih
tertutup oleh membrane tympani yang berfungsi sebagai telinga untuk
menerima gelombang suara. Tiap mata mempunyai kelopak mata atas dan
bawah, serta di dalamnya mempunyai selaput mata bening membrane
nictitans untuk menutupi mata apabila berada di dalam air. Di bagian ujung
belakang badan dijumpai anus, lubang kecil untuk membuang sisa-sisa
makananyang tak dicerna, urine dan sel-sel kelamin/ telur atau sperma dari
alat reproduksi.
Kaki katak terdiri atas sepasang kaki depan dan sepasang kaki
belakang. Kaki depan terdiri atas lengan atas (brancium), lengan bawah
(antebrancium), tangan (manus), dan jari-jari (digiti). Pada kaki belakang
terdiri atas paha (femur), betis (crus), kaki (pes) dan jari-jari (digiti).
Secara umum katak jumlah jari tungkai depan biasanya empat jari dan
tungkai belakang lima jari. Pada tungkai belakang memanjang yang
berpotensi untuk melompat. Kadang-kadang dijumpai jari tambahan sebagai
prehaluk pada sisi ventral kaki. Prehaluk ini pada Spadefoot (katak penggali
tanah) berupa tulang -tulang keras yang digunakan untuk menggali tanah
sebagai tempat bersembunyi.
Kulit amphibi sangat penting dalam respirasi dan proteksi. Kulit yang
tipis fleksibel membagi bagian luar badan untuk melindungi organisme
terhadap penyakit, berfungsi dalam pernapasan, penyerapan air, sebab katak
tidak pernah minum. Di lengkapi dengan kelenjar mukosa yang menyebabkan
kulit terjaga kelembabannya, bagi spesies yang hidup di air, mukus
memberikan minyak pelumas bagi tubuh. Sebagian besar memiliki kelenjar
granular dan kelenjar mukus. Keduanya mirip, akan tetapi hasil produksinya
berbeda. Kelanjar granular memproduksi zat abnoxious atau racun untuk
melindungi diri dari musuh. Keduanya dikelompokkan sebagai kelenjar
alveolar (kelenjar yang tidak mempunyai saluran pengeluaran, tetapi
produknya di keluarkan lewat dinding selnya sendiri secara alami). Kelenjar
racundapat menimbukan iritasi pada kulit.
Katak adalah bilateral simetris, dengan bagian sisi kiri dan kanan
equal. Bagian tengah disebut medial, samping/lateral, badan muka depan
adalah ujung anterior, bagian belakang disebutujung posterior, bagian
punggung atau dorsal, kepala/ caput, kerongkongan/ cervik, dada/ thorax atau
pectoral, perut atau agian muka ventral. Bagian badan terdiri atas
kepala/ caput, kerongkongan/ cervik, dada/ thorax atau pectoral, perut
atau abdomen, pantat pelvis serta bagian kaudal pendek.
2. Cavum Oris
Pada bagian cavum oris ini, terdapat lidah yang panjang dan lengket.
Hal ini dikarenakan katak menangkap mangsanya dengan lidahnya itu. Selain
itu, terdapat juga gigi fomer yang berfungsi untuk menelan mangsa yang
ditangkap dengan lidahnya itu. Pada katak tampak bahwa perlengkatan ujung
lidahnya terdapat di pangkal dan ujung mulut. Hal ini disebabkan karena
dengan perlekatan yang seperti itu, katak lebih mudah menjulurkan lidahnya
saat menangkap mangsanya.
3. Anatomi Secara Umum
Anatomi katak secara umum terdiri atas sistem organ dan sistem
kelenjar. Sistem organ katak terdiri atas :
Esofagus, yang berfungsi sebagai tempat lewatnya makanan dari
mulut menuju lambung.
a. Kardiac, yang berupa saluran kecil yang merupakan persambungan dari
esofagus yang menjadi saluran lewatnya makanan ke lambung.
b. Bilorus, yaitu saluran setelah lambung yang bersambungan dengan usus
halus.
c. Usus halus, yang merupakan saluran setelah pilorus yang merupakan
tempat penyerapan sari sari makanan.
d. Rektum, yaitu tempat menampung sisa sari makanan yang sudah tidak
berguna lagi bagi tubuh katak.
e. Kloaka, yaitu saluran tempat keluarnya kotoran dan telur.
f. Oviduk, yaitu saluran dari ovarium menuju kloaka yang berfungsi
menyalurkan telur dari ovarium menuju kloaka untuk dikeluarkan.
g. Ovarium, yaitu tempat dihasilkannya sel telur sekaligus sebagai tempat
pembuahan.
h. Jantung, yang terdiri atas tiga bagian yaitu dua atrium dan satu ventrikel.
Jantung berfungsi untuk memompa darah ke seluruh tubuh.
i. Paru paru atau pulmo, adalah organ yang mirip balon yang mengembang,
terdiri atas dua bagian yaitu bagian kiri dan kanan. Paru paru berfungsi sebagai
tempat pertukaran gas dan mengisi darah dengan oksigen sehingga darah kaya akan
oksigen.
Sedangkan sistem kelenjar katak terdiri atas :
a. Empedu, yang berupa kantung kecil yang berfungsi untuk menampung
enzim yang dihasilkan dari hati.
b. Pangkreas, yang melekat pada cardiac yang berfungsi untuk menghasilkan
hormone insulin yang mengatur kadar gula dalam darah. Selain itu, pangkreas juga
menghasilkan enzim.
c. Ren atau ginjal, yang melekat pada vertebra yang berperan dalam sekresi
urine.
d. Hati, yang terdiri atas tiga bagian yaitu satu bagian di sebelah kanan dan
dua bagian di sebelah kiri, yang menghasilkan enzim amylase.
4. Sistem Pencernaan
Di dalam mulut terdapat gerigi kecil di sepanjang rahang atas, dan ada gigi
vomerin pada langit-langit mulut. Lidah berotot dan burfate (cabang dua) pada
ujungnya, dan bertaut pada bagian anterior mulut. Saluran pencernaan mulai dari
esofagus (bedinding lurus dan besar) langsung bersatu dengan lambung. Lambung
memanjang dan erkelok ke samping kiri dan berotot. Usus terdiri dari intestinum
(keci, panjang, berkelok-kelok), rektum yang langsung bersatu dengan kloaka. Hati
dn pancreas mempunyai mempunyai saluran-saluran menuju ke duodenum, kandung
empedu, lambung intestinum. Pada potongan melintang intestinum terdiri dari empat
lapisan, yaitu: peritoneum, lapisan otot, submukosa dan mukosa.
Mekanisme pencernaan katak sebagai berikut : makanan yang masuk ke mulut
diteruskan ke esofagus kemudian makanan melewati cardiac dan selanjutnya menuju
lambung. Ketika di dalam lambung (fundus) inilah makanan dihancurkan secara
kimiawi dengan bantuan enzim dari kelenjar pencernaan. Setelah makanan tersebut
hancur dan berupa sari sari makanan, selanjutnya makanan itu menuju ke usus halus.
Disinilah sari sari makanan itu diserap oleh tubuh katak. Setelah sari sari makanan
habis dan tersisa sekret, selanjutnya sisa dari pencernaan itu menuju rectum untuk
ditampung dan selanjutnya dikeluarkan melalui kloaka.

5. Sistem Pernapasan (Respirasi)


Pada katak, oksigen berdifusi melalui kulit, dan paru-paru. Kecuali pada fase
berudu bernapas dengan insang karena hidupnya di air. Selaput rongga mulut dapat
berfungsi sebagai alat pernapasan karena tipis dan banyak terdapat kapiler yang
bermuara di tempat itu. Pada saat terjadi gerakan rongga mulut dan faring, Iubang
hidung terbuka dan glotis tertutup sehingga udara berada di rongga mulut dan
berdifusi masuk melalui selaput rongga mulut yang tipis. Selain bernapas dengan
selaput rongga mulut, katak bernapas pula dengan kulit, ini dimungkinkan karna
kulitnya selalu dalam keadaan basah dan mengandung banyak kapiler sehingga gas
pernapasan mudah berdifusi.
6. Sistem Sirkulasi
Sistem peredaran darah katak terdiri atas jantung dan pembuluh darah. Jantung
pada katak terdiri atas tiga bagian yaitu dua atrium dan satu ventrikel. Aorta terdiri
atas aorta kiri dan aorta kanan, yang merupakan percabangan dari trunkus arteriosus.
Karena ventrikel katak hanya satu sehingga darah kotor dan darah bersih bercampur.
Mekanisme peredaran darah katak dapat dijelaskan sebagai berikut. Pertama-
tama, darah yang berada pada jantung, dipompa ke seluruh tubuh. Setelah darah
bersirkulasi di seluruh tubuh maka darah akan kembali melalui pembuluh balik dan
kembali ke jantung. Dari jantung ini darah dipompa menuju paru paru untuk
pertukaran gas pada darah sehingga darah yang kaya akan karbondioksida diganti
dengan oksigen dan selanjutnya darah ini akan kembali ke jantung untuk dipompa ke
seluruh tubuh.
7. Sistem Urogenitalia
Pada sistem ekskresi katak, terdiri atas ginjal, ureter, bleder, dan kloaka. Pada
katak jantan ureter ini disebut ductus urospermaticus. Ketika urine dari ginjal ingin
dikeluarkan maka pertama-tama urine melewati ureter kemudian menuju kantong
kemih selanjutnya dikeluarkan melalui kloaka.
Sistem reproduksi katak betina terdiri dari sepasang ovarium dan oviduk, dimana
oviduk ini merupakan saluran pengeluaran telur yang menuju kloaka, sedangkan
ovarium adalah tempat terjadinya pembuahan ovum.
Reproduksi pada katak yaitu dengan cara fertilisasi eksternal, katak jantan menjepit
katak betina ketika perkawinan (yaitu ketika telur dilepaskan dan sperma
disemprotkan
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A.conclusion
From our experiment now we knew recognize shape,color,and layout,of the
organ and their relationship with other organs in an organ sistem.
B.Suggetion
Based of the result of practicum and the conclusion, the suggestion as
follows:
1. Suggestion for Laboratory
I hope that laoratory lab is always kept clean and the facility in the
laboratory can always improve
2. Suggestion for Assistant
I hope lab assistant can always guide us better. So the practican not
make something wrong
3. Suggestion for Friend
My suggest from my friend we must spitit in our practicum. Attention
what is the lab assistand explanation so we can doing the practicum be
well.
BIBLYOGRAPHY

Duellman,dkk, (2003). "Animal Life Encyclopedia


Campble.2008
Stone,carol.2005.The Basic of Biology
Tim Pengajar Biologi. 2012. Penuntun Praktikum Biologi Dasar. Makassar:
Laboratorium FMIPA UNM.