What is Management? It is getting things done through others. Who is a manager? One who does his job by seeing that the others do theirs. What is delegation:- It is the ability of the manager to get results through others. 1. Delegation is important because it is the means of a managers accomplishment. Once a mans job grows beyond his personal capacity, lies success his in his ability to multiply himself through other people. How well a manager delegates, determines how well he can manage. An overworked manage, who carries home a brief case full of papers is often overloaded because he does not know how to delegate. That is the manager who is unable to distinguish for himself what is important on his job and what is not important. The manner of delegation not only marks the effectiveness of the manager, but it also influences the relationship between the superior and the subordinate. Delegation has a significant effect on the performance of the subordinates. A person who is unsure of his job, who receives orders from several people and who does not understand the standards by which his performance is going to be measured, is certain to feel unhappy about his work. The importance of delegation can be understood by the sele ction criteria adopted by several companies in U.S. Most companies is U.S. select men for management positions largely on their ability to delegate.


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(2) To inform the foreman of any requirements of mainten ance that should be scheduled and. ELEMENTS OF DELEGATION : 1. using certain kinds and quantities of raw materials or hiring and firing of people.-2- WHY DOES DELEGATION FAIL ? 1. 3. (3) To keep the machine and the machine area clean and orderly. Eg: In an organization the responsibilities of the machine operator are. Here it is pertinent to clearly understand what the various terms mean. AUTHORITY : Is the sum of the powers and rights given to a person to make it possible for him to complete the work that has been delegated to him. 1. (1) To operate his machine economically & effectively. This refers to the various mental and physical activities which must be performed to carry out the work. 2. That is the person who is delegating will be held accountable if the task is not performed in the desired manner. Authority includes such powers and rights as spending specified amounts of money. 2.This is the work assigned to a position. Delegation is the entrustment of responsibility and authority to another and the creation of accountability f or performance. 3. that is a part of the work can be delegated. 2. However. Delegation often fails because the manager attempting to delegate does not understand what is involved in the process. it should be clearly understood that the person who delegates is not free from the responsibility and authority which he entrusts. This is because delegation means different things to different people. Responsibility can be delegated. 1. . Responsibility :.

-3- 2. PROCESS OF DELEGATION : 1. In the process of delegation the mana ger has to divide the work. Next the manager has to provide a means of checking up on the work that is done for him to ensure that it is done as he wishes. similarly the delegatee has the obligation to perform in terms of established standards. This includes the right to decide or act. 2. 5. 3. 3. 2. he would otherwise have to exercise by himself to get the work done and also create an obligation on the past of the person doing the work to perform in terms of established standards. 4. because of his unique organisational placement. Is the obligation to carry out responsibility and exercise authority in terms of established performance standards. In the process of delegation the manager has to entrust to others the performance of the work he would otherwise have to do by himself. can perform effectively and so that he can get others to help him with what remains. Just as a person who as borrowed money has an obligation to follow the terms laid down by the lender. entrust it along with the rights and powers. Thus it can be said that authority is the power of an individual to carry out his assigned responsibilities. Delegation is the process followed by the manager in divi ding the work assigned to him so that he performs that part which only he. . ACCOUNTABILITY: 1. Delegation is the dynamics of management. 4. It is relevant to note that authority varies according to the position like line authority or staff authority. Accountability can be most meaningful if standards of performance are predetermined & if they are fully understood and accepted by the subordinates. 3.

5. On the other hand. Accountability is unitary. The person can only be held accountable to the extent of his delegated responsibility and authority. Strategic planning activities and organising activities should be reserved by the manager and detailed and routine matters should be delegated. staffing. RESERVED RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY : The manager should never delegate responsibility and authority for initating and making final decisions for planning. organizing. directing and control. If the manager tries to perform duties which might better be delegated. 2.-4- 6. 1. RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHOURITY THAT CAN BE DELEGATED : 1. 2. The delegator should always establish standards of performance. 3. giving of authority or rights and powers and creating an obligation or accountability on the person accepting delegation. if he delegates responsibility and authority which he should keep for himself there is bound to be a conflict between himself and his subordinate. So the essential aspects of delegation are entrustment of work or responsibility. WHAT CAN BE DELEGATED ? : A manager has to decide for himself what can be delegated and what aspects cannot or should not be delegated. Accountability can never be delegated. 4. i. Accountability is always upward. he finds himself overburdened and continuously overlapping the work of his subordinates. 1. The most important aspects to be kept in mind wh ile delegation are. .e each person can be accounta ble only to one superior for delegated responsibility and authority.

needs to accept the fact that others may be able to do all or part of his own job as well or better than he can. 2. 3. . The person who delegates. his interest and his effort without expecting anything in return. The company recognises that capable managers are primarily developed on the job. How par down should it be delegated? Authority should be delegated to the place where the work is being done. his training and his experience. Climate:. Delegation requires certain positive human qualities. Delegated minded company has his efforts focussed on the future. his aptitude.-5- 2. 2. 1. 4. The manager should reserve for himself the problems that apply to several or all units reporting to him. The reasons for a manager not to delegate are closely linked with his personality make up. Similarly authority should be to the extent of enabling the delegatee to perform the assigned task. 4. Such management provides an opportunity for the subordinates who show promise at the lower levels. The essentials of delegation are management climate and the willingness of key managers to part with some of their responsibility and authority. 3. 5. Matters concerning only one subordinate element should be delegated. This is just like asking how long should the legs of a person be? They should be long enough to reach the ground. 3. BETTER METHODS OF DELEGATION: 1. 4. So a developing manager has to be given important work to do.Where the management is forward looki ng. To delegate effectively a manager must be prepared to give time. How much should be delegated depends on the objectives that have been set for the subordinate. he must be permitted to make decisions and he grows best in making mistakes & learning how to do better after he recognises where he has failed.

--. Fear :.--- 2.The manager may be afraid that his subordinate will outshine him and hence gain more attention and recognition than himself. This is especially true in the case of managers who come through the business & is an expert in some part of the function which be supervises.-6- WILLINGNESS TO LET GO : 1. THE ART OF DELEGATION : (1) Establish goads (2) Define Responsibility and authority (3) Motivate subordinates (4) Require completed work (a) make a clear cut assignment (b) delegate the details of coordination (c) specify progress information required (d) provide counselling and Guidance (e) require a finished package . Lack of faith:. .The manager does not feel that his subordinate is capable of doing the job. 5. (5) provide training (6) establish adequate controls. 3.--. Lack of willingness on the part of the managers to let go is a main hurdle for delegation. They may delegate but they still continue to supervise so closely that effective performance of work becomes impossible. Such managers forget the fact that they have also come up in a similar fashion. 4.

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