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A New Hyperchaotic Hyperjerk System with Three Nonlinear
Terms, its Synchronization and Circuit Simulation

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Website: www.sciencepubco.com/index.php/IJET

doi: 10.14419/ijet.v7i3.14760

Research paper

Terms, its Synchronization and Circuit Simulation

Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan1 , *Aceng Sambas2 , Mohamad Afendee Mohamed3 , Mustafa Mamat3 and W. S.

Mada Sanjaya4

1 Researchand Development Centre, Vel Tech University, Avadi, Chennai, India

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Muhammadiyah Tasikmalaya, Indonesia

3 Faculty of Informatics and Computing, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia

4 Department of Physics, Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Gunung Djati, Bandung, Indonesia

* Email: acengs@umtas.ac.id

Abstract

In recent decades, hyperjerk systems have been studied well in the literature because of their simple dynamics structure and complex

qualitative properties. In this work, we announce a new hyperchaotic hyperjerk system with three nonlinear terms. Dynamical properties of

the hyperjerk system are analyzed through equilibrium analysis, dissipativity, phase portraits and Lyapunov chaos exponents. We show that

the new hyperchaotic hyperjerk system has a unique saddle-focus equilibrium at the origin. Thus, the new hyperchaotic hyperjerk system has

a self-excited strange attractor. Next, global hyperchaos synchronization of a pair of new hyperchaotic hyperjerk systems is successfully

achieved via adaptive backstepping control. Also, an electronic circuit of the hyperchaotic hyperjerk system has been designed via MultiSIM

to check the feasibility of the theoretical system.

1. Introduction Generalizing the jerk system (2), we obtain the hyperjerk system

given by

It is well-known that chaos theory has application has many branches

of science and engineering ([1]-[2]). Some popular applications can D(n) (x) = f x, Dx, . . . , D(n−1) (x) , (n ≥ 4), (3)

be mentioned as plasma systems [3], weather systems ([4]-[5]),

chemical reactions ([6]-[8]), encryption ([9]-[12]), robotics [13], where D = dt d

is the time-derivative.

oscillations ([14]-[17]), circuits ([18]-[21]), etc.

In the modelling of dynamical systems, it is a common practice to

In 1996, it was shown by Gottlieb [22] that 3-D chaotic systems can

express the nth order ODE (3) as an equivalent system of n ordinary

be expressed in the form of single ordinary differential equations,

differential equations.

which are also termed as jerk differential equations. The jerk systems

This is carried out by defining n phase variables defined as follows:

have many applications in science and engineering such as circuits

[23], thermal arc plasma [24], biological reactions [25], mechanical

x1 = x

oscillations [26], etc.

x = ẋ

2

In physics, a jerk differential equation can be represented as the third

x3 = ẍ (4)

order dynamics .. .. ..

... . . .

x = f (x, ẋ, ẍ) , (1)

D(n) (x)

xn =

where x(t) represents the displacement, ẋ(t) the velocity, ẍ(t) the

...

acceleration and x (t) the jerk. Using the phase variables (4), we can give a representation in system

A famous example of a jerk system is the Coullet system [27], which form for the hyperjerk differential equation (3) as follows:

is described by the jerk dynamics

... ẋ1 = x2

x + aẍ + ẋ − b(x2 − 1) = 0. (2)

ẋ = x3

2

In [27], it was established that the jerk dynamics (2) is chaotic when

.

(a, b) = (0.6, 0.58). .. .. ..

. . (5)

There are many jerk systems reported in the chaos literature such as

ẋn−1 = xn

Munmuangsaen system [28], Kengne system [29], Elsonbaty system

ẋn = f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )

[30], Vaidyanathan systems ([31]-[36]), etc.

Copyright © 2018 Author. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and

reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

1586 International Journal of Engineering & Technology

Thus, the n-th order ODE (3) and the system of n ODEs (5) are which gives a pointer to the complexity of the Daltzis hyperjerk

equivalent. Henceforth, we shall consider hyperjerk systems in the system (6).

system form given by Eq. (5). Hyperjerk systems have generated In this paper, we propose a new 4-D hyperjerk system by adding a

good interest in the literature due to their simple structure and com- quadratic nonlinearity to Daltzis hyperjerk system (6) as follows.

plex qualitative properties. Some well-known hyperjerk systems can

=

be cited as Daltzis systems ([37], [38]), Chlouverakis system [39], ẋ1 x2

Vaidyanathan system [40], Wang system [41], Pham system [42],

ẋ

2 = x3

etc. Hyperjerk systems have many applications in science and en- (9)

ẋ3 = x4

gineering such as plasmas and solar physics [43], image encryption

−x1 − x2 − ax3 − b|x2 | − cx14 x4 − dx22

and chaos-based steganography [44], etc. ẋ4 =

By adding a quadratic nonlinearity to Daltzis hyperjerk system [38] where a, b, c and d are positive parameters.

and considering different parameter values, we derive a new hyper-

We show that the system (9) is hyperchaotic for the parameter values

chaotic hyperjerk system in this work. Our new hyperjerk system

(a, b, c, d) = (3.8, 0.01, 1.3, 0.05).

has three nonlinear terms and it has a unique equilibrium point at

Using Wolf’s algorithm [59], the Lyapunov exponents of the new hy-

the origin. We show that the origin is a non-hyperbolic equilibrium

perjerk system (9) are obtained for (a, b, c, d) = (3.8, 0.01, 1.3, 0.05)

of the new hyperjerk system and it is a novel feature of the new

and X(0) = (0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 0.1) for T = 1E4 seconds as

hyperjerk system.

In this paper, we also derive new results for the global hyperchaos L1 = 0.1251, L2 = 0.0183, L3 = 0, L4 = −1.1275 (10)

synchronization of a pair of new hyperjerk systems considered as

the master and slave systems. The synchronization of chaotic or Since L1 and L2 are positive Lyapunov exponents, the new hyperjerk

hyperchaotic systems deals with finding suitable feedback control system (9) is hyperchaotic.

laws so that the trajectories of the slave system follows the corre- By adding all Lyapunov exponents in (10), we get the sum as

sponding trajectories of the master system asymptotically with time. −0.9841, which is negative. This shows that the new hyperjerk

Many techniques like active control, adaptive control and sliding system (9) is dissipative.

mode control have been used to study the synchronization of chaotic The Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the new hyperjerk system (9) is

systems in the literature ([45]-[51]). determined as

Backstepping control is a recursive design procedure which is very

useful for establishing stability results in Lyapunov stability theory DKY = 3 + (L1 + L2 + L3 )/|L4 | = 3.1272, (11)

[52, 53, 54]. In this work, we use backstepping control for the global

hyperchaos synchronization of the new hyperjerk systems. which gives a pointer to the high complexity of the hyperchaotic

Circuit design of a chaotic system helps to implement the system hyperjerk system (9).

in real-world applications. Some recent works of circuit designs of The maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE) of the new hyperjerk sys-

chaotic systems are works by Lien [55], Mamat [56], Vaidyanathan tem (9) is L1 = 0.1251, which is greater than the MLE of the Daltzis

[57] and Sambas [58]. hyperjerk system (6) given by L1 = 0.1201.

In Section 2, we describe the dynamics and qualitative properties Also, the Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the new hyperjerk system (9)

of the new hyperchaotic hyperjerk system. As an engineering ap- is DKY = 3.1272, which is greater than the Kaplan-Yorke dimension

plication, we derive global hyperchaos synchronization results for of the Daltzis hyperjerk system (6) given by DKY = 3.1098. Thus,

the new hyperchaotic hyperjerk system with unknown parameters we have shown that the new hyperjerk system (9) is more complex

using adaptive backstepping control in Section 3. Furthermore, we than the Daltzis hyperjerk system (6).

design an electronic circuit using MultiSIM for the new hyperchaotic The equilibrium points of the new hyperjerk system (9) are tracked

hyperjerk system in Section 4. Conclusions are drawn in Section 5. by solving the following equations:

x2 = 0

2. A new hyperjerk system with three nonlinear

x3 = 0

terms (12)

x 4 = 0

In 2018, Daltzis et al. [38] presented a new 4-D hyperjerk system −x1 − x2 − ax3 − b|x2 | − cx4 x4 = 0

1

given by

ẋ1 = x2 For all the parameter values, the new hyperjerk system (9) has a

unique equilibrium point at the origin:

ẋ

2 = x3

(6)

ẋ3 = x4 0

ẋ4 = −x1 − x2 − ax3 − b|x2 | − cx14 x4

0

E0 = 0 = (13)

where a, b and c are positive parameters. In [38], it was shown that 0

the Daltzis hyperjerk system (6) is hyperchaotic when the parameters 0

take the values (a, b, c) = (3.8, 0.1, 1.5).

Using Wolf’s algorithm [59], the Lyapunov exponents of the Daltzis The Jacobian matrix of the new hyperjerk system (9) at the equilib-

hyperjerk system (6) are obtained for (a, b, c) = (3.8, 0.1, 1.5) and rium point E0 = 0 is obtained as

X(0) = (0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 0.1) for T = 1E4 seconds as

0 1 0 0

L1 = 0.1201, L2 = 0.0210, L3 = 0, L4 = −1.2854. (7)

0 0 1 0

Since L1 and L2 are positive in (7), we conclude that the Daltzis J0 = (14)

0 0 0 1

hyperjerk system (6) is hyperchaotic.

Also, the Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the Daltzis hyperjerk system 0 0 −a 0

(6) is calculated as

L1 + L2 + L3 For the hyperchaotic case, the parameters are taken as (a, b, c, d) =

DKY = 3 + = 3.1098, (8) (3.8, 0.01, 1.3, 0.05).

|L4 |

International Journal of Engineering & Technology 1587

Then we have

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

J0 =

0 0

(15)

0 1

0 0 −3.8 0

This shows that E0 is a non-hyperbolic equilibrium of the new hyper-

jerk system (9). This is a novel feature of the new system (9). Hence,

the new hyperjerk system (9) has a critical case at the origin. The

stability of the new hyperjerk system (9) can be further investigated

using Lyapunov stability theory.

The phase portraits of the new hyperchaotic hyperjerk system (9) are

displayed in Figures 1-4.

The Lyapunov exponents of the new hyperchaotic hyperjerk system

Figure 3: MATLAB simulations of phase portraits of the new hyper-

(9) are shown in Figure 5. chaotic hyperjerk system (9) for X(0) = (0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 0.1) and (a, b, c, d) =

(3.8, 0.01, 1.3, 0.05) in (x3 , x4 ) plane

chaotic hyperjerk system (9) for X(0) = (0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 0.1) and (a, b, c, d) =

(3.8, 0.01, 1.3, 0.05) in (x1 , x2 ) plane

Figure 4: MATLAB simulations of phase portraits of the new hyper-

chaotic hyperjerk system (9) for X(0) = (0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 0.1) and (a, b, c, d) =

(3.8, 0.01, 1.3, 0.05) in (x1 , x4 ) plane

chaotic hyperjerk system (9) for X(0) = (0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 0.1) and (a, b, c, d) =

(3.8, 0.01, 1.3, 0.05) in (x2 , x3 ) plane

Figure 5: Lyapunov exponents of the new hyperchaotic hyperjerk system (9)

for X(0) = (0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 0.1) and (a, b, c, d) = (3.8, 0.01, 1.3, 0.05)

new hyperjerk systems of new hyperjerk systems considered as master and slave systems

via adaptive backstepping control method.

In this section, we study an engineering application of the new

hyperjerk system, viz. global hyperchaos synchronization of a pair As the master system, we consider the new hyperjerk system given

1588 International Journal of Engineering & Technology

by and the update law for the parameter estimates A(t), B(t),C(t), D(t)

is given by

=

ẋ1 x2

Ȧ(t) = −ξ4 e3

ẋ

2 = x3

(16)

Ḃ(t) = −ξ4 (|y2 | − |x2 |)

3ẋ = x4

(24)

Ċ(t) = −ξ4 (y41 y4 − x14 x4 )

−x1 − x2 − ax3 − b|x2 | − cx14 x4 − dx22

ẋ4 =

Ḋ(t) = −ξ4 (y2 − x2 )

2 2

where x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 are the states and a, b, c, d are unknown parame-

ters of the system. Proof. We establish this result via adaptive backstepping contorl

As the slave system, we consider the new hyperjerk system given by method and Lyapunov stability theory [60].

We define the Lyapunov function

ẏ1 = y2

ẏ2 = y3

1 2

V1 (ξ1 ) = ξ (25)

(17) 2 1

ẏ3 = y4

where

ẏ4 = −y1 − y2 − ay3 − b|y2 | − cy4 y4 − dy2 + u

1 2

ξ1 = e1 (26)

where y1 , y2 , y3 , y4 are the states and u is the backstepping control to

be found. Differentiating V1 along the error dynamics (19), we get

The synchronization error between the new hyperjerk systems (16)

V̇1 = ξ1 ξ˙1 = e1 e2 = −ξ12 + ξ1 (e1 + e2 ) (27)

and (17) is defined by

We set

e1 = y1 − x1

e2 = y2 − x2

ξ2 = e1 + e2 (28)

(18)

e = y3 − x3

3 Using (28), we can simplify Eq. (27) as

e4 = y4 − x4

V̇1 = −ξ12 + ξ1 ξ2 (29)

The error dynamics is calculated as follows.

Next, we define the Lyapunov function

ė1 = e2

1 1

V2 (ξ1 , ξ2 ) = V1 (ξ1 ) + ξ22 = (ξ12 + ξ22 ) (30)

= e3

ė 2 2

2

ė3 = e4 (19) Differentiating V2 along the error dynamics (19), we get

ė4 = −e1 − e2 − ae3 − b(|y2 | − |x2 |)

V̇2 = −ξ12 − ξ22 + ξ2 (2e1 + 2e2 + e3 )

(31)

−c(y4 y − x4 x ) − d(y2 − x2 ) + u

1 4 1 4 2 2

We set

Next, we define the estimation errors for the unknown parameters as

ξ3 = 2e1 + 2e2 + e3 (32)

ea (t) = a − A(t)

Using (32), we can simplify Eq. (31) as

eb (t) = b − B(t)

ec (t) = c −C(t)

(20) V̇2 = −ξ12 − ξ22 + ξ2 ξ3 (33)

ed (t) = d − D(t)

Next, we define the Lyapunov function

1 1

where A(t), B(t),C(t), D(t) are estimates for a, b, c, d, respectively. V3 (ξ1 , ξ2 , ξ3 ) = V2 (ξ1 , ξ2 ) + ξ32 = (ξ12 + ξ22 + ξ32 ) (34)

Differentiating (20), we get 2 2

Differentiating V3 along the error dynamics (19), we get

ėa (t) = −Ȧ(t)

V̇3 = −ξ12 − ξ22 − ξ32 + ξ3 (3e1 + 5e2 + 3e3 + e4 )

ėb (t) = −Ḃ(t)

(35)

(21)

ėc (t) = −Ċ(t) We set

ėd (t) = −Ḋ(t)

ξ4 = 3e1 + 5e2 + 3e3 + e4 (36)

Using adaptive backstepping control method, we establish the key Using (36), we can simplify Eq. (35) as

result of this section.

V̇3 = −ξ12 − ξ22 − ξ32 + ξ3 ξ4 (37)

Theorem 1. The master and slave hyperchaotic systems represented

by the new hyperjerk systems (16) and (17) with unknown parameters To simplify the notation, we set ξ = (ξ1 , ξ2 , ξ3 , ξ4 ).

are globally and exponentially synchronized by means of the adaptive Finally, we define the quadratic Lyapunov function

backstepping feedback control law given by

V (ξ , ea , eb , ec , ed ) = V3 (ξ1 , ξ2 , ξ3 ) + 21 ξ42

(

u = −4e1 − 9e2 − (9 − A(t))e3 − 4e4 + B(t)(|y2 | − |x2 |) (38)

+ 12 (e2a + e2b + e2c + e2d )

+C(t)(y41 y4 − x14 x4 ) + D(t)(y22 − x22 ) − kξ4

(22) Clearly, V is a quadratic and positive definite function on R8 .

Differentiating V along the error dynamics (19) and (24), we get

where k > 0 is a gain constant, 4

V̇ = − ∑ ξi2 + ξ4 (ξ4 + ξ3 + ξ˙4 ) − ea Ȧ − eb Ḃ − ecĊ − ed Ḋ (39)

ξ4 = 3e1 + 5e2 + 3e3 + e4 (23) i=1

International Journal of Engineering & Technology 1589

4

V̇ = − ∑ ξi2 + ξ4 S − ea Ȧ − eb Ḃ − ecĊ − ed Ḋ (40)

i=1

where

(

S = 4e1 + 9e2 + (9 − a)e3 + 4e4 − b(|y2 | − |x2 |)

(42)

−c(y41 y4 − x14 x4 ) − d(y22 − x22 ) + u

Substituting the value of u from (22) into Eq. (42), we get Figure 6: Synchronization of the states x1 and y1 for the hyperjerk systems

(16) and (17)

S = −[a − A(t)]e3 − [b − B(t)](|y2 | − |x2 |)

−[c −C(t)](y41 y4 − x14 x4 )

(43)

−[d − D(t)](y22 − x22 ) − kξ4

we can simplify Eq. (43) as follows:

(44)

Substituting the value of S from Eq. (44) into Eq. (40), we get

V̇ =

+eb [−ξ4 (|y2 | − |x2 |) − Ḃ]

(45) Figure 7: Synchronization of the states x2 and y2 for the hyperjerk systems

+ec [−ξ4 (y41 y4 − x14 x4 ) − Ċ] (16) and (17)

+ed [−ξ4 (y22 − x22 ) − Ḋ]

Substituting the parameter update law from Eq. (24) into Eq. (45),

we get

Thus, by Barbalat’s lemma in Lyapunov stability theory [60], we

conclude that e(t) is globally exponentially stable. Hence, it is

consequent that the master and slave hyperchaotic systems repre-

sented by the new hyperjerk systems (16) and (17) are globally and

exponentially synchronized for all initial conditions x(0), y(0) ∈ R4 .

Hence, the proof is complete.

For numerical simulations, we take the parameter values of the new Figure 8: Synchronization of the states x3 and y3 for the hyperjerk systems

hyperjerk systems (16) and (17) as in the hyperchaotic case, i.e. (16) and (17)

(a, b, c, d) = (3.8, 0.01, 1.3, 0.05). We take the positive gain constant

k as k = 10.

We take the initial state of the master hyperjerk system (16) as 4. Circuit design for the new hyperchaotic hy-

X(0) = (0.9, −0.7, 1.4, 0.3) and the initial state of the slave hyperjerk perjerk system

system (17) as Y (0) = (−1.5, 0.1, 2.7, −1.2). The initial conditions

of the parameter estimates are taken as A(0) = 6.5, B(0) = 4.3, In this section,we design and build an electronic circuit of the new

C(0) = 9.7 and D(0) = 8.2. hyperjerk system (9) as shown in Fig. 11. The circuit in Fig. 11 is

Figures 6-9 show the complete synchronization of the hyperjerk designed by using operational amplifiers where the state variables

systems (16) and (17). Figure 10 shows the time-history of the x1 , x2 , x3 , and x4 of new hyperjerk system (9) are associated with

hyperchaos synchronization error e = (e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 ). the voltages across the capacitors C1 ,C2 ,C3 , and C4 , respectively. It

1590 International Journal of Engineering & Technology

new hyperjerk system (9) with one absolute nonlinearity. Its chaotic

features are fully examined by eigen value structure, Lyapunov ex-

ponents and Lyapunov dimension. In addition, an adaptive backstep-

ping controller is introduced to stabilize such hyperjerk system and

achieve global hyperchaos synchronization. The designed circuit has

been implemented and tested using the MultiSIM software to verify

the simulation results. We have found a good agreement between

numerical simulations and analog circuit.

Acknowledgement

The authors thank the Government of Malaysia for funding

this research under the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme

(FRGS/1/2017/ICT03/Unisza/02/2-RR229) and also Universiti Sul-

tan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia.

Figure 9: Synchronization of the states x4 and y4 for the hyperjerk systems References

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European Physical Journal Plus, Vol. 133, (2018), Article ID 46.

1592 International Journal of Engineering & Technology

(a)

(a)

(b)

(b)

(c)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Figure 11: Circuit design of the new hyperchaotic hyperjerk system (9) (a) (d)

X1 signal,(b) X2 signal, (c) X3 signal, (d) X4 signal and (e) |X2 | signal

Figure 12: Chaotic attractors of the new hyperchaotic hyperjerk system (9)

using Multisim circuit simulation: (a) x1 − x2 plane, (b) x2 − x3 plane, (c)

x3 − x4 plane and (d) x1 − x4 plane

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